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1.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(5): 625-631, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345189

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the association of clinical, anatomical, and ultrasound (US) characteristics of malignancies in Bethesda III or IV (III-B or IV-B) thyroid nodules. Subjects and methods: The association between malignancies and the following variables were analyzed: III-B or IV-B, age < 55 years and ≥ 55 years, sex, family history of thyroid cancer, history of irradiation, nodule size, and ACR TI-RADS classification in 62 participants who underwent thyroidectomy. Results: Of the 62 participants, 87.1% (54/62) were women, 74.2% were < 55 years old, 95.2% had no family history of thyroid cancer, 56.5% had nodules < 2 cm in size, 62.9% were IV-B, and 69.4% were ACR TI-RADS 4. Thirty-two patients had thyroid carcinoma, and 30 had benign histology. Among all factors associated with malignancy, only ACR TI-RADS 5 classification on US was found to be statistically significant (p = 0.014), while III-B with architectural atypia cytological classification was the only one significantly associated with benign status (p = 0.004). Conclusion: Only a high risk of malignancy as assessed using US was able to refine the indication for molecular tests in a group of patients with indeterminate nodules. We found 85% (53/62) of III-B or IV-B thyroid nodules would benefit from available molecular diagnostic tests.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Nodule/genetics , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography , Pathology, Molecular , Middle Aged
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879266

ABSTRACT

In recent years, with the improvement of the sensitivity of examination equipment and the change of people's living environment and diet, the rate of thyroid cancer has risen rapidly, which has increased nearly five folds in 10 years. The pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, biological behavior, treatment and prognosis of thyroid carcinoma of different pathological types are obviously different. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) can develop at any age, which accounts for about 90% of thyroid cancer. It progresses slowly and has favourable prognosis, but lymph node metastasis appears easily. Whether PTC is accompanied by lymph node metastasis has an important impact on its prognosis and outcome. The Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B(BRAF)gene mutation plays a crucial role in PTC lymph node metastasis. Having an in-depth understanding of the specific role and mechanism of BRAF gene mutation in PTC is expected to provide new ideas for diagnosis and treatment of PTC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carcinoma, Papillary/genetics , Humans , Lymphatic Metastasis , Mice , Mutation , Oncogenes , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/genetics , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922584

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To explore the molecular mechanism for thyroid cancer metastasis via analyzing the role of microRNA (miR)-21-5p and its target gene recombinant sclerostin domain containing protein 1 (SOSTDC1) in thyroid cancer.@*METHODS@#The target miR-21-5p was screened through bioinformatics analysis and cell verification, and the thyroid cancer cell lines was transfected with miR-21-5p inhibitor. 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) test, flow cytometry, and cell scratch test were used to detect the proliferation, apoptosis and migration of thyroid cancer cells in the miR-21-5p inhibitor group and the inhibitor control group, respectively. The luciferase report experiment was used to verify the relationship between miR-21-5p and SOSTDC1, Western blotting was used to detect the expression levels and phosphorylation levels of SOSTDC1,phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) in thyroid cancer cells.@*RESULTS@#MiR-21-5p was significantly increased in thyroid cancer cells,which was negatively correlated with SOSTDC1 (@*CONCLUSIONS@#MiR-21-5p in thyroid cancer cells can target the expression of SOSTDC1 and affect the activities of PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK, thereby inhibiting the apoptosis of thyroid cancer cells and promoting cell proliferation and migration.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing , Apoptosis/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879942

ABSTRACT

To investigate the expression of xenotropic and polytropic retrovirus receptor 1 () in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and its clinical implication. The HPA and UALCAN databases were used to explore the expression of XPR1 in PTC and normal tissues. The cBioPortal database was used to obtain the clinical data of PTC patients and gene expression profile. The correlation of expression with gender,age,sub-types,T stage,N stage,M stage and clinical stage of patients were analyzed. Cox regression was conducted to analysis the factors affecting the prognosis of PTC patients. The mutation of was assessed through cBioPortal database. GO and KEGG analyses were used to explore the related biological pathway of involved in PTC. HPA database analysis showed that XPR1 was highly expressed in PTC tissue compared with normal tissues. UALCAN analysis displayed that expression was significantly higher in PTC tissue compared with normal tissues (0.05). Cox regression analysis showed that was an independent prognostic factor of PTC patients (=2.894,<0.05). The cBioPortal database indicated that the mutation appeared in 6% PTC patients; the mutation type mainly was missense and the mutation point was located at the E615K. Enrichment analysis indicated that might affect the PTC progression through involvement in metabolic pathway. is highly expressed in PTC tissues,which is associated with the prognosis of patients. Metabolic pathway associated with might play an important role in PTC progression,indicating that might be a novel biomarker for diagnosis and treatment of PTC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prognosis , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/genetics , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/genetics , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics
5.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(5): 630-635, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131133

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Follicular lesions of the thyroid with papillary carcinoma nuclear characteristics are classified as infiltrative follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma-FVPTC (IFVPTC), encapsulated/well demarcated FVPTC with tumour capsular invasion (IEFVPTC), and the newly described category "non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features" (NIFTP) formerly known as non-invasive encapsulated FVPTC. This study evaluated whether computerized image analysis can detect nuclear differences between these three tumour subtypes. Materials and methods: Slides with histological material from 15 cases of NIFTP and 33 cases of FVPTC subtypes (22 IEFVPTC, and 11 IFVPTC) were analyzed using the Image J image processing program. Tumour cells were compared for both nuclear morphometry and chromatin textural characteristics. Results: Nuclei from NIFTP and IFVPTC tumours differed in terms of chromatin textural features (grey intensity): mean (92.37 ± 21.01 vs 72.99 ± 14.73, p = 0.02), median (84.93 ± 21.17 vs 65.18 ± 17.08, p = 0.02), standard deviation (47.77 ± 9.55 vs 39.39 ± 7.18; p = 0.02), and coefficient of variation of standard deviation (19.96 ± 4.01 vs 24.75 ± 3.31; p = 0.003). No differences were found in relation to IEFVPTC. Conclusion: Computerized image analysis revealed differences in nuclear texture between NIFTP and IFVPTC, but not for IEFVPTC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma, Papillary , Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular , Adenocarcinoma, Follicular/genetics , Adenocarcinoma, Follicular/diagnostic imaging , Chromatin , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary
6.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(2): 185-189, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131063

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY The EIF1AX gene mutations have been recently associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma and anaplastic thyroid cancer. According with these reports, the gene as been considered as a drive gene for thyroid cancer development. However, the occurrence of these alterations in benign thyroid lesions is not known and is still under investigation. Some authors have already reported the presence of EIF1AX variants in follicular adenomas and hyperplastic nodules. Here, we describe for the first time a case of a man with the EIF1AX c.338-2A>T splice site mutation in an indeterminate FNA lesion with trabecular adenoma at final histology in the absence of other pathogenetic mutations, demonstrating that further studies are required to better understand EIF1AX role in the tumorigenesis of thyroid carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics , Adenoma/diagnosis , Adenoma/genetics , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-1/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Middle Aged
7.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 13(1): 6-10, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048791

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El gen FOXE1 (Forkhead box E1) codifica para un factor de transcripción involucrado en la morfogénesis tiroidea. El cáncer papilar de tiroides (CPT) se ha asociado con polimorfismos (SNP) de FOXE1 rs1867277 y rs965513 en población asiática y europea. Nuestro objetivo fue investigar la frecuencia y asociación de SNP rs1867277 y rs965513 con CPT y el riesgo de recurrencia de CPT en sujetos chilenos. Métodos: Se reclutaron sujetos con y sin CPT, se describieron sus características epidemiológicas y la forma de presentación clínica (AJCC VIII y MINSAL 2013). Se aisló ADN de leucocitos periféricos y evaluó ambos SNP mediante PCR-HRM y secuencia. Se compararon las frecuencias alélicas y genotípicas entre casos CPT y controles, y entre pacientes CPT de distintos riesgos de recurrencia. Se compararon frecuencia y se estimó el riesgo con test de Fisher y cálculo de odds-ratio (OR). Resultados: De los 184 sujetos, 156 (85%) eran mujeres, edad 39,3±12,3 años; 90 con CPT y 94 sin CPT 26 (28,9%) pacientes eran de riesgo muy bajo, 45 (50%) bajo, 16 (17,8%) intermedio y 3 (3,3%) alto según MINSAL 2013. En relación a la frecuencia de alelo menor (MAF) calculada en sujetos control y CPT, fue 31,7% y 24,5% (SNP rs965513), y 36,7% y 30,1% 8 (rs1867277), respectivamente (p NS). Tampoco fueron diferentes las MAF calculados y comparados entre pacientes con CPT de riesgo bajo e intermedio/alto. Sin embargo, la combinación de los genotipos rs1867277GG y rs965513AA se asoció a mayor riesgo de CPT. Conclusiones: En pacientes chilenos, se describe una frecuencia MAF de los SNP rs1867277 y rs965513 cercana a un 30%, las cuales no se asocian a CPT ni riesgo de recurrencia, sin embargo, sujetos con una combinación genotípica particular podrían tener mayor riesgo de CPT.


FOXE1 gene (Forkhead E1 box) codes for a transcription factor involved in thyroid morphogenesis. Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has been associated with FOXE1 polymorphisms (SNPs) rs1867277 and rs965513 in Asian and European population. Our aim was to investigate the frequency and the association of SNPs rs1867277 and rs965513 with PTC and the risk of recurrence of PTC in Chilean subjects. Methods: We recruited subjects with and without PTC. In those with PTC, their epidemiological characteristics and clinical features presentation are described according to AJCC VIII and MINSAL 2013 scales. Peripheral leukocyte DNA was isolated and both SNPs were evaluated using PCR-HRM and sequencing. Allelic and genotypic frequencies were compared between PTC cases and controls, and between PTC patients with different recurrence risks. Results: Of the 184 subjects, 156 (85%) were women, age 39.3 ± 12.3 years; 94 (51%) without PTC and 90 with PTC (49%): 26 (28.9%) patients had very low, 45 (50%) low, 16 (17.8%) intermediate and 3 (3.3%) high risk of recurence according to MINSAL 2013. Regarding the minor allele frequency (MAF) calculated on control and PTC subjects, was 31.7% and 24.5% (SNP rs965513), and 36.7% and 30.1% (rs1867277), respectively (p NS). In patients with PTC, MAFs were not different between patients with low and intermediate/high risk PTC. However, the combination of rs1867277GG and rs965513AA genotypes were associated with an increased risk of PTC. Conclusions: In Chilean patients, the MAF frequency of SNPs rs1867277 and rs965513 is near 30%, and they are are not associated with PTC or its risk of recurrence. However, subjects with a particular genotypic combination may have an increased risk of PTC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Thyroid Neoplasms/epidemiology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/epidemiology , Polymorphism, Genetic , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Chile/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Assessment , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Forkhead Transcription Factors/genetics , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/genetics , Gene Frequency , Genotype , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/epidemiology
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880595

ABSTRACT

Multiple endocrine neoplasia-IIb (MEN-IIb) is a rare hereditary autosomal dominant syndrome caused by mutations in the RET proto-oncogene. It's characterized by medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), pheochromocytoma (PHEO), mucosal neuromas, and Marfanoid habitus. Because of the rarity of MEN-IIb and finiteness of clinical cognition, the majority of the patients suffer a delayed diagnosis. A MEN-IIb patient with the lingual mucosal neuromas since childhood was admitted in the Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University in November, 2018. He had surgical history of mitral valve prolapse and spinal deformity. He was diagnosed with MTC and PHEO at the age of 22 and 28, respectively, and received surgical treatments. Sequencing of RET gene revealed a de novo heterozygous p.M918T mutation in the patient. Being aware of the unique clinical phenotype and screening of RET gene mutation may lead to the early diagnosis and better long-term outcome for MEN-IIb.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Gland Neoplasms , Child , Genes , Humans , Male , Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia , Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a/genetics , Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2b/genetics , Mutation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret/genetics , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics
9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2543-2551, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877869

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Accumulating evidence has revealed that circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) can serve as non-invasive biomarkers for cancer diagnosis. This study aimed to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in serum which might become potential biomarkers for non-invasive diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).@*METHODS@#The experiment was carried out between 2015 and 2017. In the screening stage, the Exiqon miRNA quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) panel was applied to select candidate miRNAs. In the following training, testing, and external validation stages, the serum samples of 100 patients and 96 healthy controls (HCs) were analyzed to compare the expression levels of the identified miRNAs. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) were calculated to assess the diagnostic value of the identified signature.@*RESULTS@#Three miRNAs (miR-25-3p, miR-296-5p, and miR-92a-3p) in serum were consistently up-regulated in PTC patients compared with HCs. A three-miRNA panel was constructed by logistic regression analysis and showed better diagnostic performance than a single miRNA for PTC detection. The AUCs of the panel were 0.727, 0.771, and 0.862 for the training, testing, and external validation stage, respectively. Meanwhile, the panel showed stable capability in differentiating PTC patients from patients with benign goiters, with an AUC as high as 0.969. For further exploration, the three identified miRNAs were analyzed in tissue samples (23 PTC vs. 23 HCs) and serum-derived exosomes samples (24 PTC vs. 24 HCs), and the altered expression in the tumor also indicated their close relationship with PTC disease.@*CONCLUSION@#We identify a three-miRNA panel in serum which might serve as a promising biomarker for PTC diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , ROC Curve , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/genetics , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics
10.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(2): 97-106, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001222

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: We aimed to investigate the prevalence of the BRAF (V600E) mutation in consecutive cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in patients diagnosed and treated at the Hospital Sao Rafael (Salvador, BA, Brazil) and evaluate its association with clinical and pathological characteristics of PTC. Subjects and methods: We retrospectively enrolled in the study a total of 43 consecutive PTC patients who underwent total thyroidectomy. We performed DNA extraction from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumour tissue samples. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing were used to determine BRAF (V600E) mutation status. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed to identify independent associations. Results: The prevalence of BRAF (V600E) mutation was 65.1% (28/43). A high frequency of older patients (p value: 0.004) was observed among the BRAF-mutated PTC group and, in contrast, a low frequency of concurrent Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) (p value: 0.011) was noted. Multivariate analysis confirmed that older age (OR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.00 - 1.33; p value: 0.047) and HT (OR: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.006-0.40; p value: 0.005) were independent factors associated with BRAF (V600E) mutation. Conclusion: We found a high prevalence of BRAF (V600E) mutation in PTC cases. Older age and no concurrent HT were independently associated with BRAF (V600E) mutation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Prognosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Thyroid Neoplasms/epidemiology , DNA Mutational Analysis , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Age Factors , Hashimoto Disease/complications , Hashimoto Disease/genetics , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/complications , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/epidemiology
11.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(2): 107-112, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001216

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: This observational study analyzed telomerase reverse transcriptase (pTERT) mutations in 45 fine-needle aspiration (FNA) specimens obtained from thyroid nodules followed by postoperatively confirmation of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) diagnosis, examining their relationship with clinicopathologic aspects and the BRAFV600E mutation. Subjects and methods: Clinical information was collected from patients who presented to Ribeirao Preto University Hospital for surgical consultation regarding a thyroid nodule and who underwent molecular testing between January 2010 to October 2012. Tests included a DNA-based somatic detection of BRAFV600E and pTERT mutations. Results: We found coexistence of pTERTC228T and BRAFV600E mutations in 8.9% (4/45) of thyroid nodules. All nodules positive for pTERT mutations were BRAFV600E positives. There was a significant association between pTERTC228T/BRAFV600E with older age and advanced stage compared with the group negative for either mutation. Conclusions: This series provides evidence that FNA is a reliable method for preoperative diagnosis of high-risk thyroid nodules. pTERTC228T/BRAFV600E mutations could be a marker of poor prognosis. Its use as a personalized molecular medicine tool to individualize treatment decisions and follow-up design needs to be further studied.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics , Thyroid Nodule/genetics , Telomerase/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/genetics , Prognosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , DNA Mutational Analysis , Predictive Value of Tests , Age Factors , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , Thyroid Nodule/diagnosis , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Preoperative Period , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/diagnosis , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/diagnosis , Mutation/genetics , Neoplasm Staging
12.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(1): 79-83, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989300

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Thyroid carcinoma (TC) is rare in children, particularly in those aged < 10 years. Several studies have demonstrated a correlation between neoplasms and hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, which are often associated with a higher risk for and/or aggressiveness of the neoplasm. Congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) with autosomal recessive inheritance is a rare disease and is characterized by the lack of adipose tissue, severe insulin resistance, and early metabolic disturbances. Here, we reported a rare case of a type 2 CGL in a girl who presented with a papillary TC (PTC) at the age of 7 years. She had no family history of TC or previous exposure to ionizing radiation. She had a generalized lack of subcutaneous fat, including the palmar and plantar regions, muscle hypertrophy, intense acanthosis nigricans, hepatomegaly, hypertriglyceridemia, severe insulin resistance, and hypoleptinemia. A genetic analysis revealed a mutation in the BSCL2 gene (p.Thr109Asnfs* 5). Ultrasound revealed a hypoechoic solid nodule measuring 1.8 × 1.0 × 1.0 cm, and fine needle aspiration biopsy suggested malignancy. Total thyroidectomy was performed, and a histopathological examination confirmed PTC with vascular invasion and parathyroid lymph node metastasis (pT3N1Mx stage). This is the first report to describe a case of differentiated TC in a child with CGL. Severe insulin resistance that is generally observed in patients with CGL early in life, especially in those with type 2 CGL, may be associated with this uncommon presentation of aggressive PTC during childhood.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lipodystrophy, Congenital Generalized/diagnosis , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/complications , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/genetics , Thyroid Neoplasms/complications , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics , Lipodystrophy, Congenital Generalized/complications , Lipodystrophy, Congenital Generalized/genetics , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/diagnosis
13.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(6): 623-635, Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983814

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Initial diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is frequently associated with advanced stages and a poor prognosis. Thus, the need for earlier diagnoses and detection in relatives at risk for the disease has led to increased use of RET genetic screening. Subjects and methods: We performed RET screening in 247 subjects who were referred to the Brazilian Research Consortium for Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (BRASMEN) Center in the State of Ceará. Direct genetic sequencing was used to analyze exons 8, 10, 11, and 13-16 in MTC index cases and specific exons in at risk relatives. Afterward, clinical follow-up was offered to all the patients with MTC and their affected relatives. Results: RET screening was performed in 60 MTC index patients and 187 at-risk family members. At the initial clinical assessment of the index patients, 54 (90%) were diagnosed with apparently sporadic disease and 6 (10%) diagnosed with hereditary disease. After RET screening, we found that 31 (52%) index patients had sporadic disease, and 29 (48%) had hereditary disease. Regarding at-risk relatives, 73/187 were mutation carriers. Mutations in RET codon 804 and the rare p.M918V mutation were the most prevalent. Conclusions: Performing RET screening in Ceará allowed us to identify a different mutation profile in this region compared with other areas. RET screening also enabled the diagnosis of a significant number of hereditary MTC patients who were initially classified as sporadic disease patients and benefited their relatives, who were unaware of the risks and the consequences of bearing a RET mutation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics , Germ-Line Mutation/genetics , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret/genetics , Genetic Carrier Screening/methods , Time Factors , Brazil , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Transfection/methods , Gene Rearrangement/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/pathology , Risk Assessment , Early Detection of Cancer , Genetic Association Studies
14.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(2): 205-211, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887654

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective The transcriptional repressor DREAM is involved in thyroid-specific gene expression, thyroid enlargement and nodular development, but its clinical utility is still uncertain. In this study we aimed to investigate whether DREAM mRNA levels differ in different thyroid tumors and how this possible difference would allow the use of DREAM gene expression as molecular marker for diagnostic and/or prognosis purpose. Materials and methods We quantified DREAM gene mRNA levels and investigated its mutational status, relating its expression and genetic changes to diagnostic and prognostic features of 200 thyroid tumors, being 101 malignant [99 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) and 2 anaplastic thyroid carcinomas] and 99 benign thyroid lesions [49 goiter and 50 follicular adenomas (FA)]. Results Levels of mRNA of DREAM gene were higher in benign (0.7909 ± 0.6274 AU) than in malignant (0.3373 ± 0.6274 AU) thyroid lesions (p < 0.0001). DREAM gene expression was able to identify malignancy with 66.7% sensitivity, 85.4% specificity, 84.2% positive predictive value (PPV), 68.7% negative predictive value (NPV), and 75.3% accuracy. DREAM mRNA levels were also useful distinguishing the follicular lesions FA and FVPTC with 70.2% sensitivity, 73.5% specificity, 78.5% PPV, 64.1% NPV, and 71.6% accuracy. However, DREAM gene expression was neither associated with clinical features of tumor aggressiveness, nor with recurrence or survival. Six different genetic changes in non-coding regions of DREAM gene were also found, not related to DREAM gene expression or tumor features. Conclusion We suggest that DREAM gene expression may help diagnose thyroid nodules, identifying malignancy and characterizing follicular-patterned thyroid lesions; however, it is not useful as a prognostic marker.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Repressor Proteins/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Kv Channel-Interacting Proteins/genetics , Regulatory Elements, Transcriptional/genetics , Prognosis , Repressor Proteins/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics , Thyroid Neoplasms/metabolism , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Sensitivity and Specificity , Kv Channel-Interacting Proteins/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Neoplasm Staging
15.
Rev. argent. endocrinol. metab ; 55(1): 50-59, mar. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041727

ABSTRACT

ABSTRAC This article presents the results of a comprehensive analysis of the combined influence of genetic polymorphisms associated with various links of apoptosis regulation (BCL-2, CTLA-4 and APO-1/Fas) on the development of nodular goiter with autoimmune thyroiditis and thyroid adenoma in the studied population. The analysis was performed using the Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (MDR) method by calculating the prediction potential. Graphic models of gene-gene interaction with the highest cross-validation consistency created by the MDR method showed complex "synergistic or independent" impact of polymorphic loci of the CTLA-4 (+49G/A), Fas (-1377G/A) and BCL-2 (63291411 A>G) genes on the onset of thyroid pathology in general, or its individual types (nodular goiter with autoimmune thyroiditis and thyroid adenoma) in the population of Northern Bukovyna.


RESUMEN Este artículo presenta los resultados de un análisis exhaustivo de la influencia combinada de polimorfismos genéticos asociados a diversos enlaces en la regulación de la apoptosis (BCL-2, CTLA-4 y APO-1/FAS) sobre el desarrollo de bocio nodular con tiroiditis autoinmune y adenoma tiroideo en la población estudiada. Para ello, se utilizó el método de reducción de dimensionalidad multifactorial (MDR) mediante el cálculo de los potenciales de predicción. Los modelos gráficos de interacción gen-gen con la mayor consistencia de validación cruzada creada por el método MDR mostraron un complejo impacto «sinérgico o independiente¼ de los loci polimórficos de los genes CTLA-4 (+49G/A), FAS (-1377G/A) y BCL-2 (63291411A>G) en el inicio de la patología tiroidea en general, o sus tipos individuales (bocio nodular con tiroiditis autoinmune y adenoma tiroideo) en la población de Bucovina septentrional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Polymorphism, Genetic/physiology , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune/genetics , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics , Goiter, Nodular/physiopathology , Goiter, Nodular/genetics , Apoptosis/physiology , fas Receptor/analysis , Genes, bcl-2/genetics , Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction/methods , Abatacept/analysis , Goiter, Nodular/etiology
16.
Biol. Res ; 51: 45, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983946

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In this study, crucial genes and microRNAs (miRNAs) associated with the progression, staging, and prognosis of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) were identified. METHODS: Four PTC datasets, including our own mRNA-sequencing (mRNA-seq) dataset and three public datasets downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus and The Cancer Genome Atlas, were used to analyze differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and miRNAs (DEMs) between PTC tumor tissues and paired normal tissues (control). Gene ontology (GO) terms and pathways associated with these DEGs were identified, and protein-protein interactions (PPIs) were analyzed. Additionally, an miRNA-mRNA regulatory network was constructed and the functions of DEMs were explored. Finally, miRNAs/mRNAs associated with tumor staging and prognosis were identified. The expression levels of several key genes and miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. RESULTS: Numerous DEGs and DEMs were identified between tumor and control groups in four datasets. The DEGs were significantly enriched in cell adhesion and cancer-related GO terms and pathways. In the constructed PPI network, ITGA2, FN1, ICAM1, TIMP1 and CDH2 were hub proteins. In the miRNA-mRNA negative regulatory networks, miR-204-5p regulated the largest number of target genes, such as TNFRSF12A. miR-146b, miR-204, miR-7-2, and FN1 were associated with tumor stage in PTC, and TNFRSF12A and CLDN1 were related to prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested the important roles of ITGA2, FN1, ICAM1, TIMP1 and CDH2 in the progression of PTC. miR-204-5p, miR-7-2, and miR-146b are potential biomarkers for PTC staging and FN1, CLDN1, and TNFRSF12A may serve as markers of prognosis in PTC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/genetics , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/mortality , Survival Analysis , Gene Expression Profiling , Datasets as Topic , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/diagnosis , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/mortality , Neoplasm Staging
17.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 77(2): 214-218, jun. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902766

ABSTRACT

El carcinoma tiroideo familiar no medular (CFTNM) representa aproximadamente entre el 3,2% y 9,6% de todos los cánceres de tiroides, y se define por la presencia de cáncer diferenciado de tiroides en 2 o más familiares, en ausencia de otros síndromes familiares conocidos o exposición a radiación. Si bien su fisiopatología es aún incierta, algunos investigadores postulan un patrón de herencia dominante con penetrancia incompleta, no habiendo aún un gen específico responsable. Esta entidad suele presentarse a una menor edad y con características más agresivas que en su forma esporádica. Dado el interés por conocer la presentación de esta enfermedad y las recomendaciones para su manejo, se presenta el caso de una paciente diagnosticada con cáncer papilar de tiroides con el antecedente de 4 familiares con la misma patología. Actualmente el tamizaje mediante ecografía cervical y biopsia por punción aspiración con aguja fina de los nódulos tiroideos es el examen de elección ante la presencia del antecedente de CFTNM, ya que aún no hay estudios genéticos disponibles. La tiroidectomía total más disección ganglionar es el tratamiento de elección. Debido al comportamiento más agresivo y peor pronóstico del CFTNM, es necesaria un alto índice de sospecha y una investigación completa en la presencia de un componente familiar.


The non-familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FNMTC) represents approximately between 3.2 and 9.6% of all thyroid cancers, and is defined by the presence of differentiated thyroid cancer in 2 or more families in the absence of other known familial syndromes or radiation exposure. Although the pathophysiology is still uncertain, some investigators posit a dominant pattern of inheritance with incomplete penetrance, but still there is no specific gene responsible. It occurs at a younger age and with more aggressive characteristics than the sporadic form. Because of the interest in learning about the presentation of this disease and its recommendations, we present the case of a patient diagnosed with papillary thyroid cancer with a history of 4 family with the same pathology. Actually cervical screening by ultrasound and the fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of thyroid nodules is the examination of choice in the presence of a history of FNMTC, since no genetic studies yet available. Total thyroidectomy with lymph node dissection is the treatment of choice. Because the more aggressive behavior and poor prognosis of FNMTC, a high index of suspicion and a full investigation is required in the presence of a familial component.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics , Carcinoma, Papillary/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Papillary/genetics , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Genetic Predisposition to Disease
18.
Cell Journal [Yakhteh]. 2017; 18 (4): 485-492
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-185774

ABSTRACT

Approximately 5-10% of all thyroid cancers are medullary thyroid carcinomas [MTC]. MTC is mainly sporadic in nature, but 20-30% of cases are hereditary. Genetic testing for hereditary MTC is very important for the patient and his family, but the patients must be receiving appropriate genetic counseling. About 98% of patients with hereditary MTC have germline mutations in exons 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16 and intron 16 of the REarrangement during transfection [RET] proto-oncogene, but the etiology of the more frequent sporadic form of MTC [sMTC] is not well understood. Recently, it has been reported that apparently sporadic MTC may involve point mutations in BRAF and RAS genes, with an overall prevalence of almost 10%. Also alteration and abnormal expression of miRNA has been described in MTC. In this review, we attempted to mention some mutations and molecular changes in sporadic and hereditary MTC pathogenesis


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics , Pathology, Molecular , Genetic Association Studies , Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret , MicroRNAs/genetics
19.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 114(6): e421-e424, dic. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-838308

ABSTRACT

El carcinoma de tiroides es un tumor infrecuente; constituye menos del 1% de las neoplasias malignas en la población general y el 0,5%-3% en la edad pediátrica. Existen cuatro tipos: papilar (80%-90% de los casos), folicular (5%-10%), medular (5%) y anaplásico (2%-3%). En el tipo medular, el 80% son esporádicos, y un 20% se asocia a un síndrome hereditario que se divide, fundamentalmente, en tres grupos: neoplasia endócrina múltiple 1, neoplasia endócrina múltiple 2 y carcinoma medular de tiroides familiar. Las formas hereditarias se producen por una mutación en el protooncogén RET, localizado en el brazo largo del cromosoma 10. Se presenta un caso de carcinoma medular de tiroides detectado a raíz de un estudio genético familiar con el propósito de resaltar la importancia del diagnóstico precoz y la intervención de equipos multidisciplinares expertos en esta patología para su manejo y seguimiento.


Thyroid cancer is an uncommon type of cancer, accounting less than 1% of all cancers in adults, and 0.5-3% of all cancers in children. There are four different types: papillary carcinoma (80-90% of cases), follicular (5-10%), medullary (5%) and anaplastic cell (2-3%). Eighty per cent of cases of medullary thyroid cancer are sporadic, but 20% are associated with an inherited syndrome that is divided into three groups: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma. The inherited forms are caused by a disruption in the RET oncogene, which is located in the long arm of chromosome 10. A hereditary case of medullary thyroid carcinoma is presented. It was detected because of a familial genetic study. The purpose of the paper is emphasize the importance of the early diagnosis and the intervention of multidisciplinary teams of experts.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/genetics , Pedigree , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/therapy , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/therapy
20.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 76(4): 223-229, Aug. 2016. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-841581

ABSTRACT

Este estudio prospectivo analizó en una población argentina la frecuencia de la mutación V600E del oncogén BRAF en pacientes operados por nódulos tiroideos benignos y por carcinoma papilar de tiroides. En estos últimos se compararon las características clínicas y anatomopatológicas en relación a la presencia o ausencia de la mutación. Se estudiaron prospectivamente 25 pacientes consecutivos operados en nuestra institución. Se obtuvieron muestras histológicas de tejido nodular y el adyacente no nodular en fresco. Se extrajo ADN, se amplificó según técnica amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction (ARMS PCR). Se efectuó secuenciación directa del gen en 4 muestras. El 77% de los operados por carcinoma papilar resultaron BRAF+. Todas las muestras de tejido adyacente no tumoral y de los nódulos benignos fueron negativas para la mutación. La secuenciación directa confirmó los resultados obtenidos por ARMS PCR en las muestras en que fue efectuada. Los pacientes BRAF+ presentaron mayor edad al diagnóstico vs. aquellos BRAF- (47.7 ± 12.7 vs 24.7 ± 8.1 años, p < 0.01). Nueve de diez carcinomas papilares de tiroides con mutación de BRAF correspondieron a la variante histológica clásica, la cual no se observó en los tumores BRAF- (p < 0.02). En conclusión, comunicamos una elevada frecuencia de mutación V600E del oncogén BRAF en pacientes operados por carcinoma papilar de tiroides en Argentina. Estos resultados son acordes a lo referido en la bibliografía.


This prospective study analyzed the frequency of V600E mutation of oncogene BRAF in patients operated for benign thyroid nodules and for papillary thyroid cancer in an Argentine population. In patients with papillary thyroid cancer we compared clinicopathological characteristics between those harboring BRAF mutation and those without it. Twenty five consecutive patients operated for benign nodules and for papillary carcinoma were prospectively included. Fresh tissue samples of thyroid nodules and of adjacent thyroid parenchyma were obtained. DNA was extracted and amplified by amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction (ARMS PCR). Direct sequencing was performed in four samples. Of those patients operated for papillary thyroid cancer, 77% harbored BRAF mutation. All samples from adjacent thyroid parenchyma and from patients operated for benign nodules tested negative for the mutation. Direct sequencing confirmed the results obtained by ARMS PCR. Patients with BRAF mutation were significantly older at the time of diagnosis (BRAF+ 47.7 ± 12.7 years vs. BRAF- 24.7 ± 8.1 years, p < 0.01). Nine out of ten papillary carcinomas with BRAF mutation corresponded to the classic histological subtype, which was not observed in BRAF negative tumors (p < 0.02). In conclusion, we found a high frequency of BRAF V600E mutation in this population of patients operated for papillary thyroid carcinoma in Argentina. These results are consistent with those reported in the literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics , Carcinoma/genetics , Thyroid Nodule/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , Mutation , Argentina , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , DNA Mutational Analysis , Carcinoma/pathology , Carcinoma, Papillary , Prospective Studies , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary
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