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1.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 1186-1203, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010815

ABSTRACT

Through bioinformatics predictions, we identified that GTF2I and FAT1 were downregulated in thyroid carcinoma (TC). Further, Pearson's correlation coefficient revealed a positive correlation between GTF2I expression and FAT1 expression. Therefore, we selected them for this present study, where the effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived EVs (BMSDs-EVs) enriched with GTF2I were evaluated on the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stemness maintenance in TC. The under-expression of GTF2I and FAT1 was validated in TC cell lines. Ectopically expressed GTF2I and FAT1 were found to augment malignant phenotypes of TC cells, EMT, and stemness maintenance. Mechanistic studies revealed that GTF2I bound to the promoter region of FAT1 and consequently upregulated its expression. MSC-EVs could shuttle GTF2I into TPC-1 cells, where GTF2I inhibited TC malignant phenotypes, EMT, and stemness maintenance by increasing the expression of FAT1 and facilitating the FAT1-mediated CDK4/FOXM1 downregulation. In vivo experiments confirmed that silencing of GTF2I accelerated tumor growth in nude mice. Taken together, our work suggests that GTF2I transferred by MSC-EVs confer antioncogenic effects through the FAT1/CDK4/FOXM1 axis and may be used as a promising biomarker for TC treatment.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Mice, Nude , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Extracellular Vesicles/pathology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Transcription Factors, TFIII/metabolism , Neoplastic Stem Cells/pathology
2.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 803-808, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008133

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effect of calcification on the ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation(RFA)of papillary thyroid carcinoma(PTC).Methods We retrospectively analyzed the preoperative and follow-up data of 164 patients(182 nodules)with PTC treated by percutaneous ultrasound-guided RFA in the First Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital from January 1,2018 to December 31,2021.The tumor status 12 months after RFA was taken as the endpoint event.The univariate Logistic regression analysis was employed to predict the influencing factors of incomplete ablation.The factors were then included in the multivariate Logistic regression analysis for prediction of the independent risk factors of incomplete ablation.Results The maximum nodule diameter(OR=1.16,95%CI=1.04-1.29,P=0.009)and calcification ratio >2/3(OR=19.27,95%CI=4.02-92.28,P<0.001)were the factors influencing the disappearance of lesion 12 months after RFA.Conclusions PTC with calcification can be treated with ultrasound-guided RFA.In the case of calcification ratio ≤ 2/3,this therapy demonstrates the effect equivalent to that of no calcification.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Radiofrequency Ablation/methods , Calcinosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Ultrasonography, Interventional
3.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 82-87, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969809

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological characteristics of superior mediastinal lymph node metastases (sMLNM) in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Methods: This retrospective analysis enrolled the patients who were treated for sMLNM of MTC in our hospital from May 2012 to January 2021. All patients were suspected of sMLNM due to preoperative imaging. According to the pathological results, the patients were divided into two groups named sMLNM group and the negative superior-mediastinal-lymph-node group. We collected and analyzed the clinical features, pathological features, pre- and post-operative calcitonin (Ctn), and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels of the two groups. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze risk factors, and receiver operation characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn to determine the optimal cut-off values of preoperative Ctn and preoperative CEA for predicting sMLNM. Results: Among the 94 patients, 69 cases were in the sMLNM group and 25 cases were in the non-SMLNM group. Preoperative Ctn level (P=0.003), preoperative CEA level (P=0.010), distant metastasis (P=0.022), extracapsular lymph node invasion (P=0.013), the number of central lymph node metastases (P=0.002) were related to sMLNM, but the multivariate analysis did not find any independent risk factors. The optimal threshold for predicting sMLNM by pre-operative Ctn is 1500 pg/ml and AUC is 0.759 (95% CI: 0.646, 0.872). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of diagnosis are 61.2%, 77.3%, 89.1%, 39.5%, respectively. In patients who underwent mediastinal lymph node dissection through transsternal approach, the metastatic possibility of different levels from high to low were level 2R (82.3%, 28/34), level 2L (58.8%, 20/34), level 4R (58.8%, 20/34), level 3 (23.5%, 8/34), level 4L (11.8%, 4/34). Postoperative complications occurred in 41 cases (43.6%), and there was no perioperative death in all cases. 14.8% (12/81) of the patients achieved biochemical complete response (Ctn≤12 pg/ml) one month after surgery, 5 of these patients were in sMLNM group. Conclusions: For patients who have highly suspicious sMLNM through imaging, combining with preoperative Ctn diagnosis can improve the accuracy of diagnosis, especially for patients with preoperative Ctn over 1 500 pg/ml. The superior mediastinal lymph node dissection for the primary sternotomy should include at least the superior mediastinal levels 2-4 to avoid residual lesions. The strategy of surgery needs to be cautiously performed. Although the probability of biochemical cure in sMLNM cases is low, nearly 40% of patients can still benefit from the operation at the biochemical level.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoembryonic Antigen , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/pathology , Lymph Node Excision/methods
4.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 355-360, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981278

ABSTRACT

Objective To establish a nomogram for predicting the risk of cervical lymph node metastasis in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Methods The patients with complete clinical data of DTC and cervical lymph node ultrasound and diagnosed based on pathological evidence from January 2019 to December 2021 were assigned into a training group (n=444) and a validation group (n=125).Lasso regression was performed to screen the data with differences between groups,and multivariate Logistic regression to establish a prediction model with the factors screened out by Lasso regression.C-index and calibration chart were employed to evaluate the prediction performance of the established model. Results The predictive factors for establishing the model were lymph node short diameter≥0.5 cm,long-to-short-axis ratio<2,disappearance of lymph node hilum,cystic transformation,hyperechogenicity,calcification,and abnormal blood flow (all P<0.001).The established model demonstrated a good discriminative ability,with the C index of 0.938 (95%CI=0.926-0.961) in the training group. Conclusion The nomogram established based on the ultrasound image features of cervical lymph nodes in DTC can accurately predict the risk of cervical lymph node metastasis in DTC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nomograms , Lymphatic Metastasis , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Neck/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Retrospective Studies
5.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 219-224, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971518

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the value of lymphatic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (LCEUS) with intra-glandular injection of contrast agent for diagnosis of central compartment lymph node metastasis of thyroid cancer.@*METHODS@#From November, 2020 to May, 2022, the patients suspected of having thyroid cancer and scheduled for biopsy at our center received both conventional ultrasound and LCEUS examinations of the central compartment lymph nodes before surgery. All the patients underwent surgical dissection of the lymph nodes. The perfusion features in LCEUS were classified as homogeneous enhancement, heterogeneous enhancement, regular/irregular ring, and non-enhancement. With pathological results as the gold standard, we compared the diagnostic ability of conventional ultrasound and LCEUS for identifying metastasis in the central compartment lymph nodes.@*RESULTS@#Forty-nine patients with 60 lymph nodes were included in the final analysis. Pathological examination reported metastasis in 34 of the lymph nodes, and 26 were benign lymph nodes. With ultrasound findings of heterogeneous enhancement, irregular ring and non-enhancement as the criteria for malignant lesions, LCEUS had a diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 97.06%, 92.31% and 95% for diagnosing metastatic lymph nodes, respectively, demonstrating its better performance than conventional ultrasound (P < 0.001). Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis showed that LCEUS had a significantly greater area under the curve than conventional ultrasound for diagnosing metastatic lymph nodes (94.7% [0.856-0.988] vs 78.2% [0.656-0.878], P=0.003).@*CONCLUSION@#LCEUS can enhance the display and improve the diagnostic accuracy of the central compartment lymph nodes to provide important clinical evidence for making clinical decisions on treatment of thyroid cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lymphatic Metastasis/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Ultrasonography/methods , Lymph Nodes/pathology , ROC Curve
6.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 462-466, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985784

ABSTRACT

Active surveillance, as a first-line treatment strategy for low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinoma, has been recommended by guidelines worldwide. However, active surveillance has not been widely accepted by doctors and patients in China. In view of the huge challenges faced by active surveillance, doctors should improve their understanding of the "low risk" of papillary thyroid micropapillary cancer, identify some intermediate or high-risk cases, be familiar with the criteria and methods of diagnosis for disease progression, and timely turn patients with disease progression into more active treatment strategies. By analyzing the long-term cost-effectiveness of active surveillance, it is clear that medical expense is only one cost form of medical activities, and the health cost (thyroid removal and surgical complications) paid by patients due to"over-diagnosis and over-treatment" is the most important. Moreover, the weakening of the patients' social function caused by surgical procedures is a more hidden and far-reaching cost. The formulation of health economic policies (including medical insurance) should promote the adjustment of diagnosis and treatment behavior to the direction which is conducive to the long-term life and treatment of patients, improving the overall health level of society and reducing the overall cost. At the same time, doctors should stimulate the subjective initiative of patients, help them fully understand the impact of various treatment methods on their psychological and physical status, support patients psychologically, and strengthen their confidence in implementing active surveillance. By strengthening multi-disciplinary treatment team and system support, doctors can achieve risk stratification of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma, accurate judgment of disease progress, timely counseling for psychological problems, and long-term adherence to active surveillance. Improving the treatment level of advanced thyroid cancer is the key point of improve the prognosis. It is important to promote the development of active surveillance for low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. In the future, it is necessary to carry out multi-center prospective research and accumulate research evidence for promoting the standardization process of active surveillance. Standardized active surveillance will certainly benefit specific papillary thyroid microcarcinoma patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroidectomy/methods , Prospective Studies , Watchful Waiting/methods , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Disease Progression , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery
7.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 696-701, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985760

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the feasibility of nuclear score combined with cyclin D1 immunocytochemistry in classifying indeterminate thyroid nodules with fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytological diagnosis of Bethesda category Ⅲ-Ⅴ. Methods: A consecutive cohort of 118 thyroid FNA specimens with indeterminate diagnosis (TBSRTC category Ⅲ-Ⅴ) and available histopathologic follow-up data were collected between December 2018 and April 2022 at the Department of Pathology, Beijing Hospital, China. These cases were subjected to cytological evaluation and cyclin D1 immunocytochemistry. The optimal cut-off points of a simplified nuclear score and the percentage of cyclin D1-positive cells for the diagnosis of malignancy or low-risk neoplasm were determined using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and area under the ROC curve (AUC). The specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of nuclear score and cyclin D1 immunostaining were evaluated from the crosstabs based on cut-off points. The diagnostic accuracy of simplified nuclear score combined with cyclin D1 immunostaining was estimated using ROC curve analysis. Results: Nuclear grooves, intra-nuclear inclusions and chromatin clearing were more commonly found in malignancy/low-risk neoplasms than benign lesions (P=0.001, P=0.012 and P=0.001 respectively). A cut-off point of≥2 for the simplified nuclear score was sensitive for defining malignancy/low-risk neoplasm, and its PPV, NPV, sensitivity and specificity were 93.6%, 87.5%, 99.0% and 50.0% respectively. A positive cut-off point of 10% positive thyroid cells in cyclin D1 immunostaining demonstrated sensitivity of 88.5%, specificity of 100%, PPV of 100% and NPV of 53.8% for correctly detecting thyroid malignancy or low-risk neoplasm. The sensitivity and PPV of simplified nuclear score combined with cyclin D1 immunostaining were 93.3% and 100%, respectively. Both specificity and NPV were maintained at high levels (100% and 66.7%, respectively). The diagnostic accuracy of simplified nuclear score combined with cyclin D1 immunostaining in detecting thyroid malignancy/low-risk neoplasm was increased to 94.1% compared to using either of them alone. Conclusions: Combing simplified nuclear score and cyclin D1 immunostaining on FNA cytology specimens can increase the diagnostic accuracy in classifying thyroid nodules of indeterminate cytological categories. Thus, this supplementary approach provides a simple, accurate, and convenient diagnostic method for cytopathologists so that may reduce unnecessary thyroidectomies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Cyclin D1 , Immunohistochemistry , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies
8.
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 375-379, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982752

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the clinical significance of multigene assay in papillary thyroid carcinoma(PTC). Methods:Patients who underwent thyroidectomy in a tertiary hospital from August 2021 to May 2022 were enrolled. The eight-gene panel was used to detect the tumor tissue of patients, and the correlation between gene mutations and clinical features was analyzed. Results:Among 161 patients, mutation rate of BRAF V600E, RET/PTC1 and TERT promotor were 82.0%, 6.8% and 4.3%, respectively. BRAF V600E mutation was more common in male patients(P=0.023). TERT promotor-mutated tumors had a large diameter(P=0.019), a high proportion of multifocal lesions(P=0.050), and a large number of lymph node metastases(P=0.031). Among 89 patients who completed preoperative BRAF detection, there was a strong consistency between the preoperative aspiration test and postoperative panel(Cohen κ=0.694, 95%CI: 0.482-0.906, P<0.01). In the hematoxylin-eosin sections obtained from 80 patients, BRAF V600E was still the main type of gene mutation, and the classical/follicular type was more distributed. TERT promotor and RET/PTC1 mutation were the main genetic events for tall-cell/columnar/hobnail type and diffuse sclerosing type, respectively. One-way ANOVA showed that there were differences in diagnosis age(P=0.029) and tumor size(P<0.01) among different pathological types. Conclusion:As a simple and feasible clinical detection method for PTC, the multigene assay can supplement the identification of important genetic events other than BRAF V600E, and provide more prognostic information and follow-up hints for postoperative patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/genetics , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , Clinical Relevance , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Mutation
9.
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 288-292, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982734

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the safety and feasibility of bilateral axillo-breast approach (BABA) robot in the operation of thyroid cancer in obese women. Methods:The clinical data of 81 obese female patients who underwent da Vinci robotic thyroid cancer surgery(robotic group) at the Department of Thyroid and Breast Surgery, PLA 960 Hospital from May 2018 to December 2021 were retrospectively analyzed and compared with the clinical data of 106 obese female thyroid cancer patients who underwent open surgery(open group) during the same period. The age, body mass index(BMI), mean time of surgery, mean postoperative drainage, tumor diameter, postoperative tumor stage, number of lymph node dissection in the central and lateral cervical regions, number of positive lymph nodes in the central and lateral cervical regions, postoperative cosmetic outcome satisfaction score, mean postoperative hospital stay and postoperative complications of all patients were counted. The results were analyzed using SPSS 26.0 statistical software, and the count data were compared using the χ² test, and the measurement data were compared using the t test. Results:All patients completed the operation successfully, and there was no conversion in the robot group, postoperative pathological results were all composed of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The operation time in the robot group was(144.62±36.38) min, which was longer than that in the open group(117.06±18.72) min(P<0.05). The average age of the robot group was(40.25±9.27) years, which was lower than that of the open group(49.59±8.70) years(P<0.05). The satisfactory score of cosmetic effect in the robot group(9.44±0.65) was higher than that in the open group(5.23±1.07)(P<0.05). There was no significant difference in tumor diameter, BMI, average postoperative drainage, temporary hypoparathyroidism and recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, number of central and lateral cervical lymph node dissection, number of positive lymph nodes in the central and lateral cervical regions, and average postoperative hospital stay between the two groups. There was no permanent hypoparathyroidism and recurrent laryngeal nerve injury in both groups. Conclusion:The application of BABA pathway robot in thyroid cancer surgery in obese women is safe and feasible, and the cosmetic effect is better after operation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Robotics/methods , Retrospective Studies , Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Injuries , Thyroidectomy/methods , Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Neck Dissection , Treatment Outcome
10.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 351-357, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986894

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the efficacies between open surgery and axillary non-inflatable endoscopic surgery in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 343 patients with unilateral PTC treated by traditional open surgery (201 cases) and transaxillary non-inflating endoscopic surgery (142 cases) from May 2019 to December 2021 in the Head and Neck Surgery of Sichuan Cancer Hospital. Among them, 97 were males and 246 were females, aged 20-69 years. 1∶1 propensity score matching (PSM) was performed on the enrolled patients, and the basic characteristics, perioperative clinical outcomes, postoperative complications, postoperative quality of life (Thyroid Cancer-Specific Quality of Life), aesthetic satisfaction and other aspects of the two groups were compared after successful matching. SPSS 26.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 190 patients were enrolled after PSM, with 95 cases in open group and 95 cases in endoscopic group. Intraoperative blood losses for endoscopic and open groups were [20 (20) ml vs. 20 (10) ml, M (IQR), Z=-2.22], postoperative drainage volumes [170 (70)ml vs. 101 (55)ml, Z=-7.91], operative time [135 (35)min vs. 95 (35)min, Z=-7.34], hospitalization cost [(28 188.7±2 765.1)yuan vs. (25 643.5±2 610.7)yuan, x¯±s, t=0.73], postoperative hospitalization time [(3.1±0.9)days vs. (2.6±0.9)days, t=-3.24], and drainage tube placement time [(2.5±0.8) days vs. (2.0±1.0)days, t=-4.16], with statistically significant differrences (all P<0.05). There was no significant difference in surgical complications (P>0.05). There were significant diffferences between two groups in the postoperative quality of life scores in neuromuscular, psychological, scar and cold sensation (all P<0.05), while there were no statistically significant differences in other quality of life scores (all P>0.05). In terms of aesthetic satisfaction 6 months after surgery, the endoscopic group was better than the open group, with statistically significant difference (χ2=41.47, P<0.05). Conclusion: Endoscopic thyroidectomy by a gasless unilateral axillary approach is a safe and reliable surgical method, which has remarkable cosmetic effect and can improve the postoperative quality of life of patients compared with the traditional thyroidectomy.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Quality of Life , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Endoscopy , Thyroidectomy/methods
11.
Rev. med. Chile ; 150(7): 855-860, jul. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1424147

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The measurement of plasma thyroglobulin (Tg) is widely used in the monitoring of differentiated thyroid cancer (CDT). In recent years, its value as a prognostic marker prior to ablation with radioiodine has increased, demonstrating its high negative predictive value. Recent studies indicate that a wide variety of factors could potentially influence pre-ablative Tg values, including residual tumor burden and stimulation modality. Aim: To relate the value of pre-ablative Tg with the amount of preoperative disease burden, lymph node metastases, treatment, and presence of residual disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective observational study of 70 patients with CDT treated between 2012 and 2018. The amount of disease burden was defined as the sum of largest diameter of individual tumors in each patient, and as the individually largest tumor per patient and number of metastatic lymph nodes. RESULTS: A smaller tumor size and absence of remnant tissue was associated with lower Tg values, although the association was not always significant. Furthermore, no significant difference was found between Tg levels measured within or more than 14 days after the surgical procedure. Thus, an early measurement of pTg after surgery would allow an initial therapeutic decision making. Conclusions: A statistical association between pre-ablative Tg levels and the amount of preoperative tumor tissue burden was found in some subgroups of patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Adenocarcinoma , Thyroglobulin/analysis , Thyroidectomy , Retrospective Studies , Iodine Radioisotopes , Lymphatic Metastasis
12.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 38(2): e38208, jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1389694

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: el estudio citológico por punción ecoguiada se caracteriza por ser rápido, confiable, mínimamente invasivo y rentable. Permite reducir procedimientos quirúrgicos innecesarios y clasifica apropiadamente a los pacientes con nódulos sospechosos o malignos para una intervención quirúrgica oportuna. Objetivo: el objetivo del presente estudio es evaluar la correlación citológica-anatomopatológica del sistema Bethesda en un centro universitario (Hospital de Clínicas) de Uruguay. Metodología: se realizó un estudio de tipo observacional, retrospectivo, descriptivo, basado el análisis de historias clínicas de pacientes sometidos a cirugía tiroidea en el Hospital de Clínicas, en el período comprendido entre enero de 2008 y diciembre de 2018. Resultados: del total inicial de 119 pacientes, 93 cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. El rango de edad de la muestra fue entre 15 y 79 años. Del total de puncionados 49,5% (46) fueron informados como benignos y 50,5% (47) como malignos. Se calculó en forma global una sensibilidad de 96% (0,96) con IC 1,0-0,90, especificidad de 98% (0,97) con IC 1,0-0,93, un VPP de 98% y VPN de 96%. La sensibilidad diagnóstica para la categoría IV, V y VI fue de 96%, con una especificidad de 100, 94 y 100% respectivamente. Conclusiones: el sistema Bethesda aplicado a las PAAF de nódulos tiroideos potencia la certeza diagnóstica y asiste en la decisión terapéutica. En nuestra institución contamos con una buena correlación citopatológica, similar a otros trabajos reportados en la literatura, lo que permite predecir adecuadamente el riesgo de malignidad y facilitar la toma de decisiones.


Summary: Introduction: the ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) study is characterized by being fast, reliable, minimally invasive, and cost-effective. It reduces unnecessary surgical procedures and appropriately classifies patients with suspicious or malignant nodules for timely surgical intervention. Objective: the objective of this study is to evaluate the cytological-pathological correlation of the Bethesda System in a university center (Hospital de Clínicas) in Uruguay. Methodology: an observational, retrospective, descriptive study was carried out, based on the analysis of medical records of patients undergoing thyroid surgery at the Hospital de Clínicas, in the period between January 2008 and December 2018. Results: of the initial total of 119 patients, 93 met the inclusion criteria. The age range of the sample was between 15 and 79 years. Of the total of punctured, 49.5% (46) were reported as benign and 50.5% (47) as malignant. A sensitivity of 96% (0.96) with CI 1.0-0.90, specificity of 98% (0.97) with CI 1.0-0.93, a PPV of 98% and NPV of 96%. The diagnostic sensitivity for categories IV, V and VI was 96% with a specificity of 100, 94 and 100% respectively. Conclusions: the Bethesda system applied to FNA of thyroid nodules enhances diagnostic certainty and assists in the therapeutic decision. In our institution we have a good cytopathological correlation, similar to other works reported in the literature. This makes it possible to adequately predict the risk of malignancy and facilitate decision-making.


Resumo: Introdução: o estudo citológico por punção guiada por ultrassom caracteriza-se por ser rápido, confiável, minimamente invasivo e de baixo custo. Permite reduzir procedimentos cirúrgicos desnecessários e classificar adequadamente pacientes com nódulos suspeitos ou malignos para intervenção cirúrgica oportuna. Objetivo: avaliar a correlação citológico-patológica do Sistema Bethesda em um centro universitário (Hospital de Clínicas) no Uruguai. Metodologia: foi realizado um estudo observacional, retrospectivo, descritivo, baseado na análise de prontuários de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de tireoide no Hospital de Clínicas, no período janeiro de 2008-dezembro de 2018. Resultados: do total inicial de 119 pacientes, 93 preencheram os critérios de inclusão. A faixa etária da amostra foi entre 15 e 79 anos. Do total de punções, 49,5% (46) foram relatadas como benignas e 50,5% (47) como malignas. No geral, uma sensibilidade de 96% (0,96) com IC 1,0-0,90, uma especificidade de 98% (0,97) com IC 1,0-0,93, um VPP de 98% e VPN de 96%. A sensibilidade diagnóstica para as categorias IV, V e VI foi de 96% com especificidade de 100, 94 e 100%, respectivamente. Conclusões: o sistema Bethesda aplicado à PAAF de nódulos tireoidianos aumenta a certeza diagnóstica e auxilia na decisão terapêutica. Em nossa instituição temos uma boa correlação citopatológica, semelhante a outros trabalhos relatados na literatura. Isso permite prever adequadamente o risco de malignidade e facilitar a tomada de decisão.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Thyroid Nodule/classification , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Biopsy, Fine-Needle/methods , Neoplasm Staging/classification
13.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 88(2): 220-227, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374730

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Fine needle aspiration cytology is preferred for thyroid nodules preoperatively, but has disadvantages of false-negative and false-positive results. Objective: To compare the diagnostic performance of grayscale ultrasound, subjective color Doppler ultrasound, and combined features of grayscale ultrasound and subjective color Doppler ultrasound in predicting thyroid carcinoma, using results of the fine needle aspiration cytology as the reference standard. Methods: Data from gray-scale ultrasound images, subjective color Doppler ultrasound images, and the fine needle aspiration cytology of 325 nodules of 250 patients (age ≥ 18 years) were collected and analyzed. Hypo-echogenicity than adjacent strap muscle, micro-lobulated or irregular margins, micro- or mixed calcifications, and taller-than-wide shapes were considered as a suspicious malignant nodule in grayscale ultrasound. Marked vascularity was considered as a suspicious malignant nodule in color Doppler ultrasound. The Bethesda system for classification of thyroid nodules was used for cytopathology. Results: With respect to the results of fine-needle aspiration cytology for detecting suspicious malignant nodules, for grayscale ultrasound, subjective color Doppler ultrasound, and combined gray-scale with subjective color Doppler ultrasound, sensitivities were 0.564, 0.600 and 0.691, respectively and accuracies were 0.926, 0.919 and 0.959, respectively. Suspicious malignant nodules detectability for grayscale ultrasound, subjective color Doppler ultrasound, and combined gray-scale with subjective color Doppler ultrasound were 0.09-0.56 diagnostic confidence, 0.08-0.61 diagnostic confidence, and 0.063-0.7 diagnostic confidence, respectively. Conclusion: The combined gray-scale with subjective color Doppler ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsies are recommended for the diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma. Level of Evidence: III.


Resumo Introdução: A citologia da punção aspirativa com agulha fina é preferida para nódulos tireoidianos no pré-operatório, mas apresenta desvantagens de resultados falso-negativos e falso-positivos. Objetivo: Comparar o desempenho diagnóstico da ultrassonografia em escala de cinza, do doppler colorido subjetivo e da combinação dos recursos da ultrassonografia em escala de cinza e do doppler colorido subjetivo na previsão do carcinoma da tireoide com os resultados da citologia da punção aspirativa com agulha fina como padrão de referência. Método: Dados de imagens de ultrassonografia em escala de cinza, imagens subjetivas da ultrassonografia com doppler colorido e citologia da punção aspirativa com agulha fina de 325 nódulos de 250 pacientes (idade ≥ 18 anos) foram coletados e analisados. A hipoecogenicidade da musculatura adjacente, as margens microlobuladas ou irregulares, as microcalcificações ou calcificações mistas e os formatos mais altos do que largos foram considerados como um nódulo maligno suspeito na ultrassonografia em escala de cinza. A vascularização acentuada foi considerada um nódulo maligno suspeito na ultrassonografia com doppler colorido. O sistema Bethesda para classificação de nódulos tireoidianos foi usado para a citopatologia. Resultados: Com relação aos resultados da citologia por punção aspirativa com agulha fina para detecção de nódulos malignos suspeitos, as sensibilidades foram de 0,564, 0,600 e 0,691 para a ultrassonografia em escala de cinza, ultrassonografia com doppler colorido subjetivo e escala de cinza combinada com ultrassonografia com doppler colorido subjetivo, respectivamente, e as acurácias foram 0,926, 0,919 e 0,959, respectivamente. A detectabilidade de nódulos suspeitos malignos para ultrassonografia em escala de cinza, ultrassonografia com doppler colorido subjetivo e escala de cinza combinada com ultrassonografia com doppler colorido subjetivo foram de 0,09-0,56, 0,08-0,61 e 0,063-0,7 de confiança diagnóstica, respectivamente. Conclusões: A ultrassonografia em escala de cinza combinada com o doppler colorido subjetivo e biópsias por punção aspirativa com agulha fina guiadas por ultrassonografia são recomendados para o diagnóstico de carcinoma da tireoide. Nível de evidência: III.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Biopsy, Fine-Needle
14.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(1): 112-117, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364296

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy, and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the main subtype. The cribriform morular variant is a histological phenotype of PTC characterized by its relationship with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Description of the case: We report the genetic assessment of a 20-year-old female patient diagnosed with a cribriform-morular variant of PTC and FAP. We aimed to assess the genetic background of the reported patient, looking for variants that would help us explain the predisposition to tumorigenesis. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood lymphocytes, and whole exome sequencing was performed. We applied an overrepresentation and gene-set enrichment analysis to look for an accumulation of effects of variants in multiple genes at the genome. We found an overrepresentation of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in extracellular matrix interactions and cell adhesion genes. Underrepresentation of SNVs in genes related to the regulation of autophagy and cell cycle control was also observed. We hypothesize that the package of alterations of our patient may help to explain why she presented colonic manifestations and thyroid cancer. Our findings suggest that multiple variants with minor impact, when considered together, may be helpful to characterize one particular clinical condition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Adenomatous Polyposis Coli/diagnosis , Adenomatous Polyposis Coli/genetics , Adenomatous Polyposis Coli/pathology , Genetic Background , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/genetics
15.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(1): 50-57, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364302

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: A primary medical relevance of thyroid nodules consists of excluding thyroid cancer, present in approximately 5% of all thyroid nodules. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) has a paramount role in distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid nodules due to its availability and diagnostic performance. Nevertheless, intraoperative frozen section (iFS) is still advocated as a valuable tool for surgery planning, especially for indeterminate nodules. Subjects and methods: To compare the FNAB and iFS performances in thyroid cancer diagnosis among nodules in Bethesda Categories (BC) I to VI. The performance of FNAB and iFS tests were calculated using final histopathology results as the gold standard. Results: In total, 316 patients were included in the analysis. Both FNAB and iFS data were available for 272 patients (86.1%). The overall malignancy rate was 30.4%% (n = 96). The FNAB sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for benign (BC II) and malignant (BC V and VI) were 89.5%, 97.1%, and 94.1%, respectively. For all nodules evaluated, the iFS sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 80.9%, 100%, and 94.9%, respectively. For indeterminate nodules and follicular lesions (BC III and IV), the iFS sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 25%, 100%, and 88.7%, respectively. For BC I nodules, iFS had 95.2% of accuracy. Conclusion: Our results do not support routine iFS for indeterminate nodules or follicular neoplasms (BC III and IV) due to its low sensitivity. In these categories, iFS is not sufficiently accurate to guide the intraoperative management of thyroidectomies. iFS for BC I nodules could be an option and should be specifically investigated


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Thyroid Nodule/surgery , Thyroid Nodule/diagnosis , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Biopsy, Fine-Needle/methods , Frozen Sections/methods
16.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 446-449, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935235

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the indications, safety, feasibility, and surgical technique for patients with head and neck cancers undergoing transoral robotic retropharyngeal lymph node (RPLN) dissection. Methods: The current study enrolled 12 consecutive head and neck cancer patients (seven males and four females) who underwent transoral robotic RPLN dissection with the da Vinci surgical robotic system at the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center from May 2019 to July 2020. Seven patients were diagnosed as nasopharyngeal carcinoma with RPLN metastasis after initial treatments, 4 patients were diagnosed as thyroid carcinoma with RPLN metastasis after initial treatments, and one patient was diagnosed as oropharyngeal carcinoma with RPLN metastasis before initial treatments. The operation procedure and duration time, intraoperative blood loss volume and complications, nasogastric feeding tube dependence, tracheostomy dependence, postoperative complications, and hospitalization time were recorded and analyzed. Results: All patients were successfully treated by transoral robotic dissection of the metastatic RPLNs, none of which was converted to open surgery. RPLNs were completely resected in 10 patients, and partly resected in 2 patients (both were nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients). The mean number of RPLN dissected was 1.7. The operation duration time and intraoperative blood loss volume were (191.3±101.1) min and (150.0±86.6) ml, respectively. There was no severe intraoperative complication such as massive haemorrhage or adjacent organ injury during surgery. Nasogastric tube use was required in all patients with (17.1±10.6) days of dependence, while tracheotomy was performed in 8 patients with (11.6±10.7) days of dependence. The postoperative hospitalization stay was (8.5±5.7) days. Postoperative complications occurred in 4 patients, including 2 of retropharyngeal incision and 2 of dysphagia. During a follow-up of (6.5±5.1) months, disease-free progression was observed in all patients, 10 patients were disease-free survival and other 2 patients were survival with tumor burden. Conclusions: The transoral robotic RPLN dissection is safety and feasible. Compared with the traditional open surgical approach, it is less traumatic and safer, has fewer complications and good clinical application potentiality. The indications for transoral robotic RPLN dissection include thyroid carcinoma, oropharyngeal carcinoma, and some selected nasopharyngeal carcinoma and other head and neck cancers. Metastatic RPLNs from some nasopharyngeal carcinoma with incomplete capsule, unclear border and adhesion to the surrounding vessels are not suitable for transoral robotic RPLN dissection.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Blood Loss, Surgical , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Lymph Node Excision/methods , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma/pathology , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/surgery , Neck Dissection/methods , Postoperative Complications/surgery , Robotic Surgical Procedures/methods , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology
17.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 123-129, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936293

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the value of DNA methylation level of HYAL2 gene as a molecular marker for differential diagnosis of malignant and benign thyroid tumors.@*METHODS@#DNA methylation of HYAL2 gene in tissue specimens of 190 patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and 190 age- and gender-matched patients with benign thyroid tumors was examined by mass spectrometry, and the protein expression of HYAL2 was detected immunohistochemically for another 55 pairs of patients. Logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and evaluate the correlation of per 10% reduction in DNA methylation with PTC. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed and the area under curve (AUC) was calculated to assess the predictive value of alterations in HYAL2 methylation.@*RESULTS@#Hypomethylation of HYAL2_CpG_3 was significantly correlated with early-stage PTC (OR=1.51, P=0.001), even in stage I cancer (OR=1.42, P=0.007). Age-stratified analysis revealed a significantly stronger correlation between increased HYAL2_CpG_ 3 methylation and early-stage PTC in patients below 50 years than in those older than 50 years (OR: 1.89 vs 1.37, P < 0.05); ROC analysis also showed a larger AUC of 0.787 in younger patients. The results of immunohistochemistry showed that patients with PTC had significantly higher protein expressions of HYAL2 than patients with benign tumors.@*CONCLUSION@#The alterations of DNA methylation level of HYAL2 gene is significantly correlated with early-stage PTC, suggesting the value of DNA methylation level as a potential biomarker for differentiation of malignant from benign thyroid tumors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Adenoma, Oxyphilic/genetics , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , DNA Methylation , GPI-Linked Proteins/metabolism , Hyaluronoglucosaminidase/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology
18.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 15(1): 7-11, 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359332

ABSTRACT

El cáncer diferenciado de tiroides incluye el tipo papilar y folicular que representan más del 80% de los casos y tienen un excelente pronóstico. Existen varios subtipos histológicos y las variantes foliculares son probablemente las más comunes. La incidencia de cáncer papilar variante folicular ha ido en aumento. En un reporte de un solo centro, cerca del 40% de los cánceres papilares eran variantes foliculares1. El subtipo infiltrativo de la variante folicular presenta sectores que invaden el parénquima tiroideo no neoplásico y carece de una cápsula tumoral bien definida. Tiene un comportamiento biológico y un perfil molecular que es más similar al tumor papilar clásico2. Existen características clínicas y patológicas asociadas con riesgo más alto de recurrencia tumoral y mortalidad; entre ellos se describen el tamaño del tumor primario y la presencia de invasión de tejidos blandos3. En la invasión de estructuras adyacentes, los sitios más comprometidos incluyen los músculos pretiroideos, el nervio laríngeo recurrente, el esófago, la faringe, laringe y la tráquea. Además, puede haber otras estructuras involucradas como: la vena yugular interna, la arteria carótida y los nervios vago, frénico y espinal4. El compromiso de los ganglios linfáticos y la incidencia de metástasis ganglionares en adultos depende de la extensión de la cirugía. Entre los que se realizan una disección radical modificada del cuello, hasta el 80% tienen metástasis en los ganglios linfáticos y el 50% de ellas son microscópicas5. Clínicamente los tumores localmente avanzados cursan con disfonía, disfagia, disnea, tos o hemoptisis, pero la ausencia de síntomas no descarta la invasión local. Según las guías de la American Thyroid Association6 son variables de mal pronóstico: la edad del paciente, el tamaño del tumor primario, la extensión extra tiroidea y la resección quirúrgica incompleta.


Differentiated thyroid cancer includes papillary and follicular types that represent more than 80% of cases and have an excellent prognosis. There are several histologic subtypes, and follicular variants are probably the most common. The incidence of papillary follicular variant cancer has been increasing. In a singlecenter report, about 40% of papillary cancers were follicular variants1. The infiltrative subtype of the follicular variant presents sectors that invade the non-neoplastic thyroid parenchyma and lacks a well-defined tumor capsule. It has a biological behavior and a molecular profile that is more similar to the classic papillary tumor2. There are clinical and pathological characteristics associated with a higher risk of tumor recurrence and mortality; These include the size of the primary tumor and the presence of soft tissue invasion3. In the invasion of adjacent structures, the most compromised sites include the pre-thyroid muscles, the recurrent laryngeal nerve, the esophagus, the pharynx, larynx and trachea. In addition, there may be other structures involved such as: the internal jugular vein, the carotid artery and the vagus, phrenic and spinal nerves4. The involvement of the lymph nodes and the incidence of lymph node metastases in adults depends on the extent of the surgery. Among those who undergo a modified radical neck dissection, up to 80% have lymph node metastases and 50% of them are microscopic5. Clinically locally advanced tumors present with dysphonia, dysphagia, dyspnea, cough, or hemoptysis, but the absence of symptoms does not rule out local invasion. According to the American Thyroid Association guidelines6, there are variables with a poor prognosis: the age of the patient, the size of the primary tumor, the extra-thyroid extension, and incomplete surgical resection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular/pathology , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology , Neoplasm Invasiveness
19.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 15(1): 19-22, 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359334

ABSTRACT

El cáncer papilar constituye aproximadamente el 80% de todos los casos de cáncer de tiroides y el 85% de los tumores diferenciados. La variante de células altas representa el 1,3 al 12% del cáncer papilar siendo la variante agresiva más común de estos tumores. Posee un comportamiento agresivo, con mayor incidencia de invasión extratiroidea, linfovascular y metástasis a distancia, responsables de tasas de recurrencia más altas y peor pronóstico. Los casos aquí reportados reflejan las características que hacen sospechar mayor agresividad tumoral, desde el diagnóstico. Describimos dos pacientes de sexo femenino, entre 40 y 50 años, con historia de corta evolución, cuya presentación fue con síntomas de compresión locorregional y adenopatías metastásicas en cuello. Con hallazgos ecográficos e intraoperatorios de relevancia en cuanto la agresividad tumoral que hicieron sospechar la presencia de una variante agresiva del cáncer papilar. La histopatología de la variante de células altas posee una base molecular diferente respecto al papilar clásico que le confiere mayor morbi-mortalidad, constituyendo un factor de pronóstico independiente para la recurrencia. El tratamiento quirúrgico es la tiroidectomía total con vaciamiento profiláctico de los ganglios linfáticos centrales y eventualmente vaciamiento lateral de cuello según valoración preoperatoria, con posterior ablación postoperatoria de restos tiroideos mediante yodo radiactivo.


Papillary cancer constitutes approximately 80% of all thyroid cancer cases and 85% of differentiated tumors. The tall cell variant represents 1.3 to 12% of papillary cancers, being the most common aggressive variant of these tumors. It has an aggressive behavior, showing a higher incidence of extrathyroid and lymphovascular invasion and distant metastasis, responsible for higher recurrence rates and a worse prognosis. The cases reported here reflect characteristics that make us suspect tumor aggressiveness. These are female patients, between 40 and 70 years old, with a history of short evolution. They present locoregional symptoms or metastatic adenopathies, with ultrasound and intraoperative findings of relevance in terms of tumor aggressiveness that led to the suspicion of the presence of an aggressive variant of papillary cancer. The histopathology of the tall cell variant has a different molecular basis that confers its own morbidity and mortality, being an independent prognostic factor for recurrence. Total thyroidectomy is recommended with prophylactic dissection of the central lymph nodes and eventually lateral neck dissection according to preoperative evaluation followed by postoperative ablation with radioactive iodine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Papillary/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/diagnosis , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
20.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 15(2): 75-77, 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391818

ABSTRACT

El microcarcinoma papilar de tiroides es definido como un tumor de un cm o menos de diámetro mayor. La mayoría permanecen ocultos clínicamente, siendo un hallazgo en autopsias hasta en 36%. La presentación oculta ocurre hasta en un 10 a 26% de todas las neoplasias malignas de tiroides y se define como la presencia de ganglios metastásicos de carcinoma papilar de tiroides en ausencia de lesión primitiva tiroidea evidente durante la exploración clínica y ecográfica. El objetivo de este trabajo es el reporte de dos casos donde el diagnóstico de cáncer de tiroides se realizó a través de su presentación metastásica cervical, siendo el estudio anatomopatológico de la pieza de resección quirúrgica el que devela la presencia de un microcarcinoma papilar. Si bien el tratamiento del de estas lesiones es controversial, existen elementos que sellan la necesidad de resolución quirúrgica. En el debut metastásico ganglionar cervical, está indicada la tiroidectomía total con el vaciamiento ganglionar cervical radical modificado ipsilateral y central. El raidioyodo postquirúrgico será empleado en forma complementaria ante la persistencia, recurrencia o elementos de alto riesgo.


Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma is defined as a tumor one cm or less in diameter. Most remain clinically hidden, being an autopsy finding in up to 36%. Occult presentation occurs in up to 10% to 26% of all thyroid malignancies and is defined as the presence of metastatic nodes from papillary thyroid carcinoma in the absence of a primitive thyroid lesion evident on clinical and ultrasound examination. The objective of this work is the report of two cases where the diagnosis of thyroid cancer was made through its cervical metastatic presentation, being the pathological study of the surgical resection specimen that reveals the presence of a papillary microcarcinoma. Although the treatment of these lesions is controversial, there are elements that seal the need for surgical resolution. In cervical lymph node metastatic debut, total thyroidectomy with modified ipsilateral and central radical cervical lymph node dissection is indicated. Post-surgical radiation iodine will be used in a complementary way in the event of persistence, recurrence or high-risk elements.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/diagnosis , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Metastasis
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