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Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(1): 50-57, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364302


ABSTRACT Objective: A primary medical relevance of thyroid nodules consists of excluding thyroid cancer, present in approximately 5% of all thyroid nodules. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) has a paramount role in distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid nodules due to its availability and diagnostic performance. Nevertheless, intraoperative frozen section (iFS) is still advocated as a valuable tool for surgery planning, especially for indeterminate nodules. Subjects and methods: To compare the FNAB and iFS performances in thyroid cancer diagnosis among nodules in Bethesda Categories (BC) I to VI. The performance of FNAB and iFS tests were calculated using final histopathology results as the gold standard. Results: In total, 316 patients were included in the analysis. Both FNAB and iFS data were available for 272 patients (86.1%). The overall malignancy rate was 30.4%% (n = 96). The FNAB sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for benign (BC II) and malignant (BC V and VI) were 89.5%, 97.1%, and 94.1%, respectively. For all nodules evaluated, the iFS sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 80.9%, 100%, and 94.9%, respectively. For indeterminate nodules and follicular lesions (BC III and IV), the iFS sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 25%, 100%, and 88.7%, respectively. For BC I nodules, iFS had 95.2% of accuracy. Conclusion: Our results do not support routine iFS for indeterminate nodules or follicular neoplasms (BC III and IV) due to its low sensitivity. In these categories, iFS is not sufficiently accurate to guide the intraoperative management of thyroidectomies. iFS for BC I nodules could be an option and should be specifically investigated

Humans , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Thyroid Nodule/surgery , Thyroid Nodule/diagnosis , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Biopsy, Fine-Needle/methods , Frozen Sections/methods
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927450


INTRODUCTION@#To date, there have only been 2 systematic reviews, and 1 systematic review and meta-analysis on high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for benign thyroid nodules. The present systematic review and meta-analysis seeks to evaluate the efficacy and safety of HIFU in the treatment of benign thyroid nodules.@*METHODS@#Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched for relevant studies from 1990 to 2021. Nine studies were included in the systematic review and 6 in the meta-analysis. Pooled volume reduction rates (VRRs) at 3, 6 and 24 months after HIFU were assessed.@*RESULTS@#This systematic review and meta-analysis showed that pooled VRRs at 3, 6, and 24 months after HIFU were 42.14 (95% confidence interval [CI] 28.66-55.62, I2=91%), 53.51 (95% CI 36.78-70.25, I2=97%) and 46.89 (95% CI 18.87-74.92, I2=99%), respectively. There was significant heterogeneity in the pooled VRRs at 3, 6 and 24 months after HIFU. No studies recorded complete disappearance of the nodules. Common side effects included pain, skin changes and oedema. There were no major complications except for transient vocal cord paralysis and voice hoarseness (0.014%) and transient Horner syndrome (0.5%).@*CONCLUSION@#HIFU may be an effective and safe alternative treatment modality for benign thyroid nodules. Larger clinical trials with longer follow-up are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of HIFU in treating benign thyroid nodules.

High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation/adverse effects , Humans , Pain , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures , Thyroid Nodule/surgery , Treatment Outcome
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(6): 752-757, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349998


ABSTRACT Objective: The objective of this study is to compare the total costs of surgery and radiofrequency (RF) ablation for the treatment of benign thyroid nodules. Materials and methods: This is a prospective randomized study comparing cases treated with US-guided RF ablation (cases) and surgery (control). They were selected and allocated to groups (thyroidectomy or radioablation) by permuted block randomization in blocks of five cases each. Results: Five cases of RF Ablation were compared with five cases of thyroidectomies conducted in the same period. Similar complication rates were observed in both groups. Shorter operating time and hospital stay were observed for the RF group. In the evaluation of the total cost between procedures, radioblation represented 76% of the cost of partial thyroidectomy. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that radioablation has a competitive cost, making it an effective alternative in the treatment of benign thyroid nodules.

Humans , Thyroid Nodule/surgery , Catheter Ablation , Radiofrequency Ablation , Thyroidectomy , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Cost-Benefit Analysis
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(4): 611-616, ago. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346514


Resumen Para evaluar la utilidad diagnóstica del estudio patológico intraoperatorio (EPI) en cirugía tiroidea se realizó una revisión retrospectiva de sus resultados en 350 pacientes en comparación con la biopsia preoperatoria por punción con aguja fina (PAAF) y el est udio patológico diferido (EPD). Los resultados de la PAAF se clasificaron según el sistema de Bethesda en categoría II (91 casos, 26.0%), III (21 casos, 6.0%), IV (73 casos, 21.9%), V (54 casos, 15.4%) y VI (111 casos, 31.7%). El EPI mostró lesiones benignas en 137 casos (39.1%), malignas en 169 (48.2%), y resultados no definitivos en 44 (12.6 %). El EPD informó patología benigna en 161 casos (46%) y carcinoma en 189 (54%); se encontró carcinoma en 8 pacientes (5.8%) en quienes el EPI había informado lesión benigna y en 12 (27.2%) en quienes había informado no definitivo; 13 de estos 20 casos fueron microcarcinomas incidentales. El EPI no informó ningún falso positivo (especificidad 100%, sensibilidad 89.4%, valor predictivo positivo 100%, valor predictivo negativo 90.0%, exactitud 94.2%). Los resultados de malignidad con EPI y EPD, según categorías de Bethesda fueron respectivamente: II 3 (3.3%) y 7 (7.7%); III 8 (38.1%) y 10 (47.6%); IV 3 (4.1%) y 10 (13.7%); V 47 (87.0%) y 52 (96.3%); VI 108 (97.3%) y 110 (99.1%). El EPI no dio información adicional a la biopsia por PAAF en la mayoría de los casos ni detectó microcarcinomas en otros, por lo que no parece justificado indicarlo rutinariamente.

Abstract To evaluate the usefulness of intraoperative pathology (IP) in thyroid surgery, a retrospective review of its results in 350 patients was performed in comparison with the results of the preoperative fine-needle biopsy (FNB) and the surgical pathology report (SPR). The FNB was reported according to the Bethesda system as type II in 91 cases (26.0%), type III in 21 (6.0%), type IV in 73 (21.9%), type V in 54 (15.4%), and type VI in 111 (31.7%). The IP showed benign lesions in 137 cases (39.1%), malignancy in 169 (48.2%), and inconclusive results in 44 (12.6%). The SPR results were benign pathology in 161 cases (46%) and carcinoma in 189 (54%); carcinoma was found in 8 patients (5.8%) in whom the IP had reported benignity, and in 12 (27.2%) with IP inconclusive results; 13 of those 20 cases were incidental microcarcinomas. The IP did not report any false positive result (specificity 100 %, sensitivity 89.4%, positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value 90.0%, and accuracy 94.2%). When discriminated by Bethesda types, the malignant lesions detected by IP and SPR were, respectively: II 3 (3.3%) and 7 (7.70%); III 8 (38.1%) and 10 (47.6%); IV 3 (4.1%) and 10 (13.7%); V 47 (87.0%) and 52 (96.3%); VI 108 (97.3%) and 110 (99.1%). In most cases, the IP did not provide additional information to the FNB report nor did it detect microcarcinomas in others, so it does not seem justified to perform it routinely.

Humans , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Carcinoma , Thyroid Nodule/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Biopsy, Fine-Needle
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(3): 277-288, May-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285165


ABSTRACT Objectives: Thyroid nodules located in isthmus were found less prevalent, although papillary thyroid cancer in this location was reported to be more aggressive behaviour in some studies. Our aim was to evaluate hormonal,ultrasonographic, and cytopathologic features of nodules located in isthmus (isthmic nodules). Subjects and methods: Patients who underwent thyroidectomy between 2006-2014 reviewed retrospectively. Hormonal, ultrasonographic, and cytopathologic features compared between patients with isthmic (Group-1) and with lober (non-isthmic, Group-2) nodules. Results: Group-1 and Group-2 consisted of 251 and 2076 patients, respectively. 260 isthmic (5.5%) and 4433 non-isthmic (94.5%) nodules were compared.However,most ultrasonographical features such as presence of microcalcification and halo, diameters, echogenicity, texture, margin, and vascularity were similar between groups, macrocalcification rate was lower in isthmic nodules (18.8%, 25.9%; p = 0.012). Cytologic results were also similar.Although malignancy rate was lower in isthmic nodules (6.2%, 12.5%; p = 0.002), type of thyroid cancer was similar in isthmic and non-isthmic nodules.When malignant isthmic (n = 16,2.8%) and malignant non-isthmic nodules (n = 553, 97.2%) were compared, diameter and type of tumor, lymphovascular and capsular invasions, extrathyroidal extension and multifocality rates were not statistically significant.Malignant isthmic nodules (n = 16, 6.2%) had smaller size [10.1 (7.5-34.5) mm, 19.95 (8.4-74.1) mm; p = 0.002], and higher hypoechogenicity rate (31.3%, 5.7%, p = 0.003) compared to benign isthmic nodules (n = 244, 93.8%). Negative predictive value was higher and positive predictive value was lower in isthmic nodules compared to non-isthmic nodules (p = 0.033, p = 0.047, respectively). Conclusion: Isthmic nodules appear to be indolent because of having lower malignancy rate. FNAB might be required in isthmic nodules even if it has relatively small size.The surgery with limited extent or follow-up might seem to be reliable in the management of patients having isthmic nodules especially with indeterminate cytology.

Humans , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Nodule/surgery , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 87(3): 338-345, May-Jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285684


Abstract Introduction Only 5%-15% of thyroid surgical specimens are reported as malignant. Most of the operations are performed due to suspicion of malignancy as a result of fine needle aspiration biopsy but invasiveness, non-diagnostic results and potential repeat biopsies are disadvantages of fine needle aspiration biopsy. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of simultaneously using both the strain ratio and elasticity score in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules, as well as to assess the compatibility of these two methods. Methods A total of 144 nodules were included in the study. The final histopathologic diagnosis was used as the reference standard. The area under the curve sensitivity, specificity, and cut-off values of the strain ratio and elasticity score were determined using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The compatibility and comparison of strain ratio and elasticity score were also performed. Results Twenty eight nodules (19.4%) were malignant. The strain ratio and elasticity score results were found to be significantly successful in predicting thyroid malignancy (p < 0.001 for both). Moreover, the area under the curve for the strain ratio and elasticity score were found to be 0.944 and 0.960, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of the elasticity score was found to be superior to that of the strain ratio, but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.456). When the compatibility of the strain ratio and elasticity score was examined, the two evaluations were revealed to be statistically consistent with each other (Kappa = 0.767; p < 0.001). When the strain ratio and the elasticity score were used together, the specificity of capturing the correct diagnosis increased from 84.5% to 93.1%. Conclusion When the strain ratio an elasticity score were used together for the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules, more accurate results were obtained. Thus, combining both methods may be a promising alternative to fine needle aspiration biopsy in order to prevent unnecessary surgical interventions for suspected thyroid nodules.

Resumo Introdução Apenas 5% a 15% das amostras cirúrgicas de tireoide são relatadas como malignas. A maioria das cirurgias é feita devido à suspeita de lesão maligna como resultado da biópsia por punção aspirativa com agulha fina. Entretanto, invasividade, resultados não diagnósticos e biópsias repetidas são desvantagens desse procedimento. Objetivo Investigar a eficácia do uso simultâneo da razão de compressão e do escore de elasticidade no diagnóstico diferencial de nódulos tireoidianos, bem como avaliar a compatibilidade desses dois métodos. Método Foram incluídos no estudo 144 nódulos. O diagnóstico histopatológico final foi usado como padrão de referência. A área sob a curva sensibilidade, especificidade e valores de corte da razão de compressão e do escore de elasticidade foram determinados com a análise da curva Receiver Operating Characteristic. A compatibilidade e comparação da razão de compressão e do escore de elasticidade também foram feitas. Resultados Eram malignos 28 nódulos (19,4%). Os resultados da razão de compressão e do escore de elasticidade foram significantemente bem-sucedidos em prever a lesão maligna de nódulos da tireoide (p < 0,001 para ambos). Além disso, as áreas sob a curva para a razão de compressão e o escore de elasticidade foram de 0,944 e 0,960, respectivamente. A acurácia diagnóstica escore de elasticidade foi superior à da razão de compressão, mas essa diferença não foi estatisticamente significante (p = 0,456). Quando a compatibilidade da razão de compressão e do escore de elasticidade foi examinada, as duas avaliações mostraram-se estatisticamente consistentes (Kappa = 0,767; p < 0,001). Quando a razão de compressão e o escore de elasticidade foram usados em conjunto, a especificidade de captar o diagnóstico correto aumentou de 84,5% para 93,1%. Conclusão Quando a razão de compressão e o escore de elasticidade foram usados juntos para o diagnóstico diferencial de nódulos tireoidianos, resultados mais precisos foram obtidos. Assim, o uso combinado dos dois métodos pode ser uma opção promissora à biópsia por punção aspirativa com agulha fina e evitar intervenções cirúrgicas desnecessárias para nódulos tireoidianos suspeitos.

Humans , Thyroid Nodule/surgery , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Sensitivity and Specificity , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Diagnosis, Differential
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(3): 115-117, 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1293385


La ecografía tiroidea es la principal herramienta diagnóstica en el manejo de los nódulos tiroideos, siendo la presencia de microcalcificaciones un signo de malignidad. Sin embargo, existen escasas publicaciones acerca de la presencia de microcalcificaciones en ausencia de nódulo identificable y su asociación con cáncer de tiroides. Presentamos un caso de una mujer de 26 años, que, tras hallazgo incidental de bocio, se describe en ecografía un tiroides con alteración difusa de su ecogenicidad e imágenes compatibles con microcalcificaciones sin claro nódulo definido en su polo inferior. Tras realización de punción aspiración con aguja fina de la lesión con resultado Bethesda categoría 5, se decide realizar tiroidectomía total, presentando estudio histológico con diagnóstico de carcinoma papilar de tiroides variante clásica con metástasis ganglionares p(T1bN1a). Tras una revisión sistemática, los estudios hasta hoy publicados sugieren que la presencia de microcalcificaciones aisladas sin nódulo identificable debe considerarse un importante factor de riesgo de cáncer de tiroides, especialmente en gente joven, y en aquellas asentadas sobre una tiroiditis de Hashimoto. Por ende, resulta imperativo mantener una alta sospecha ante el hallazgo de este tipo de lesiones, recomendando una valoración exhaustiva de las mismas con la realización de una punción aspiración con aguja fina a todas las lesiones con dichas características.

Thyroid ultrasound is the main diagnostic tool in the management of thyroid nodules, with the presence of microcalcifications being a sign of malignancy. However, there are few publications about the presence of microcalcifications in the absence of an identifiable nodule and its association with thyroid cancer. We present a case of a 26-year-old woman who, after an incidental finding of goiter, a thyroid with diffuse echogenicity alteration and images compatible with microcalcifications without a clear nodule defined in the lower pole of the lobe is described on the ultrasound. After performing a fine needle aspiration of the lesion resulting in a Bethesda category 5, a total thyroidectomy was performed, presenting in the histological study a diagnosis of a classic variant of a papillary thyroid carcinoma with lymph node metastases p (T1bN1a). After a systematic review, the studies previously published suggest that the presence of isolated microcalcifications without an identifiable nodule should be considered an important risk factor for thyroid cancer, especially in young people, and in those with a concomitant Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Therefore, it is imperative to maintain a high suspicion of the discovery of this type of lesion, recommending an exhaustive assessment of them with the performance of a fine needle aspiration to all lesions with these features.

Humans , Female , Adult , Calcinosis/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Thyroidectomy , Calcinosis/surgery , Calcinosis/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma/surgery , Carcinoma/pathology , Ultrasonography , Thyroid Nodule/surgery , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Biopsy, Fine-Needle
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 13(3): 118-124, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117586


INTRODUCCIÓN: La extensión de la cirugía es motivo de controversia en el manejo de nódulos y cáncer diferenciado de tiroides (CDT). En nódulos benignos e indeterminados que requieran cirugía, la lobectomía es de elección, mientras que en CDT debe considerarse en tumores intratiroideos ≤ 4 cm. NUESTRO OBJETIVO objetivo fue reportar la primera cohorte chilena de nódulos tiroideos y CDT tratados con lobectomía por un equipo multidisciplinario. SUJETOS Y MÉTODOS: Se incluyeron pacientes sometidos a lobectomía por nódulos tiroideos y CDT que cumplieran: 1) tumor intratiroideo ≤4cm si punción aspirativa (PAF) Bethesda I, III, IV, V o VI; sin límite de tamaño si PAF Bethesda II, y 2) sin hallazgos sospechosos en la ecografía preoperatoria. En pacientes con CDT se describió presentación clínica, complicaciones y tipo de respuesta a tratamiento según ATA 2015 y MINSAL 2020. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 105 pacientes, edad 38±11 años, 84 (80%) mujeres, diámetro 2,2±1,5cm: 41 (39%) benignos y 64 (61%) CDT. De los CDT, 44 (69%) tenían cáncer papilar, 7 (11%) cáncer folicular y 13 (20%) NIFTP. Todos eran etapa I. Según MINSAL, 55 (85,9%) de riesgo muy bajo/bajo y 9 (14,1%) intermedio. Según ATA, 51 (80%) y 13 (20%) de riesgo bajo e intermedio, respectivamente. Se indicó totalización precoz y ablación con radioyodo en 6 (9,4%) pacientes: 4 por invasión venosa y 2 por CPT variedad sólida. De los 39 no totalizados seguidos ≥6 meses, no hubo casos de respuesta incompleta. Respecto a las complicaciones, ningún paciente tuvo hipocalcemia y 10 (9,5%) tuvieron disfonía transitoria. CONCLUSIONES: En pacientes con nódulos tiroideos o CDT seleccionados, la lobectomía es una alternativa adecuada. En CDT logra buen control de enfermedad sin necesidad de tratamiento adicional en cerca de 90% de los pacientes, con muy baja morbilidad asociada.

INTRODUCTION: The extension of surgery is a matter of debate in the management of thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). While lobectomy is the procedure of choice in benign and indeterminate nodules that require surgery, it is an option in intrathyroidal DTC up to 4 cm. OUR OBJECTIVE was to report the first Chilean cohort of patients with thyroid nodules and DTC treated with lobectomy by a multidisciplinary team. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We included patients with thyroid nodules treated with lobectomy, who met the following inclusion criteria: 1) intrathyroidal tumor ≤ 4cm if fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNA) was Bethesda I, III, IV, V o VI; without size limit if FNA was Bethesda II, and 2) non-suspicious findings in preoperative ultrasound. In patients with DTC we described clinical presentation, complications and response to treatment according to ATA 2015 and MINSAL 2020. RESULTS: We included 105 patients, 38±11 years old, 84 (80%) female, diameter 2.2±1.5cm: 41 (39%) benign and 64 (61%) DTC. Among DTC, 44 (69%) had papillary thyroid cancer, 7 (11%) follicular thyroid cancer and 13 (20%) NIFTP. All had stage I DTC. According to MINSAL, 55 (85.9%) were very low/low, and 9 (14.1%) intermediate risk. According to ATA, 51 (80%) and 13 (20%) were low and intermediate risk, respectively. Six (9.4%) patients required early completion thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation: 4 due to angioinvasion and 2 due to solid variant PTC. None of the 39 non-completed patients followed for at least 6 months had incomplete response. Regarding complications, there were no cases of hypocalcemia and 10 (9.5%) patients had transient dysphonia. CONCLUSIONS: In properly selected patients with thyroid nodules or DTC, lobectomy is an appropriate treatment option. In DTC, lobectomy accomplishes adequate disease control without need of further treatment in nearly 90% of patients, with very low associated morbidity.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Thyroidectomy/methods , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Nodule/surgery , Patient Care Team , Postoperative Complications , Chile , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Hypocalcemia
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 13(2): 48-54, 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095230


INTRODUCCIÓN: Los nódulos tiroideos son una consulta muy prevalente en Endocrinología. Las guías de la Asociación Americana de Tiroides (2015) animaban a realizar estudios a largo plazo. El objetivo de este estudio fue revisar las características, el seguimiento y la evolución de los nódulos de tiroides seguidos en nuestras consultas hasta 2015. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio retrospectivo de pacientes con al menos dos ecografías o cirugía. Los datos clínicos, ecográficos y de punción, así como la evolución y los resultados histológicos de aquellos operados, se analizaron con métodos descriptivos, bivariados y de regresión. RESULTADOS: 1.420 pacientes seguidos en Endocrinología a largo plazo fueron incluidos. 20 se excluyeron por tener una sola ecografía. El 71,2% presentaban normofunción, 9,6% hipertiroidismo subclínico, 9,5% hipotiroidismo subclínico, 5,7% hipotiroidismo clínico y 4% hipertiroidismo clínico. Del total de nódulos seguidos (n= 1400), 64,1%, 15,6% y 20,3% permanecieron estables, aumentaron y disminuyeron respectivamente. Los que crecieron no tuvieron más características sospechosas en las ecografías. De los intervenidos (457 casos (32,6% del total), 207 fueron malignos (45,2%). 57% de ellos fueron diagnosticados e intervenidos durante el primer año, en la primera evaluación. La aparición de nódulos malignos en el resto de pacientes fue de 89 casos (6,3% de todos los nódulos seguidos, 38,3% de ellos, incidentalomas). La ecografía y la citología empleadas antes de la homogenización de los criterios diagnósticos tuvieron una baja sensibilidad y especificidad en nuestro medio. CONCLUSIONES: Más de la mitad de los cánceres de tiroides fueron diagnosticados en la evaluación inicial del nódulo tiroideo. Más de la mitad de los nódulos no operados en el primer año mantienen el mismo tamaño a largo plazo. No encontramos predictores clínicos del aumento de tamaño. El valor diagnóstico de la ecografía y PAAF sin unos criterios estandarizados homogéneos es bajo.

INTRODUCTION: Thyroid nodules are a very prevalent consultation in endocrinology. Guidelines from the American Thyroid Association (2015) encouraged to conduct follow-up studies in the long term. This study object was to review the clinical characteristics, follow-up and evolution of thyroid nodules visited in our consultations till 2015. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study of patients that had at least two thyroid ultrasounds or had been operated. Clinical, ultrasound and FNA (fine needle aspiration) data as well as the evolution and histology results of those operated, were analyzed with descriptive, bivariated and regression analyses. RESULTS: 1.420 patients followed in Endocrinology in the long term were included. 20 were excluded for having only one ecography. 71,2% had normal function, 9,6% subclinical hyperthyroidism, 9,5% subclinical hypothyroidism, 5,7% clinical hypothyroidism and 4% clinical hyperthyroidism. Of all the nodules followed (n=1400), 64,1%, 15,6% and 20,3% remained the same size, grew and decreased respectively. Nodules that grew didn´t have more suspicious sonographic characteristics. Of the operated nodules (457 cases (32,6% of all), 207 were cáncer (45,2%). 57% of them were diagnosed and intervened during the first year, in the first evaluation. Malignant nodules were detected in the rest of patients in 89 cases (6,3% of all the followed nodules, 38,3% of them were incidental cases). The ultrasound and citology diagnoses used before the homogenization of diagnoses criteria had a low senitivity and specificity in our clinical environment. CONCLUSIONS: More than half of the thyroid cancers were diagnosed in the initial evaluation of the thyroid nodule. More than half of nodules non operated in the first year remained the same size long term. We could not find clinical predictors of growth. The diagnostic value of the ultrasound and FNA is low without standardized and homogenous criteria.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Thyroid Nodule/surgery , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Clinical Evolution , Multivariate Analysis , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Ultrasonography , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Biopsy, Fine-Needle
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(5): 456-461, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038498


ABSTRACT The indolent evolution of low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (mPTC) in adult patients and the consequences of thyroidectomy require a revision of the management traditionally recommended. Aiming to spare patients unnecessary procedures and therapies and to optimize the health system in Brazil, we suggest some measures. Fine-needle aspiration of nodules ≤ 1 cm without extrathyroidal extension on ultrasonography should be performed only in nodules classified as "very suspicious" (i.e., high suspicion according to ATA, high risk according to AACE, TI-RADS 5) and in selected cases [age < 40 years, nodule adjacent to the trachea or recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), multiple suspicious nodules, presence of hypercalcitoninemia or suspicious lymph nodes]. Active surveillance (AS) rather than immediate surgery should be considered in adult patients with low-risk mPTC. Lobectomy is the best option in patients with unifocal low-risk mPTC who are not candidates for AS because of age, proximity of the tumor to the trachea or RLN, or because they opted for surgery. The same applies to patients who started AS but had a subsequent surgical indication not due to a suspicion of tumor extension beyond the gland or multicentricity. Molecular tests are not necessary to choose between AS and surgery or, in the latter case, between lobectomy and total thyroidectomy. The presence of RAS or other RAS-like mutations or BRAFV600E or other BRAF V600E-like mutations should not modify the management cited above; however, the rare cases of mPTC exhibiting high-risk mutations, like in the TERT promoter or p53, are not candidates for AS.

Humans , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma, Papillary/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Thyroid Nodule/surgery , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Expert Testimony
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 12(3): 175-178, jul. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1006639


Los nódulos tiroideos suelen ser benignos en más del 95% de los casos y eutiroideos. La probabilidad de cáncer de tiroides en el hipertiroidismo es baja. Al enfrentarse a un nódulo tiroideo la importancia radica en excluir patología maligna, pero se debe mantener el orden en el algoritmo de estudio para evitar un diagnóstico incorrecto y caer en costos innecesarios. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 23 años de edad con hipertiroidismo que en la ecografía aparece un nódulo tiroideo y adenopatía derecha, ambos con elementos sospechosos de malignidad, por lo que se pide punción de ambas estructuras, y se confirma el carcinoma papilar en el nódulo tiroideo, no así en la adenopatía. En el centellograma se observa un nódulo caliente que coincide con el nódulo maligno. Se realiza biopsia intraoperatoria de la adenopatía sospechosa y resulta ser una metástasis de carcinoma papilar. Se procedió a la tiroidectomía total con vaciamiento ganglionar central y lateral derecho. La anatomía patológica confirmó la presencia del carcinoma papilar clásico con metástasis de la adenopatía sospechosa. Posteriormente se administraron 130 mCi de radioyodo. Se debe considerar que los carcinomas pueden enmascararse ocasionalmente como nódulos «calientes¼ en el centellograma y en este caso, si bien en principio no estaría indicada la punción con aguja fina del nódulo dado que es hipercaptante en el centellograma, la ecografía demuestra elementos sospechosos contundentes de malignidad. En este caso el hilo conductor fue la ecografía y se rompió con el esquema clásico en la solicitud de estudios paraclínicos, obteniendo finalmente la confirmación diagnóstica de un cáncer y se realizó el tratamiento adecuado del mismo.

Thyroid nodules are usually benign in more than 95% of cases and euthyroid. The likelihood of thyroid cancer in hyperthyroidism is low. When dealing with a thyroid nodule the importance lies in excluding malignant pathology, but order must be maintained in the study algorithm to avoid an incorrect diagnosis and to fall into unnecessary costs. We present the case of a 23-year-old woman with hyperthyroidism who presented a thyroid nodule and right adenopathy on ultrasound, both with suspicious elements of malignancy, so puncture of both structures was requested, and papillary carcinoma was confirmed in the thyroid nodule, but not in adenopathy. In the scintigraphy a hot nodule is observed that coincides with the malignant nodule. Intraoperative biopsy of the suspected adenopathy is performed and it turns out to be a metastasis of papillary carcinoma. Total thyroidectomy was performed with central and right lateral lymph node dissection. The pathological anatomy confirmed the presence of classic papillary carcinoma with metastasis of the suspected adenopathy. Subsequently, 130 mCi of radioiodine was administered. It should be considered that carcinomas can occasionally be masked as «hot¼ nodules in the scintigraphy and in this case, although in principle the fine needle puncture of the nodule is not indicated given that it is hypercaptant in the scintigraphy, the ultrasound shows blunt suspicious elements of malignancy. In this case, the common thread was ultrasound and it was broken with the classic scheme in the request for paraclinical studies, finally obtaining the diagnostic confirmation of a cancer and the appropriate treatment was carried out.

Humans , Female , Young Adult , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma, Papillary/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Radionuclide Imaging , Ultrasonography , Thyroid Nodule/surgery , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m , Hyperthyroidism
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 17(2): 113-117, abr.-jun. 2019. tab., ilus.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1026535


A prevalência de detecção de nódulos na tireoide através da palpação é de aproximadamente 5%. Essa prevalência sobe para 19 a 67% quando utilizada a avaliação ecográfica. A importância da avaliação clínica dessa entidade está na necessidade de diagnosticar o câncer de tireoide que ocorre em 5 a 10% dos casos. O relato descreve o perfil dos atendimentos realizados no ambulatório de nódulos de tireoide do Hospital Municipal Dr. Mário Gatti no período de 01/05/17 a 27/07/18 de pacientes que tiveram diagnóstico ultrassonográfico de nódulo de tireoide e realizaram punção aspirativa por agulha fina, a fim de inferir a respeito da capacidade de resolutividade do ambulatório interdisciplinar (endocrinologia e cirurgia de cabeça e pescoço) no diagnóstico e tratamento do câncer de tireoide. A organização do ambulatório com atendimento integral e por equipe multidisciplinar, possibilita uma melhora na qualidade assistencial além de ser elemento facilitador para o ensino, aprendizado e pesquisa. (AU)

The rate of thyroid node detection by touch is approximately 5%. This rate goes up to a range between 19 and 67% when a sonographic evaluation is used. The importance of the clinical evaluation of those thyroid nodes is within the need of diagnosing the cancer that occurs in 5 to 10% of the cases. This paper describes the profile of consultations performed at the Outpatient Clinic Thyroid Node Unit of the Municipal Hospital Dr. Mário Gatti (HMMG) from 01/05/17 to 07/27/18, of patients who had ultrasonographic diagnostics of thyroid node and underwent fine-needle aspiration, in order to draw conclusions about the capacity of the interdisciplinary clinic (Endocrinology and Head and Neck surgery) to diagnose and treat thyroid cancer effectively. The organization of the outpatient clinic, with comprehensive care and multidisciplinary team, enables an improvement in medical assistance as well as facilitating teaching, learning and research. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Thyroid Nodule/surgery , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Comprehensive Health Care , Patient Care Team , Thyroid Gland/pathology , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Deglutition Disorders , Medical Records/statistics & numerical data , Ultrasonography , Thyroid Nodule/classification , Thyroid Nodule/epidemiology , Sex Distribution , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , Hyperthyroidism , Hypothyroidism
In. Madrid Karlen, Fausto. Abordaje clínico del paciente con patología quirúrgica. Montevideo, s.n, 2019. p.205-215.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1291019
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 78(1): 110-120, mar. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902823


RESUMEN Paciente de 36 años en tratamiento de leucemia mieloide crónica con nilotinib a quien se le diagnostica hipertiroidismo por síntomas clínicos y exámenes de laboratorio. Se inicia tratamiento con metimazol más propanolol. Los estudios imagenológicos muestran un tejido ectópico tiroideo cervical infrahiodeo lateralizado a la izquierda y un nódulo en la base de la lengua. Presentó toxicidad hepática atribuida al tratamiento por lo que se decide extirpación quirúrgica de tiroides ectópica dual. Por la edad de la paciente y preocupación acerca del resultado estético, se realiza una tiroidectomía videoasistida por via axilar de la tiroides ectópica cervical y una resección transoral de la tiroides ectópica lingual. La patología confirma tejido tiroideo en ambas localizaciones sin signos de malignidad. La paciente se recuperó sin complicaciones y sin cicatriz cervical.

ABSTRACT A 36-year-old female patient with chronic myeloid leukemia being treated with nilotinib who was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism both on clinical and laboratory examination is presented. Imaging studies found left lateralized ectopic thyroid tissue of infrahyoid localization and a nodule at the base of the tongue. Hepatic toxicity was attributed to medical treatment, surgical removal of the dual thyroid ectopia was proposed. Due to the patients age and cosmetical concerns, a minimally invasive surgery was undertaken thru a video assisted transaxillary thyroidectomy for the cervical thyroid ectopia and a video assisted trans oral approach for the lingual thyroid ectopia. Post op pathology confirmed thyroid tissue at both locations and also excluded malignancy. The patient fully recovered without any complicaction and witout a residual cervical scar.

Humans , Female , Adult , Thyroidectomy/methods , Video-Assisted Surgery , Thyroid Dysgenesis/surgery , Thyroid Nodule/surgery , Lingual Thyroid/surgery , Thyroid Dysgenesis/diagnosis , Thyroid Dysgenesis/diagnostic imaging , Hyperthyroidism
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 16(4): eAO4279, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975095


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate safety and effectiveness of nodule volume reduction and thyroid function after percutaneous laser ablation treatment in patients with benign nonfunctioning thyroid nodules. Methods Prospective single-center study, from January 2011 to October 2012, which evaluated 30 euthyroid and thyroid antibodies negative patients with benign solitary or dominant nodule with indication of treatment due to compressive symptoms and aesthetic disturbances. The clinical and laboratory (thyroid ultrasound, TSH, FT4, TG, TG-Ab, TPO-Ab and TRAb levels) evaluations were performed before the procedure, and periodically 1 week, 3 months and 6 months after. The ablation technique was performed under local anesthesia and sedation. In each treatment, one to three 21G spinal needle were inserted into the thyroid nodule. The laser fiber was positioned through the needle, which was then withdrawn 10mm to leave the tip in direct contact with the nodule tissue. Patients were treated with a ND: Yag-laser output power of 4W and 1,500 to 2,000J per fiber per treatment. The entire procedure was performed under US guidance. Results Thirty patients, with a total of 31 nodules submitted to laser ablation were evaluated. The median volumetric reduction of the nodule was approximately 60% after 12 months. No statistical significance was observed on thyroid function and antibodies levels. There was a peak on the level of thyroglobulin after the procedure due to tissue destruction (p<0.0001). No adverse effects were observed. Conclusion Percutaneous laser ablation is a promising outpatient minimally invasive treatment of benign thyroid nodule.

RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a segurança e a efetividade da redução de volume nodular e função tireoidiana após tratamento com ablação percutânea por laser em pacientes com nódulos tireoidianos benignos não funcionantes. Métodos Estudo unicêntrico prospectivo, de janeiro de 2011 a outubro de 2012, que avaliou 30 pacientes eutireoideos (com anticorpos antitireoide negativos), com nódulo solitário ou dominante benigno, com indicação de tratamento devido a sintomas de compressão e distúrbios estéticos. As avaliações clínica e laboratorial (ultrassonografia de tireoide, TSH, FT4, TG, TG-Ab, TPO-Ab e TRAb) foram realizada antes do procedimento e periodicamente − 1 semana, 3 meses e 6 meses depois. A técnica de ablação consistiu em procedimento realizado sob a anestesia local e sedação. Em cada tratamento, uma a três agulhas espinhais 21G foram inseridas no nódulo tireoidiano. A fibra laser foi posicionada através da agulha que foi, então, retirada 10mm, para deixar a ponta em contato direto com o nódulo. Os pacientes foram tratados com uma potência de saída ND: Yag-laser de 4W e 1.500 a 2.000J por fibra por tratamento. Todo o procedimento foi guiado por ultrassonografia. Resultados Foram avaliados 30 pacientes, com total de 31 nódulos submetidos à ablação a laser. A redução média volumétrica do nódulo foi de aproximadamente 60% após 12 meses. Não foi observada significância estatística na função da tireoide e nem nos níveis de anticorpos. Houve pico no nível de tiroglobulina após o procedimento devido à destruição do tecido (p<0,0001). Nenhum efeito adverso foi observado. Conclusão A ablação com laser é um tratamento minimamente invasivo promissor para tratamento do nódulo benigno da tireoide.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Thyroid Nodule/surgery , Laser Therapy/methods , Organ Size , Pain, Postoperative , Autoantibodies/blood , Thyroxine/blood , Calcitonin/blood , Thyrotropin/blood , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Thyroid Nodule/blood , Laser Therapy/adverse effects
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 61(2): 173-179, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838429


ABSTRACT Objective The objective of our study is to evaluate the clinical outcomes and safety of radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFA) for benign thyroid nodules (BTNs) over a 1-year follow-up. Subjects and methods This is a monocentric retrospective study. Forty-eight patients with solid, non-functioning BTNs were treated by RFA using a 17G internally cooled electrode. We categorized thyroid nodules as small (≤ 12 mL), medium (12 to 30 mL), or large (over 30 mL). BTNs volume reduction, thyroid function, cosmetic and compressive score changes and side effect evaluation at 6 and 12 months were evaluated. Results BTN volume decreased significantly from baseline to 6 (mean percentage decrease of BTN volume was 66.8 ± 13.6%, p < 0.001). At 12 months, the mean percentage reduction of BTN volume compared to six months was 13.7 ± 17.1% (p < 0.001). At 6-month, symptom score had improved significantly (p < 0.001) while it does not change significantly between 6 and 12 months. In particular, symptom score improved significantly in the medium (p < 0.001) and large (p < 0.01) subgroups. Cosmetic score improved significantly between baseline and 6 months (p < 0.001) and between 6 and 12 months (p < 0.01). In all the subgroups, cosmetic score improved significantly between baseline and 6 months, while between 6 and 12 months it improved significantly only in the large group (p < 0.05). RFA was well tolerated. Only one patient experienced permanent right paramedian vocal cord palsy. Conclusions A single RFA treatment was effective in reducing BTNs volume, in particular small and medium nodules. Cosmetic score improved in all treated BTNs while symptom score only got better in the medium and large BTNs.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Thyroid Nodule/surgery , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Catheter Ablation/methods , Thyroid Function Tests , Time Factors , Thyrotropin/blood , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Thyroid Nodule/physiopathology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Luminescent Measurements
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-883195


Objetivos: Nosso objetivo é trazer nessa revisão as informações mais recentes e atualizadas sobre a abordagem cirúrgica dos nódulos de tireóide (NT). Métodos:Utilizamos as diretrizes da Associação Americana de Tireoide - American ThyroidAssociation (ATA), Consenso da Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia, bibliografias prevalentes e artigos das principais bases de dados como fontes para criação desta. Resultados: Abordamos de forma objetiva e didática os principais métodos diagnósticos, além de indicações e tratamento cirúrgico, nos casos necessários, para darmos ao leitor uma ideia prática de como manejar um paciente com NT. Dentro deste contexto, a abordagem cirúrgica dessa patologiafoi o foco principal visandoque seja empregada de maneira oportuna, uma vez que esta representa uma marca divisória e definitiva no manejo desta condição. Conclusões: Diagnóstico e manejo dos NT estão sendo constantemente revisados e modificados graças aos avanços científico e epidemiológico nesta área do conhecimento. Ainda é necessário maior aprofundamento nas indicações do tratamento cirúrgico, tendo em mente o impacto que o mesmo gera na vida do paciente.

Aims: Our aim is to provide in this review the most recent information about surgical approach in thyroid nodular disease. Methods: We have used the most recent guidelines of The American Thyroid Association (ATA's) andConsenso da SociedadeBrasileira de Endocrinologia, prevalent bibliography, and articles found in relevant data bases to create this review. Results: We have approached in an objective and didactic way the methods of diagnosis, and the surgical treatment, when necessary, with the intention to give to the reader a practical idea of how to deal with patients with thyroid nodular disease. In this context, a surgical approach was the focus of this study, because it represents one of the most important and definitive divisions within management of this condition. Conclusions: Diagnosis and management of thyroid nodular diseases are constantly being revised and modified thanks to the scientific and even epidemiological advance in this area of knowledge. It yet shows that is necessary a deeper analysis about the surgical treatment, having in mind the impact that it has in the patient's life.

Thyroid Nodule/diagnosis , Thyroid Nodule/surgery , Thyroidectomy
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 58(7): 667-700, 10/2014. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-726255


Introdução O carcinoma medular de tireoide (CMT) origina-se das células parafoliculares da tireoide e corresponde a 3-4% das neoplasias malignas da glândula. Aproximadamente 25% dos casos de CMT são hereditários e decorrentes de mutações ativadoras no proto-oncogene RET (REarranged during Transfection). O CMT é uma neoplasia de curso indolente, com taxas de sobrevida dependentes do estádio tumoral ao diagnóstico. Este artigo descreve diretrizes baseadas em evidências clínicas para o diagnóstico, tratamento e seguimento do CMT. Objetivo O presente consenso, elaborado por especialistas brasileiros e patrocinado pelo Departamento de Tireoide da Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia, visa abordar o diagnóstico, tratamento e seguimento dos pacientes com CMT, de acordo com as evidências mais recentes da literatura. Materiais e métodos: Após estruturação das questões clínicas, foi realizada busca das evidências disponíveis na literatura, inicialmente na base de dados do MedLine-PubMed e posteriormente nas bases Embase e SciELO – Lilacs. A força das evidências, avaliada pelo sistema de classificação de Oxford, foi estabelecida a partir do desenho de estudo utilizado, considerando-se a melhor evidência disponível para cada questão. Resultados Foram definidas 11 questões sobre o diagnóstico, 8 sobre o tratamento cirúrgico e 13 questões abordando o seguimento do CMT, totalizando 32 recomendações. Como um todo, o artigo aborda o diagnóstico clínico e molecular, o tratamento cirúrgico inicial, o manejo pós-operatório e as opções terapêuticas para a doença metastática. Conclusões O diagnóstico de CMT deve ser suspeitado na presença de nódulo tireoidiano e história ...

Introduction Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) originates in the thyroid parafollicular cells and represents 3-4% of the malignant neoplasms that affect this gland. Approximately 25% of these cases are hereditary due to activating mutations in the REarranged during Transfection (RET) proto-oncogene. The course of MTC is indolent, and survival rates depend on the tumor stage at diagnosis. The present article describes clinical evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of MTC. Objective The aim of the consensus described herein, which was elaborated by Brazilian experts and sponsored by the Thyroid Department of the Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism, was to discuss the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of individuals with MTC in accordance with the latest evidence reported in the literature. Materials and methods: After clinical questions were elaborated, the available literature was initially surveyed for evidence in the MedLine-PubMed database, followed by the Embase and Scientific Electronic Library Online/Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Literature (SciELO/Lilacs) databases. The strength of evidence was assessed according to the Oxford classification of evidence levels, which is based on study design, and the best evidence available for each question was selected. Results Eleven questions corresponded to MTC diagnosis, 8 corresponded to its surgical treatment, and 13 corresponded to follow-up, for a total of 32 recommendations. The present article discusses the clinical and molecular diagnosis, initial surgical treatment, and postoperative management of MTC, as well as the therapeutic options for metastatic disease. Conclusions 7 .

Humans , Calcitonin/blood , Carcinoma, Medullary/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Medullary/therapy , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/therapy , Biomarkers, Tumor/blood , Adrenal Gland Neoplasms/diagnosis , Adrenal Gland Neoplasms/metabolism , Adrenal Gland Neoplasms/therapy , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Brazil , Biomarkers/analysis , Calcitonin/metabolism , Carcinoma, Medullary/secondary , Diagnosis, Differential , Evidence-Based Medicine/methods , Family Health , Follow-Up Studies , Mutation , Prognosis , Pheochromocytoma/diagnosis , Pheochromocytoma/metabolism , Pheochromocytoma/therapy , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret/genetics , Thyroid Neoplasms/secondary , Thyroid Nodule/diagnosis , Thyroid Nodule/surgery , Thyroidectomy/methods