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1.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 37(2): 226-236, 20220316. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362949

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La hipocalcemia es la complicación más frecuente de la tiroidectomía. La profilaxis con calcio/calcitriol es una alternativa costo-efectiva, sencilla y expedita para disminuir esta situación, sin alterar la función paratiroidea residual. Lo que no está claro es si hay superioridad de una dosis frente a otra, por lo que el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el comportamiento entre diferentes esquemas de profilaxis para hipocalcemia. Métodos. Estudio de cohorte retrospectivo de adultos operados en un hospital de cuarto nivel, entre febrero de 2017 y diciembre de 2020. Se calculó la tasa de síntomas, la hipocalcemia e hipercalcemia bioquímica en el control postquirúrgico durante las siguientes dos semanas. Se hizo análisis bivariado y multivariado entre dosis de calcio/calcitriol, otros factores asociados y los desenlaces mencionados. Resultados. Se incluyeron 967 pacientes. El 10 % presentaron síntomas. No hubo diferencias significativas en el calcio sérico del control posquirúrgico entre los grupos con distintas dosis de calcio. La dosis de carbonato de calcio >3600 mg/día y el calcio en las primeras 24 horas de cirugía se asociaron a la presencia de síntomas. La dosis de calcitriol <1 mcg/día y el bocio aumentaron el riesgo de hipocalcemia bioquímica, mientras que la dosis de 1,5 mcg/día lo disminuyó. Ninguna variable evaluada se asoció a hipercalcemia bioquímica. Conclusiones. Podemos establecer que dosis altas de carbonato de calcio no se asocian con menos hipocalcemia bioquímica, lo cual está a favor de usar dosis intermedias (3600 mg/día). De forma similar, la dosis de calcitriol de 1,5 mcg/día disminuye el riesgo de este desenlace. La identificación de variables que aumentan o disminuyen el riesgo de hipocalcemia posterior a tiroidectomía, como bocio o el nivel de calcio en las primeras 24 horas para este estudio, pueden determinar ajustes individuales en la dosis rutinaria profiláctica de calcio/calcitriol.


Introduction. Hypocalcemia is the most frequent complication of thyroidectomy. Calcium/calcitriol prophylaxis is a cost-effective, simple and expeditious alternative to reduce this situation, without altering residual parathyroid function. It is not clear whether there is superiority of one dose over another, so the objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior between prophylaxis doses for hypocalcemia. Methods. Retrospective cohort study of adults operated in a fourth level hospital, between February 2017 and December 2020. The rate of symptoms, biochemical hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia was calculated in the post-surgical control during the following two weeks. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed between calcium/calcitriol dose, other associated factors, and the mentioned outcomes. Results. Out of the 967 patients included, 10% presented symptoms. There were no significant differences in postoperative control serum calcium between the groups with different doses of calcium. The dose of calcium carbonate > 3600 mg/day and calcium in the first 24 hours of surgery were associated with the presence of symptoms. The dose of calcitriol <1 mcg/day and goiter increased the risk of biochemical hypocalcemia, while the dose of 1.5 mcg / day decreased it. No variable evaluated was associated with biochemical hypercalcemia. Conclusion. We can establish that high doses of calcium are not less associated with biochemical hypocalcemia, which is in favor of intermediate doses (i.e. 3600mg/day). In a similar way, the calcitriol dose of 1.5mcg/day decreases the risk of this outcome. The identification of variables that increase or decrease the risk of this complication (goiter or the 24h serum calcium in this study) can decide settings in the rutinary prophylactic dose of calcium/calcitriol.


Subject(s)
Humans , Postoperative Complications , Thyroidectomy , Hypocalcemia , Calcitriol , Calcium Carbonate , Hypercalcemia
2.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353031

ABSTRACT

.Introdução: O hipertireoidismo decorre da elevação sérica dos hormônios tireoidianos, secundária à hiperfunção da glândula tireoide, sendo as principais causas a Doença de Graves (DG) e os Bócios Nodulares Tóxicos (BNT). Objetivos: Avaliar o perfil clínico e modalidades terapêuticas aplicadas em pacientes com diagnóstico de hipertireoidismo acompanhados em um Hospital Universitário no Sul do Brasil. Métodos: Estudo observacional, transversal e descritivo, com inclusão de pacientes com diagnóstico de hipertireoidismo por DG e BNT; foram coletados dados epidemiológicos, clínicos, laboratoriais e de tratamento. Resultados: A maioria dos pacientes foi referenciada pela atenção primária e encontrava-se em uso prévio de droga antitireoidiana (DAT). A variável idade obteve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre as etiologias de DG e BNT; em ambas houve predomínio de incidência no sexo feminino. A DG apresentou maior frequência de sinais e sintomas de tireotoxicose, ao passo que o BNT mostrou mais sinais e sintomas de compressão. Houve remissão da doença em 23,2% dos pacientes com DG tratados com DAT; em 23,2% dos pacientes optou-se pela manutenção de metimazol em baixa dose por mais de 36 meses e em 16,1% foi realizado tratamento definitivo. No BNT foram preferidas terapias definitivas, principalmente a tireoidectomia, em 27,5% dos pacientes. Doses baixas de metimazol por mais de 36 meses foram utilizados também no BNT, em 22,5% dos pacientes. Conclusão: O hipertireoidismo é uma doença heterogênea, desde a clínica inicial até a terapêutica, entre suas etiologias mais prevalentes. Observou-se uma tendência de priorizar as terapias medicamentosas em longo prazo com baixas doses, tanto na DG quanto no BNT. (AU)


Perfil clínico e terapêutico dos pacientes com hipertireoidismo do ambulatório de endocrinologia de um hospital universitário do sul do BrasilClinical and therapeutic profile of patients with hyperthyroidism in an outpatient endocrine clinic at a university hospital in southern Brazil ARTIGO ORIGINALRafael Antonio Parabocz1, Renata Soares Carvalho1, Gianna Carla Alberti Schrut1, Ana Claudia Garabeli Cavalli Kluthcovsky1, Matheo Augusto Morandi Stumpf1Introduction: Hyperthyroidism results from the serum elevation of thyroid hormones, secondary to hyperfunction of the thyroid gland. The main causes are Graves' disease (DG) and Toxic Nodular Goiters (BNT). Objectives: Evaluate the clinical profile and therapeutic modalities applied in patients diagnosed with hyperthyroidism followed up at a University Hospital in Southern Brazil. Methods: Observational, cross-sectional and descriptive study, including patients diagnosed with hyperthyroidism by DG and BNT; epidemiological, clinical, laboratory and treatment data were collected. Results: Most patients were referred by primary care and had been using antithyroid drugs (DAT). The age variable obtained showed a statistically significant difference between the etiologies of DG and BNT; in both, there was a predominance of incidence in females. DG showed a higher frequency of signs and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis, while BNT showed more signs and symptoms of compression. There was remission of the disease in 23.2% of patients with DG treated with DAT; in 23.2% of the patients, low-dose methimazole was maintained for more than 36 months and in 16.1%, definitive treatment was performed. In BNT, definitive therapies were preferred, mainly thyroidectomy, in 27.5% of patients. Low doses of methimazole for more than 36 months were also used in BNT in 22.5% of patients. Conclusion: Hyperthyroidism is a heterogeneous disease, from initial clinic to therapy, among its most prevalent etiologies. There was a tendency to prioritize long-term drug therapies with low doses, both in DG and BNT. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Primary Health Care , Thyroidectomy , Thyrotoxicosis , Graves Disease , Morbidity , Goiter, Nodular , Hospitals, University , Hyperthyroidism
3.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 20(3): 472-475, dez 20, 2021. fig
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354351

ABSTRACT

Introdução: o carcinoma papilífero de tireoide é a neoplasia maligna que mais acomete o sistema endócrino, correspondendo a cerca de 90% dos casos. Diante de sua frequência, nas últimas décadas, foi registrado um aumento do número de casos na população pediátrica e, devido a isso, o número de crianças e adolescentes submetidos à tireoidectomia se tornou cada vez maior. Enquanto as alterações gênicas mais encontradas em adultos com carcinoma papilífero concentram-se em mutações pontuais, na população pediátrica as fusões gênicas são mais frequentes, com destaque para os rearranjos RET/PTC. Objetivo: relatar aspectos clínico-patológicos do carcinoma papilífero de tireoide, associado à fusão do gene RET, em criança submetida à tireoidectomia e radioiodoterapia adjuvante. Em seguida, discute-se a importância do diagnóstico molecular na escolha de terapias relevantes no tratamento do CPT. Caso Clínico: trata-se de uma paciente do sexo feminino, 11 anos de idade, submetida a tireoidectomia total e esvaziamento cervical após diagnóstico do referido carcinoma. O estudo anatomopatológico revelou um carcinoma metastático em linfonodos regionais. Utilizou-se uma amostra de tecido em bloco de parafina para a realização de um sequenciamento de nova geração, que apontou a existência da fusão gênica TRIM24-RET. Conclusão: os dados deste relato de caso evidenciam que a mutação RET/PTC6 está muito associada à população pediátrica e que testes moleculares, como o NGS, são de extremo valor na identificação dessas alterações gênicas e, consequentemente, na terapia a ser adotada para cada paciente.


Introduction: thyroid papillary carcinoma is the malignant neoplasm that most affects the endocrine system, corresponding to about 90% of cases. Given its frequency, in recent decades, there has been an increase in the number of cases in the pediatric population and, as a result, the number of children and adolescents undergoing thyroidectomy has become increasingly larger. While the most common gene alterations found in adults with papillary carcinoma are concentrated in point mutations, in the pediatric population gene fusions are more frequent, with emphasis on the RET/PTC rearrangements. Objective: to report clinical and pathological aspects of papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with RET gene fusion in a child undergoing thyroidectomy and adjuvant radioiodine therapy. Then, the importance of molecular diagnosis in choosing relevant therapies in the treatment of PTC is discussed. Clinical Case: this is an 11-year-old female patient who underwent total thyroidectomy and neck dissection after diagnosis of the aforementioned carcinoma. The anatomopathological study revealed a metastatic carcinoma in regional lymph nodes. A tissue sample in paraffin block was used to perform a new generation sequencing, which showed the existence of the TRIM24-RET gene fusion. Conclusion: the data in this case report show that the RET/PTC6 mutation is closely associated with the pediatric population and that molecular tests, such as the NGS, are extremely valuable in identifying these genetic alterations and, consequently, in the therapy to be adopted for each patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Thyroidectomy , Translocation, Genetic , Child , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary
4.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 20(3): 480-484, dez 20, 2021. fig
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354354

ABSTRACT

Introdução: o gene TERT codifica a subunidade catalítica da telomerase responsável pelo alongamento dos telômeros no final dos cromossomos. Mutações na região promotora do gene TERT resultam em superexpressão da subunidade catalítica e promovem aumento da atividade da telomerase, fatos que levam ao aumento da incidência do câncer. No carcinoma anaplásico da tireoide, essas mutações são preditores de pior prognóstico e estão associadas a comportamento clínico agressivo, incluindo alta frequência de recidivas, metástases a distância e morte específica pela doença. Objetivo: relatar o caso de uma paciente idosa portadora de carcinoma anaplásico da tireoide, cujo teste de sequenciamento genético revelou a mutação do promotor TERT C228T. Caso clínico: mulher idosa, 66 anos, diagnosticada inicialmente com nódulo tireoidiano, o qual cresceu rapidamente em um curto período de tempo. Diante da suspeita de neoplasia maligna, a paciente foi submetida a tireoidectomia total, com realização de esvaziamento cervical. Os estudos anatomopatológico e imuno-histoquímico do tumor confirmaram o carcinoma. Estudos moleculares realizados a partir da tecnologia do sequenciamento de nova geração negaram a presença de fusões gênicas, porém detectaram a mutação TERT C228T. Discussão: a identificação da mutação no promotor TERT C288T reforça a hipótese de que mutações TERT são frequentes em tumores tireoidianos mais agressivos, como é o caso do carcinoma anaplásico da tireoide. Conclusão: os dados apresentados neste estudo reforçam a premissa de que mutações no promotor TERT são preditores de pior prognóstico e de comportamento clínico mais agressivo.


Introduction: the TERT gene encodes the catalytic telomerase subunit responsible for elongating telomeres at the end of chromosomes. Mutations in the promoter region of the TERT gene result in overexpression of the catalytic subunit and promote increased telomerase activity, facts that lead to an increased incidence of cancer. In anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, these mutations are predictors of worse prognosis and are associated with aggressive clinical behavior, including a high frequency of relapses, distant metastases, and diseasespecific death. Objective: to report the case of an elderly patient with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, whose gene sequencing test revealed a TERT C228T promoter mutation. Case report: Elderly woman, 66 years old, initially diagnosed with a thyroid nodule, which grew rapidly in a short period of time. Given the suspicion of malignant neoplasm, the patient underwent total thyroidectomy, with neck dissection. The anatomopathological and immunohistochemical studies of the tumor confirmed the carcinoma. Molecular studies performed using next-generation sequencing technology denied the presence of gene fusions, but detected the TERT C228T mutation. Discussion: identification of the mutation in the TERT C288T promoter reinforces the hypothesis that TERT mutations are frequent in more aggressive thyroid tumors, such as anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Conclusion: data presented in this study reinforce the premise that mutations in the TERT promoter are predictors of worse prognosis and more aggressive clinical behavior.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Thyroidectomy , Telomerase , Thyroid Carcinoma, Anaplastic , Mutation , Genes
5.
Prensa méd. argent ; 107(5): 276-281, 20210000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1359360

ABSTRACT

La lesión del nervio laríngeo recurrente (NLR) es una de las complicaciones más severas en las tiroidectomías. La lesión unilateral genera trastornos disfónicos que se manifiesta por voz débil y una posición paramedial de la cuerda vocal afectada, mientas que la bilateral genera trastornos respiratorios, incluyendo la asfixia. Se ha estimado que la lesión del NLR en las tiroidectomías se encuentra entre un rango de 0.3%- 18.9%. Se ha visto que con el neuromonitoreo intraoperatorio ha disminuido la incidencia de lesión, aunque debemos tener en cuenta un factor muy importante a la hora de solicitarlo y utilizarlo, el económico. La tasa de lesión permanente del nervio laríngeo recurrente debe permanecer por debajo de 1 a 2 %. Sin embargo, existen circunstancias en las cuales los nervios están expuestos a un mayor riesgo y son muchos los factores involucrados en su mecanismo de lesión. Este artículo pretende hacer una revisión del tema enfatizando en la importancia de la preservación de la funcionalidad e integridad de ambos nervios laríngeos recurrentes.


Recurrent laryngeal nerve injury (RLN) is one of the most severe complications in thyroidectomies. Unilateral injury generates dysphonic disorders manifested by weak voice and a paramedial position of the affected vocal cord, while bilateral injury generates respiratory disorders, including suffocation. RLN injury in thyroidectomies has been estimated to be in the range of 0.3% - 18.9%. It has been seen that with intraoperative neuromonitoring the incidence of injury has decreased, although we must take into account a very important factor when requesting and using it, the economic one. The rate of permanent injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve should remain below 1% to 2%. However, there are circumstances in which the nerves are exposed to greater risk and many factors are involved in their mechanism of injury. This article aims to review the subject, emphasizing the importance of preserving the functionality and integrity of both recurrent laryngeal nerves


Subject(s)
Humans , Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve/pathology , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/complications , Monitoring, Intraoperative
6.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 36(2): 248-256, 20210000. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223908

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Los microcarcinomas papilares de tiroides son tumores de hasta 10 mm en su diámetro mayor. Su tratamiento es sujeto de debate y se propone, desde seguimiento clínico, hasta intervención quirúrgica temprana. Este estudio buscó identificar factores de riesgo relacionados con compromiso ganglionar, que permitan una mejor selección de los pacientes en nuestro medio, en quienes se propone manejo quirúrgico inmediato o vigilancia activa, en consonancia con la clasificación del riesgo de progresión. Métodos. Estudio de cohorte analítica ambispectiva que incluyó pacientes con microcarcinoma papilar de tiroides llevados a tiroidectomía más vaciamiento central. Se caracterizó la población y se realizó un análisis de regresión logística multivariado para definir factores preoperatorios asociados al compromiso ganglionar. Adicionalmente, se evaluó de manera retrospectiva la eventual asignación a grupos de riesgo de progresión, según los criterios de Miyauchi, y su comportamiento respecto al estado nodal. Resultados. Se incluyeron 286 pacientes. El 48,9 % presentó compromiso ganglionar, y de estos, el 33,5 % presentó compromiso ganglionar significativo, que modificó su clasificación de riesgo de recaída. De estos últimos, el 59,5 % hubiesen sido manejados con vigilancia activa, según los criterios propuestos por Miyauchi. Se identificó que la edad menor de 55 años, los ganglios sospechosos en la ecografía y los nódulos mayores de 5 mm, se relacionan con compromiso ganglionar significativo. Discusión. El manejo quirúrgico inmediato parece ser una opción adecuada para pacientes con sospecha de compromiso ganglionar en ecografía preoperatoria, pacientes menores de 55 años y nódulos mayores de 5 mm. Es posible que los actuales criterios para definir vigilancia activa no seleccionen adecuadamente a los pacientes en nuestro medio.


Introduction. Papillary thyroid microcarcinomas are tumors up to 10 mm in greatest diameter. Its treatment is subject of debate, and it is proposed from clinical follow-up to early surgical intervention. The aim of the study was to identify risk factors related to lymph node involvement, which allow a better selection of patients in our setting, in whom immediate surgical management or active surveillance is proposed, in accordance with the classification of risk of progression.Methods. Ambispective analytic cohort study that included patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma who underwent thyroidectomy and central dissection. The population was characterized and a multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to define preoperative factors associated with lymph node involvement. Additionally, eventual assignment to progression risk groups, according to the Miyauchi criteria, and their nodal state were evaluated.Results. 286 patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma were included. Among them, 48.9% had lymph node disease, and 33.5% had a significant lymph node disease that increased their relapse risk classification. Of the latter, 59.5% could have had a conservative treatment, under Miyauchi's criteria. For ages < 55 years old, suspect nodes in ultrasound and nodules > 5 mm were identified as related to significant lymph node involvement.Discussion. Immediate surgical management appears to be an appropriate option for patients with suspected lymph node involvement on preoperative ultrasound, patients younger than 55 years and nodules larger than 5 mm. It is possible that the current criteria for defining active surveillance do not adequately select patients in our setting.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms , Neck Dissection , Carcinoma, Papillary , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary , Lymphatic Metastasis
7.
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 37(1): 44-49, Ene-Jun 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1147879

ABSTRACT

Con el objetivo de describir las recidivas de carcinoma papilar de tiroides (CPT) en pacientes tiroidectomizados atendidos en el Servicio Autónomo Oncológico del estado Lara, se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal de recolección retrospectiva de datos de 140 historias clínicas de pacientes con diagnóstico de CPT registrados durante el lapso 2006-2017. Los pacientes incluidos se caracterizaron por un promedio de edad de 46,67 ± 13,94 años, siendo los más afectados los grupos de 41-50 años y 51-60 años; se observó un predominio del sexo femenino (86,33%). La intervención quirúrgica más realizada en estos pacientes fue la tiroidectomía total (44,29%) y tiroidectomía total con vaciamiento ganglionar (41,43%); 35,71% de los pacientes recibieron Iodo-131 como tratamiento adyuvante. El porcentaje de recidivas fue de 4,29%, siendo las recidivas más frecuentes la local y regional (33,33%, respectivamente); 66,67% de los casos de recidiva aparecieron en los primeros 5 años. De los pacientes con recidivas, 50% se les practicó tiroidectomía total y recibieron Iodo-131. Con estos resultados se aporta información epidemiológica actual sobre el CPT en nuestro centro con el fin de contribuir en la preparación de los servicios de cirugía y oncología para la atención de este grupo de pacientes(AU)


With the aim of describing the recurrences of papillary thyroid carcinoma in thyroidectomized patients treated at the Autonomous Oncology Service of Lara State, a cross-sectional descriptive retrospective study was conducted examining 140 medical records of patients with a diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma registered during the period 2006-2017. Patients had an average age of 46.67 ± 13.94 years, being the most affected the 41-50 years and 51-60 years groups (26.43%, respectively); a predominance of females was observed (86.33%). The most performed surgical intervention was total thyroidectomy (44.29%) and total thyroidectomy with lymph node dissection (41.43%). Likewise, 35.71% received Iodine-131 as adjuvant treatment. The percentage of recurrences was 4.29%, being the most frequent local and regional with a prevalence of 33.33%, respectively; in addition, 66.67% of recurrences appeared during the first 5 years; 50% of these patients underwent total thyroidectomy and received Iodine-131. With these results, current information is provided in order to contribute to the preparation of surgical and oncological services for the care of cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma. It is important to maintain oncological follow-up in order to evaluate the evolution and prognosis of the different types of recurrences according to the place of appearance(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology , Iodine/therapeutic use , Medical Oncology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
8.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 36(1): 51-59, 20210000. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1148509

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La hipocalcemia posterior a tiroidectomía total es una complicación frecuente en la cirugía de tiroides. La hormona paratiroidea ha demostrado ser un predictor confiable para detectar los pacientes con alto riesgo de hipocalcemia significativa y la consecuente necesidad de administrar suplemento de calcio. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el tiempo óptimo de medición de la paratohormona para dicho fin. Métodos. Estudio prospectivo realizado en dos instituciones de nivel III en Popayán, Colombia, entre abril de 2016 y febrero de 2018, en el cual se midieron niveles de paratohormona prequirúrgico, a las 0, 2, 4 y 12 horas del postoperatorio, y se compararon con los valores obtenidos a los 3 meses de seguimiento en pacientes sometidos a tiroidectomía total. Se consideró como grupos de riesgo y con necesidad de suplemento de calcio un valor de paratohormona menor de 10 pg/ml o una disminución mayor del 80 % con respecto al valor prequirúrgico. Resultados. Se incluyeron 34 pacientes intervenidos. Tomando como umbral un valor menor de 10 pg/ml, la medición de paratohormona a las 4 horas fue sensible y específica (60 y 93,1 % respectivamente). Para una disminución mayor del 80 % con respecto al valor prequirúrgico, la sensibilidad fue del 60 % y la especificidad del 96,5 %, presentando un valor predictivo positivo de 75 % y negativo del 93,3 %, con una p < 0,001. Discusión. Una disminución mayor del 80 % del valor de paratohormona prequirúrgico medida a las 4 horas después de la tiroidectomía total permite identificar aquellos pacientes con alto riesgo de hipocalcemia significativa, que requieren administración temprana de suplementos de calcio, comparado con la determinación de la disminución a las 0, 2 y 12 horas postoperatorias


Introduction.Hypocalcemia after total thyroidectomy is a common complication in thyroid surgery.Parathyroid hormone has been shown to be a reliable predictor for detectingpatients with at high risk ofsignificant hypocalcemia and the consequent need for calcium supplementation. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal time for measuring parathormone for this purpose.Methods.Prospective study carried out in two level 3 institutions in Popayán, Colombia, between April 2016 and February 2018, in which levels of preoperative parathormone were measured at 0, 2, 4 and 12 hours postoperatively, and compared with the values obtained at 3 months of follow-up in patients undergoing total thyroidectomy. A parathormone value less than 10 pg/ml or a decrease greater than 80% with respect to the pre-surgical value was considered as risk groups and in need of calcium supplementation.Results. Thirty-four operated patients were included. Taking as a threshold a value of less than 10 pg/ml, the measurement of parathormone at 4 hours was sensitive and specific (60% and 93.1%, respectively). For a decrease greater than 80% with respect to the presurgical value, the sensitivity was 60% and the specificity was 96.5%, presenting a positive predictive value of 75% and a negative predictive value of 93.3% (p <0.001).Discussion.A decrease of more than 80% in the preoperative parathyroid hormone value measured at 4 hours after total thyroidectomy allows the identification of those patients at high risk of significant hypocalcaemia, who require early administration of calcium supplements, compared with the determination of the decrease at 0, 2 and 12 hours postoperatively


Subject(s)
Humans , Parathyroid Hormone , Thyroidectomy , Calcium-Regulating Hormones and Agents , Hypocalcemia
9.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 48: e20202557, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155373

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The thyroidectomy is the most frequently executed procedure in head and neck surgery. Since its first description by Kocher, the transverse cervical incision has been the main access to the thyroid site, as it provides broad exposure of the central neck compartment. Despite the meticulous suture of the incision, the development of a scar with variable dimensions is unavoidable and, hence, some patients might not agree to the approach, due to this consequence. The transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy vestibular access (TOETVA) gains importance as an alternative to the traditional surgery, since it avoids the formation of visible scars. The objective of this study is to develop a systematic review on the currently available literature to evaluate possible complications related to the TOETVA. The systematic review was based on the databases of Medline, Cochrane library, Embase and Scielo/Lilacs, resulting in the selection of six studies, which were compared in regard of the type of study duration of the study and identified complications. Our study showed that TOETVA is related to complications similar to the ones identified in the conventional approach, such as hematoma, seroma, recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, hypoparathyroidism, surgical site infection. The TOETVA was associated to a higher risk of thermic injury of the skin and mentual nerve paresthesia. Moreover, it was possible to conclude that TOETVA is a safe procedure for well selected patients, with favorable conditions and concerned about the aesthetic outcome. The risk of complications of the procedure should always be explained to those patients.


RESUMO A tireoidectomia é o procedimento cirúrgico mais frequentemente realizado na cirurgia de cabeça e pescoço. Desde sua descrição por Kocher, a incisão cervical transversa constitui o principal acesso à loja tireoideana e permite ampla exposição à região central do pescoço. Apesar do fechamento meticuloso da incisão, uma cicatriz de dimensões variáveis é inevitável, e certos pacientes podem discordar de tal abordagem. A tireoidectomia vestibular endoscópica transoral (TOETVA) ganha importância como alternativa à cirurgia tradicional, pois evita a formação de cicatrizes visíveis. O objetivo de estudo é realizar uma revisão sistemática da literatura das possíveis complicações da TOETVA. Foi realizada revisão sistemática da literatura nas bases de dados Medline, The Cochrane Library, Embase e SciElo/Lilacs, sendo selecionados seis artigos e tabulados os dados de tipo de estudo, período do estudo e complicações apresentadas. O estudo mostra que a TOETVA apresenta complicações semelhantes à técnica convencional, como hematoma, seroma, lesão de nervo laríngeo recorrente, hipoparatireoidismo, além de infecção de sítio cirúrgico, com maior risco de lesão térmica da pele e parestesia por lesão do nervo mentual. Em adição, foi possível concluir que a TOETVA é uma técnica segura para pacientes bem selecionados, com condições favoráveis e com especial preocupação com resultados estéticos, devendo sempre ser orientados sobre possíveis complicações.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Gland/surgery , Thyroidectomy/methods , Natural Orifice Endoscopic Surgery/adverse effects , Hypoparathyroidism/surgery , Postoperative Complications , Thyroidectomy/adverse effects , Hematoma
10.
Repert.Med.Cir ; 30(3): 219-255, 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1362933

ABSTRACT

Introducción: revisión narrativa que explica el panorama actual de la hipocalcemia y el hipoparatiroidismo como complicaciones de la tiroidectomía, su diagnóstico y tratamiento; con una descripción de las nuevas estrategias de prevención y tratamiento. Métodos: los motores de búsqueda utilizados fueron PubMed, Clinical Key, Embase, Cochrane y Lilacs, se incluyeron referencias en español e inglés, publicadas entre 2016 y 2020. Los artículos seleccionados se revisaron utilizando CONSORT, STROBE o PRISMA, según el caso. Resultados: fueron seleccionados 35 artículos que tenían relación directa con el tema, entre ellos: metanálisis, revisiones sistemáticas, estudios prospectivos y observacionales, revisiones narrativas y consensos de expertos, procedentes de los cinco continentes. La hipocalcemia y el hipotiroidismo en sus dos formas se relacionan con la afectación de la vascularización de las glándulas paratiroides o su exérecis accidental, existiendo factores predisponentes propios del paciente, derivados de la técnica quirúrgica o la característica patológica de la lesión en el tiroides. Como estrategias de prevención disponemos de herramientas ópticas para definir en el perioperatorio la disposición de las paratiroides; además existe la posibilidad de autotrasplantarlas al identificarlas en la pieza anatómica. El mejor marcador del estado metabólico del calcio es la PTHi. Conclusiones: la preservación de las paratiroides y de su irrigación es la mejor estrategia para prevenir los trastornos posoperatorios del calcio


Introduction: narrative review explaining the current picture of hypocalcemia and hypoparathyroidism as complications of thyroidectomy, describing new strategies employed for their diagnosis and treatment. Methods: searches in the PubMed, Clinical Key, Embase, Cochrane and Lilacs databases; references in Spanish and English, published between 2016 and 2020 were included. The selected articles were reviewed using CONSORT, STROBE or PRISMA, as appropriate. Results: 35 articles directly related with the topic were selected, including meta-analyses, systematic reviews, prospective and observational studies, narrative reviews and expert consensus, on all five continents. The two forms of hypocalcemia and hypoparathyroidism can result from devascularization or accidental removal of the parathyroid glands, patient-specific factors, or from the surgical technique or the pathological characteristics of the thyroid lesion. Preventive strategies include the use of optical tools for preoperative determination of parathyroid glands location; as well as the possibility of autotransplantation after confirming parathyroid tissue in the biopsy specimen. The best marker of calcium metabolism is iPTH. Conclusions: preservation of the parathyroid glands and their irrigation is the best strategy to prevent postoperative calcium disorders.


Subject(s)
Calcium , Hypocalcemia , Metabolism , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms , Hypoparathyroidism , Neck/surgery
11.
Rev. CEFAC ; 23(3): e13920, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155339

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: to estimate the prevalence of voice- and swallowing-related symptoms in women submitted to total thyroidectomy. Methods: a population-based, observational, cross-sectional, analytical study, based on a Brazilian national survey. A total of 252 women, aged 18 to 58 years, submitted to total thyroidectomy, residing in the five geographical regions of the country participated in the study. All of them answered the version of the Thyroidectomy-Related Voice Questionnaire translated and adapted into Brazilian Portuguese, besides questions on demographic and clinical issues. A descriptive analysis of the categorical and quantitative variables was conducted. The relationship between the total TVQ score and the independent variables was analyzed with the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The significance level used was 5%. Results: the most prevalent symptoms were, tired voice, after talking for a long time (50%), and dry mouth/thirst (43.3%). The voice-related symptoms were more prevalent than those related to swallowing. The total TVQ score was not related to age group (p=0.141), profession (p=0.213), region of residence (p=0.303), time since surgery (p=0.955), and radiotherapy/radioiodine therapy (p=0.666). Conclusion: Brazilian women submitted to total thyroidectomy have a high prevalence of voice- and swallowing-related symptoms, the former being predominant.


RESUMO Objetivo: estimar a prevalência de sintomas relacionados à voz e deglutição em mulheres submetidas à tireoidectomia total. Métodos: estudo de base populacional, observacional, transversal e analítico, baseado em um survey nacional brasileiro. Participaram do estudo 252 mulheres submetidas à tireoidectomia total, com idades entre 18 e 58 anos, residentes nas cinco regiões geográficas do país. Todas responderam a versão traduzida e adaptada para o português brasileiro do Thyroidectomy-Related Voice Questionnaire (TVQ), além de questões demográficas e clínicas. Foi realizada análise descritiva das variáveis categóricas e quantitativas. A relação entre escore total do TVQ e variáveis independentes foi analisada por meio dos testes de Mann-Whitney e Kruskal-Wallis. O nível de significância foi de 5%. Resultados: os sintomas mais prevalentes foram sensação de voz cansada depois de conversar por muito tempo (50%) e percepção de boca seca/sede (43,3%). Sintomas vocais foram mais prevalentes que os relacionados à deglutição. O escore total do TVQ não se relacionou com faixa etária (p=0,141), profissão (p=0,213), região de residência (p=0,303), tempo de cirurgia (p=0,955) e radioterapia/radioiodoterapia (p=0,666). Conclusão: mulheres brasileiras submetidas à tireoidectomia total possuem alta prevalência de sintomas relacionados à voz e deglutição, com predomínio dos sintomas vocais seguidos dos sintomas relacionados à deglutição.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Thyroidectomy/adverse effects , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Voice Disorders/etiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors
12.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(3): 115-117, 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1293385

ABSTRACT

La ecografía tiroidea es la principal herramienta diagnóstica en el manejo de los nódulos tiroideos, siendo la presencia de microcalcificaciones un signo de malignidad. Sin embargo, existen escasas publicaciones acerca de la presencia de microcalcificaciones en ausencia de nódulo identificable y su asociación con cáncer de tiroides. Presentamos un caso de una mujer de 26 años, que, tras hallazgo incidental de bocio, se describe en ecografía un tiroides con alteración difusa de su ecogenicidad e imágenes compatibles con microcalcificaciones sin claro nódulo definido en su polo inferior. Tras realización de punción aspiración con aguja fina de la lesión con resultado Bethesda categoría 5, se decide realizar tiroidectomía total, presentando estudio histológico con diagnóstico de carcinoma papilar de tiroides variante clásica con metástasis ganglionares p(T1bN1a). Tras una revisión sistemática, los estudios hasta hoy publicados sugieren que la presencia de microcalcificaciones aisladas sin nódulo identificable debe considerarse un importante factor de riesgo de cáncer de tiroides, especialmente en gente joven, y en aquellas asentadas sobre una tiroiditis de Hashimoto. Por ende, resulta imperativo mantener una alta sospecha ante el hallazgo de este tipo de lesiones, recomendando una valoración exhaustiva de las mismas con la realización de una punción aspiración con aguja fina a todas las lesiones con dichas características.


Thyroid ultrasound is the main diagnostic tool in the management of thyroid nodules, with the presence of microcalcifications being a sign of malignancy. However, there are few publications about the presence of microcalcifications in the absence of an identifiable nodule and its association with thyroid cancer. We present a case of a 26-year-old woman who, after an incidental finding of goiter, a thyroid with diffuse echogenicity alteration and images compatible with microcalcifications without a clear nodule defined in the lower pole of the lobe is described on the ultrasound. After performing a fine needle aspiration of the lesion resulting in a Bethesda category 5, a total thyroidectomy was performed, presenting in the histological study a diagnosis of a classic variant of a papillary thyroid carcinoma with lymph node metastases p (T1bN1a). After a systematic review, the studies previously published suggest that the presence of isolated microcalcifications without an identifiable nodule should be considered an important risk factor for thyroid cancer, especially in young people, and in those with a concomitant Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Therefore, it is imperative to maintain a high suspicion of the discovery of this type of lesion, recommending an exhaustive assessment of them with the performance of a fine needle aspiration to all lesions with these features.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Calcinosis/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Thyroidectomy , Calcinosis/surgery , Calcinosis/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma/surgery , Carcinoma/pathology , Ultrasonography , Thyroid Nodule/surgery , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Biopsy, Fine-Needle
13.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021320, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285403

ABSTRACT

Papillary thyroid carcinoma with desmoid-type fibromatosis (PTC-DTF) or nodular fasciitis-like stroma (PTC-NFS) is a rare morphological variant of PTC with a favorable prognosis. There is a paucity of molecular data regarding this entity. We present the case of a 20-year-old female who presented with a palpable mass over the anterior aspect of the neck for the past 3-4 months, which was diagnosed as PTC-NFS. Ultrasonogram of the neck revealed a bulky left lobe of thyroid that contained a well-defined heterogenous lesion measuring around 24 × 26 × 36 mm with involvement of the adjacent isthmus. She underwent a total thyroidectomy with central compartment lymph node dissection. Histological examination revealed a biphasic tumor with epithelial and stromal components resembling nodular fasciitis. Two dissected lymph nodes showed metastasis of the epithelial component only. On immunohistochemistry, BRAF mutant protein expression was evident in the epithelial component only, while β-catenin was negative in both the components. The histopathological diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma with nodular fasciitis-like stroma was offered. Sanger sequencing revealed a BRAFV600E (c.1799T>A, Val600Glu) mutation. Post-operatively, no residual tumor was detected on ultrasound and radioiodine scans. The patient was doing well at follow-up of 9 months. PTC-NFS/DTF is a histological variant of PTC with a favorable prognosis. Our index case was associated with the BRAF mutation, which was restricted to the epithelial component. Thorough sampling of the excised specimen is essential in order not to miss the epithelial component, which, in most reported cases (including ours) appears to be small.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology , Thyroidectomy , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf , beta Catenin , Fasciitis , Myofibroblasts , Lymph Node Excision , Mutation
14.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 89(1, supl): 39-45, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1281200

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades tiroideas han presentado un auge en los últimos tiempos, aumentando consigo mismo el reporte de las intervenciones quirúrgicas. La tiroidectomía es una de las cirugías más practicadas en endocrinología y tras su realización se han descrito complicaciones, siendo éstas vinculadas a ciertos factores de riesgos que potencian su aparición. Se realizó búsqueda bibliográfica en el período comprendido entre febrero de 2018 a diciembre de 2019, en bases de datos internacionales (PubMed, Cochrane, SCIELO, LILACS y Redalyc) y búsqueda manual en Google Scholar, utilizando los términos complicaciones de tiroidectomías, complicaciones post-quirúrgicas, cirugía de tiroides y tiroidectomías. Se identificaron tres agrupaciones generales de factores de riesgo postquirúrgico: Factores intrínsecos de la enfermedad, comorbilidades del paciente y asociados al procedimiento quirúrgico. Es indispensable identificar y corregir comorbilidades para la prevención de complicaciones postquirúrgicas, puesto que las complicaciones continúan siendo una causa de considerable preocupación.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Diseases/prevention & control , Thyroidectomy/methods , Endocrine Surgical Procedures/methods , Databases, Bibliographic
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887863

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the health-related quality of life(HRQoL)of patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma(PTMC)treated by different modalities. Methods The PTMC patients after treatment who came to our department for follow-up from October to December in 2019 were enrolled and assigned into three groups according to treatment modalities:radiofrequency ablation(RFA)group(


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Humans , Quality of Life , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroidectomy
16.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 19(4): 625-630, dez 30, 2020. fig
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355249

ABSTRACT

Introdução: o Carcinoma Anaplásico de Tireoide (CAT) está entre as mais letais malignidades humanas, sendo a taxa de sobrevida estimada em 10-20% em 01 ano e menor que 5% em 10 anos. Diante da raridade do CAT e desfecho consideravelmente desfavorável da doença, este relato discute as modalidades terapêuticas utilizadas no tratamento do CAT e as características da doença possivelmente relacionadas a um melhor desfecho clínico. Objetivo: relatar o caso de um paciente idoso portador de CAT com resposta completa loco-regional após tratamento combinado com cirurgia e radioterapia (RT) adjuvante. Neste estudo, a literatura a respeito das características da patologia da neoplasia indiferenciada da tireoide e modalidades de tratamento no controle oncológico desta doença é revisada e discutida. Caso clínico: trata-se de um paciente masculino de 88 anos submetido a Tireoidectomia Total (TT) cujo estudo imuno-histoquímico evidenciou neoplasia maligna indiferenciada da tireoide. O paciente realizou tratamento adjuvante com RT na dose total de 66 Gy em leito operatório. Em tempo de seguimento de 18 meses, o paciente encontra-se vivo sem doença detectável em atividade. Conclusão: neste relato, descreveu-se um raro caso de uma evolução favorável de um paciente idoso portador de CAT com longa sobrevida livre de doença quando comparada ao prognóstico reservado dessa neoplasia. Este relato destaca a importância de uma terapia multimodal no manejo desta doença.


Backgroud: anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) ranks among the most lethal of all human malignancies, and the estimated survival rate ranges from 10 to 20% in 01 year and is less than 5% in 10 years. In view of the rarity of ATC and considerably unfavorable outcome of the disease, this report makes it possible to discuss the therapeutic modalities in the treatment of the ATC and the features of the disease possibly related to a better clinical outcome. Objective: the objective of the present study is to report the case of an elderly patient with ATC with locoregional complete response after combined treatment with surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy (RT.) In this study, the literature regarding the pathological features of the undifferentiated thyroid cancer and treatment modalities on oncologic outcome is reviewed and discussed. Case presentation: this is a case of a 88 year old male patient, who underwent total thyroidectomy (TT) for thyroid cancer treatment whose cytological analysis was compatible with anaplastic thyroid cancer. The immunohistochemical study showed undifferentiated malignancy of the thyroid. The patient underwent adjuvant treatment with RT at the total dose of 66 Gy in operative bed. In a follow-up period of 18 months, the patient is alive with no detectable disease in activity. Conclusions: in this report, is described a rare case of a favorable evolution of an elderly patient with ATC relatively long disease-free survival compared to the reserved prognosis of this neoplasm. This case underlines the importance of a multimodal therapy in the management of this disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Radiotherapy , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Carcinoma, Anaplastic , General Surgery
17.
Rev. medica electron ; 42(6): 2621-2632, nov.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1150042

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: el cáncer de tiroides representa un 1% del total de todos los tipos de cáncer. Su incidencia parece aumentar un 4% cada año, y en la actualidad es el octavo cáncer más frecuente en mujeres. Objetivo: evaluar el resultado del tratamiento quirúrgico en el cáncer de tiroides. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo que incluye todos los pacientes operados de cáncer tiroides en el servicio de Cirugía General del Hospital Universitario "Comandante Faustino Pérez Hernández", en el período desde enero de 1993 a diciembre del 2018. Se empleó un modelo recolector de datos con las variables de interés para el estudio y los resultados se presentaron en tablas de frecuencia, números y porciento. Resultados: el cáncer de tiroides fue más frecuente en el grupo etario de 31 a 50 años, predomino el sexo femenino, la variedad histológica papilar fue la más frecuente, la técnica quirúrgica más empleada fue la tiroidectomía total. El hipotiroidismo fue la complicación más encontrada. Conclusiones: el cáncer de tiroides es más frecuente en pacientes relativamente jóvenes y del sexo femenino, la variedad papilar, la tiroidectomía total y el hipotiroidismo como complicación posquirúrgica son los de más incidencia (AU).


SUMMARY Introduction: thyroid cancer represents 1% of the total of all kinds of cancer. Its incidence seems to increase 4% every year, and at the present time it is the eighth more frequent cancer in women. Objective: to evaluate the results of the thyroid cancer surgical treatment. Materials and methods: a retrospective, descriptive, observational study was carried out including all patients who underwent a surgery of thyroid cancer in the service of General Surgery of the University Hospital ¨Comandante Faustino Perez Hernandez¨ in the period from January 1993 to December 2018. A data collector model was used with the variables of interest for the study and the results were presented by charts of frequency, numbers and percent. Results: the thyroid cancer was more frequent in the age group of 31 to 50 years; the female sex prevailed; the most frequent variety was the histological papillary one; the most used surgical technique was total thyroidectomy. Hypothyroidism was the most commonly found complication. Conclusions: thyroid cancer is more frequent in relatively young, female patients; the papillary variety, total thyroidectomy and hypothyroidism as surgical complication are the ones with higher incidence (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Endocrine Surgical Procedures/methods , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Postoperative Complications/therapy , Thyroidectomy/methods , Thyroid Neoplasms/rehabilitation , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Hypothyroidism
18.
Oncol. (Guayaquil) ; 30(3): 215-228, Diciembre 30, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145724

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El manejo inicial del cáncer diferenciado de tiroides (CDT) usualmente comprende la cirugía que puede acompañarse según el riesgo de recurrencia de la administración del yodo radioactivo (I-131); sin embargo, existe un pequeño grupo de pacientes que se catalogan como refractarios al I131, lo cual incide directamente en su pronóstico y expectativa de vida, siendo necesario evaluar opciones locales de tratamiento antes de avanzar a las terapias sistémicas y en estas condiciones la radioterapia (RTP) representa una opción local con fines de tratamiento primario o paliativo Métodos:Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico, descriptivo, retrospectivo, de centro único, que involucra a 49 pacientes con CDT e indicación de radioterapia. Resultados:En el 80% de los casos la edad fue mayor de 45 años, con predominio 74% en el sexo femenino, todos con diagnóstico de CDT sometidos a cirugía, 88%con variante no agresiva, 57% con un tamaño tumoral entre 1 a 4cm, 71% con extensión extratiroidea, 71% con metástasis ganglionares cervicales, 45% estadio TNM I y el 71% con alto riesgo de recurrencia. El 96% recibió I-131, con necesidad de reintervenciones quirúrgicas hasta por 5 o más ocasiones (8%). Recibieron RTP 57%con fines curativos y 43% paliativos. La técnica de radioterapia utilizada en el 69% de los pacientes fue IMRT/VMAT, y la dosis más frecuentemente empleada fue ≥ 60Gy en región cervical (61%). De los 49 pacientes, el 90% tiene respuesta estructural incompleta y 12% falleció por CDT. Conclusiones:La radioterapia debe considerarse en enfermedad avanzada localmente con extensión extratiroidea, enfermedad residual macroscópica y tumor irresecable o recurrente que falla a la terapia convencional del CDT. Palabras clave:Neoplasias de la Tiroides, Carcinoma Anaplásico de Tiroides, Tiroidectomía, Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia, recurrencia, /radioterapia


Introduction:The initial management of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) usually includes surgery that can be accompanied according to the risk of recurrence of the administration of radioactive iodine (I-131). However, there is a small group of patients who are classified as refractory to I-131, which directly affects their prognosis and life expectancy, making it necessary to evaluate local treatment options before advancing to systemic therapies and, in these conditions, radiotherapy (RTP) represents a local option for primary or palliative treatment purposes. Methods:An epidemiological, descriptive, retrospective, single-center study was carried out, involving 49 patients with DTC and indication for radiotherapy. Results:In 80% of the cases the age was over 45 years, with a 74% predominance in the female sex, all with a diagnosis of DTC undergoing surgery, 88% with a non-aggressive variant, 57% with a tumor size between 1 at 4cm, 71% with extrathyroid extension, 71% with cervical lymph node metastases, 45% TNM stage I, and 71% with a high risk of recurrence. 96% received I-131, requiring reoperations for up to 5 or more occasions (8%). 57% received RTP for curative purposes and 43% palliative. The radiotherapy techniqueused in 69% of the patients was IMRT / VMAT, and the most frequently used dose was ≥60Gy in the cervical region (61%). Of the 49 patients, 90% had an incomplete structural response and 12% died from DTC. Conclusions:Radiation therapy should be consideredin locally advanced disease with extrathyroid extension, macroscopic residual disease and unresectable or recurrent tumor that fails conventional therapy for DTC. Keywords:Thyroid Neoplasms; Thyroid Carcinoma,Anaplastic;Thyroidectomy;Neoplasm Recurrence, Local;/radiotherapy


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroid Carcinoma, Anaplastic , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
19.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(11): 1573-1576, Nov. 2020. tab
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143630

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a growing public health problem associated with many comorbid diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body mass index and complications of thyroidectomy. METHODS: Patients who underwent total thyroidectomy between January 2015 and December 2018 were enrolled. Patients were divided into two groups, i.e., BMI <25 (group A) and BMI≥ 25 (group B). Demographics, operative time, and complications were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: The study included 145 patients (66 in Group A and 79 in Group B). There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of age (p=0.330) and gender (p=0.055). No surgical site infection and bleeding complications were observed in any patients. The mean operative time was 148.4 minutes (90-235) in Group A and 153.4 minutes (85-285) in Group B (p=0.399). Transient hypocalcemia was observed in 25 (37.9%) patients in group A, and 23 (29.1%) patients in Group B (p = 0.291). Permanent hypocalcemia was not observed in any patient in group A, and in 2 patients in Group B (2.5%) (p = 0.501). Transient recurrent nerve palsy was observed in 1 (1.5%) patient in Group A and in 3 (3.8%) patients in Group B (p=0.626). None of the patients had permanent recurrent nerve palsy. Parathyroid autotransplantation was performed on 1 patient (1.5%) in group A and on 7 (8.9%) patients in Group B (p=0.055). CONCLUSION: We think there is no relationship between a high BMI and thyroidectomy complications, and surgery can also be performed safely in this patient group.


RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO: A obesidade é um crescente problema de saúde pública associado a muitas doenças comórbidas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a relação entre o índice de massa corporal e as complicações da tireoidectomia. MÉTODOS: Os pacientes submetidos a tireoidectomia total entre janeiro de 2015 e dezembro de 2018 foram incluidos. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois como IMC <25 (grupo A) e IMC . 25 (grupo B). Demografia, tempo operatorio e complicacoes revisadas retrospectivamente. RESULTADOS: O estudo incluiu 145 pacientes (66 no grupo A e 79 no grupo B). Não houve diferença significativa entre os dois grupos em termos de idade (p = 0,033) e sexo (p = 0,055). Nenhuma infecção do sítio cirúrgico e complicações hemorrágicas foram observadas em nenhum paciente. O tempo operatório médio foi de 148,4 minutos (90-235) no grupo A e 153,4 minutos (85-285) no grupo B (p = 0,399). Hipocalcemia transitória foi observada em 25 (37,9%) pacientes do grupo A e 23 (29,1%) do grupo B (p = 0,291). Hipocalcemia permanente não foi observada em nenhum paciente do grupo A e em 2 pacientes do grupo B (2,5%) (p = 0,501). Paralisia nervosa recorrente transitória foi observada em 1 (1,5%) paciente no grupo A e em 3 (3,8%) pacientes no grupo B (p = 0,626). Nenhum dos pacientes apresentou paralisia nervosa recorrente permanente. O autotransplante de paratireóide foi realizado em 1 paciente (1,5%) no grupo A e em 7 (8,9%) pacientes no grupo B (p = 0,055). CONCLUSÃO:: Acreditamos que não há relação entre um IMC alto e as complicações da tireoidectomia e a cirurgia pode ser realizada com segurança também neste grupo de pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Thyroidectomy/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Retrospective Studies , Operative Time , Hypocalcemia/etiology
20.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(5): 447-452, ago. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287197

ABSTRACT

Resumen Existen numerosas comunicaciones de hallazgo incidental de remanentes del conducto tirogloso (CTG) posteriores a una tiroidectomía total, pero se desconoce su implicancia en pacientes con cáncer diferenciado de tiroides (CDT). Nuestro objetivo fue determinar frecuencia de detección ecográfica de remanentes del CTG posterior a la tiroidectomía total en pacientes con CDT y evaluar el impacto del hallazgo en la respuesta al tratamiento. Se incluyeron 377 pacientes con CDT tratados con tiroidectomía total entre enero 1994 y enero 2017, con seguimiento de al menos un año posterior a la cirugía. Se detectó la presencia de remanente del CTG en 16/377 (4.2%): 15 de bajo riesgo de recurrencia y uno de riesgo intermedio. Trece recibieron radioyodo. Todos tuvieron un estado sin evidencia de enfermedad al final del seguimiento, excepto uno con riesgo intermedio que presentó una respuesta inicial estructural incompleta e indeterminada posterior al vaciamiento ganglionar. La mediana del tiempo de diagnóstico del remanente del CTG luego de la tiroidectomía fue de 5 años (rango 1-16). Dos pacientes con remanentes del CTG fueron intervenidos quirúrgicamente, ambos presentaron tumoraciones de aparición súbita en región suprahioidea, 2.4 y 4 cm, detectados a los 9 y 16 años luego de la tiroidectomía, respectivamente. La prevalencia de esta condición parece ser poco frecuente. Sin embargo, la aparición de una masa quística en el seguimiento de un paciente con CDT puede ser confundido con enfermedad metastásica y generar ansiedad. El hallazgo de remanentes del CTG parecería no tener ningún impacto en la respuesta al tratamiento.


Abstract There are numerous reports of incidental findings of thyroglossal duct remnants (TGDR) after total thyroidectomy, but its implication on the outcome of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of TGDR detected by ultrasonography after total thyroidectomy in patients with DTC and to evaluate the impact of this finding on the response to treatment. A total of 377 records of patients with DTC who received total thyroidectomy between January 1994 and January 2017 were reviewed. Patients with less than one year of follow-up after surgery were excluded. TGDR was diagnosed in 16 out of 377 (4.2%). Fifteen had a low risk of recurrence DTC and 13 of them were treated with radioactive iodine. All low risk patients had an excellent response to treatment. Only one with an intermediate risk of recurrence DTC had an initial structural incomplete response which changed to an indeterminate response after a modified central lymph node dissection. The median time of TGDR diagnosis after thyroidectomy was 5 years (1-16). Two patients underwent TGDR surgery due to the presence of a rapidly growing neck mass, 2.4 and 4 cm in size, detected 9 and 16 years after thyroidectomy, respectively. The prevalence of this condition seems to be rare. However, the appearance of a cystic mass during the follow-up of a patient with DTC cancer could be confused with metastatic disease. The diagnosis of TGDR seems not to have an impact on the response to treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography , Iodine Radioisotopes , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
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