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2.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353031

ABSTRACT

.Introdução: O hipertireoidismo decorre da elevação sérica dos hormônios tireoidianos, secundária à hiperfunção da glândula tireoide, sendo as principais causas a Doença de Graves (DG) e os Bócios Nodulares Tóxicos (BNT). Objetivos: Avaliar o perfil clínico e modalidades terapêuticas aplicadas em pacientes com diagnóstico de hipertireoidismo acompanhados em um Hospital Universitário no Sul do Brasil. Métodos: Estudo observacional, transversal e descritivo, com inclusão de pacientes com diagnóstico de hipertireoidismo por DG e BNT; foram coletados dados epidemiológicos, clínicos, laboratoriais e de tratamento. Resultados: A maioria dos pacientes foi referenciada pela atenção primária e encontrava-se em uso prévio de droga antitireoidiana (DAT). A variável idade obteve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre as etiologias de DG e BNT; em ambas houve predomínio de incidência no sexo feminino. A DG apresentou maior frequência de sinais e sintomas de tireotoxicose, ao passo que o BNT mostrou mais sinais e sintomas de compressão. Houve remissão da doença em 23,2% dos pacientes com DG tratados com DAT; em 23,2% dos pacientes optou-se pela manutenção de metimazol em baixa dose por mais de 36 meses e em 16,1% foi realizado tratamento definitivo. No BNT foram preferidas terapias definitivas, principalmente a tireoidectomia, em 27,5% dos pacientes. Doses baixas de metimazol por mais de 36 meses foram utilizados também no BNT, em 22,5% dos pacientes. Conclusão: O hipertireoidismo é uma doença heterogênea, desde a clínica inicial até a terapêutica, entre suas etiologias mais prevalentes. Observou-se uma tendência de priorizar as terapias medicamentosas em longo prazo com baixas doses, tanto na DG quanto no BNT. (AU)


Perfil clínico e terapêutico dos pacientes com hipertireoidismo do ambulatório de endocrinologia de um hospital universitário do sul do BrasilClinical and therapeutic profile of patients with hyperthyroidism in an outpatient endocrine clinic at a university hospital in southern Brazil ARTIGO ORIGINALRafael Antonio Parabocz1, Renata Soares Carvalho1, Gianna Carla Alberti Schrut1, Ana Claudia Garabeli Cavalli Kluthcovsky1, Matheo Augusto Morandi Stumpf1Introduction: Hyperthyroidism results from the serum elevation of thyroid hormones, secondary to hyperfunction of the thyroid gland. The main causes are Graves' disease (DG) and Toxic Nodular Goiters (BNT). Objectives: Evaluate the clinical profile and therapeutic modalities applied in patients diagnosed with hyperthyroidism followed up at a University Hospital in Southern Brazil. Methods: Observational, cross-sectional and descriptive study, including patients diagnosed with hyperthyroidism by DG and BNT; epidemiological, clinical, laboratory and treatment data were collected. Results: Most patients were referred by primary care and had been using antithyroid drugs (DAT). The age variable obtained showed a statistically significant difference between the etiologies of DG and BNT; in both, there was a predominance of incidence in females. DG showed a higher frequency of signs and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis, while BNT showed more signs and symptoms of compression. There was remission of the disease in 23.2% of patients with DG treated with DAT; in 23.2% of the patients, low-dose methimazole was maintained for more than 36 months and in 16.1%, definitive treatment was performed. In BNT, definitive therapies were preferred, mainly thyroidectomy, in 27.5% of patients. Low doses of methimazole for more than 36 months were also used in BNT in 22.5% of patients. Conclusion: Hyperthyroidism is a heterogeneous disease, from initial clinic to therapy, among its most prevalent etiologies. There was a tendency to prioritize long-term drug therapies with low doses, both in DG and BNT. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Primary Health Care , Thyroidectomy , Thyrotoxicosis , Graves Disease , Morbidity , Goiter, Nodular , Hospitals, University , Hyperthyroidism
3.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(6): 846-851, Nov.-Dec. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349999

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Acute suppurative thyroiditis (AST) is a rare but potentially life-threatening thyroid disease with a high mortality if left untreated. Thus, differentiation from other thyroid disorders is highly important in clinical practice. A 22-year-old male patient was admitted to a tertiary care hospital with cervical pain, palpitations, thyrotoxicosis, and an inhomogeneously enlarged right thyroid lobe. In view of the clinical findings, subacute thyroiditis (SAT) was suspected and treatment with glucocorticoids was started. After initial amelioration, the patient developed cervical erythema, fever, and recurrent pain. A CT scan showed extensive phlegmonous inflammation and abscess formation, suggestive of AST. We started immediate empiric antibiotic therapy and performed surgical drainage of the abscess formations. Subsequently, the patient developed hypoxic respiratory failure, leading to ICU admission and intermittent need for non-invasive ventilation. Blood and abscess cultures were positive for Streptococcus anginosus. If left untreated, AST represents a potentially life-threatening disease. Thus, in clinically doubtful cases, liberal further assessment by means of cervical CT scans or fine needle aspiration biopsy are strongly advised.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Thyroiditis, Suppurative/complications , Thyroiditis, Suppurative/diagnostic imaging , Thyrotoxicosis , Sepsis/complications , Streptococcus anginosus
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(5): 1038-1044, nov. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350025

ABSTRACT

Resumo A amiodarona é amplamente utilizada no tratamento de arritmias atriais e ventriculares, porém devido sua alta concentração de iodo, o uso crônico da droga pode induzir distúrbios tireoidianos. A tireotoxicose induzida pela amiodarona (TIA) pode descompensar e exacerbar anormalidades cardíacas subjacentes, provocando aumento da morbidade e mortalidade, principalmente em pacientes com fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo <30%. Os casos de TIA são classificados em dois subtipos que direcionam a conduta terapêutica. Os riscos e benefícios de manter a amiodarona devem ser avaliados de maneira individualizada, e a decisão de continuar ou suspender a droga deve ser tomada conjuntamente por cardiologistas e endocrinologistas. O tratamento de TIA tipo 1 é semelhante ao do hipertireoidismo espontâneo, sendo indicado o uso de drogas antitireoidianas (metimazol e propiltiouracil) em doses elevadas. A TIA tipo 1 mostra-se mais complicada, pois apresenta proporcionalmente maiores números de recorrências ou até mesmo a não remissão do quadro, sendo recomendado o tratamento definitivo (tireoidectomia total ou radioiodo). TIA tipo 2 é geralmente autolimitada, mas devido a elevada mortalidade associada a tireotoxicose em pacientes cardiopatas, o tratamento deve ser instituído para que o eutireoidismo seja atingido mais rapidamente. Em casos bem definidos de TIA tipo 2, o tratamento com corticosteroides é mais efetivo do que o tratamento com drogas antitireoidianas. Em casos graves, independentemente do subtipo, a restauração imediata do eutiroidismo por meio da tireoidectomia total deve ser considerada antes que o paciente evolua com piora clínica excessiva, pois a demora na indicação da cirurgia está associada ao aumento da mortalidade.


Abstract Amiodarone is widely used in treating atrial and ventricular arrhythmias; however, due to its high iodine concentration, the chronic use of the drug can induce thyroid disorders. Amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT) can decompensate and exacerbate underlying cardiac abnormalities, leading to increased morbidity and mortality, especially in patients with left ventricular ejection fraction <30%. AIT cases are classified into two subtypes that guide therapeutic management. The risks and benefits of maintaining the amiodarone must be evaluated individually, and the therapeutic decision should be taken jointly by cardiologists and endocrinologists. Type 1 AIT treatment is similar to that of spontaneous hyperthyroidism, using antithyroid drugs (methimazole and propylthiouracil) at high doses. Type 1 AIT is more complicated since it has proportionally higher recurrences or even non-remission, and definitive treatment is recommended (total thyroidectomy or radioiodine). Type 2 AIT is generally self-limited, yet due to the high mortality associated with thyrotoxicosis in cardiac patients, the treatment should be implemented for faster achievement of euthyroidism. Furthermore, in well-defined cases of type 2 AIT, the treatment with corticosteroids is more effective than treatment with antithyroid drugs. In severe cases, regardless of subtype, immediate restoration of euthyroidism through total thyroidectomy should be considered before the patient progresses to excessive clinical deterioration, as delayed surgery indication is associated with increased mortality.


Subject(s)
Thyrotoxicosis/chemically induced , Thyrotoxicosis/drug therapy , Amiodarone/adverse effects , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left , Iodine Radioisotopes , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/adverse effects
5.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(4): 450-454, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339113

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: The effects of maternal thyroid hormone levels on the course of pregnancy and birth weight have attracted interest. The aim of the present study was to consider FT3 and FT3/FT4 ratio in the evaluation of the effects of maternal thyroid functions in gestational transient thyrotoxicosis (GTT). Materials and methods: This case-control study included 45 patients with GTT and 45 healthy pregnant women. Maternal history before pregnancy, thyroid function tests, thyroid autoantibodies, and thyroid ultrasonography results in 6th to 10th weeks of pregnancy were used in the differential diagnosis of GTT. In both groups, the effects of FT3, FT4 and FT3/FT4 ratios on gestational age and birth weight were evaluated. Results: There was no significant difference in the gestational age between the GTT and control groups (39,3±1,0 weeks and 39,2±1,2 weeks, respectively). Birth weights were similar in both groups (3205,2±4899 g and 3196,6±309,3 g, respectively). When maternal weight was adjusted, a positive correlation was observed between maternal FT3/FT4 ratio and birth weight (r=0,317, p=0,017). Additionally there was a positive correlation between the gestational age and the birth weight in the control group (ρ=0,726, p=0,001). Conclusion: GTT had no significant effect on the gestational age and the birth weight. On the other hand an increase in the maternal FT3/FT4 ratio had a positive effect on the birth weight in the patient with GTT. Maternal characteristics (age, weight, BMI) and FT3/FT4 ratio should be taken into consideration in future impact assessment studies on this issue.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant , Triiodothyronine , Thyrotoxicosis , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroxine , Thyrotropin , Case-Control Studies
6.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(1): 14-16, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146466

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad trofoblástica gestacional (ETG) es una complicación del embarazo poco común. Corresponde a un espectro de lesiones proliferativas del tejido trofoblástico: Mola Hidatiforme (MH) en sus formas parcial y completa, Coriocarcinoma, Tumor Trofoblástico y Tumor Trofoblástico Epiteloide. Los distintos tipos de ETG presentan en común la hipersecreción de gonadotrofina coriónica humana (hCG). La hCG es una hormona glicoproteica con una estructura muy similar a la TSH, por lo cual puede estimular la función tiroidea en condiciones fisiológicas y en algunas condiciones patológicas. La ETG puede cursar con hipertiroidismo, el cual puede variar en intensidad, desde una presentación asintomática con alteración leve de hormonas tiroideas a un cuadro de hipertiroidismo manifiesto. Se presentan 3 casos clínicos de pacientes con ETG, específicamente MH que evolucionaron con tirotoxicosis transitoria. Los casos presentaron un cuadro leve de hipertiroidismo con pocos síntomas asociados. La taquicardia fue el único síntoma en la mayoría de los casos. En todas las pacientes las hormonas tiroideas se normalizaron después del tratamiento de la ETG. Conclusión: Se debe tener presente la posibilidad de hipertiroidismo en toda paciente con ETG. Un alto nivel de sospecha permitirá identificar a aquellas pacientes que cursen con hipertiroidismo, permitiendo así un diagnóstico y tratamiento oportuno.


Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a rare complication of pregnancy. GTD includes a group of proliferative lesions of trophoblastic tissue: partial and complete hydatidiform mole, choriocarcinoma, epithelioid trophoblastic tumor, and placental site trophoblastic tumor. The different types of GTD have in common the hypersecretion of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). HCG is a glycoprotein hormone with a similar structure to TSH. In physiological and pathological conditions hCG can stimulate thyroid function. GTD can present with hyperthyroidism, which can vary in intensity, from an asymptomatic presentation with mild alteration of thyroid hormones to a manifest hyperthyroidism. We present 3 clinical cases of patients with GTD thyrotoxicosis. All cases presented mild hyperthyroidism. Tachycardia was the only symptom in most cases. In all patients thyroid hormones return to normal after treatment of GTD. Conclusion: In patients with GTD the possibility of hyperthyroidism should be kept in mind. A high level of suspicion will allow to identifying patients with hyperthyroidism.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Gestational Trophoblastic Disease/complications , Gestational Trophoblastic Disease/diagnosis , Hyperthyroidism/etiology , Propranolol/therapeutic use , Tachycardia , Thyrotoxicosis/etiology , Hydatidiform Mole , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Gestational Trophoblastic Disease/drug therapy
7.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 31: 31411, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291393

ABSTRACT

A paralisia periódica hipocalêmica tireotóxica é uma complicação rara do hipertireoidismo. Caracteriza-se por episódios de fraqueza muscular recorrente, associado à tireotoxicose e hipocalemia. Ocorre frequentemente em pacientes do sexo masculino e de origem asiática. Nesse contexto, o objetivo deste estudo é descrever o relato de caso de um paciente acometido por paralisia periódica hipocalêmica tireotóxica com redução acentuada da qualidade de vida e internações recorrentes devido a quadro agudo de tetraparesia flácida ascendente associado a hipocalemia grave por não adesão ao tratamento do hipertireoidismo. A paralisia periódica hipocalêmica tireotóxica apresenta evolução favorável quando reconhecida e tratada com controle inicial dos sintomas para normalização sérica do potássio e posterior resolução do quadro tireotóxico.


Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis is a rare complication of hyperthyroidism. The issue has been characterized by episodes of recurrent muscle weakness associated with thyrotoxicosis and hypokalemia. It occurs most often in male patients of Asian origin. This study aims on describing the case report of a patient affected by thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis with intense reduction in life quality and recurrent hospitalizations due to ascending acute flaccid tetraparesis associated with severe hypokalemia due to non-adherence to treatment of hyperthyroidism. Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis presents a favorable evolution when identified and treated with initial symptom control for serum potassium normalization and subsequent resolution of the thyroid toxicity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Thyrotoxicosis , Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis , Potassium , Thyroid Gland , Muscle Weakness , Asians , Hyperthyroidism , Hypokalemia
8.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(5): 514-520, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131126

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective Graves' disease (GD) is the main cause of hyperthyroidism among adults. It is an autoimmune condition classically marked by the Merserburg Triad (goiter, thyrotoxicosis, and orbitopathy), but the change in presentation of GD over time has rarely been studied. To determine changes in the clinical presentation of patients with GD in the last 30 years. Subjects and methods The study evaluated 475 patients diagnosed with GD between 1986 and 2016 in a single center. Patients were evaluated regarding epidemiological aspects, thyroid function, inflammatory activity of the eyes evaluated by the Clinical Activity Score; CAS, severity evaluated by NOSPECS classification and thyroid volume estimated by ultrasonography. Results Patients assessment identified an increase in the mean age of diagnosis of GD (p < 0.02), a reduction in thyroid volume (p < 0.001) and less intense orbital involvement from 2007-2016 compared to 1986-2006 (p = 0.04). The number of smoking patients was smaller from 2007 to 2016 (28.7%) than 1986 to 2006 (42.8% p = 0.001). The TSH and TRAb values did not had significant changes. Conclusion GD presentation appears to be changed in the last years compared to the typical initial presentation. There is a less frequent inflammatory involvement of orbital tissue, smaller goiters, a lower number of smokers and diagnosis at older age.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Aged , Thyrotoxicosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Graves Disease/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
9.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 18(2): 95-99, abril/jun 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361449

ABSTRACT

A paralisia periódica hipocalêmica tireotóxica é uma complicação inusitada do hipertireoidismo, porém é considerada urgência endocrinológica e ainda frequentemente subdiagnosticada. Sua apresentação clínica consiste na tríade de défice de potássio, tireotoxicose e fraqueza muscular ­ sendo esse último sintoma comum em diversas patologias. Realizamos uma revisão bibliográfica e destacamos, por meio do relato de caso, a importância do diagnóstico precoce dessa doença, possibilitando uma evolução favorável ao paciente, independente de sua etnia, sexo ou região geográfica. Atentamos ainda ao tratamento da doença, que, apesar de sua simplicidade, acarreta muitos equívocos.


The thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis is a rare complication of hyperthyroidism, but is considered an endocrinological urgency, and yet frequently underdiagnosed. Its clinical presentation consists of potassium deficit, thyrotoxicosis, and muscular weakness, with the latter symptom being very common in several pathologies. We performed a bibliographic review and highlight, through a case report, the importance of the early diagnosis of this disease to allow favorable progression to the patient, regardless of ethnicity, sex, or geographical region. We also reinforce the importance of the disease treatment which, despite its simplicity, leads to many mistakes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Thyrotoxicosis/diagnosis , Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis/diagnosis , Potassium Chloride/therapeutic use , Tachycardia/diagnosis , Tachycardia/drug therapy , Antithyroid Agents/therapeutic use , Thyroxine/therapeutic use , Thyrotoxicosis/drug therapy , Thyrotoxicosis/blood , Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis/drug therapy , Hypothyroidism/chemically induced , Hypothyroidism/drug therapy , Iodine/adverse effects , Iodine/therapeutic use , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use
10.
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 28(104): 123-126, 2020 dic.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1349139

ABSTRACT

La epidemia por COVID-19, causada por el nuevo coronavirus-2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo severo (SARS-CoV-2) ha enfrentado al equipo de salud a un abanico de presentaciones clínicas y alteraciones de las funciones órganicas a las que diagnosticar y tratar. Dentro de estas se encuentra la disfunción tiroidea.En este reporte se presenta el caso de una paciente con taquicardia persistente luego de pasado el cuadro de COVID-19, que derivó en múltiples consultas hasta que se arribó al diagnóstico de tirotoxicosis de etiología autoinmune.La tirotoxicosis asociada a COVID-19 es infrecuente, pero agrega morbilidad a la convalecencia de los pacientes, por lo que su sospecha clínica y diagnóstico rápido serían beneficiosos


The infection by the new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has challenged the health care system with a new spectrum of clinical manifestations and organ disfuntions, that require proper diagnosis and treatment.In this case we report a patient with persistent tachycardia after COVID-19 acute illness. This finding led to multiple medical visits until final diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis of autoimmune etiology.Thyrotoxicosis is an unusual complication of COVID-19, that results in higher morbility in patients during the convalescent phase of the disease. Opportune clinical suspicion and early diagnosis seems to be beneficial in terms of clinical outcome


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Thyroid Diseases/diagnosis , Thyroid Diseases/drug therapy , Thyrotoxicosis/diagnosis , Morbidity , Early Diagnosis , COVID-19 , Hyperthyroidism/immunology
11.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 13(4): 166-169, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1123623

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En Chile en las últimas décadas ha aumentado la población de personas mayores de 65 años. La tirotoxicosis en este grupo está asociada a complicaciones como fibrilación auricular (FA), insuficiencia cardiaca (ICC), osteoporosis y aumento de la mortalidad. En algunos casos puede presentarse con síntomas no específicos, cuadro conocido como hipertiroidismo apático. Objetivos: Evaluar las características clínicas de la tirotoxicosis en personas mayores. Método: Serie de casos retrospectiva. Se analizaron fichas clínicas de pacientes mayores de 65 años con el diagnóstico de tirotoxicosis controlados en nuestro centro entre enero de 2012 y mayo de 2018. Resultados: En el periodo estudiado 54 pacientes fueron diagnosticados de tirotoxicosis. Se excluyen 4 por datos incompletos. El 80% corresponden a mujeres. La mediana de edad fue 71 años (rango 65-94), sin diferencias por género (p=0,61). La etiología más frecuente fue enfermedad de Graves (EG) en 64%, seguido por bocio multinodular hiperfuncionante en 20%, adenoma tóxico en 10% y asociada a fármacos en 6%. De los pacientes con EG, 28% presentó orbitopatía distiroidea (OD) clínicamente evidente. Un 30% se diagnosticó en contexto de baja de peso, deterioro cognitivo o patología cardiovascular, sin presentar síntomas clásicos de hipertiroidismo. Un 16% presentó FA, 14% ICC y 6% fractura osteoporótica. El 28% fue diagnosticado durante una hospitalización o requirió ser hospitalizado durante los meses siguientes. Los mayores de 75 años presentan una mayor probabilidad de hipertiroidismo apático (OR 5,1, IC95% 1,15-22,7 p=0,01). Además, las complicaciones aumentan en mayores de 75 años, encontrándose en este grupo todos los casos de FA. Conclusiones: La etiología más común de tirotoxicosis fue la EG, a diferencia de lo reportado en otras poblaciones. Un número importante de pacientes debutó sin síntomas clásicos de hipertiroidismo, principalmente mayores de 75 años, por lo que se debe tener una alta sospecha en este grupo etario.


Introduction: Hyperthyroidism in the elderly can produce severe complications such as atrial fibrillation (AF), heart failure (CHF) and osteoporosis. In the elderly, thyrotoxicosis may have only nonspecific symptoms, known as apathetic hyperthyroidism. Objective: To evaluate the clinical characteristics of thyrotoxicosis in the elderly. Methods: Retrospective case series. We reviewed clinical records of patients with thyrotoxicosis older than 65 years, between January 2012 and March 2019. Results: During this period, 54 patients were diagnosed with thyrotoxicosis. Four patients were excluded due to incomplete data. 80% were women. The average age was 73 years (range 65-94), without age difference between gender (p=0,61). The most frequent etiology was Graves' disease in 64%. Hyperfunctioning multinodular goiter was confirmed in 20%, toxic adenoma in 10% and drug-associated in 6%. Twenty eight percent of Graves' disease patients had dysthyroid orbitopathy. Thirty percent presented as apathetic hyperthyroidism. Sixteen percent of the patients presented AF, 14% CHF, and 6% osteoporotic fracture. Twenty-eight percent were diagnosed during hospitalization or required hospitalization in the following months. Those older than 75 years had a greater probability of presenting apathetic hyperthyroidism (OR 5.1, 95% CI 1.15- 22.7 p=0.01). Complications increase in this age group, with all cases of AF. Conclusions: The most common etiology of thyrotoxicosis in this group was GD. This differs from other populations. A significant number of patients presented without classic symptoms of hyperthyroidism, especially in people older than 75 years. Special attention should be paid to atypical symptoms of hyperthyroidism in this group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Thyrotoxicosis/epidemiology , Thyrotoxicosis/complications , Thyrotoxicosis/diagnosis , Thyrotoxicosis/etiology , Adenoma , Graves Disease , Retrospective Studies , Age Factors , Age Distribution , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data , Hyperthyroidism/epidemiology
12.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eRC5273, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090069

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Acute suppurative thyroiditis is a very rare and life-threatening endocrine emergency. Thyrotoxicosis is a rare condition accompanying acute suppurative thyroiditis. While the majority of the cases in the literature are caused by different reasons, spontaneous development is very rare. We present a patient with acute suppurative thyroiditis who presented to our clinic with thyrotoxic findings, and we compared the case to the literature. A 31-year-old male patient was admitted to our clinic with a complaint of progressive neck pain, swelling and redness on midline neck, fever, and palpitations. On physical examination, swelling, redness and tenderness were detected on the neck region that was consistent with the thyroid location. He presented with tremor on the hands, tachycardia and agitation. Thyroid function tests were compatible with thyrotoxicosis, but there were findings supporting the presence of infection in biochemistry tests. On his radiological evaluations, a heterogeneous lesion divided with small septs was observed, with consolidation areas in the left thyroid lobe. In fine needle aspiration biopsy, 2mL of purulent fluid could be aspirated due to the presence of small, separated consolidation areas. He initiated on antibiotic therapy, propranolol, steroid and symptomatic treatment. Eikenella corrodens was detected on the culture antibiogram. Antibiotic therapy was continued for 14 days due to less symptoms and better biochemical values. After treatment, the patient had normal thyroid function, had relief of fever and redness of the neck, and was followed-up. It should be kept in mind that acute suppurative thyroiditis may develop spontaneously with the findings of thyrotoxicosis, with no risk factors.


RESUMO A tireoidite supurativa aguda é uma emergência endócrina muito rara e com risco de vida. A tireotoxicose é uma doença rara, que acompanha a tireoidite supurativa aguda. A maioria dos casos descritos na literatura tem diferentes causas, mas o desenvolvimento espontâneo é muito raro. Relatamos o caso de um paciente com tireoidite supurativa aguda, que veio a nossa clínica apresentando achados tireotóxicos, e o comparamos com a literatura. Trata-se de paciente do sexo masculino, 31 anos, que foi internado em nossa clínica com queixa de dor progressiva, edema e vermelhidão na linha média do pescoço, febre e palpitações. Ao exame físico, foram observados edema, vermelhidão e sensibilidade à dor na região do pescoço, consistente com a localização da tireoide. Apresentava tremor de mãos, taquicardia e agitação. Embora os exames de função tireoidiana fossem compatíveis com tireotoxicose, houve achados que sustentavam a presença de infecção nos exames bioquímicos. Nas avaliações radiológicas, observou-se lesão heterogênea dividida por pequenos septos, com áreas de consolidação no lobo tireoidiano esquerdo. Na biópsia por aspiração por agulha fina, foi possível aspirar apenas 2mL de líquido purulento, devido à presença de pequenas áreas de consolidação separadas umas das outras. Iniciaram-se antibioticoterapia, administração de propranolol e esteroides, além de tratamento sintomático. Eikenella corrodens cresceu na cultura do antibiograma. A antibioticoterapia foi estendida por 14 dias devido à melhora nos sintomas e dos valores bioquímicos. Após o tratamento, o paciente se apresentava eutireoideo, com melhora na febre e na vermelhidão no pescoço, sendo então acompanhado. Deve-se ter em mente que a tireoidite supurativa aguda pode se desenvolver espontaneamente com achados de tireotoxicose, sem nenhum fator de risco.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Thyroiditis, Suppurative/microbiology , Thyrotoxicosis/microbiology , Eikenella corrodens/isolation & purification , Thyroiditis, Suppurative/drug therapy , Thyroiditis, Suppurative/diagnostic imaging , Thyrotoxicosis/drug therapy , Thyrotoxicosis/diagnostic imaging , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Eikenella corrodens/drug effects , Ultrasonography , Rare Diseases , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Neck/diagnostic imaging
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 17(4): 198-200, dez 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284252

ABSTRACT

Relata-se o caso de paciente do sexo masculino, atendido em um hospital universitário, após quadro duvidoso e arrastado de alteração cardíaca e hipertireoidiana, com a propedêutica sequencial própria para crise tireotóxica. Destaca-se a necessidade de identificação precoce da apresentação clínica, com atendimento de emergência, e a capacidade da realização de diagnósticos diferenciais com alterações cardíacas primárias, evitando-se sequelas e desfechos inesperados.


We report the case of a male patient seen in a University Hospital after a dubious and protracted picture of cardiac and hyperthyroid alteration, with adequate sequential propaedeutic for thyrotoxic crisis. The need for early identification of clinical presentation with emergency care, and the ability to perform differential diagnoses with primary cardiac changes are highlighted, to avoid unexpected sequelae and outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Thyrotoxicosis/diagnosis , Hyperthyroidism/diagnosis , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnostic imaging , Thyrotoxicosis/drug therapy , Echocardiography , Ultrasonography , Paracentesis , Diagnosis, Differential , Albumins/analysis , Electrocardiography , Heart Failure, Diastolic/diagnostic imaging , Transaminases/blood , Hospitalization , Hyperthyroidism/drug therapy , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnostic imaging
14.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 30(3): e122, sept.-dic. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126445

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Paciente masculino de 53 años con antecedentes de alergia, trabajador artesanal que realiza serigrafías, con alta exposición a productos químicos que, al someterse a altas temperaturas desprenden gran cantidad de vapor. Acude a consulta refiriendo que desde aproximadamente 2 meses antes presenta decaimiento con calambres musculares, palpitaciones, enrojecimiento de la cara y, aumento de tamaño de la glándula tiroides. Se diagnostica un bocio multinodular tóxico, por cifras hormonales elevadas. Se realiza ultrasonido de tiroides que informa bocio multinodular, una biopsia por aspiración con aguja fina, con atipia de significado incierto, y lesión folicular del tiroides. Se separa de su centro de trabajo y se logra revertir la sintomatología a los 15 días del tratamiento. Frecuentemente aparecen enfermedades asociadas a intoxicaciones por químicos y medicamentos, donde la presencia de hipertiroidismo no es habitual. Se requiere una anamnesis exhaustiva y exámenes complementarios específicos para un diagnóstico y tratamiento adecuados(AU)


ABSTRACT 53 years old male patient with a history of allergy; he works as a craft worker (producing serigraphs) very exposed to chemicals, which when subjected to high temperatures emit large amount of steam. The patient attends to the consultation referring that from approximately 2 months before he has been presenting weakness with muscle cramps, palpitations, flushing of the face and, increase in the size of the thyroid glands. It is diagnosed by the high hormonal figures a toxic multinodular goiter. Thyroid ultrasound is performed that shows multinodular goiter; it is also conducted a biopsy by fine-needle aspiration resulting in atypia of uncertain significance, and follicular lesion of the thyroid. The patient was separated from his workplace and there were reversed the symptoms after 15 days of treatment. Frequently appear diseases associated to poisonings caused by chemicals and medicines, where the presence of hyperthyroidism is not usual. It requires a comprehensive anamnesis and complementary tests that are specific for a proper diagnosis and treatment(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Thyrotoxicosis/pathology , Carbon Monoxide Poisoning/etiology , Biopsy, Fine-Needle/methods , Goiter, Nodular/diagnostic imaging
15.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 58(4): e674, oct.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126395

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La crisis tirotóxica es una complicación de la tirotoxicosis mal tratada y se asocia con una elevada mortalidad. Requiere tratamiento médico urgente en unidades de cuidados intensivos. Mujer de 42 años, con antecedentes personales de hipertensión arterial y nódulo tiroideo hiperfuncionante desde hace 18 años, con abandono del tratamiento médico hace dos años, que acude a urgencias con disnea paroxística nocturna, taquicardia, hipertensión arterial, gran bocio y anasarca. Ingresa en la unidad de cuidados intensivos con diagnóstico de crisis tirotóxica e inicia el tratamiento médico con medidas de soporte precisas, la que incluye intubación orotraqueal. Debido a la dificultad de manejo clínico y respiratorio de la paciente, se decide realizar tratamiento quirúrgico urgente. Se practica una tiroidectomía total de bocio multinodular parcialmente intratorácico y una traqueostomía preventiva. El resultado de anatomía patológica fue: bocio multinodular tóxico. La paciente fue dada de alta con función tiroidea normal, cierre de traqueostomía y buena fonación, tras mes y medio de hospitalización. A pesar de que un tratamiento médico conservador es el adecuado de la tirotoxicosis, los síntomas y signos sistémicos de la crisis tirotóxica y sus manifestaciones órgano-específicas, asociados a una persistente dificultad respiratoria por síntomas compresivos derivados del gran bocio, se consideró que la tiroidectomía urgente en este caso estaba indicada, dato que se corroboró ante la buena evolución posoperatoria. El tratamiento de la tirotoxicosis es fundamentalmente clínico, sin embargo, la cirugía puede ser útil ante la dificultad en el manejo clínico(AU)


Abstract The thyrotoxic crisis is a complication of poorly treated thyrotoxicosis and is associated with high mortality. This condition requires urgent medical treatment in intensive care units. A 42-year-old woman, with a personal history of high blood pressure, hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule for 18 years, and abandonment of medical treatment since two years ago, presented to the emergency department with paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, tachycardia, high blood pressure, large goiter, and anasarca. She was admitted into the intensive care unit with a diagnosis of thyrotoxic crisis and started to receive medical treatment under precise support measures, including orotracheal intubation. Due to the patient's difficult clinical and respiratory management, it was decided to perform urgent surgical treatment. She was performed a total thyroidectomy of partial intrathoracic multinodular goiter and a preventive tracheostomy. The result of pathological anatomy was toxic multinodular goiter. The patient was discharged with normal thyroid function, tracheostomy closure, and good phonation, after a month and a half of hospitalization. Despite the fact that conservative medical treatment is the adequate one for thyrotoxicosis, the systemic symptoms and signs of the thyrotoxic crisis, and its organ-specific manifestations, associated with persistent respiratory distress due to compression symptoms derived from large goiter, urgent thyroidectomy needed to be indicated in this case, a fact corroborated after good postoperative evolution. The treatment of thyrotoxicosis is fundamentally clinical; however, surgery can be useful given the difficulty in clinical management(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Thyroidectomy/methods , Thyrotoxicosis/complications , Thyroid Crisis/diagnosis , Intensive Care Units , Tracheostomy/methods
16.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 47(3): 202-205, July-Sept. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1013891

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Amiodarone has become one of the main antiarrhythmic drugs. However, it may cause a wide variety of adverse effects, sometimes severe. Amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction is one of the best known problems, resulting in either thyrotoxicosis or hypothyroidism. Case presentation: A patient who, after 2 years of using amiodarone for the control of atrial fibrillation, developed thyrotoxicosis, refractory to conventional medical treatment. To optimize the patient's clinical condition before total thyroidectomy, embolization of thyroid arteries was performed. Conclusion: Embolization of the thyroid arteries as bridge therapy to thyroidectomy is an uncommon alternative in patients with amiodarone-induced hyperthiroidism. However, this treatment was useful to improve our patient's symptoms and to optimize the anesthetic/surgical procedure.


Resumen Introducción: La amiodarona se ha convertido en uno de los principales fármacos empleados en el manejo de las arritmias cardiacas. Sin embargo, puede llegar a presentar una amplia variedad de efectos adversos, en ocasiones graves. La alteración de la función tiroidea es uno de sus problemas más conocidos, que puede causar tanto hipertiroidismo como hipotiroidismo. Presentación del caso: Se presenta el caso de un paciente que, después de recibir durante dos años amiodarona para el control de una fibrilación auricular, desarrolló una tirotoxicosis refractaria al tratamiento médico clásico, por lo que se decidió realizar una embolización de las arterias tiroideas previa a tiroidectomía total, para lograr una optimización preoperatoria de su situación clínica. Conclusión: La embolización de las arterias tiroideas como terapia puente a la tiroidectomía es una alternativa poco empleada en pacientes con hipertiroidismo, más aun si es debido a la administración de amiodarona, con escasos datos publicados en la literatura. En nuestro caso fue de utilidad para mejorar la sintomatología del paciente y optimizar el procedimiento anestésico-quirúrgico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Arteries , Thyroidectomy , Thyrotoxicosis , Amiodarone , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Atrial Fibrillation , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Thyroid Gland , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Anesthetics , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762599

ABSTRACT

Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is a notable and potentially lethal complication of thyrotoxicosis, and Graves' disease is the most common cause of TPP. TPP is commonly reported in Asian males between 20–40 years of age, but it is rare in children and adolescents. We report 2 Korean adolescents (a 16-year-old male and a 14-year-old female) with episodes of TPP who were previously diagnosed with Graves' disease. These 2 patients presented with lower leg weakness in the morning after waking up. They were diagnosed with TPP-associated with thyrotoxicosis due to Graves' disease. After they were initially treated with potassium chloride and antithyroid drugs, muscle paralysis improved and an euthyroid state without muscle paralytic events was maintained during follow-up. Therefore, clinicians should consider TPP when patients have sudden paralysis and thyrotoxic symptoms such as goiter, tachycardia, and hypertension.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Antithyroid Agents , Asians , Child , Follow-Up Studies , Goiter , Graves Disease , Humans , Hypertension , Hypokalemia , Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis , Leg , Male , Paralysis , Potassium Chloride , Tachycardia , Thyrotoxicosis
19.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1258811

ABSTRACT

Background:Thyroid disorders constitute the second most common endocrine disordersworldwide, butthey are less commonly researched in thisenvironmentdue to low cost-effectiveness.Objective:Tostudy thespectrumofthyroid disordersat the EndocrinologyClinic ofa tertiary health facility in Sagamu, South-west, Nigeria,over two years.Method:Thisretrospectivestudywas conducted onallnewclinic attendees with thyroid disordersbetweenJanuary 2016 andDecember 2017.The data retrieved included clinicaldata,results of thyroid function tests and thyroid ultrasonographic scan.The patients weregroupedclinically into euthyroid, hypothyroid and thyrotoxicstates.Results:A total of 93 thyroid caseswereseen, and this constituted13.64% ofallnewendocrine consultations (682 patients).Themean age(±SD; range)of the patients was 37.6 (13.6; 15-78)years.Majority of the patients were females witha female-to-maleratio of 4.5:1.Out of these,77.4% hadGoitrous enlargement.Thyrotoxicosis wasthe most commonform of thyroid dysfunction,(72; 77.40%), mainly duetohyperthyroidism from Graves'disease(50; 69.44%),followed by toxic multinodular goitre (12; 16.67%),toxic solitary nodular goiter (5; 6.94%) andothers (5; 6.95 %).Hypothyroidism constituted 10.75%while euthyroid goitre constituted 11.85% of all thyroid cases.Conclusion:Auto-immune thyroiddisease remains the most common thyroid disorder amongendocrineclinicattendees. There isa needfor furtherstudies to elucidatethe likely aetiologies


Subject(s)
Goiter , Hypothyroidism , Nigeria , Patients , Thyroid Diseases , Thyrotoxicosis
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785319

ABSTRACT

Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVT) is a rare cerebrovascular condition accounting for 0.5–1% of all types of strokes in the general population. Hyperthyroidism is associated with procoagulant and antifibrinolytic activity, thereby precipitating a hypercoagulable state that predisposes to CVT. We report the case of a 31-year-old Korean man with massive CVT and diagnosis of concomitant Graves' disease at admission. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of CVT are important to improve prognosis; therefore, CVT should be considered in the differential diagnosis in all patients with hyperthyroidism presenting with neurological symptoms.


Subject(s)
Adult , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Early Diagnosis , Graves Disease , Humans , Hyperthyroidism , Intracranial Thrombosis , Prognosis , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Stroke , Thyrotoxicosis
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