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Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341785


La levadura metilotrófica Pichia pastoris (clasificada actualmente como Komagataella phaffii) es una de las más importantes para la producción de proteínas heterólogas. En el trabajo se presenta un análisis de las principales características que se ponen de manifiesto en la expresión de proteínas recombinantes expresadas en este microorganismo. Se describen las cepas disponibles para la transformación y producción de proteínas recombinantes expresadas en Pichia pastoris, los principales vectores comerciales para la expresión, los promotores más eficientes, los marcadores seleccionables, la señal de secreción, los métodos usados en las transformaciones genéticas y los patrones de glicosilación que se presentan. Se brindan recomendaciones generales acerca de los parámetros de bioprocesos como la composición del medio, el pH, la temperatura, la velocidad de aireación, la inducción y las estrategias de alimentación para alcanzar altos valores de productividad. Se presentan los resultados de las aplicaciones de Pichia pastoris en la producción de dos vacunas en Cuba, la vacuna contra la hepatitis B y la vacuna para el control de la garrapata(AU)

Pichia pastoris metylotrofic yeast (currently classified as Komagataella phaffii) is one of the most important yeast for the production of heterologous proteins. The work presents an analysis of the main characteristics that are marked in the production of recombinant proteins expressed in Pichia pastoris. It describes the strains available for the transformation and production of recombinant proteins expressed in P. pastoris, the main commercial vectors for expression, the most efficient promoters, selectable markers, the secretion signal, the methods used in genetic transformations and glycosylation patterns that occur. General recommendations are provided on bioprocess parameters such as media composition, pH, temperature, aeration velocity, induction, and feeding strategies to achieve high productivity values. The results of Pichia pastoris applications for the production of two vaccines in Cuba, the hepatitis B vaccine and the tick control vaccine are shown(AU)

Pichia , Yeasts , Recombinant Proteins , Protein Engineering , Tick Control/methods , Hepatitis B Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cuba
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(5): 1001-1013, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1345278


The goal of this research was to compare the effect of the following products on dairy cattle, parasitized by Rhipicephalus microplus: organosynthetics - Clorfenvinfós and Ivermectina (OG); phytotherapics - Eucalyptus oil (EG) and Neem cake (NG); Homeopathy (HG); The control group (CG) received no treatment. Infestation was by R. microplus (MIC) and weight gain (GP) were evaluated. The study included 60 animals (5 groups) from ­ Dutch / Zebu, aged between 25-44 months and initial weight between 211-477kg. EG and NG showed MIC 84.9% and 14.0% greater than CG, respectively (P <0.05; P = 0). HG and OG had MIC less than CG 24.4% and 16.9%, respectively (P<0.05; P <0.05). EG, NG and OG obtained GP lower than CG in 7.9%, 8.9% and 8.06% (P <0.05) respectively. The HG GP was 4.9% higher (P <0.05) than CG. This was the first research to prove parasitism control by R. microplus in a field test, using homeopathy. The methodology for choosing Homeopathy for the control of enzooties, developed and tested for the first time in this study, proved to be adequate and efficient, opening the possibility for establishing a new methodology for strategic control of parasitism by R. microplus.(AU)

O objetivo desta pesquisa foi comparar o efeito dos seguintes produtos sobre bovinos leiteiros, parasitados por Rhipicephalus microplus: organossintéticos - clorfenvinfós e ivermectina (OG); fitoterápicos - óleo de eucalipto (EG) e torta de Neem (NG) e homeopatia (HG). O grupo controle (CG) não recebeu tratamento. Foram avaliados infestação por R. microplus (MIC) e ganho de peso/grupo (GP) em 60 animais (5 grupos), a partir de ­ holandês/zebu, com idade entre 25 e 44 meses e peso inicial entre 211 e 477kg. EG e NG apresentaram MIC 84,9% e 14,0% maior que CG, respectivamente (P<0,05; P=0). HG e OG apresentaram MIC menor que CG 24,4% e 16,9%, respectivamente (P<0,05; P<0,05). EG, NG e OG obtiveram GP menor que CG em 7,9%, 8,9% e 8,06% (P<0,05), respectivamente. O GP do HG foi 4,9% maior (P<0,05) que o CG. Esta foi a primeira pesquisa a comprovar controle do parasitismo por R. microplus em teste a campo, usando homeopatia. A metodologia para escolha de medicamentos homeopáticos para controle de enzootias, desenvolvida e testada pela primeira vez neste estudo, mostrou-se adequada e eficiente, abrindo a possibilidade para estabelecimento de nova metodologia para controle estratégico do parasitismo por R. microplus.(AU)

Animals , Female , Cattle , Ticks , Homeopathic Remedy , Tick Control/methods , Acaricides
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 88: e00482020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1349006


The aim of the present study was to evaluate the resistance of tick populations on 16 family farms that were members of the agricultural producers' cooperative of the São Pedro region of the state of São Paulo (COOPAMSP). Bioassays were conducted on nine commercial products in 2018 and 2019. Their active agents were as follows: deltamethrin, amitraz, cypermethrin + chlorpyrifos + citronella, cypermethrin + chlorpyrifos + fenthion, cypermethrin + chlorpyrifos + piperonyl butoxide, dichlorvos + chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, chlorfenvinphos + dichlorvos, and ivermectin. On some farms, a larval packet test (LPT) was also performed. Overall, four acaricides presented mean efficacy greater than 89%, among which two were associations of pyrethroids + organophosphates and two were associations of organophosphates + organophosphates. Deltamethrin, cypermethrin and ivermectin presented mean efficacy lower than 50%. In the bioassays using the LPT, all five farms showed resistance to diazinon, while only one farm presented resistance to cypermethrin. The results were handed over to each farmer with appropriate guidance for treatments. This study demonstrated that the important points to be implemented related directly to use control strategies, based on direct assistance for farmers and diagnosis of tick population sensitivities.

Ticks , Tick Control , Acaricides , Organophosphates , Biological Assay , Community-Institutional Relations , Cymbopogon , Rhipicephalus , Diazinon , Fenthion
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 88: e0752019, 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1348960


The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, has caused significant damage to vineyards in the valley of the São Francisco River in Brazil. Neoseiulus idaeus Denmark & Muma is one of the most abundant species of predatory mites on vines in this region. This study evaluated the population growth rates of T. urticae on leaves of two grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars ('Italia' and 'Superior Seedless') and jack bean [Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC.] and, also, to estimate the predation rates of the pest mite by N. idaeus on leaves of both grape cultivars and jack bean. A higher oviposition rate of T. urticae was observed on 'Superior Seedless' than on 'Italia' grape leaves; however, there was no significant difference in the instantaneous growth rates of T. urticae for these grape cultivars. For 'Superior Seedless', the spider mite egg viability was significantly lower than on 'Italia' grape, indicating a resistance factor in this grape cultivar. The phytoseiid N. idaeus preyed higher number of T. urticae females on 'Superior Seedless' leaves than on 'Italia' grape and jack bean leaves for the densities of 10 and 20 pest mites per leaf arena (9 cm2). Evaluations of leaf trichomes in both grape cultivars indicated the occurrence of longer trichomes on the basal portion of the main veins of 'Superior Seedless' leaves. The presence of these longer trichomes may be associated with the better performance of N. idaeus on 'Superior Seedless' leaves.

Tick Control , Vitis , Oviposition , Predatory Behavior , Pest Control, Biological , Mite Infestations
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(2): e000220, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138087


Abstract The effects of two different products - Metarril® SP Organic (dry conidia) and Metarril® SC Organic (emulsifiable concentrated conidia in vegetable oil) - on eggs, larvae and Rhipicephalus microplus engorged females were here explored. Three concentrations (108, 107, and 106 conidia mL-1) for both products were prepared in water + 0.1% Tween® 80 (v/v); afterward, bioassays were carried out for all R. microplus stages by immersion in suspensions (Metarril® SP) or formulations (Metarril® SC). Metarril® SP suspensions showed low efficacy and did not affect biological parameters of treated engorged females; for eggs and larvae, only slight decreases in hatchability and larvae population were observed. Despite a delay in germination, Metarril® SC presented better results; for females, reductions in Egg Mass Weight (EMW) and Egg Production Index (EPI) were reported. On eggs, 108 conidia mL-1 increased Incubation Period (IP), shortened Hatching Period (HP) and decreased hatchability by up to 61%; for larvae, 107 and 108 conidia mL-1 reached 99.6 and 100% larval mortality respectively, 10 days after fungal exposure. Thus, further studies involving the use of oil-based formulations for ticks such as Metarril® SC need to be performed, especially to control the most susceptible stages (eggs and larvae).

Resumo No presente trabalho, os efeitos de dois diferentes produtos foram avaliados - Metarril® SP Organic (conídios secos) e Metarril® SC Organic (conídios concentrados em óleo vegetal) - para ovos, larvas e fêmeas ingurgitadas de Rhipicephalus microplus. Três concentrações (108, 107 e 106 conídios mL-1) para cada produto foram preparadas em água + Tween® 80 0,1% (v/v); os bioensaios foram realizados para todos os estágios de R. microplus por imersão nas suspensões (Metarril® SP) ou formulações (Metarril® SC). Metarril® SP não afetou os parâmetros biológicos das fêmeas, demonstrando assim baixa eficácia; para ovos e larvas, foram observadas discretas diminuições na eclodibilidade e na população de larvas. Apesar de um atraso na germinação, Metarril® SC apresentou melhores resultados; para as fêmeas, foram detectadas reduções no Peso da Massa de Ovos (PMO) e no Índice de Produção de Ovos (IPO). Para os ovos, a concentração de 108 conídios mL-1 aumentou o Período de Incubação (PI), reduziu o Período de Eclosão (PE) e também o da eclodibilidade em até 61%; para larvas, 107 e 108 conídios mL-1 atingiram 99,6 e 100% de mortalidade larval, respectivamente, 10 dias após a exposição fúngica. Com isso, estudos adicionais que envolvem o uso de formulações à base de óleo para carrapatos, como Metarril® SC, precisam ser realizados, especialmente para controlar os estágios mais suscetíveis (ovos e larvas).

Animals , Female , Pest Control, Biological , Tick Control/methods , Tick Control/standards , Rhipicephalus/microbiology , Metarhizium , Larva
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 671-676, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057992


Abstract Ticks of the Amblyomma cajennense complex present high infestation rates. These ticks transmit the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, which causes Brazilian Spotted Fever. For this reason, an integrated tick control system was adopted on a farm in the municipality of Itu, state of São Paulo. On this farm, which borders the Tietê river, domestic animals are in contact with populations of capybaras. Six locations were monitored and evaluated between the years of 2015 and 2017. During this work 1271 nymphs and adult ticks were caught, all of them from the Amblyomma sculptum species, except for a single individual from the Amblyomma dubitatum species. The integrated tick management reduced the overall infestation levels to zero. Adult tick population dropped in the first year of the study, while larvae population dropped in the second year. Nymph population dropped in both years, decreasing in higher numbers in the first year. The estimated mean infestation levels for all of the tick's life cycle forms in the six monitored spots did not reach one individual in the end of the study. Estimated mean infestation levels for nymphs in these places equaled zero.

Resumo Em virtude de alta infestação por carrapatos do complexo Amblyomma cajennense, parasitos que transmitem a bactéria Rickettsia rickettsii, causadora da Febre Maculosa Brasileira, adotou-se um sistema de controle integrado dos carrapatos numa propriedade rural localizada no munícipio de Itu - SP. Na propriedade, que margeia o rio Tietê, os animais domésticos mantinham contato com populações de capivaras. Seis locais foram avaliados e monitorados nos anos de 2015 a 2017. Dentre os 1271 espécimes capturados (adultos e ninfas) um foi identificado como Amblyomma dubitatum e os demais com Amblyomma sculptum. De um modo geral, houve controle da infestação de carrapatos visto que todos os estágios ao final de 2017 apresentaram níveis próximos ou igual a zero. A população de adultos teve queda no primeiro ano e a de larvas no segundo. As ninfas apresentaram queda nos dois anos, sendo mais acentuada no primeiro ano. A média da estimativa do nível de infestação para cada estágio do carrapato nos seis locais monitorados não chegou a 1 indivíduo ao final do experimento, sendo que a média da estimativa para as ninfas foi de zero em todos esses locais.

Animals , Rodentia/parasitology , Tick Control/methods , Ixodidae/microbiology , Horses/parasitology , Rural Population , Brazil , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever/transmission , Endemic Diseases , Farms
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(6): 555-565, nov. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102241


Rhipicephalus microplus, is one parasites that cause severe productivity losses in the cattle industry of Brazil and shows increasing resistance to conventional pesticides. This research aims to study the chemical composition, and acaricidal activity of the essential oil from Ocotea notata leaves, a brazilian endemic species, against R. microplus. The effect on R. microplus engorged adult females was evaluated using the immersion test. The oil reduced the survival by 90% after incubation for 15 days and there was 100% reduction for posture inhibition and reproductive capacity. These results suggest that the O. notata essential oil has activity on the R. microplus.

Rhipicephalus microplus, es un parásito que causa graves pérdidas de productividad en la industria ganadera de Brasil y muestra una creciente resistencia a los pesticidas convencionales. Esta investigación tiene como objetivo estudiar la composición química y la actividad acaricida del aceite esencial de las hojas de Ocotea notata, una especie endémica brasileña, contra R. microplus. El efecto sobre las hembras adultas engordadas de R. microplus se evaluó mediante la prueba de inmersión. El aceite redujo la supervivencia en 90% después de la incubación durante 15 días y hubo una reducción del 100% para la inhibición de la postura y la capacidad reproductiva. Estos resultados sugieren que el aceite esencial de O. notata tiene actividad contra R. microplus.

Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Ocotea/chemistry , Rhipicephalus/drug effects , Acaricides/pharmacology , Terpenes/analysis , Ticks/drug effects , Brazil , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Tick Control/methods , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Lauraceae/chemistry , Acaricides/chemistry , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(1): 77-88, Jan. 2018. tab, graf, mapas
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895541


Este estudo verificou o perfil do produtor de leite do município de Joanópolis, SP, situado a 115 km de São Paulo, e como esse produtor lida com o controle do carrapato e outras doenças importantes na pecuária leiteira. Quarenta produtores de leite foram entrevistados. Verificou-se que grande parte deles se enquadra em agricultura familiar: pequenas propriedades com mão-de-obra familiar. Verificou-se que 72,5% possuem outra fonte de renda além do leite; 75% produzem menos que 100 litros de leite por dia, e a maioria não é tecnificada (ordenha manual: 72,5 %; não faz escrituração zootécnica: 55%; não aduba pastos: 80%; não utiliza inseminação artificial: 87,5%). O controle do carrapato é feito sem critérios técnicos; a aplicação do carrapaticida é feita no mesmo local da ordenha; 90% não usam equipamentos de proteção individual para aplicar o carrapaticida. O gado prevalente é o mestiço Girolando (87,5%), que, por ser mais resistente ao carrapato, deve contribuir para que 57,5% dos entrevistados estejam satisfeitos com o controle do carrapato. Verificou-se que poucos produtores (apenas 12,5%) possuem assistência técnica constante. Isso pode ser a explicação para o baixo uso de tecnologias e nas falhas observadas no diagnóstico das doenças e no controle do carrapato.(AU)

This study made a detailed description of the milk producer of the municipality of Joanópolis/SP, situated 115 km from the largest city of Brazil, São Paulo, and how they deal with tick control and other important diseases for dairy farming. Forty milk producers were interviewed. It was found that most of them fit into family farms: small farms with family labor; 72.5% have another source of income in addition to the milk; 75% produce less than 100 liters of milk per day; and most of them are not technified (72.5% do manual milking; 55% do not keep zootechnical records; 80% do not fertilize the pastures; 87.5 % do not use artificial insemination). Tick control is made without technical criteria. A hundred percent of the interviewed applied the acaricide in the same place of milking; 90% do not use protective equipment to apply the acaricide. The prevalent cattle breed is the crossbred Girolando (87.5%), a more tick resistant breed. This may contribute to 57.5% that are satisfied with tick control. It was found that few producers (only 12.5%) have constant technical assistance. This may be the explanation for the low use of technologies and the failures observed in the diagnosis of diseases and the use of tick control.(AU)

Humans , Animals , Cattle , Acaricides , Farmers , Tick Control/methods , Brazil , Parasitic Diseases, Animal/prevention & control , Rhipicephalus , Surveys and Questionnaires
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 85: e0212018, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-999199


The aim of the present study was to evaluate the spatial-temporal distribution of phytophagous and predatory mites in the canopy of Jatropha curcas L. Mite richness, diversity, and abundance were determined, and higher values were observed primarily in the top stratum. Mite population in J. curcas was higher during the rainy season. Phytophagous mites were mostly concentrated in the top stratum, and Brevipalpus sp. was the most abundant. Predatory mites from the family Phytoseiidae presented the highest richness and diversity, and Amblydromalus zannoui was the most abundant species. The present results indicate seasonal population dynamics for both predatory and phytophagous mites on J. curcas.(AU)

O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a distribuição espaço-temporal de ácaros fitófagos e predadores no dossel de plantas de pinhão-manso. Parâmetros de riqueza, diversidade e abundância de ácaros foram determinados. Os resultados deste estudo demonstram que maiores valores de riqueza, diversidade e abundância de ácaros foram observados principalmente no estrato apical e que os níveis populacionais desses artrópodes em plantas de pinhão-manso são mais expressivos na estação chuvosa. Os ácaros fitófagos concentram-se distribuídos principalmente no estrato apical, sendo Brevipalpus sp. a espécie mais abundante. Ácaros predadores da família Phytoseiidae foram aqueles de maior riqueza e diversidade, sendo o ácaro predador Amblydromalus zannoui o mais abundante. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho sugerem uma dinâmica sazonal tanto para populações de ácaros predadores quanto para ácaros fitófagos em pinhão-manso.(AU)

Jatropha , Mites , Tick Control , Environmental Monitoring , Temporal Distribution
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 69(3): 523-528, jun. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-846836


The acaricidal activity of crude ethanolic extract and fractions from the leaves of Morus nigra (Moraceae) was carried out on female cattle ticks Rhipicephalus microplus, using the adult immersion test. The mortality and fertility of females exposed to different concentrations of hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions, as well as ethanolic extract of M. nigra with concentrations of 5, 10 and 25mg/ml were evaluated using three treatment groups, two control groups and triplicate tests. The study also identified the main phenolic compounds of the extract and fractions of this species by HPLC. The chloroform fraction of leaves of M. nigra (25mg/mL) showed the best results for this species, obtaining 62.6% of inhibition of oviposition, 39.3% of eggs eclosion average and 65.4% of effectiveness. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of phenolic compounds, which may be related to biological activity shown by the extracts, which can be used as an alternative control against R. microplus adult tick.(AU)

A atividade acaricida do extrato etanólico bruto e das frações das folhas de Morus nigra (Moraceae) foi avaliada no carrapato Rhipicephalus microplus, utilizando-se o teste de imersão de fêmeas ingurgitadas. Foram avaliadas a mortalidade e a fertilidade das fêmeas ingurgitadas, expostas a diferentes concentrações (5, 10 e 25 mg/mL) das frações hexânica, clorofórmica e acetato de etila, bem como do extrato etanólico. Os testes foram realizados em triplicata. O estudo também identificou os principais compostos fenólicos do extrato e das frações dessa espécie por HPLC. A fração clorofórmica das folhas de M. nigra (25mg/mL) apresentou o melhor resultado para essa espécie, obtendo-se 62,6% de inibição da oviposição, 39,3% da eclosão dos ovos e 65,4% de eficácia. A análise por HPLC revelou a presença de compostos fenólicos, os quais podem estar relacionados com a atividade biológica demonstrada pelos extratos, que podem ser utilizados como auxiliar no controle contra carrapato adulto de R. microplus.(AU)

Animals , Acaricides/analysis , Morus/toxicity , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Rhipicephalus/drug effects , Tick Control/methods , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/veterinary , Ticks/drug effects
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(1): 47-51, jan. 2017. tab.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-837451


The present study evaluated the efficacy of a single oral dose of doramectin in the control of Psoroptes ovis and Leporacarus gibbus in naturally infested rabbits. Sixteen adult rabbits were selected and distributed in two experimental groups. The treated group received 200 µg/Kg of oral doramectin and the control group received the same volume of saline solution. The diagnosis of the mites was made with a stereoscopic microscope. Hairs from the dorsal part of the neck, lumbar right, lumbar left, ventral side of the tail and ventral abdomen were evaluated for L. gibbus, and ear wax evaluated for P. ovis. The evaluation of the efficiency and the clinical assessment of the lesions was made in days 0, +3, +7, +14, +21, +28, and +35 after treatment. An efficacy of 75% and 87,5% was observed for L. gibbus in days +3 and +7 after treatment, an efficacy of 100% was observed in days +14, + 21, +28 e +35. An efficacy of 100% for the control of P. ovis was observed following day +7. The clinical lesion score of the control group remained unaltered, except for one animal which conditions worsened during experimentation. In the treated group animals, regression of the lesions was observed following day +3, and on day +21 no signal of infestation by P. ovis was present. None of the animals from the treated group presented secondary collateral effects caused by the doramectin, which proved itself as an optimal alternative for mite control in naturally infested rabbits.(AU)

O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a eficácia da doramectina administrada por via oral no controle de Psoroptes ovis e Leporacarus gibbus em coelhos naturalmente infestados. Foram selecionados 16 coelhos adultos, distribuídos em dois grupos experimentais, compondo oito animais por grupo. O grupo tratado foi medicado com 200µg/kg de doramectina por via oral, enquanto que no grupo controle foi administrado o mesmo volume de solução salina. O diagnóstico dos ácaros foi realizado com auxílio de microscópio estereoscópico. Foram coletados pelos das regiões do pescoço dorsal, lombar direita, lombar esquerda, cauda ventral e abdômen ventral para avaliação de L. gibbus e para P. ovis foi coletado cerúmen das orelhas com auxílio de zaragatoas. A avaliação da eficácia e a avaliação clínica das lesões, mensuradas em escores (grau 0 a 4), foi realizada nos dias 0, +3, +7, +14, +21, +28 e +35, após o tratamento. Foi observada eficácia de 75% e 87,5% no controle de L. gibbus nos dias +3 e +7 após o tratamento, sendo observada eficácia de 100% nos dias +14, + 21, +28 e +35. Foi observada eficácia de 100% no controle de P. ovis a partir do dia +7, permanecendo até o final do período observacional. O escore das lesões clínicas no grupo controle permaneceu de forma inalterada, exceto em um animal que piorou ao longo dos dias experimentais, enquanto nos animais do grupo tratado regrediu a partir do dia +3 e já no dia +21 após o tratamento, os animais apresentavam-se sem sinais da infestação por P. ovis. Nenhum animal do grupo tratado apresentou quaisquer efeitos colaterais secundários causados pela doramectina, que se mostrou uma ótima alternativa para o controle dos ácaros em coelhos naturalmente parasitados.(AU)

Animals , Rabbits , Acari/drug effects , Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use , Psoroptidae , Tick Control/methods , Administration, Oral , Mite Infestations/therapy , Mite Infestations/veterinary
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-209986


PURPOSE: Nasal Cellulose Powder (NCP), which can prevent from binding an allergen to nasal mucosa, may reduce allergic rhinitis (AR) symptoms in dust mite-sensitized children. This study was conducted to assess the efficacy of NCP in improving clinical symptoms of a nasal airflow limitation and the response of nasal inflammatory cells. METHODS: Children with dust mite-sensitized AR aged 6–18 years were recruited. After a 4-week run-in period, NCP or a placebo was administered, 1 puff per nostril 3 times daily for 4 weeks. The nasal provocation test (NPT) with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) was performed before and after treatment. The daily symptom scores (DSS), daily medication scores (DMS), the peak nasal inspiratory flows (PNIF), nasal airway resistance (NAR), as well as the maximum tolerated dose of NPT and eosinophil counts in nasal scraping, were evaluated. RESULTS: Sixty children (30 NCP and 30 placebos) were enrolled. Before treatment, there were no significant differences in age, dust mite control measures, DSS, DMS, PNIF, NAR, the maximum tolerated dose of NPT, or nasal eosinophil scores between children receiving NCP and placebos. After treatment, there were no significant differences between the NCP and placebo groups in the median (range) of the outcomes—DSS: 2.06 (0.18–3.77) vs. 1.79 (0.08–7.79), P=0.756; DMS: 1.60 (0–5.13) vs. 0.56 (0–4.84), P=0.239; PNIF (L/min): 110 (60–160) vs. 100 (50–180), P=0.870; NAR (Pa/cm³/s): 0.40 (0.20–0.97) vs. 0.39 (0.24–1.32), P=0.690; the maximum tolerated dose of NPT and the nasal eosinophil scores: 1 (0–4) vs. 1 (0–4), P=0.861. CONCLUSIONS: NCP treatment may not be more effective than placebo treatment in dust mite-sensitized AR children.

Airway Resistance , Cellulose , Child , Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus , Dust , Eosinophils , Humans , Maximum Tolerated Dose , Nasal Mucosa , Nasal Provocation Tests , Placebos , Pyroglyphidae , Rhinitis, Allergic , Tick Control
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 25(3): 306-316, July-Sept. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-795080


Abstract Dairy cattle farming is of great economic and social importance in all Brazilian’s regions. Parasites can reduce milk productivity, especially the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. This study consisted of a questionnaire answered by 40 milk producers in the northwestern region of the State of São Paulo. The aim was to ascertain how these producers controlled ticks and other parasites. Very many of them knew nothing about the biological cycle of the cattle tick or about strategic control or acaricide efficacy tests. The majority (87.5%) controlled ticks at a high frequency, without technical criteria and care to apply the acaricide. Spraying was the most used mode of acaricide application (95%) and endectocides were used by 45%. Cattle tick fever was the harm most associated with ticks (87.5%) followed closely by screwworm (77.5%). However, 65% were satisfied with their tick control. About the control of others parasites, all dewormed at least twice a year their animals; 65% were controlling horn fly; 40% had problems with screwworm. The interviewers had in general good level of education and the farms generally exhibited a high degree of technology for milk production on pasture because half of them received technical assistance frequently.

Resumo A bovinocultura leiteira é de extrema importância econômica e social em todas as regiões brasileiras. Os parasitas podem reduzir a produção leiteira, especialmente o carrapato Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Este trabalho consistiu em um questionário respondido por 40 produtores de leite da região noroeste do Estado de São Paulo, com o objetivo de saber como os produtores controlam carrapatos e outros parasitas. Grande parte deles não conhecia o ciclo biológico do carrapato do boi nem o controle estragégico e o teste de eficácia de carrapaticidas. A maioria (87,5%) controlava o carrapato com alta frequência, sem critérios técnicos e cuidados na aplicação do carrapaticida. A aspersão foi o modo de aplicação mais usado (95%) e endectocidas eram utilizados por 45%. Tristeza parasitária bovina foi o prejuízo mais associado ao carrapato (87,5%), seguido de perto pela bicheira (77,5%). No entanto, 65% estavam satisfeitos com o controle do carrapato. A maioria (82,5%) criava gado mestiço. Em relação ao controle de outros parasitas, todos vermifugavam seus animais pelo menos duas vezes por ano; 65% deles controlava a mosca-do-chifre; 40% têm problemas com bicheira. Os entrevistados, de forma geral, tinham bom nível educacional, e as fazendas geralmente exibiam alto grau de tecnologia em produção de leite a pasto, porque metade delas recebia assistência técnica constante de um programa estatal que incentiva a produção leiteira sustentável.

Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/prevention & control , Tick Control/methods , Dairying , Farms , Tick Infestations/prevention & control , Brazil , Rhipicephalus
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 82: 1-5, 2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1026192


O Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus é responsável por consideráveis perdas na pecuária brasileira. O controle desse parasita tem sido feito, principalmente, com o uso de carrapaticidas, sendo os isoterápicos uma alternativa para seu combate. Objetivou-se neste trabalho analisar a eficiência da utilização da isopatia como ferramenta de controle alternativo do carrapato-do-boi. Foram utilizadas 18 fêmeas bovinas de raça europeia, mantidas em sistema de pecuária extensiva, no município de Canguçu, Rio Grande do Sul. Os animais foram divididos em grupo controle (Lote A) e grupo tratado com isoterápico (Lote B). O sal mineral foi utilizado como veículo para a administração da isopatia, sendo que o Lote A recebeu sal mineral com placebo (açúcar) e o Lote B sal mineral com isopatia. Os animais foram infestados artificialmente com 10 mil larvas deR. (B.) microplus , e no 20º, 21º e 22º dias pós-infestação, foram realizadas contagem e coleta de fêmeas ingurgitadas. As teleóginas de cada lote foram divididas ao acaso em nove grupos de dez indivíduos para análise dos parâmetros biológicos e posterior cálculo do Índice Nutricional e Índice de Eficácia Reprodutiva. Para comparação da média de teleóginas de cada grupo, foi empregada análise de variância e Teste LSD. Os bovinos tratados com isopatia apresentaram uma redução de 53,4% do número médio de teleóginas, quando comparados com o grupo não tratado (p = 0,001). Quanto aos padrões biológicos, não houve diferença estatística. Conclui-se que o uso de isopatia foi capaz de reduzir a infestação de R.(B.) microplus , mostrando-se uma alternativa promissora para o controle deste ixodídeo.(AU)

The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus)microplus is responsible for considerable losses in Brazilian cattle. The control of such parasites has been done mainly with the use of acaricides, and the isopathy is an alternative. The objective of this work is to analyze the efficiency of the use of isopathy as an alternative tool to control the cattle tick. We used 18 cows of the European race, kept in extensive livestock system in the municipality of Canguçu, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The animals were divided into control group (Lot A) and group treated with isopathy (Lot B). Mineral salt was used as a vehicle for the administration of isopathy, Lot A received mineral salt with placebo (sugar) and Lot B received mineral salt with isopathy. The animals were artificially infested with 10 thousand larvae of R. (B.) microplus , and in the days 20, 21 and 22 post-infestation engorged females were counted and collected. The ticks from each batch were randomly divided into nine groups of ten subjects each for analysis of biological parameters and subsequent calculation of the Nutritional Index and the Effectiveness Reproductive Index. For comparison of average engorged females from each group were employed ANOVA and LSD Test. The animals treated with isopathy showed a 53.4% reduction in the average number of ticks when compared with the untreated group (p = 0.001). As for biological standards, there was no statistical difference. It is concluded that the use of isopathy was able to reduce infestation of R. (B.) microplus , showing up as a promising alternative to control this ticks.(AU)

Animals , Cattle , Ticks , Biotherapics , Isotherapy , Tick Control/methods , Rhipicephalus , Materia Medica , Animal Husbandry
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 82: 1-4, 2015. tab, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1026519


The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus ) microplus is an important tick species which affect bovines in tropical areas. Its control is based on the use of chemical acaricides, but the frequent use of these substances has been conducted to the development of tick resistance. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of cypermethrin and amitraz against R. (B. ) microplus collected of bovines from different municipalities of the state of Pernambuco. From August 2009 to July 2011, engorged females were collected and subjected to the "Adult Immersion Test" in order to evaluate the efficacy of cypermethrin and amitraz. The results indicate that populations of R. (B. ) microplus from Pernambuco present resistance to acaricides (i.e., cypermethrin and amitraz). In this study, a single population (Brejo da Madre de Deus) was susceptible to cypermethrin, whereas two (Timbaúba and Limoeiro) were susceptible to amitraz. Data herein reported follow a pattern observed in other regions of Brazil and alert to the fact that alternative measures of control should be implemented in this area studied.(AU)

Rhipicephalus (Boophilus ) microplus é uma importante espécie que acomete bovinos em áreas tropicais. O controle desse carrapato se baseia no uso de acaricidas químicos, mas a utilização frequente dessas substâncias tem conduzido ao desenvolvimento de resistência. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia da cipermetrina e do amitraz contra R. (B. ) microplus coletadas de bovinos de diferentes municípios do estado de Pernambuco. De agosto de 2009 a julho de 2011, as fêmeas ingurgitadas foram coletadas e submetidas ao Adult Immersion Test , a fim de avaliar a eficácia de cipermetrina e amitraz. Os resultados indicam que as populações de R. (B. ) microplus de Pernambuco apresentaram resistência aos acaricidas (cipermetrina e amitraz). Neste estudo, uma única população (Brejo da Madre de Deus) foi suscetível à cipermetrina, enquanto duas (Timbaúba e Limoeiro) foram sensíveis ao amitraz. Os dados aqui relatados seguem um padrão observado em outras regiões do Brasil e alertam para o fato de que as medidas alternativas de controle devem ser implementadas na área estudada.(AU)

Animals , Cattle , Tick Control , Rhipicephalus , Acaricides/analysis
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 17(5): 193-198, Sept. 2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-724783


Background Strawberry is a pseudofruit mainly cultivated in temperate climate regions. Considering its high levels of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds, the consumption of strawberry fruit can be beneficial to health. The Brazilian strawberry production revolves around 3000 tons per year, significantly influencing the food market and generating income to farmers. However, this production can be partially impaired by two-spotted spider mite (TSSM) Tetranychus urticae Koch infestations, due to decreases in the quality and quantity of fruit. Since there are no data in the literature about alterations caused by TSSM infestation in strawberry plants, our work aimed towards evaluating nutritional and physicochemical parameters of TSSM-infested strawberry plants, along with the related chemical treatment (CT) (acaricide) or biological treatment (predatory mite Phytoseiulus macropilis Banks). Results Strawberry fruit from TSSM-infested plants present the highest levels of acidity and exhibit low levels of anthocyanin and phenolic compounds, while fruit from TSSM-infested plants + biological control using predatory mite shows high levels of soluble solids, phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid, along with a high soluble solid content/titratable (SSC/TA) acidity ratio, which indicates high quality fruit. Conclusions Our results suggest that TSSM infestation decreases fruit quality and that the biological control of TSSM using a predatory mite is a suitable alternative to organic production, since the presence of predatory mite does not affect fruit quality and development.

Animals , Pest Control, Biological , Tetranychidae/physiology , Fragaria/parasitology , Fragaria/chemistry , Mites/physiology , Predatory Behavior , Tick Control , Phenolic Compounds/analysis
Int. j. high dilution res ; 13(48): 165-171, 2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-754743


Parasitism constitutes one of the major problems that affect the livestock. Commercial acaricides can propitiate drug resistance and residues in the environment and animals. This study aimed to evaluate the control of cattle ticks by using the isotherapics. These drugs were prepared using Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The dilution and agitations were performed according to the homeopathic pharmacopoeia. By the immersion technique of adults, 50 teleogines were distributed into five treatments: 12cH and 32cH isotherapic, negative control, positive (ivermectin 1%) and vehicle control. The results were evaluated by the rate of mortality, egg production, hatchability rate, estimated reproduction, and the efficacy of the products. In addition, 16 Jersey females cows were subjected to 15mL pour on, of the following treatments: 12cH and 32cH isotherapic and vehicle control. The count of ticks was performed by the simple method on days 0, 15, 21, 42, 63, 84 and 105, post treatments. It was used the Wilcoxon test and Bonferroni method. Both isotherapics treatments showed efficacy at in vitro tests. The 12cH medication presented better results: 10% of mortality rate on the first day of life, maintaining 20% from the second to the 13th day. Additionally, it was observed 20% of egg production, hatching rate of 0.0038% and 99.39% of product effectiveness. However, the in vivo tests showed no satisfactory results for these evaluated conditions, although it was verified a tendency to decreasing the infestation.

Animals , Cattle , Acaricides/adverse effects , Isotherapy , Parasites , Rhipicephalus , Brazil , Tick Control , Cattle Diseases
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 16(1): 77-82, 2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-703725


Esta pesquisa foi conduzida com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito in vitro e in vivo do óleo essencial de capim limão (Cymbopogon flexuosus Stapf) sobre o carrapato dos bovinos [Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus]. Na experimentação in vitro foi utilizado o grupo controle negativo e oito concentrações do óleo de capim-limão (0,5; 1; 2; 5; 10; 20; 50; 100%), em fêmeas ingurgitadas do carrapato. A eficácia de controle foi de 0; 20; 39; 99,5; 100; 100; 100; 100 e 100%, respectivamente. Para a experimentação in vivo foram constituídos três grupos (controle negativo, óleo de capim limão a 2,0% - nível estimado mediante análise de regressão, correspondendo a 95% de eficácia de controle do carrapato da pesquisa in vitro e amitraz a 0,025%), com dezoito vacas da raça Holandesa. Antes (média dos dias -3, -2, -1) e após a aplicação do produto (1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 e 21 dias), foram contadas fêmeas ingurgitadas do carrapato. A eficácia de controle foi de 0; 54 e 74,5%, respectivamente, 21dias após o tratamento. Após a aplicação dos tratamentos (controle negativo x tratamento fitoterápico), foram avaliadas as variáveis fisiológicas: frequência cardíaca, respiratória, temperatura do globo ocular e temperatura da pele; os resultados foram similares entre os tratamentos.

This research was aimed at evaluating in vitro and in vivo effects of lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Stapf) oil on cattle ticks (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus). Negative control group and eight concentrations of lemongrass oil (0.5; 1; 2; 5; 10; 20; 50; 100%), were used on in vitro trials with engorged female ticks. The efficacy of control ticks was 0; 20; 39; 99.5; 100; 100; 100; 100 and 100%, respectively. For the in vivo trial, eighteen Holstein cows were allocated to three groups (negative control, lemongrass oil at 2.0% - level estimated by regression analysis, accounting for 95% efficacy of control ticks on in vitro trial, and amitraz at 0.025%). Engorged female ticks were counted before (mean of days -3, -2, -1) and after treatment (1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 and 21 days). The efficacy of control ticks was 0; 54 and 74.5%, respectively, at 21 days after treatment. Physiologic variables were evaluated after treatments (negative control x phytotherapic treatment). Similar results were found between the treatments for physiological variables.

Animals , Female , Cattle , Cattle , Cymbopogon/classification , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Acaricides/analysis , Rhipicephalus/parasitology , Tick Control/instrumentation , Ticks/parasitology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-33572


Chemotherapeutic treatment is still the foundation of tick control programs. This study investigated the acaricidal efficacy of cypermethrin alone and in combination with chlorpyrifos against Haemaphysalis (H.) longicornis. Unfed larval ticks were exposed to 0.1, 1.0, and 10 mg/mL cypermethrin for 60 min, after which the acaricidal efficacy was examined based on tick mortality. All compounds showed similar suppression curves, with the best control being achieved by cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos (1 : 1 ratio) at 10 mg/mL. Effective cypermethrin concentrations for tick control were two to seven times higher than the recommended doses, indicating resistance by H. longicornis.

Chlorpyrifos , Ixodidae , Mortality , Tick Control , Ticks
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(3): 265-269, May-Jun/2013.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-679530


Ticks are obligate haematophagous ectoparasites of wild and domestic animals as well as humans, considered to be second worldwide to mosquitoes as vectors of human diseases. Tick-borne diseases are responsible worldwide for great economic losses in terms of mortality and morbidity of livestock animals. This review concerns to the different tick and tick-parasites control methods having a major focus on vaccines. Control of tick infestations has been mainly based on the use of acaricides, a control measure with serious drawbacks, as responsible for the contamination of milk and meat products, as a selective factor for acaricide-resistant ticks and as an environmental contaminant. Research on alternatives to the use of acaricides is strongly represented by tick vaccines considered a more cost-effective and environmentally safe strategy. Vaccines based on the Bm86 tick antigen were used in the first commercially available cattle tick vaccines and showed good results in reducing tick numbers, affecting weight and reproductive performance of female ticks which resulted in reduction of cattle tick populations over time and consequently lower reduction of the pathogen agents they carry.

Animals , Cattle , Female , Humans , Acaricides/administration & dosage , Cattle Diseases/prevention & control , Tick Control/methods , Tick Infestations/veterinary , Tick-Borne Diseases/veterinary , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Tick Infestations/prevention & control , Tick-Borne Diseases/prevention & control