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1.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(4): 545-554, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977929

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study involved two field trials with the aim of evaluating the efficacy of diflubenzuron, via mineral supplementation, against Haematobia irritans parasitizing cattle. Concomitantly with the main trial, a stall test was conducted to ascertain the effects of a different formulation with the same active ingredient against Rhipicephalus microplus, along with the action of diflubenzuron on the reproductive parameters of R. microplusfemales that had naturally detached from cattle. Against H. irritans, it was observed that the efficacy indexes fordiflubenzuron were low (≤ 31.3% or 44.6%) or null (0.0%) throughout the study. The anti- R. microplus efficacy of diflubenzuron, at weekly intervals, ranged from 0.0 to 13.7% over the entire experimental period. Null efficacy (0.0%) was registered for diflubenzuron in relation to the reproductive parameters of R. microplusfemales that had naturally detached from cattle. The different diflubenzuron formulations, administered via mineral salt supplementation, did not show satisfactory efficacy indexes against H. irritans and R. microplus parasitizing cattle, within the experimental design of the present study. In addition, this agent did not present any deleterious effects on the reproductive parameters of R. microplus females.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia do diflubenzuron, administrado via suplementação mineral, contra Haematobia irritans parasitando bovinos, em dois testes à campo. Concomitantemente, foi realizado testes em estábulo para determinar os efeitos de uma formulação diferente, com o mesmo princípio ativo, contra Rhipicephalus microplus , bem como a ação do diflubenzuron nos parâmetros reprodutivos de fêmeas de R. microplus recolhidas após desprendimento natural do hospedeiro bovino. Contra H. irritans, foi observado que foram baixos (≤ 31,3% ou 44,6%) ou nulos (0,0%) os índices de eficácia do diflubenzuron. A eficácia anti-R. microplus do diflubenzuron, observada em intervalos semanais, variaram de 0,0% a 13,7% durante todo o período experimental. Com relação aos parâmetros reprodutivos das fêmeas de R. microplus recolhidas, foi observada eficácia nula (0,0%) para o diflubenzuron. Conclui-se que as diferentes formulações administradas via sal mineral no atual estudo, contra H. irritans e R. microplus parasitando bovinos, não apresentaram eficácia satisfatória. Este agente também não mostrou efeito deletério sobre os parâmetros reprodutivos de fêmeas de R. microplus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Tick Infestations/veterinary , Muscidae/drug effects , Cattle Diseases/drug therapy , Diflubenzuron/administration & dosage , Rhipicephalus/drug effects , Ectoparasitic Infestations/veterinary , Tick Infestations/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Dietary Supplements , Ectoparasitic Infestations/drug therapy
2.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 23(2): 113-122, 06/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-714788

ABSTRACT

Ticks and the diseases they transmit cause great economic losses to livestock in tropical countries. Non-chemical control alternatives include the use of resistant cattle breeds, biological control and vaccines. However, the most widely used method is the application of different chemical classes of acaricides and macrocyclic lactones. Populations of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, resistant to organophosphates (OP), synthetic pyrethroids (SP), amitraz and fipronil have been reported in Mexico. Macrocyclic lactones are the most sold antiparasitic drug in the Mexican veterinary market. Ivermectin-resistant populations of R. (B.) microplus have been reported in Brazil, Uruguay and especially in Mexico (Veracruz and Yucatan). Although ivermectin resistance levels in R. (B.) microplus from Mexico were generally low in most cases, some field populations of R. (B.) microplus exhibited high levels of ivermectin resistance. The CHPAT population showed a resistance ratio of 10.23 and 79.6 at lethal concentration of 50% and 99%, respectively. Many field populations of R. (B.) microplus are resistant to multiple classes of antiparasitic drugs, including organophosphates (chlorpyrifos, coumaphos and diazinon), pyrethroids (flumethrin, deltamethrin and cypermethrin), amitraz and ivermectin. This paper reports the current status of the resistance of R. (B.) microplus to acaricides, especially ivermectin, in Mexican cattle.


Carrapatos e as doenças por eles transmitidas causam grandes perdas econômicas ao gado dos países tropicais. Alternativas não-químicas incluem o uso de raças de gado que sejam resistentes, controle biológico e vacinas. No entanto, o método mais utilizado é a aplicação de diferentes classes químicas de acaricidas e lactonas macrocíclicas. Populações de piolhos de gado, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, resistentes aos organofosfatos (OP), piretoides sintéticos (SP), amitraz e fipronil, foram descritas no México. Lactonas macrocíclicas são as drogas antiparasitárias mais vendidas no mercado veterinário mexicano. Populações de R. (B.) microplus resistentes à irvemectina foram relatadas no Brasil, Uruguai e especialmente no México (Veracruz e Yucatan). Embora os níveis de resistência à ivermectina no R. (B.) microplus do México tenha sido relativamente baixa, na maioria dos casos, algumas populações campestres de R. (B.) microplus mostraram altos níveis de resistência à ivermectina. A população CHPAT mostrou uma razão de resistência de 10,23 e 79,6 na concentração letal de 50% e 99%, respectivamente. Muitas populações campestres de R. (B.) microplus são resistentes a múltiplas classes de drogas antiparasitárias, incluindo organofosfatos (clorpirifós, coumafos e diazinon), piretoides (flumetrina, deltametrina e cipermetrina), amitraz e ivermectina. Este artigo relata o estado atual de resistência do R. (B.) microplus aos acaricidas, especialmente ivermectina, no gado mexicano.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Acaricides/pharmacology , Antiparasitic Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance , Ivermectin/pharmacology , Rhipicephalus/drug effects , Agriculture , Acaricides/therapeutic use , Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use , Cattle Diseases/drug therapy , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Lactones/pharmacology , Lactones/therapeutic use , Mexico , Tick Infestations/drug therapy , Tick Infestations/veterinary
3.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 22(1): 186-188, jan-mar/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-671599

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to show the effectiveness of a novel formulation of fipronil in a spot-on formulation for the therapeutic and preventive control of Rhipicephalus sanguineus in naturally infested dogs. Ticks on all dogs were counted at the moment of treatment and weekly after treatment (therapeutic efficacy) or infestation (preventive efficacy). The profile of the therapeutic efficacy for Rhipicephalus sanguineus suggested that the formulation was able to control the Ixodid species for at least 42 days after the treatment.


Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficácia de uma nova formulação “spot-on” à base de fipronil na terapêutica e prevenção do parasitismo por Rhipicephalus sanguineus em cães naturalmente infestados. Foi realizada contagem dos carrapatos no momento da aplicação do produto e semanalmente após o tratamento (eficácia terapêutica), bem como avaliando sua reinfestação (eficácia preventiva). Perfis terapêuticos e preventivos sugerem que a formulação controla o parasitismo por R. sanguineus em cães por pelo menos 42 dias após o tratamento.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Female , Male , Acaricides/administration & dosage , Antiparasitic Agents/administration & dosage , Dog Diseases/drug therapy , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Pyrazoles/administration & dosage , Rhipicephalus sanguineus , Tick Infestations/drug therapy , Tick Infestations/veterinary , Administration, Topical , Brazil , Treatment Outcome
4.
Ciênc. rural ; 39(4): 1131-1135, jul. 2009. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-519153

ABSTRACT

Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a eficiência de várias formulações feitas com fumo em corda no controle do carrapato (Boophilus microplus) de bovinos leiteiros da raça Holandesa naturalmente infestados. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por Amitraz a 0,025%; extrato aquoso de fumo em corda (EFC) a 1,25% + detergente neutro a 0,5% (em três aspersões, com intervalos de 24 horas entre elas); EFC a 1,25% + cal extinta a 1,25% (três aspersões); EFC a 5,0% + cal extinta a 2,0%, (três aspersões); EFC a 3,75% + detergente neutro a 0,5% (uma aspersão), e pelo grupo controle. Para a avaliação, foram observadas fêmeas ingurgitadas do carrapato, com comprimento superior a 4,0mm, antes da aplicação e no 1o, 2o, 3o, 4o, 5o, 6o, 7o e 14o dias após a aplicação de cada tratamento. A eficácia média de controle do carrapato no 14odia foi de 100,0; 77,5; 22,0; 63,80; 25,3 e 0,0%, respectivamente. Verificou-se diferença significativa (P<0,05) entre os tratamentos constituídos pelo produto químico e pordiferentes formulações de fumo em corda.


This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of severals concentrations of rope tobacco against the tick (Boophilus microplus) naturally infested on Rolstein dairy cattle. The treatments used were Amitraz at 0.025%; rope tobacco aqueous extract (RT) at 1.25% + neutral detergent at 0.5% (tree aspersions, with interval of 24 hours among them), RT at 1.75% + withewash at 0.5% (tree aspersions); RT at 5.0% + withewash at 2.0% (tree aspersions); RT at 3.75% + neutral detergent at 0.5% (one aspersion) and the control group. Engorged ticks were evaluate with length superior to 4.0 mm, before and at 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th and 14th day after treatment. The mean efficacy was 100.0; 77.5; 22.0; 63.8; 25.3 and 0.0%, respectively. Differences (P<0.05) among treatments with chemical product and rope tobacco formulations were observed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Phytotherapy/veterinary , Tick Infestations/drug therapy , Tick Infestations/veterinary , Insecticides/therapeutic use , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Tick Control , Tobacco
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 100(8): 829-832, Dec. 2005. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-419947

ABSTRACT

Following an infestation of dogticks in kennels housing dogs used for long-term studies of the pathogenesis of Chagas disease, we examined the effect of ivermectin treatment on the dogs, ticks, trypanosome parasites, and also on triatomine vectors of Chagas disease. Ivermectin treatment was highly effective in eliminating the ticks, but showed no apparent effect on the dogs nor on their trypanosome infection. Triatominae fed on the dogs soon after ivermectin treatment showed high mortality, but this effect quickly declined for bugs fed at successive intervals after treatment. In conclusion, although ivermectin treatment may have a transient effect on peridomestic populations of Triatominae, it is not the treatment of choice for this situation. The study also showed that although the dogticks could become infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, this only occurred when feeding on dogs in the acute phase of infection, and there was no evidence of subsequent parasite development in the ticks.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use , Chagas Disease/veterinary , Dog Diseases/drug therapy , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Rhipicephalus sanguineus/drug effects , Tick Infestations/veterinary , Trypanosoma cruzi/drug effects , Acute Disease , Chronic Disease , Chagas Disease/drug therapy , Chagas Disease/parasitology , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Rhipicephalus sanguineus/parasitology , Rhodnius/drug effects , Rhodnius/parasitology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Tick Infestations/drug therapy , Triatoma/drug effects , Triatoma/parasitology
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 34(4): 339-342, jul.-ago. 2001. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-461935

ABSTRACT

The action of fenthion was studied in a 15% epicutaneous formulation upon Rhipicephalus sanguineus, which may transmit pathogens to men and other animals, such as Ehrlichia, Babesia and Ricketsia. Dogs were artificially infected for the trial. The fenthion bioassays were begun four months after artificial infestation. The test group, having a mean of 186 ticks per dog, received the formulation dosage according to body weight on the neck region. Tick counts were performed, considering diameters > or = 2mm, during 11 days of treatment, in the most affected body areas: back, ears and paws. Before the application of fenthion in the dogs, it were observed an average 43.3% ticks in the ears, 38.1% in the back area and 17.6% in the paws. The number of ticks in dogs decreased by 36.2%, 63.8%, 82.7%, 67%, 40% and 4.9%, respectively on days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 after treatment. R. sanguineus anti-tick activity, lower than that officially recommended, was verified. The number of ticks increased progressively after the 5th day, demonstrating residual insecticide inefficacy. The results obtained did not indicate the use of this formulation, at the tested dosage, as an elective measure for R. sanguineus control.


Investigou-se a atividade de fenthion em formulação epicutânea a 15% sobre Rhipicephalus sanguineus, transmissor de patógenos ao homem e animais, tais como Ehrlichia, Babesia e Ricketsia. Infestou-se artificialmente cães com larvas deste carrapato. Os bioensaios com o fenthion iniciaram-se 4 meses após a infestação artificial. Constatada a média de 186 ixodídeos/cão, cães do grupo teste receberam na região da nuca a dosagem correspondente ao seu peso. Avaliaram-se a eficiência e a atividade residual através de contagens dos carrapatos com diâmetro ³ 2mm, durante 11 dias, nas áreas corpóreas mais parasitadas: dorso, orelhas e patas. Anteriormente, à aplicação do fenthion, 44,3% dos carrapatos format observados nas orelhas, 38,1% na área estudada do dorso e 17,6% nas patas. Revelou-se uma redução do número de carrapatos nos cães de 36,2%, 63,8%, 82,7%, 67%, 40% e 4,9%, respectivamente, nos dias 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9 e 11. Atividade carrapaticida menor do que a recomendada oficialmente foi constatada. O número de carrapatos aumentou progressivamente após o 5° dia, denotando ineficácia carrapaticida residual. Os resultados obtidos impedem a indicação da formulação na dosagem testada como medida eletiva para controle de R. sanguineus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Dog Diseases/drug therapy , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Fenthion/administration & dosage , Tick Infestations/drug therapy , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Injections, Intradermal
7.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1990 Mar; 28(3): 241-4
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-59962

ABSTRACT

Following treatment, cypermethrin and fenvalerate, were found to have inhibitory effect on serum acetylcholine esterase (AchE) activity of cattle and buffalo experimentally infested with B. microplus. The pattern of AchE activity in infested-pyrethroid-treated group was found to be significantly different from either healthy or tick-infested control. There was transient increase in the enzyme activity initially, followed by gradual decline and subsequent increase leading to normal level within 7 days of pyrethroid treatment. The enzyme activity was found to be low in buffalo than in cattle and the values remained below normal level up to day 7 in tick-infested group. The reversion of AchE activity to normal level in pyrethroid-treated group indicated that these compounds are prompt and safe ixodicides with least residual effect. The present investigation concludes that estimation of serum AchE might help in the clinico-biochemical diagnosis of tick toxin and pyrethroid toxicity in cattle and buffalo treated with these pyrethroids against tick infestation.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase/blood , Animals , Buffaloes/parasitology , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/drug therapy , Female , Male , Nitriles , Pyrethrins/adverse effects , Tick Infestations/drug therapy
8.
Parasitol. día ; 10(3): 86-9, jul.-sept. 1986. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-66993

ABSTRACT

Se comparó el efecto de Sarnacuran, Baytroid H, Bolfo líquido, K-Othrina, Nexadip, Invetroid y Tiguvón para el tratamiento de la infestación por Riphicephalus sanguineus en perros, mediante aplicación única y en condiciones de campo. El estudio se efectuó en la comuna de Puente Alto, Región Metropolitana, seleccionando al azar grupos de 12 perros infestados. Se hizo recuento del número de garrapatas cada 7 días y hasta el día 49 postratamiento. El día 14 presentaban diferencias con el control los productos Baytroid H, Bolfo líquido, K-Othirna (p<0,05) y Nexadip e Invetroid (p<0,01). En los demás días no hubo diferencias significativas para ninguno de los productos ensayados. Al final del estudio el porcentaje de eficiencia media más alto correspondió a Bolfo Líquido con 81,1%. Se discuten las posibles causas de las diferencias con trabajos anteriores y se sugiere realizar ensayos complementarios


Subject(s)
Dogs , Animals , Insecticides/therapeutic use , Ticks/parasitology , Chile , Tick Infestations/drug therapy
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