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Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 49: Pub. 1841, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363601


Capybaras have found favorable conditions for survival and reproduction in green urban environments. In recent years, the population of these large rodents has been increasingly abundant in several brazilian cities such as Uberlândia, a municipality of the southeastern region with a Cerrado biome. Capybaras are important in the Brazilian Spotted Fever epidemiological chain, by amplifying infection rates of the vector population. However, knowledge of this host's physiology is scarce. Thus, the aim of this work was to describe hematological and biochemical parameters of free-living capybaras groups in urbanized areas in the city of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Capybaras were captured in 4 different locations of Uberlândia city, Minas Gerais state, including 1 Condominium (P1), 1 Private Market Garden (P2), 1 Private Club (P3) and 1 Municipal Park (P4). The animals were baited into an octagonal iron corral and chemically contained with anesthetic darts. After sedated, blood was collected from the femoral vein in tubes with and without EDTA. Biochemical evaluation, hematological analysis with differential leukocyte counts and search for Dirofilaria sp. were done. The blood count and biochemistry values obtained from animals of different ages, sex and sectors (P1, P2, P3 and P4) were submitted to the Shapiro-Wilk normality test, considering 95% significance. Values that had a normal distribution were subjected to ANOVA tests followed by Student's t-test. Values that did not follow normality were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis test, to obtain a P-value, with a significance level of 95%. A total of 19 capybaras were captured: 4 in P1, 6 in P2, 4 in P3 and 5 in P4. From the 19 animals, 13 were females (68.42%) and 6 were males (31.57%), 12 adults (63.15%) and 7 juveniles (36.84%). Apart from occasional skin scars and moderate to intense Ambyomma spp. tick infestations, all captured animals were healthy on a broad examination. From 5 animals captured in P4, despite the use of anticoagulant, blood from 4 animals clotted fast. No microfilariae were found in the thick drop test in any of the 19 animals sampled, and in 2 adult female capybaras captured in P1, Kurloff cells were observed. Hematological and biochemical values presented no major differences when comparing sex and age. Nevertheless, differences in liver and kidney profile were observed between the capybara groups, including ALT, alkaline phosphorus, BUN and creatinine. Blood from 4 animals clotted fast, despite the use of EDTA tubes. Blood clotting of samples with anticoagulant in this work could be associated with some physiological features inherent to capybaras. Many attempts were required to obtain enough blood from each individual due to the rapid hemostasis, what come in accordance with reports in literature. Kurloff cells were observed in 2 adult female capybaras captured in P1, which can be found in peripheral blood of female rodents during follicular phase of estrous cycle. Hematological and biochemical values differences in liver enzymes such as ALT and alkaline phosphorus, and kidney profile enzymes including BUN and creatinine could be associated to capture stress or dietetic variation between groups. Despite statistical relevant, the values were still in accordance with other works, although comparisons should be done with caution since various environments exert a diverse array of stimulus upon the animals such as parasitic, infective, stress, nutritional, social and undoubtedly blood parameters mirror them. In conclusion, this work contributes to the standardization of free-living capybaras' physiological parameters in urban areas.(AU)

Animals , Rickettsia rickettsii , Rodentia/physiology , Rodentia/blood , Tick Infestations/epidemiology , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever/epidemiology
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(3): 409-414, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042474


Abstract Mammals captured in the Serra dos Órgãos National Park (PARNASO) and the Pedra Branca State Park (PBSP) between 2012 and 2015 were examined for the presence of ticks. In total, 140 mammals were examined, and 34 specimens were found to be parasitized by ticks. Didelphis aurita, Akodon montensis and Oligoryzomys nigripes were the species most parasitized. From these specimens, 146 ticks were collected, including 10 larvae. The ticks belonged to eight species: one in the genus Ixodes and seven in the genus Amblyomma. This study reports new associations of ticks and wild mammals in Brazil.

Resumo Mamíferos capturados no Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos (PARNASO) e no Parque Estadual Pedra Branca (PBSP) entre 2012 e 2015 foram examinados quanto à presença de carrapatos. No total, 140 mamíferos foram examinados, e 34 espécimes foram parasitados por carrapatos. Didelphis aurita, Akodon montensis e Oligoryzomys nigripes foram as espécies mais parasitadas. A partir desses espécimes, 146 carrapatos foram coletados, incluindo 10 larvas. Os carrapatos pertenciam a oito espécies: uma no gênero Ixodes e sete no gênero Amblyomma. Este estudo relata novas associações de carrapatos e mamíferos silvestres no Brasil.

Animals , Tick Infestations/veterinary , Ticks/classification , Animals, Wild/parasitology , Mammals/parasitology , Tick Infestations/parasitology , Tick Infestations/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Forests , Prevalence , Host-Parasite Interactions
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 44(1)2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1042969


Introducción: La borreliosis de Lyme no ha sido notificada oficialmente en Cuba pero existen sospechas clínico-epidemiológicas y evidencias serológicas sugestivas de la infección por Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, su agente causal. Objetivo: Describir aspectos clínicos y epidemiológicos de pacientes que padecieron la enfermedad y explorar el nivel de conocimientos en personal médico. Métodos: Se realizó revisión documental de los Registros de Diagnóstico de la infección por B. burgdorferi sensu lato, entre 2007-2016, conservados en el Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia del Instituto de Medicina Tropical Pedro Kourí y se combinó con un estudio exploratorio del nivel de conocimientos sobre la enfermedad en personal médico. Resultados: Hubo incremento discreto en el número de muestras recepcionadas. El suero y el líquido cefalorraquídeo, fueron las muestras de elección para el diagnóstico, realizado por ensayos inmunoenzimáticos. Se confirmó la infección en 10,9 por ciento de las muestras de sueros recibidas. Las lesiones en piel, adenopatías regionales, parálisis faciales, dificultad para la marcha y otras, motivaron la sospecha clínica de esta enfermedad. Predominó el antecedente de picaduras por insectos o garrapatas. El 70 por ciento de los médicos encuestados plantearon conocer sobre la enfermedad de Lyme, pero de ellos solo el 46 por ciento reconoció al menos una de sus manifestaciones clínicas. Conclusiones: Los aspectos clínicos y epidemiológicos descritos, deben ser tomados en cuenta en pacientes con sintomatologías compatibles con la infección por B. burgdorferi sensu lato. Se requieren intervenciones educativas en el personal médico para un mejor reconocimiento clínico de esta entidad infecciosa y propiciar un mejor diagnóstico(AU)

Introduction: Lyme borreliosis has not been officially reported in Cuba but there are clinical-epidemiological suspicions and serological evidence that are suggestive of its causal agent: the infection by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Objective: To describe clinical and epidemiological aspects of patients who suffered from the disease and to explore the level of knowledge about it in medical personnel. Methods: A documentary review of the Diagnostic Records of B. burgdorferi sensu lato infection that are preserved in the National Reference Laboratory of Pedro Kourí Institute of Tropical Medicine was carried out from 2007 to 2016, and it was combined with an exploratory study of the knowledge´s level about the disease in medical personnel. Results: There was a slight increase in the number of samples received. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid were the samples chosen for a diagnosis that was performed by enzyme immunoassay. Infection was confirmed in 10.9 percent of the serum samples received. Skin lesions, regional lymphadenopathy, facial paralysis, difficulty for walking and others led to the clinical suspicion of this disease. It was predominant the antecedent of insect or tick bites. Seventy percent of the doctors surveyed said they knew about Lyme disease, but only 46 percent of them acknowledged at least one of its clinical manifestations. Conclusions: B. burgdorferi sensu lato infection should be taken into account in patients with symptoms compatible with Lyme disease. Educational interventions are required in the medical personnel for a better clinical recognition of this infectious entity and to promote a better diagnosis(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Tick Infestations/epidemiology , Lyme Disease/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Cuba
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 82(4): 416-421, July-Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794991


ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Otoacariasis, the attachment of ticks and mites within the ear canal is a common phenomenon especially in rural areas. OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical and demographic features of cases with detected ticks in the ear canal, which is a common health problem, and identify tick species. METHODS: Data of patients who had otoacariasis were collected. We also investigated all ticks at the Veterinary Department of Kafkas University. RESULTS: We present the data of patients with otoacariasis. All ticks were identified as otobius. Otobius ticks were found not related with any complications. CONCLUSION: It is very important to detect ticks in the ear canal as they act as vector of some diseases. Identifying species of ticks may help clinicians to prevent further complications associated with vector-borne diseases.

Resumo Introdução: A otoacaríase, fixação de carrapatos duros e moles no interior do conduto auditivo, é fenômeno comum, especialmente em áreas rurais. Objetivo: Determinar as características clínicas e demográficas de casos de carrapatos detectados no conduto auditivo externo, um problema de saúde frequente, e identificar as espécies do ácaro. Método: Coletaram-se dados dos pacientes com otoacaríase, e todos os carrapatos foram investigados no Departamento de Veterinária da Universidade Kafkas. Resultados: Os dados de pacientes com otoacaríase são apresentados. Todos os carrapatos foram identificados como pertencentes ao gênero Otobius e constatou-se não haver relação entre os carrapatos e qualquer tipo de complicação. Conclusão: É muito importante detectar carrapatos no conduto auditivo externo, pois esses ácaros funcionam como vetores para algumas doenças. A identificação da espécie do ácaro pode ajudar o clínico a prevenir complicações associadas às doenças transmitidas por esse vetor.

Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Tick Infestations/parasitology , Argasidae , Ear Canal/parasitology , Tick Infestations/epidemiology , Turkey/epidemiology , Incidence
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 76(2): 89-92, abr. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841548


This work presents records of ticks infesting humans in northern Misiones Province, Argentina. Also, notes on potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens are included. A total of 282 ticks attached to researchers were collected and identified by their morphological characters. Eight tick species were found: Amblyomma brasiliense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma incisum, Amblyomma ovale, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus microplus. Some of these species as A. dubitatum, A. ovale and R. sanguineus have been found infected with spotted fever group rickettsiae pathogenic to humans in Brazil and Argentina. The potential role as vectors of humans pathogens of the ticks found attached to humans in this study is discussed.

En este trabajo se presentan registros de garrapatas que infestan seres humanos en el norte de la provincia de Misiones, Argentina. Además, se incluyen notas sobre la posible transmisión de patógenos por garrapatas. Se colectó un total de 282 garrapatas adheridas a investigadores, las cuales fueron identificadas por sus caracteres morfológicos. Se encontraron ocho especies de garrapatas: Amblyomma brasiliense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma incisum, Amblyomma ovale, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus y Rhipicephalus microplus. Algunas de estas especies como A. dubitatum, A. ovale y R. sanguineus han sido halladas infectadas con rickettsias del grupo de las fiebres manchadas patógenas para los seres humanos en Brasil y Argentina. Se discute el papel potencial de las garrapatas encontradas infestando humanos en este estudio como vectores de patógenos de seres humanos.

Humans , Animals , Arthropod Vectors/microbiology , Rickettsia/isolation & purification , Tick Infestations/epidemiology , Ticks/microbiology , Argentina , Ticks/classification , Cattle , Data Collection , Ixodidae/classification , Ixodidae/microbiology , Horses/parasitology
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 18(2): 299-312, Apr.-Jun. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755173



Brazilian spotted fever is an emerging zoonosis notified mainly in the Southeast of Brazil, especially due to its high level of lethality.


To analyze the epidemiological and spatial pattern of the disease in the municipality of Valinhos (106,793 inhabitants), São Paulo, Southeastern region of Brazil, in the period between 2001 and 2012.


All laboratory-confirmed cases with likely site of infection in the city (n = 49) notified in the Brazilian Case Registry Database were studied. Sites were geocoded using the cartographic base of the city and Google Earth (geographic coordinates) with correction according to the Brazilian Geodetic System. We used the Kernel estimator to analyze the density of the cases on the map. Land cover and distance to basins of all cases were analyzed. Information about tick species and primary hosts were obtained from reports of the Superintendence of Control of Endemic Diseases.


Seasonality of the disease was observed with the highest incidence from June to November, and in 2005 and 2011. The most affected groups were men (79.6%) aged 20-49 years old (49%). Lethality was found to be 42.9%. Maps showed the progressive registration of cases in the urban area. Capybaras were reported as the main primary host, and Amblyomma cajennense was identified in probable sites of infection during field investigation. The likely sites of infection were mostly located near basins, dirty pastures, and bordering woods.


The transmission pattern of Brazilian spotted fever in Valinhos is similar to that in other cities in the region, where capybara is the main primary host and an amplifier of R. rickettsii. Over the years, a higher occurrence of cases has been identified in the urban area of the ...


A febre maculosa brasileira é uma zoonose de caráter reemergente notificada principalmente na região Sudeste do Brasil, destacando-se pela sua alta letalidade.


Analisar o padrão epidemiológico e espacial dessa enfermidade no município de Valinhos, São Paulo (106.793 habitantes), no período de 2001 até 2012.


Foram estudados todos os casos confirmados laboratorialmente (n = 49) com local provável de infecção no município, notificados no Sistema de Informação sobre Agravos Notificáveis. Os locais foram georreferenciados na base cartográfica usando o Google Earth (coordenadas geográficas) com correção de acordo com o Sistema Geodésico Brasileiro. Utilizou-se o estimador Kernel para a análise da densidade de casos no mapa. Cobertura do solo e distância a coleções hídricas foram analisados. A presença de espécies de carrapatos e hospedeiros primários foram obtidos de relatórios da Superintendência de Controles de Endemias.


Observou-se sazonalidade da doença com maior incidência entre junho a novembro, sendo os anos de 2005 e 2011 os de maior ocorrência. Houve predomínio de casos no sexo masculino (79,6%) e na faixa etária 20 a 49 anos (49%). A letalidade foi de 42,9%. Os mapas mostram o registro progressivo de casos na zona urbana da cidade. As capivaras foram notificadas como principal hospedeiro primário de Amblyomma cajennense,espécie identificada nas pesquisas acarológicas no local de estudo. Os locais prováveis de infecção estão localizados, na maioria, próximos às coleções hídricas, pastos sujos e mata ciliar degradada.


O padrão de transmissão da febre maculosa brasileira em Valinhos é semelhante ao descrito em outras cidades da região, onde a capivara é o principal hospedeiro primário do vetor e amplificador da bactéria ...

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Fever/epidemiology , Brazil , Tick Infestations/epidemiology , Urbanization
Rev. chil. infectol ; 31(5): 563-568, oct. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-730273


Background: Rickettsioses, ehrlichioses and anaplasmoses are caused by Gram negative obligate intracellular bacteria and transmitted mainly by arthropods. Aim: To detect and perform the molecular characterization of these pathogens in ticks and domestic dogs in Bahia Blanca City (Buenos Aires, Argentina). Methods: Fifty six blood samples from dogs and 82 ticks (75 Rhipicephalus sanguineus and 7 Amblyomma tigrinum) were studied. The samples were analyzed by PCR for Rickettsia (intergenic space 23S-5S rRNA), Ehrlichia/Anaplasma (16S rRNA), and Anaplasma platys (16S rRNA). Results: 12% of R. sanguineus resulted positive for Rickettsia, identified by sequencing as Rickettsia massiliae; and 37.5% of the canine blood samples analyzed were positive for A. platys. Molecular characterization was also performed by amplification of the fragment of the citrate synthase gene (gltA) (Rickettsia genus) and the groESL gene (A. platys). Phylogenetic trees were constructed using the neighbor-joining method. These trees revealed that sequences obtained are similar to those from other geographical regions. Conclusion: The results indicate the presence of R. massiliae in R. sanguineus ticks for the second time in an urban area of South America and A. platys infection in dogs, being the southernmost region of Argentina where it has been notified.

Introducción: Las rickettsiosis, ehrlichiosis y anaplasmosis son causadas por bacterias gramnegativas, intracelulares obligadas y transmitidas principalmente por artrópodos. Objetivo: Detectar y caracterizar molecularmente estos patógenos en garrapatas y caninos domésticos del municipio de Bahía Blanca (provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina). Material y Métodos: Se estudiaron 56 muestras sanguíneas de caninos, 75 garrapatas Rhipicephalus sanguineus y 7 Amblyomma tigrinum. Las muestras fueron analizadas por RPC para Rickettsia (espacio intergénico 23S-5S ARNr), Ehrlichia y Anaplasma (16S ARNr), y Anaplasma platys (16S ARNr). Resultados: Se detectó positividad a Rickettsia en 12% de R. sanguineus, identificándose por secuenciación a Rickettsia massiliae. Las muestras sanguíneas de los caninos resultaron en 37,5% positivas a A. platys. También se caracterizaron molecularmente por la amplificación del fragmento del gen citrato sintasa (gltA) (género Rickettsia) y del gen groESL (A. platys). Se construyeron árboles filogenéticos utilizando el método del vecino más cercano (neighbor-joining) revelando que las secuencias obtenidas son similares a las de otras regiones geográficas. Conclusión: Los resultados indican la presencia de R. massiliae en garrapatas R. sanguineus en una segunda zona urbana de Sudamérica y la infección por A. platys en caninos, siendo la región más austral de Argentina donde ha sido notificada.

Animals , Dogs , Anaplasma/genetics , Anaplasmosis/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Rhipicephalus sanguineus/microbiology , Rickettsia Infections/veterinary , Rickettsia/genetics , Tick Infestations/veterinary , Argentina/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/microbiology , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Phylogeny , Rickettsia Infections/epidemiology , Tick Infestations/epidemiology , Tick Infestations/microbiology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-76770


Ticks and tick-borne diseases are important in human and livestock health worldwide. In November 2012, ixodid ticks were collected and identified morphologically from cattle and wild animals in the Maswa district and Iringa urban, Tanzania. Amblyomma gemma, A. lepidum, and A. variegatum were identified from Maswa cattle, and A. variegatum was the predominant species. A. marmoreum, Hyalomma impeltatum, and Rhipicephalus pulchellus were identified from Iringa cattle in addition to the above 3 Amblyomma species, and A. gemma was the most abundant species. Total 4 Amblyomma and 6 Rhipicephalus species were identified from wild animals of the 2 areas. A. lepidum was predominant in Maswa buffaloes, whereas A. gemma was predominant in Iringa buffaloes. Overall, A. variegatum in cattle was predominant in the Maswa district and A. gemma was predominant in Iringa, Tanzania.

Animals , Animals, Wild , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Ixodidae , Tanzania/epidemiology , Tick Infestations/epidemiology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-190467


Ticks were collected from 35 animals from 5 provinces and 3 metropolitan cities during 2012. Ticks also were collected by tick drag from 4 sites in Gyeonggi-do (2) and Jeollabuk-do (2) Provinces. A total of 612 ticks belonging to 6 species and 3 genera were collected from mammals and a bird (n=573) and by tick drag (n=39). Haemaphyalis longicornis (n=434) was the most commonly collected tick, followed by H. flava (158), Ixodes nipponensis (11), Amblyomma testudinarium (7), H. japonica (1), and H. formosensis (1). H. longicornis and H. flava were collected from all animal hosts examined. For animal hosts (n>1), the highest Tick Index (TI) was observed for domestic dogs (29.6), followed by Siberian roe deer (17.4), water deer (14.4), and raccoon dogs (1.3). A total of 402 H. longicornis (adults 86, 21.4%; nymphs 160, 39.8%; larvae 156, 38.9%) were collected from wild and domestic animals. A total of 158 H. flava (n=158) were collected from wild and domestic animals and 1 ring-necked pheasant, with a higher proportion of adults (103, 65.2%), while nymphs and larvae only accounted for 12.7% (20) and 22.2% (35), respectively. Only 7 A. testudinarium were collected from the wild boar (6 adults) and Eurasian badger (1 nymph), while only 5 I. nipponensis were collected from the water deer (4 adults) and a raccoon dog (1 adult). One adult female H. formosensis was first collected from vegetation by tick drag from Mara Island, Seogwipo-si, Jeju-do Province.

Animals , Animals, Domestic , Animals, Wild , Female , Male , Prevalence , Republic of Korea , Tick Infestations/epidemiology , Ticks/classification
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 33(supl.1): 31-37, set. 2013. mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-695794


Introduction: Since the middle of last century, cases of rickettsiosis have been found in Panamá when outbreaks of murine typhus and spotted fever were reported. Since then, little information exists about its prevalence in this country, since it is most often is misdiagnosed as another disease. Objectives: The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the presence of Rickettsia infections in humans in three locations in Panamá. These locations are agricultural areas, near forested areas or those who work in zoo. Materials and methods: Three locations where chosen for this study: Tortí, El Valle de Antón and workers in the Summit Municipal Park in Panamá City. All volunteers signed an informed consent and answered a questionnaire. The samples were analyzed for the detection of rickettsial spotted fever and typhus group by the indirect immunofluorescence (using commercial kits) and antigens of Rickettsia rickettsii and R. amblyommii. Results: Blood samples were taken from 97 volunteers in Tortí (25), El Valle de Anton (37) and Summit Municipal Park (35). Of these, a total of 38 (39%) samples reacted to one of the two methods: eight (32%) in Tortí, 18 (48%) in El valle and 12 (34%) in Summit Municipal Park. Conclusion: The results show a high prevalence of antibodies to Rickettsia belonging to the spotted fever group in each of the three study areas, in addition to presenting evidence of the typhus group Rickettsia in El Valle de Anton. These areas could be considered endemic for rickettsiosis as there are conditions for maintaining them.

Introducción. Desde mediados del siglo pasado, se conocen en Panamá casos de rickettsiosis, cuando fueron reportados brotes de tifus en ratones y de fiebres manchadas. A partir de entonces, poca información se tiene sobre su prevalencia en este país, lo cual se debe principalmente a que son confundidos con otras enfermedades. Objetivos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue demostrar la presencia de rickettsiosis en humanos provenientes de tres localidades de Panamá, que corresponden a zonas agropecuarias, cercanas a bosques, o que trabajaban en zoológicos. Materiales y métodos. Se escogieron tres localidades para este estudio: Tortí (provincia de Panamá), El Valle de Antón (provincia de Coclé) y el Parque Municipal Summit en Ciudad de Panamá. Los voluntarios firmaron un consentimiento informado, además de responder un cuestionario. De cada voluntario se extrajo sangre venosa, la que fue analizada por medio de inmunoflorescencia indirecta, utilizando kits comerciales y láminas sensibilizadas con antígenos cultivados de Rickettsia rickettsii y Rickettsia amblyommii . Resultados. Se tomaron muestras de 97 voluntarios, 25 en Tortí, 37 en El Valle de Antón y 35 en el Parque Municipal Summit. De estos, 38 (39 %) de las muestras fueron positivas en algunas de las dos técnicas practicadas: 8 (32 %) en Tortí, 18 (48 %) en El Valle y 12 (34 %) en el Parque Municipal Summit. Conclusión. Se demuestra una alta prevalencia de anticuerpos contra Rickettsia del grupo de las fiebres manchadas en las tres áreas de estudio, además de presentarse evidencia de títulos para Rickettsia del grupo tifus en El Valle de Antón. Estas zonas podrían considerarse como endémicas por rickettsiosis, ya que existen condiciones que permiten el mantenimiento de las mismas.

Animals , Humans , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Rickettsia Infections/epidemiology , Rickettsia/immunology , Agricultural Workers' Diseases/epidemiology , Animals, Zoo/parasitology , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology , Arachnid Vectors/microbiology , Disease Reservoirs/parasitology , Endemic Diseases , Environmental Exposure , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Forests , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Ixodidae/microbiology , Occupational Exposure , Panama/epidemiology , Pets/parasitology , Rural Population , Rickettsia Infections/immunology , Rickettsia rickettsii/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Species Specificity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tick Bites/microbiology , Tick Infestations/epidemiology , Tick Infestations/prevention & control , Tick Infestations/veterinary , Urban Population
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 33(supl.1): 38-51, set. 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-695795


Introducción. Las rickettsias son bacterias patógenas usualmente transmitidas por ectoparásitos, como garrapatas, piojos o pulgas. En la última década se presentaron tres brotes de rickettsiosis con casos fatales en la región noroccidental de Antioquia y en un municipio limítrofe de Córdoba. Objetivo. Describir la ecología y la epidemiología de las infecciones por Rickettsia spp. en el Urabá antioqueño. Materiales y métodos. Se obtuvieron muestras de 354 roedores y se recolectaron 839 ectoparásitos de estos en los municipios de Apartadó, Turbo y Necoclí. Asimismo, se obtuvieron 220 sueros humanos. Estas muestras fueron estudiadas por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) e inmunofluorescencia indirecta (IFI) para la detección de infección por rickettsias. Resultados. Por IFI se detectaron anticuerpos antirickettsias en 130 (43 %) de los roedores y en 53 (24 %) de los sueros humanos estudiados. Además, se amplificaron secuencias del gen gltA específicas del género Rickettsia en 23 (6,8 %) muestras de hígado de roedores, las cuales mostraron una similitud del 98,7 % con R. prowazekii . Una secuencia de gltA obtenida de larvas de garrapatas del género Amblyomma sp., tuvo una identidad mayor de 99 % con las secuencias de R. tamurae . Conclusión. Estos resultados demuestran la circulación de rickettsias en roedores, ectoparásitos y humanos en los municipios estudiados.

Introduction: Rickettsia spp. are tick, flea or lice-borne pathogenic bacterium, usually carried by rodents. In the last decade three outbreaks of rickettsial disease including fatalities, occurred in the provinces of Antioquia and Córdoba in northwestern Colombia. Objective: The purpose of this study was to perform an ecological and epidemiological description of the Rickettsia spp infection in the recently affected region of Colombia. Materials and methods: Samples were obtained from 354 rodents and their parasites captured in the municipalities of Apartadó, Turbo and Necoclí. Likewise, 220 human sera were also collected, for detection of infection by Rickettsia spp. Results: Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) revealed that 130 (43%) of the rodents and 53 (24%) of the humans produced antibodies to Rickettsia spp. Additionally, rickettsial DNA was amplified by PCR from 23 (6.8%) rodent liver samples using primers directed to the genus specific gltA gene. While gltA sequences from rodent samples exhibited a 98.7% similitude with R . prowazekii, a sequence amplified from larvae of Amblyomma sp exhibited identities of >99% similarity with R. tamurae . Conclusion: These results demonstrate the presence of rickettsia in rodents, ectoparasites and humans throughout the municipalities studied.

Adult , Animals , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Arachnid Vectors/microbiology , Disease Reservoirs/parasitology , Rickettsia Infections/epidemiology , Rickettsia/isolation & purification , Rodentia/parasitology , Tick Infestations/veterinary , Colombia/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Endemic Diseases , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Larva/microbiology , Liver/microbiology , Mites/microbiology , Phylogeny , Rickettsia Infections/blood , Rickettsia Infections/transmission , Rickettsia Infections/veterinary , Rickettsia/genetics , Rickettsia/immunology , Rodentia/blood , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Socioeconomic Factors , Tick Infestations/epidemiology , Ticks/microbiology
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 33(supl.1): 161-178, set. 2013. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-695807


Las rickettsiosis son entidades clínicas de tipo zoonótico, causadas por bacterias intracelulares estrictas de los géneros Rickettsia y Orientia, pertenecientes a la familia Rickettsiaceae. Su ecología está determinada por factores ambientales y la presencia de vectores específicos que condicionan el establecimiento y la epidemiología en diferentes regiones del mundo. En las Américas, durante el siglo XX, únicamente eran reconocidas tres de estas enfermedades: la fiebre manchada de las Montañas Rocosas, el tifus epidémico y el tifus endémico, Sin embargo, a partir del año 2000 se han descrito mas de 10 especies diferentes previamente desconocidas en este continente, tanto en artrópodos como en casos clínicos, hecho que permite clasificarlas como entidades clínicas emergentes y reemergentes. Dadas las manifestaciones clínicas de las enfermedades causadas por rickettsias, siendo la gran mayoría inespecíficas y, por lo mismo, compartidas con otras enfermedades infecciosas, especialmente virales y bacterianas, han sido enmarcadas entre los diagnósticos diferenciales del síndrome febril agudo, tanto en áreas urbanas como tropicales. En la actualidad, se cuenta con métodos diagnósticos directos e indirectos, que son útiles en la identificación del agente infeccioso, en este caso, causante de rickettsiosis.

Rickettsioses are a group of zoonotic diseases caused by strict intracellular bacteria of the genus Rickettsia and Orientia which belong to the Rickettsiaceae family. Their ecology is influenced by environmental factors and the presence of specific vectors that determine the establishment and epidemiology in different world regions. In America, during the 20 th century, only three of these diseases were recognized: Rocky Mountain spotted fever, epidemic typhus and endemic typhus. However, since 2000, more than 10 different species that had previously been unknown in this continent have been described, both in arthropods and in clinical cases, fact that classifies them as emerging and re-emerging diseases. Given the clinical manifestations of the diseases caused by rickettsias, being the majority unspecific and, therefore, shared with other infectious diseases, especially viral and bacterial, they have been framed within the differential diagnoses of acute febrile syndrome in urban and tropical areas. Nowadays, there are direct and indirect diagnostic methods, which are useful in the definition of the infectious agent, in this case, the cause of rickettsioses.

Animals , Humans , Rickettsia Infections/epidemiology , Tick-Borne Diseases/epidemiology , Americas/epidemiology , Arachnid Vectors/microbiology , Blotting, Western , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Disease Reservoirs/parasitology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rickettsia Infections/classification , Rickettsia Infections/diagnosis , Rickettsia Infections/transmission , Rickettsia/classification , Rickettsia/isolation & purification , Species Specificity , Staining and Labeling , Scrub Typhus/epidemiology , Scrub Typhus/transmission , Serologic Tests/methods , Tick Bites/microbiology , Tick Infestations/epidemiology , Tick Infestations/veterinary , Tick-Borne Diseases/diagnosis , Ticks/microbiology
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 22(2): 235-242, Apr./June/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-679422


The objective of this study was to evaluate factors associated with infestation by Amblyomma cajennense on horses in two microregions of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Horses on 62 farms in the municipalities of the Itaguaí and Serrana microregions were evaluated between January and May 2009. The animals were examined to determine the presence of ticks and infestation level. The animals' rearing and management were assessed on each farm property using an epidemiological questionnaire. Out of the 635 horses evaluated, 41.6% were infested with A. cajennense. It was observed that farms in low-altitude regions (OR=3.69; CI: 2.3-5.8), with unsatisfactory zootechnical and sanitary management (OR=5.92; CI: 3.8-9.2) and an extensive rearing system (OR=4.25; CI: 2.1-8.5) were factors associated with tick infestation (p < 0.05) and also with cases of high infestation on horses. Use of chemical acaricides on horses was also associated with infestation (p < 0.05); the owners described different therapeutic approaches with different treatment intervals. From the present study, low altitudes, unsatisfactory management, extensive rearing and inappropriate use of acaricide products were factors associated with occurrences of A. cajennense at different infestation levels on horses in these municipalities.

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os fatores associados á infestação por Amblyomma cajennense em equinos em duas microrregiões do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Equinos de 62 fazendas nos municípios das microrregiões de Itaguaí e Serrana foram avaliados entre janeiro e maio de 2009. Os animais foram inspecionados quanto á presença e ao nível de infestação destes carrapatos. As condições de criação e o manejo foram avaliados em cada propriedade, por um questionário epidemiológico. Dos 635 equinos avaliados, 41,6% apresentavam-se infestados por A. cajennense. Observou-se que as criações dos animais em regiões de baixas altitudes (OR=3,69, IC: 2,3-5,8), em propriedades com manejo zootécnico e sanitário insatisfatório (OR=5,92, IC: 3,8-9,2) e em sistema de criação extensivo (OR=4,25, IC: 2,1-8,5) foram fatores associados (p < 0,05) á infestação, sendo também relacionados á intensa infestação nos equinos. O uso de carrapaticida nos equinos também apresentou associação (p < 0,05) á infestação, sendo descritas pelos proprietários, diferentes condutas terapêuticas, em intervalos alternados de tratamento. Baixas altitudes, condição de manejo insatisfatória, criação extensiva e o uso inadequado dos produtos carrapaticidas são fatores associados á ocorrência de A. cajennense em diferentes níveis de infestação nos equinos dos municípios estudados.

Animals , Female , Male , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , Horse Diseases/parasitology , Ixodidae , Tick Infestations/veterinary , Brazil , Horses , Tick Infestations/epidemiology
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 22(1): 6-12, jan.-mar. 2013. mapa, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-671603


In the present study, we report tick infestations on wild birds in plots of the Atlantic Forest reforested fragments with native species and plots reforested with Eucalyptus tereticornis in the municipality of Rio Claro, State of São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 256 birds were captured: 137 individuals of 33 species, in planted native forest; and 128 individuals of 37 species, in planted Eucalyptus tereticornis forest. Nymphs of two tick species were found on the birds: Amblyomma calcaratum and Amblyomma longirostre, the former was more abundant in the fragments reforested with Atlantic forest native species, and the latter in the fragment reforested with E. tereticornis. New host records were presented for A. calcaratum.

O presente estudo apresenta infestações de carrapatos em aves silvestres em fragmentos de reflorestamento com espécies nativas e fragmentos de reflorestamento com Eucalyptus tereticornis no município de Rio Claro, São Paulo. No total foram capturadas 265 aves, sendo 137 indivíduos de 33 espécies nas áreas de reflorestamento com espécies nativas e 128 indivíduos de 37 espécies nas áreas reflorestadas com Eucalyptus tereticornis. Ninfas de duas espécies de carrapatos foram registradas: Amblyomma calcaratum e Amblyomma longirostre, sendo a primeira mais abundante na área nativa e a segunda na área de Eucalyptus tereticornis. Novos registros de hospedeiros para A. calcaratum são apresentados.

Animals , Ticks/classification , Bird Diseases/epidemiology , Bird Diseases/parasitology , Tick Infestations/veterinary , Brazil/epidemiology , Forests , Tick Infestations/epidemiology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-91095


A tick survey was conducted to determine the relative abundance and distribution of ticks associated with selected mammals in the Republic of Korea (ROK) during 2008-2009. A total of 918 ticks were collected from 76 mammals (6 families, 9 species) captured at 6 provinces and 3 Metropolitan Cities in ROK. Haemaphysalis longicornis (54.4%) was the most frequently collected tick, followed by Haemaphysalis flava (28.5%), Ixodes nipponensis (7.6%), Ixodes pomerantzevi (4.8%), Ixodes persulcatus (4.6%), and Haemaphysalis japonica (0.1%). Adults (57.0%) and nymphs (28.7%) of Ixodes and Haemaphysalis spp. were collected most frequently from medium or large mammals in this survey, while few larvae (14.3%) were collected. Hydropotes inermis was the most frequently captured mammal (52.6%), with a 16.4 tick index and 5 of 6 species of ticks collected during this survey. H. longicornis (69.7%) was the predominant tick collected from H. inermis, followed by H. flava (22.2%), I. persulcatus (6.1%), I. nipponensis (1.8%), and H. japonica (0.2%).

Animals , Mammals/parasitology , Prevalence , Republic of Korea , Tick Infestations/epidemiology , Ticks/classification
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-107277


Babesia spp. were detected from 4 asymptomatic pukus captured on a game ranch in central Zambia in October 2008. Blood smears were examined in 4 species of aymptomatic free-ranging antelopes, namely the puku (Kobus vordanii), reedbuck (Redunca arundinum), bushbuck (Tragelaphus sylvaticus), and kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), and showed the presence of Babesia parasites only in the puku. In the puku, the prevalence of babesiosis was estimated at 33.3% (n=12), while the overall prevalence in all examined animals was 8.5% (n=47). The parasites showed morphological characteristics of paired ring-like stages with the length varying between 1.61 microm and 3.02 microm (mean=2.12 microm, n=27; SD=0.76 microm). Both the infected and non-infected pukus showed good body condition scores (BCS), while the dominant tick species detected from all animals were Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus spp., and Boophilus spp. To our knowledge this is the first report of Babesia spp. infection in pukus in Zambia. These findings suggest that wildlife could play an important role in the epidemiology of babesiosis in Zambia.

Animals , Animals, Wild/parasitology , Antelopes/parasitology , Arachnid Vectors/classification , Asymptomatic Diseases , Babesia/isolation & purification , Babesiosis/epidemiology , Erythrocytes/parasitology , Prevalence , Rhipicephalus/classification , Tick Infestations/epidemiology , Ticks/parasitology , Zambia/epidemiology
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 19(4): 244-248, Oct.-Dec. 2010. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-604679


This is a report of ticks species, parasite prevalence and infestation intensity of birds in a forest fragment (18º 56' 57" S and 48º 12' 14" W) within the Brazilian cerrado (savanna), in the municipality of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 162 birds from 26 species were captured. One adult tick, 296 larvae and 67 nymphs were found on passerine birds. Of these, it was identified 31 larvae and 27 nymphs of Amblyomma longirostre, 17 nymphs of A. nodosum, one A. cajennense larvae and one male of Rhipicephalus sanguineus. All other ticks were identified as Amblyomma sp. larvae (n = 264) or nymphs (n = 26). Overall tick infestation intensity and prevalence were 4.32 ticks/infested bird and 52 percent, respectively. Sampling of host-seeking ticks on the ground within the forest during a two-year period showed only five Amblyomma sp. nymphs and one adult male of A. nodosum whereas a search for ticks on domestic animals (cattle, horses and dogs) found Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks. Although identification was possible in only 27 percent of bird ticks there seemed to be no correlation between environmental and domestic animal and bird infestation. It can be assumed that bird infestation may occur above the ground or at specific sites not sampled.

Neste trabalho, são apresentadas as espécies de carrapatos em aves silvestres, sua prevalência e a intensidade de infestação em um fragmento florestal (18º 56' 57" S e 48º 12' 14" W) do Cerrado, no município de Uberlândia, Estado de Minas Gerais. Foram capturadas 162 aves de 26 espécies, mas apenas as aves Passeriformes estavam infestadas. Nestas, foram encontrados um carrapato adulto, 67 ninfas e 296 larvas. Dentre os carrapatos foi possível a identificação de 31 larvas e 27 ninfas de Amblyomma longirostre, 17 ninfas de A. nodosum, uma larva de A. cajennense e um Rhipicephalus sanguineus macho. Todos os outros carrapatos foram classificados como larvas (n = 264) ou ninfas (n = 26) de Amblyomma sp. A intensidade de infestação e a prevalência de carrapatos foram de 4,32 carrapatos/ave infestada e 52 por cento, respectivamente. Na pesquisa de carrapatos em vida livre sobre a vegetação do fragmento florestal, foram capturados apenas cinco ninfas de Amblyomma sp. e um macho adulto de A. nodosum, por um período de dois anos. Carrapatos da espécie Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus foram encontrados parasitando bovinos, cavalos e cães domésticos da região. Mesmo considerando a identificação de apenas 27 por cento dos carrapatos das aves, parece não haver correlação entre infestação ambiental, nos animais domésticos, com a infestação das aves. Pode-se supor que a infestação das aves ocorra acima do solo ou em locais específicos não pesquisados neste trabalho.

Animals , Bird Diseases/epidemiology , Birds/parasitology , Ticks , Tick Infestations/veterinary , Brazil , Trees , Tick Infestations/epidemiology
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 19(3): 141-147, July-Sept. 2010. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-604658


Assuming the existence of tick parasitism in humans in the State of Pará, an aggregate observational study was developed along a transversal line in three cities of the State, during two years. Interviews and examinations of 2,160 townspeople and tourists were carried out, without discrimination of ethnic, sex, age, or social status, and classified for effects analyzed for four bands of age, six types of activities in the society, and two sexes. Larvae, nymphs, and adults of ticks had been identified with cases of parasitism involving six species, of the genus Amblyomma, the genus Ixodes, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Anocentor nitens, and Ornithodorus talaje (the first case registered in Pará), infecting human beings. Adults and agricultural workers were most frequently attacked, followed by students. A. cajennense and R. sanguineus are the species most frequent in the parasitism affecting humans, and A. cajennense is the dominant species. The statistical prevalence was largest in Cachoeira do Arari, Ilha do Marajó. In Santarém the greatest average intensity of parasitism was for R. sanguineus, and in the other locations it wasfor A. cajennense. Agricultural workers faced the greatest risk from parasitism, and to place in practice elementary measures of prevention would reduce by 25 percent the number of cases.

Com a hipótese de parasitismo por carrapatos em humanos no Estado do Pará, foi desenvolvido estudo observacional, agregado, transversal em três mesoregiões do Estado, durante dois anos. Foram entrevistados e examinados 2.160 munícipes, e turistas, sem discriminação étnica, de sexo, idade, e social, classificados para efeito de análises em quatro faixas de idade, seis tipos de atividades na sociedade, e dois sexos. Houve casos de parasitismo por larvas, ninfas, e adultos de carrapatos, envolvendo seis espécies do gênero Amblyomma, o gênero Ixodes, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Anocentor nitens e Ornithodorus talaje (primeiro registo para o Estado). Adultos e os trabalhadores rurais são os mais atacados, seguidos dos estudantes. A. cajennense e R. sanguineus são as espécies mais freqüentes no parasitismo de humano, e A. cajennense é a espécie dominante. A prevalência foi superior a 40 por cento nos três municípios, e estatisticamente maior em Cachoeira do Arari, Ilha de Marajó. Em Santarém R. sanguineus teve a maior intensidade média de parasitismo, nos outros municípios foi por A. cajennense. Estar em atividade rural dobra o risco do parasitismo, e o esclarecimento da população, para colocar em prática medidas elementares de prevenção reduziria em 25 por cento o número de casos.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Animals , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Ixodidae , Tick Infestations/epidemiology , Brazil
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 19(2): 89-93, Apr.-June 2010. mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-604645


This study investigated the epidemiology of canine ehrlichiosis in Northeastern Brazil, focusing the identification of the Ehrlichia species and vectors involved. Samples were collected from 472 domestic dogs residing in the health districts of Cajazeiras and Itapuã of Salvador city. The average prevalence of antibodies reactive to E. canis by immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) (titer > 1:80) was 35.6 percent (168/472). Blood samples from the E. canis-seropositive animals were tested by nested PCR in order to identify the Ehrlichia species responsible for the infection. Among the seropositives, 58 (34.5 percent) were found to be PCR-positive for E. canis. Ticks were found in 32 dogs. Nested-PCR analysis showed that 21.9 percent (7/32) of the Rhipicephalus sanguineus were infected by E. canis. In both dogs and Rhipicephalus sanguineus, nested-PCR for E. ewingii and E. chaffeensis was negative, with no amplification of DNA fragment.

Este estudo objetivou pesquisar a epidemiologia da erliquiose canina no Nordeste do Brasil, com especial atenção na identificação da espécie de Ehrlichia envolvida nas infecções caninas e vetoriais detectadas. Para isso foram coletadas amostras de 472 cães domiciliados nos distritos sanitários de Cajazeiras e Itapuã. A prevalência de anticorpos anti-E. canis, pela imunofluorescência indireta (título > 1:80), em cães foi de 35,6 por cento (168/472). Os animais soropositivos foram analisados por uma nested-PCR para identificação da espécie de Ehrlichia responsável pela infecção. Dentre os positivos, 58 (34,5 por cento) cães foram PCR-positivos para E. canis. Foram coletados e classificados os carrapatos em 32 cães. A nested-PCR de Rhipicephalus sanguineus resultou em 21,9 por cento (7/32) de infecção por E. canis. A nested-PCR de amostras de sangue de cães e Rhipicephalus sanguineus para E. chaffeensis e E. ewingii foi negativa, não havendo amplificação de fragmento de DNA.

Animals , Dogs , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Ehrlichiosis/veterinary , Tick Infestations/epidemiology , Tick Infestations/veterinary , Brazil/epidemiology , Ehrlichiosis/complications , Ehrlichiosis/epidemiology , Prevalence , Tick Infestations/complications
Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology. 2010; 40 (2): 425-437
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-113063


A preliminary survey of domestic rodent species and their ectoparasites tick, mite and lice was carried out in ten centers of Menoufia [Quesna, Shebeen El-Kom, Berka El-Saabe, El-Bagour, El-Shohada, Tala, Menoff, Searth El-Lian, Ashmon and El-Sadat] Governorate. Frequency of rodent species and ectoparasites indices [tick, mite and lice] were recorded in spring [2009]. The main species of rodent was Norway rat, Rattus norvegicus the grey-bellied rat, Rattus rattus alexandrinus the white-bellied rat, Rattus rattus frugivorus and the house mouse, Mus musculus. The common tick species attacking rodents were: Rhipicephalus sp. and Hyalomma sp. The common mite species attacking rodents were: Dermanyssus sangineus, Orithonysus bacoti, Haemolaelaps glasgowi, Laelaps nutalli, Radfordia sp. and Myobia sp. The only common lice species was Polyplax spinulosa. The fur mites Radfordia sp. and Myobia sp. were recorded at Quesna, Searth El-Lian and El-Sadat centers on R. norvegicus for the first time at Menoufia Governorate

Insecta , Lice Infestations/epidemiology , Mite Infestations/epidemiology , Tick Infestations/epidemiology