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1.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(1): e017119, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101625

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study aimed to characterize the importance of the Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in the genesis of cattle tick fever (CTF) among dairy calves in the northwest of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Blood samples from 300 calves were collected, followed by DNA extraction and nested PCR using oligonucleotide primers to amplify fragments of the semi-nested for the msp5 gene (A. marginale), sbp-4 (B. bovis) and rap-1a (B. bigemina) Among the examined calves, the prevalence of A. marginale was 55.6% (n=167/300), B. bovis was 4.0% (n=12/300) and B. bigemina was 15.3% (n=46/300), by PCR techniques. Parasitic forms of A. marginale and B. bigemina were found in 36,3% and 2,6% of the blood smears while B. bovis was not detected. There was a statistical difference between the positivity of infected animals in the age groups 1 (10-70 days) and (>70-300 days) for A. marginale and B. bigemina. A total of 15 calves with the classic symptoms of disease were examined, and the samples obtained were confirmed as a simple infection by A. marginale through semi-nested PCR. These results confirm bovine anaplasmosis as the primary cause of CTF among the calves of dairy cattle within the studied area.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar a importância de Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina e Babesia bovis na gênese da tristeza parasitária bovina em bezerros leiteiros do noroeste de Minas Gerais. Foram coletadas 300 amostras sanguíneas de bezerros, seguidas por extração de DNA e Nested- PCR utilizando oligonucleotídeos iniciadores que amplificam fragmentos dos genes sbp-4 (B. bovis) e rap-1a (B. bigemina) e a Semi-Nested para o gene msp5 (A. marginale). A prevalência de A. marginale foi 55,66% (167/300), B. bigemina, 15,33% (46/300) e B. bovis 4,0% (12/300) dos bezerros examinados. Formas parasitárias de A. marginale and B. bigemina foram encontradas em 36,33% e 2,66% dos esfregaços sanguíneos, enquanto B. bovis não foi detectado. Houve diferença estatística entre as prevalências de animais infectados nas faixas etárias 1 (10-70 dias) e 2 (>70-300 dias). Um total de 15 animais com sintomas clássicos da doença foram examinados, e as amostras foram confirmadas como uma infecção simples por A. marginale através da Nested-PCR. Esses resultados confirmam a anaplasmose bovina como a principal agente da tristeza parasitária bovina nos bezerros do rebanho estudado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Cattle , Babesia/genetics , Babesiosis/parasitology , Ticks/parasitology , Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Anaplasma marginale/genetics , Anaplasmosis/parasitology , Phylogeny , Babesiosis/diagnosis , Babesiosis/epidemiology , Brazil , Cattle Diseases/diagnosis , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Anaplasmosis/diagnosis , Anaplasmosis/epidemiology
2.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 592-604, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057973

ABSTRACT

Abstract Small non-volant mammals (marsupials and small rodents) were captured at three different timepoints from 23 forest fragments across three municipalities (Alta Floresta, Sinop and Cláudia) covering the Amazonian biome of the Mato Grosso State in Midwestern Brazil. The animal tissues (liver and spleen) and blood were screened using molecular tools for the detection of Babesia, Coxiella, Cytauxzoon, Hepatozoon, Theileria, and Anaplasmataceae agents. A total of 230 specimens (78 rodents and 152 marsupials) were trapped. Hepatozoon and Piroplasmorida agents were detected in the common opossums (Didelphis marsupialis). In turn, all samples (blood, liver, or spleen) collected from the small mammals were negative for the genus Coxiella and the family Anaplasmataceae, as detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Phylogenetic analyses inferred from partial sequences of the 18S rRNA gene highlighted the occurrence of new Hepatozoon and Piroplasmorida haplotypes. Future studies determining the role of common opossum (D. marsupialis) in the epidemiological cycles of Hepatozoon and Babesia under natural conditions in the Amazonian biome are necessary.


Resumo Pequenos mamíferos não voadores (marsupiais e pequenos roedores) foram capturados em três diferentes períodos, ao longo de 23 fragmentos florestais de três municípios (Alta Floresta, Sinop e Cláudia), localizados no bioma amazônico do Estado de Mato Grosso, no centro-oeste do Brasil. Os tecidos dos animais (fígado e baço) e sangue foram selecionados e submetidos a ensaios moleculares para a detecção do DNA de Babesia, Coxiella, Cytauxzoon, Hepatozoon, Theileria e agentes Anaplasmataceae. Um total de 230 espécimes (78 roedores e 152 marsupiais) foram capturados. Hepatozoon e agentes Piroplasmorida foram detectados em gambás (Didelphis marsupialis). Ao contrário, todas as amostras (sangue, fígado ou baço) coletadas dos pequenos mamíferos foram negativas para o gênero Coxiella e a família Anaplasmataceae, conforme detectado pela reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). Análises filogenéticas inferidas pelas sequências parciais do gene 18S rRNA evidenciaram a ocorrência de novos haplótipos de Hepatozoon e Piroplasmorida. Futuros estudos determinando a importância do gambá-comun (D. marsupialis) nos ciclos epidemiológicos de Hepatozoon e Babesia em condições naturais, no bioma amazônico, são necessários.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rodentia/parasitology , Ticks/microbiology , Ticks/parasitology , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics , Marsupialia/parasitology , Phylogeny , Babesia/isolation & purification , Babesia/genetics , Brazil , Surveys and Questionnaires , Theileria/isolation & purification , Theileria/genetics , Coxiella/isolation & purification , Coxiella/genetics , Anaplasmataceae/isolation & purification , Anaplasmataceae/genetics
3.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-846780

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the occurrence of rickettsial infection in ticks collected from wild animals in two areas of Brazil. Amblyomma dubitatum ticks were collected from a capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) in Guarda-Mor municipality, state of Minas Gerais, and Amblyomma pseudoconcolor ticks were collected from a six-banded armadillo (Euphractus sexcinctus) in Corumbá municipality, state of Mato Grosso do Sul. Attempts to isolate rickettsia in Vero cell culture were performed with one A. dubitatum tick and one A. pseudoconcolor tick, which were previously shown by the hemolymph test to contain Rickettsia-like structures within their hemocytes. Rickettsiae were successfully isolated in Vero cell culture from the two tick species. The two isolates were identified as Rickettsia bellii, since gltA partial sequences were 99.9%-100% identical to corresponding sequences of R. bellii in GenBank. While there have been several previous reports of R. bellii infecting A. dubitatum ticks, we provide the first report for A. pseudoconcolor, which increases to 25 the number of R. bellii-infected tick species in the American continent.(AU)


O presente trabalho investigou a ocorrência de infecção por Rickettsia em carrapatos coletados em animais selvagens de duas áreas do Brasil. Carrapatos da espécie Amblyomma dubitatum foram coletados de uma capivara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) no município de Guarda-Mor, Minas Gerais, enquanto exemplares da espécie Amblyomma pseudoconcolor foram coletados de um tatu-peba (Euphractus sexcinctus) do município de Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul. Tentativas para isolar Rickettsia em cultura de células Vero foram realizadas com um exemplar de A. dubitatum e um de A. pseudoconcolor, que foram previamente positivos no teste de hemolinfa com estruturas semelhantes a Rickettsia visualizadas em seus hemócitos. Rickettsia foram isoladas com sucesso em culturas de células Vero a partir das duas espécies de carrapatos. Os dois isolados foram identificados como Rickettsia bellii, uma vez que suas sequências parciais do gene gltA foram 99,9-100%, idênticas a sequências de R. bellii do GenBank. Embora haja vários relatos anteriores de R. bellii infectando A. dubitatum, este é o primeiro relato em A. pseudoconcolor, aumentando para 25 o número de espécies de carrapatos infectadas por R. bellii no continente americano.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Armadillos/parasitology , Brazil , Rickettsia/isolation & purification , Rodentia/parasitology , Ticks/parasitology , Animals, Wild/parasitology , Hemolymph
4.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 54(1): 96-99, 2017. ilus.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-846781

ABSTRACT

Human parasitism by the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s. l.), an important parasite in medical and veterinary sciences, is only rarely reported in the American continent. The present investigation reports a R. sanguineus s. l. male tick parasitizing a human in the city of Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, west-central Brazil. This observation is of public health relevance, since R. sanguineus s. l. ticks are known as vectors of spotted fever group rickettsiae to dogs and humans.(AU)


O parasitismo humano pelo carrapato marrom do cão, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s. l.), um importante parasita para a saúde pública e veterinária, é raramente relatado no continente americano. Este trabalho relata o registro de um macho de R. sanguineus s. l. parasitando um humano na cidade de Campo Grande, estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, no Centro-Oeste do Brasil. Essa observação é relevante para a saúde pública, uma vez que os carrapatos desse complexo são conhecidos como vetores de riquétsias do grupo da febre maculosa para cães e humanos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Parasitic Diseases/epidemiology , Rhipicephalus sanguineus/parasitology , Ticks/parasitology
5.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 75(2): 144-146, Mar.-Apr. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-779959

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This article presents a case of tick infestation of the lower eyelid by a previously unreported species. A 71-year-old male presented with a tick attached to the lower eyelid. The tick was identified morphologically, and then molecularly via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of its DNA. In addition, a review of the literature relevant to the genera of ticks associated with infestation of the human eye is provided. The tick, which was in the nymphal developmental stage, was first identified according to taxonomic keys as Dermacentor sp. For complete species identification, 16s rDNA gene PCR and sequencing were performed, which showed that the tick was D. marginatus. Systematizing tick species could assist physicians in determining the potential for transmission of tick-borne human diseases.


RESUMO Este artigo apresenta um caso de infestação por carrapatos da pálpebra inferior por uma espécie previamente não declarada. Um homem de 71 anos de idade apresentou-se com um carrapato grudado na pálpebra inferior. O carrapato foi identificado morfologicamente, e, em seguida, uma estrutura molecular através de reacção em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) e a sequenciação do seu DNA. Além disso, uma análise da literatura pertinente aos gêneros de carrapatos associados à infestação do olho humano é fornecido. O carrapato, que estava em fase de desenvolvimento das ninfas, foi identificado pela primeira vez de acordo com chaves taxonômicas com o Dermacentor sp. Para identificação de espécies completa, gene 16S rDNA PCR e sequenciamento foram realizadas, que mostrou que o carrapato foi D. marginatus. Sistematizando espécie de carrapato poderia ajudar os médicos a determinar o potencial de transmissão de doenças humanas transmitidas por carrapatos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Tick Infestations/parasitology , Ticks/classification , Ticks/genetics , Ticks/parasitology , Eye Infections, Parasitic , Eyelids/parasitology , Phylogeny , DNA/isolation & purification , DNA/chemistry , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/chemistry , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Eyelid Diseases/parasitology , Nucleic Acid Conformation
6.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-875222

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to identify the species of fleas and ticks of Cerdocyon thous from the state of Pernambuco. Animals (n = 20) were examined, with 30% (6/20) ectoparasitized. Fleas (n = 16) and ticks (n = 17) parasitizing free-living crab-eating fox and captive in state of Pernambuco were collected. The fleas were identified as: Pulex irritans and Ctenocephalides felis; and the ticks were: Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Amblyomma ovale. The presence of ectoparasites of domestic animals parasitizing C. thous, suggests a close contact of this species to the peridomicile. Furthermore, this is the first report of the occurrence of A. ovale in C. thous in northeastern Brazil.(AU)


Objetivou-se identificar as espécies de pulgas e carrapatos de Cerdocyon thous provenientes do estado Pernambuco. Foram examinados 20 animais, estando 30% (6/20) ectoparasitados. Foram coletadas 16 pulgas e 17 carrapatos em cachorros-do-mato de vida livre e de cativeiro no estado de Pernambuco. As pulgas foram identificadas como: Pulex irritans e Ctenocephalides felis; e os carrapatos foram: Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato e Amblyomma ovale. A presença de ectoparasitos de animais domésticos parasitando C. thous, sugere a aproximação de indivíduos desta espécie ao peridomicílio. Além disso, este é o primeiro relato da ocorrência de A. ovale em C. thous no nordeste brasileiro.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Ctenocephalides/parasitology , Ectoparasitic Infestations/veterinary , Rhipicephalus sanguineus/parasitology , Animals, Wild/parasitology , Siphonaptera/parasitology , Ticks/parasitology
7.
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 52(4): 319-324, 2015.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-780261

ABSTRACT

Ticks are ectoparasites of the class Arachnida that parasitize terrestrial vertebrates, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. This paper reports the occurrence of hard ticks on wild animals received and attended by the Veterinary Hospital of Parque Zoológico Municipal Quinzinho de Barros, located in Sorocaba municipality, São Paulo state, Brazil. From September 1999 to May 2015, ticks were collected on wild animals of the Sorocaba region and other 20 municipalities in the state of São Paulo. Altogether, 43 larvae, 637 nymphs and 1,178 adults (631 males and 547 females) were identified, totaling 1,858 samples of 14 different tick species. During routine clinical examinations, two species of reptiles, a species of bird and 11 different species of mammals were inspected, resulting in 103 samples from wild animals. The following tick species were found: Amblyomma rotundatum on reptiles; Amblyomma sculptum on birds; and Amblyomma aureolatum, Amblyomma brasiliense, Amblyomma calcaratum, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma nodosum, Amblyomma ovale, A. sculptum, Amblyomma varium, Ixodes aragaoi, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Rhipicephalus microplus and Dermacentor nitens on mammals. This study reports the first records of A. rotundatum females parasitizing Hydromedusa tectifera and Oxyrhopus guibei, A. dubitatum nymphs and H. juxtakochi nymphs on Chrysocyon brachyurus, A. brasiliense nymphs on Myrmecophaga tridactyla and Tamandua tetradactyla, and A. sculptum nymphs on Alouatta guariba and Sphiggurus villosus. Our results highlight zoos as a source of valuable information for the parasitological knowledge of Brazilian wildlife...


Os carrapatos são ectoparasitas da classe Arachnida que parasitam vertebrados terrestres, anfíbios, repteis, aves e mamíferos. O presente trabalho relata a ocorrência de carrapatos ixodídeos em animais silvestres recebidos e atendidos pelo Hospital Veterinário do Parque Zoológico Municipal Quinzinho de Barros, localizado no município de Sorocaba, estado de São Paulo, Brasil. De setembro de 1999 a maio de 2015, foram coletados carrapatos em animais silvestres da região de Sorocaba e de outros 20 municípios do interior do estado de São Paulo. Ao todo, foram identificados 43 larvas, 637 ninfas e 1.178 adultos (631 machos e 547 fêmeas), totalizando 1.858 exemplares de 14 espécies distintas de ixodídeos. Durante exames clínicos de rotina, foram inspecionadas duas espécies de repteis, uma espécie de ave e 11 espécies distintas de mamíferos de um total de 103 animais silvestres amostrados. Nos repteis foram identificados Amblyomma rotundatum, nas aves Amblyomma sculptum e nos mamíferos Amblyomma aureolatum, Amblyomma brasiliense, Amblyomma calcaratum, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma nodosum, Amblyomma ovale, A. sculptum, Amblyomma varium, Ixodes aragaoi, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Rhipicephalus microplus e Dermacentor nitens. Este estudo relata os primeiros registros de fêmeas de A. rotundatum parasitando Hydromedusa tectifera e Oxyrhopus guibei, assim como ninfas de A. dubitatum e H. juxtakochi em Chrysocyon brachyurus, ninfas de A. brasiliense em Myrmecophaga tridactyla e Tamandua tetradactyla, além de ninfas de A. sculptum em Alouatta guariba e Sphiggurus villosus no país, demonstrando que os zoológicos são uma fonte de informação valiosa para o conhecimento parasitológico da fauna silvestre brasileira...


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Zoo/parasitology , Ixodidae/parasitology , Parasitology/classification , Ticks/parasitology , Ectoparasitic Infestations/veterinary , Host-Parasite Interactions
8.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 23(3): 407-412, Jul-Sep/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-722726

ABSTRACT

Since dogs presenting several vector borne diseases can show none or nonspecific clinical signs depending on the phase of infection, the assessment of the particular agents involved is mandatory. The present study aimed to investigate the presence of Babesia spp., Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Hepatozoon spp. and Leishmania spp. in blood samples and ticks, collected from two dogs from Rio Grande do Norte showing suggestive tick-borne disease by using molecular techniques. DNA of E. canis, H. canis and L. infantum were detected in blood samples and R. sanguineus ticks collected from dogs. Among all samples analyzed, two showed the presence of multiple infections with E. canis, H. canis and L. infantum chagasi. Here we highlighted the need for molecular differential diagnosis in dogs showing nonspecific clinical signs.


Cães que apresentam diversas doenças transmitidas por vetores podem mostrar nenhum ou alguns sinais clínicos inespecíficos. Dependendo da fase da infecção, a confirmação dos agentes envolvidos é necessária. O presente estudo teve como objetivo detectar a presença de Babesia spp., Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Hepatozoon spp. e Leishmania spp. em amostras de sangue e carrapatos, coletados em dois cães do Rio Grande do Norte. Esses animais apresentavam sinais clínicos sugestivos de doenças transmitidas por carrapatos, quando foram usadas técnicas moleculares. DNA de E. canis, H. canis e L. infantum foram detectados em amostras de sangue e carrapatos R. sanguineus coletados dos cães. Entre todas as amostras analisadas, duas mostraram a presença de infecções múltiplas por E. canis, H. canis e L. infantum chagasi. Destaca-se a necessidade de um diagnóstico molecular diferencial em cães com sinais clínicos inespecíficos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Female , Male , Bacterial Infections/veterinary , Coinfection/veterinary , Disease Vectors , Dog Diseases/microbiology , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Parasitic Diseases, Animal , Ticks/parasitology , Brazil , Bacterial Infections/blood , Coinfection/blood , Coinfection/microbiology , Coinfection/parasitology , Dog Diseases/blood , Parasitic Diseases, Animal/blood , Sequence Analysis, DNA
9.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 34(4): 313-319, abr. 2014. graf, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-712717

ABSTRACT

Babesia sp. is a protozoan hemoparasite that affects livestock worldwide. The Colombian Middle Magdalena is an enzootic region for babesiosis, but there is no previous research providing detail on its transmission cycle. This study aims to assess some Babesia sp. infection indicators in cattle and ticks from the area, by using direct microscopic and molecular techniques to detect the infection. In the cattle, 59.9% and 3.4 % positivity values for B. bigemina and mixed infection (B. bovis + B. bigemina) were found respectively. In ticks, the positivity of B. bigemina reached 79.2% and 9.4% for the mixed infection. The degree of infestation in the region was 3.2 ticks per bovine. There was positive correlation between tick control acaricide frequencies and infestation in bovines. This leads us to infer that control periodicity greater than 90 days, in stable zones, is an abiotic factor that benefits the acquisition of protective immunity in calves, the natural control of the infection and eventual disease absence. It is necessary to monitor the disease by applying new entomological and parasitological indicators showing the complexity of this phenomenon.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Babesia bovis/isolation & purification , Cattle/parasitology , Ticks/parasitology , Rhipicephalus , Babesiosis/veterinary , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
10.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 66(1): 55-60, fev. 2014. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-704006

ABSTRACT

A realização deste trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficácia do fipronil em Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, durante e após 14 tratamentos, no período de dezembro de 2006 a abril de 2009. O experimento foi realizado em uma propriedade rural do município de Lages, SC, utilizando-se 20 bovinos mestiços charolês mantidos em campo nativo, naturalmente infestados com R. (B.) microplus. A cada 14 dias, foram realizadas contagens das fêmeas de carrapato, maior ou igual a 4,5mm. Os animais foram tratados com fipronil 1mg/kg via pour on, quando a média do número de carrapatos foi igual ou superior a 40 fêmeas. Ao final do experimento, para análise da eficácia do fipronil 1%, foi realizado o teste de estábulo, utilizando 10 animais infestados com larvas provenientes de teleóginas coletadas de bovinos da propriedade. Os animais foram randomizados, de acordo com a produção inicial de teleóginas, estabelecendo-se dois grupos: controle (n=5) e tratado (n=5). A redução da média do número de fêmeas de R. (B.) microplus nas contagens após tratamentos foi de 100% nos três primeiros, com um leve declínio até o sexto tratamento. No sétimo tratamento a redução foi de 91,3%. Ao final do experimento a eficácia do fipronil 1%, avaliada pelo teste de estábulo, na redução do número de teleóginas, foi de 79,3%. A porcentagem média de inibição de reprodução calculada foi de 22,47%. Concluiu-se que, após seis tratamentos com fipronil, média de um a cada 2,7 meses, o princípio ativo deve ser substituído e que, após 14 tratamentos, o R. (B.) microplus adquiriu resistência parcial a esse carrapaticida.


This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of fipronil in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus during and after 14 treatments from December 2006 to April 2009. The experiment was performed on a rural property in the city of Lages/SC, using 20 crossbred Charolais cattle maintained on open pasture naturally infected with R. (B.) microplus. Every 14 days, tick counts of the females greater than or equal to 4.5mm were conducted. When tick counts averaged 40 females or more the animals were treated with applications of a 1% applied to the dorsal formulation of fipronil 1mg/kg. At the end of the experiment, barn testing was performed on 10 animals infested with larvae of the Engorging females collected from the cattle on the property, for analysis of the effectiveness of 1% fipronil. The animals were randomized according to the initial production of Engorging females, establishing five animals in the control group and five in the treated group. The reduction in the average number of females of R. (B.) microplus was 100% during the first three treatments, with a slight decline up to the sixth treatment. On the seventh treatment the reduction was 91.3%. At the end of the experiment the effectiveness of 1% fipronil for reducing the number of ticks was 79.3%, assessed by the barn testing. The average percentage of inhibition of reproduction was calculated at 22.47%. It was concluded that after six treatments with fipronil, with an average of one treatment every 2.7 months, there must be a change in the active ingredient and that after 14 treatments R. (B.) microplus acquired partial resistance to this acaricide.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Acaricides , Ticks/parasitology , Parasites , Rhipicephalus/parasitology , Cattle
11.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 16(1): 77-82, 2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-703725

ABSTRACT

Esta pesquisa foi conduzida com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito in vitro e in vivo do óleo essencial de capim limão (Cymbopogon flexuosus Stapf) sobre o carrapato dos bovinos [Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus]. Na experimentação in vitro foi utilizado o grupo controle negativo e oito concentrações do óleo de capim-limão (0,5; 1; 2; 5; 10; 20; 50; 100%), em fêmeas ingurgitadas do carrapato. A eficácia de controle foi de 0; 20; 39; 99,5; 100; 100; 100; 100 e 100%, respectivamente. Para a experimentação in vivo foram constituídos três grupos (controle negativo, óleo de capim limão a 2,0% - nível estimado mediante análise de regressão, correspondendo a 95% de eficácia de controle do carrapato da pesquisa in vitro e amitraz a 0,025%), com dezoito vacas da raça Holandesa. Antes (média dos dias -3, -2, -1) e após a aplicação do produto (1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 e 21 dias), foram contadas fêmeas ingurgitadas do carrapato. A eficácia de controle foi de 0; 54 e 74,5%, respectivamente, 21dias após o tratamento. Após a aplicação dos tratamentos (controle negativo x tratamento fitoterápico), foram avaliadas as variáveis fisiológicas: frequência cardíaca, respiratória, temperatura do globo ocular e temperatura da pele; os resultados foram similares entre os tratamentos.


This research was aimed at evaluating in vitro and in vivo effects of lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Stapf) oil on cattle ticks (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus). Negative control group and eight concentrations of lemongrass oil (0.5; 1; 2; 5; 10; 20; 50; 100%), were used on in vitro trials with engorged female ticks. The efficacy of control ticks was 0; 20; 39; 99.5; 100; 100; 100; 100 and 100%, respectively. For the in vivo trial, eighteen Holstein cows were allocated to three groups (negative control, lemongrass oil at 2.0% - level estimated by regression analysis, accounting for 95% efficacy of control ticks on in vitro trial, and amitraz at 0.025%). Engorged female ticks were counted before (mean of days -3, -2, -1) and after treatment (1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 and 21 days). The efficacy of control ticks was 0; 54 and 74.5%, respectively, at 21 days after treatment. Physiologic variables were evaluated after treatments (negative control x phytotherapic treatment). Similar results were found between the treatments for physiological variables.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Cattle , Cymbopogon/classification , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Acaricides/analysis , Rhipicephalus/parasitology , Tick Control/instrumentation , Ticks/parasitology
12.
Arq. ciênc. vet. zool. UNIPAR ; 16(2)jul-dez. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-718773

ABSTRACT

Própolis é uma substância resinosa obtida pelas abelhas de diversas partes da planta e vem sendo utilizada desde a antiguidade devido seu amplo espectro de atividade biológica. A infestação em animais de grande porte por Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus é uma problemática nos dias atuais, em que se utiliza para sua eliminação medicamentos que causam a contaminação do animal, e dos seus subprodutos. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar in vitro a atividade do extratoalcoólico da própolis no combate ao carrapato da espécie Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus em vacas leiteiras da raça holandesa pertencentes a uma propriedade rural no município de Icaraíma- Paraná. O experimento foi inteiramente casualisado, os testes consistiram na comparação da postura e eclosão dos ovos de animais tratados com extrato alcoólico de própolis nas concentrações de 50%, 25%, 12,5% e 6,25%, no qual a concentração de 50% foi a mais eficiente, obtendo uma margem de 99,10% de eficácia; enquanto as concentrações de 25%, 12,5% e 6,25%, obtiveram uma eficácia de 73,53%, 77,07% e 50,93% respectivamente. Os resultados mostraram uma maior sensibilidade dos carrapatos à concentrações mais elevadas. A própolis pode ser uma opção de tratamento, podendo ser utilizado como uma fonte para atividade carrapaticida devido às suas inúmeras substâncias funcionais.


Propolis is a resinous substance obtained by bees from several parts of the plants and it has been used since ancient times due to its broad biological activity spectrum. Large-sized animals infested with Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus are nowadays considered a problem, and in order to eliminate the infestation, medicines and byproducts are used, which can cause animal contamination. The present study has the purpose of evaluating the in vitro activity of the alcohol extract in propolis in combating ticks from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus species in Holstein cows belonging to a small farm in Icaraima- Paraná. The experiment was completely randomized, the assays consisted in the comparison of the laying and hatching of eggs in animals treated with the alcoholic extract from propolis in the concentrations of 50%, 25%,12. 5% and 6.25%. The concentration of 50% was the most efficient, yielding a margin of 99.10% efficiency. Meanwhile, the concentrations of 25%, 12,5% and 6.25%, had an efficiency of 73.53%, 77.07% and 50.93%, respectively. The results showed a greater sensitivity of ticks to the higher concentrations. Propolis, therefore, can be an treatment option, and can be used as a source of acaricide activity because of its several functional substances.


Propóleos es una sustancia resinosa obtenida por las abejas a partir de diferentes partes de la planta y se ha utilizado desde la antigüedad debido a su amplio espectro de actividad biológica. La infestación en animales de gran porte por Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus es un problema hoy en día, porque el tratamiento consiste en el uso de medicamentos que causan la contaminación del animal, y de sus derivados. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar la actividad in vitro del extracto alcohólico de propóleos para combatir la especie de garrapata Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus en vacas lecheras de la raza holandesa pertenecientes e una propiedad rural en el municipio de Icaraíma-Paraná. El experimento fue totalmente aleatorizado, pruebas consistieron en la comparación de la postura y eclosión de los huevos de animales tratados con extracto alcohólico de propóleos en concentraciones de 50%, 25%, 12. 5% y 6,25%, donde la concentración de 50% fue la más eficiente, obteniendo un margen de 99,10% de eficacia; mientras que las concentraciones de 25%, 12,5% y 6,25%, alcanzaron una eficacia de 73,53%, 77,07% y 50 93%, respectivamente. Los resultados mostraron mayor sensibilidad de las garrapatas a concentraciones más elevadas. Propóleos puede ser una opción de tratamiento, pudiendo ser utilizado como una fuente para actividad acaricida debido a sus numerosas sustancias funcionales.


Subject(s)
Animals , Acaricides , Ticks/parasitology , Insecticides/analysis , Propolis/pharmacology , Parasites/parasitology
13.
Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology. 2011; 41 (1): 99-108
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-110695

ABSTRACT

Human babesiosis has been documented in many countries. It is a zoonotic protozoan disease of medical, veterinary and economic importance. In this study, a twelve years old boy was referred to the hospital with intermittent fever of unknown origin. On clinical, parasitological and serological bases the case proved to be babesiosis. The boy acquired the infection from his pet dog which was heavily infested with Rhipicephalus sanguineus and suffered a mild feature of animal babesiosis. The patient was successfully treated with Atovaquone plus Azithromycin without relapse for one month follow up. The pet dog was sent to Governmental Veterinary Hospital at Abbassia for treatment from babesiosis and tick infestation


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Dogs/parasitology , Rhipicephalus , Ticks/parasitology
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-107277

ABSTRACT

Babesia spp. were detected from 4 asymptomatic pukus captured on a game ranch in central Zambia in October 2008. Blood smears were examined in 4 species of aymptomatic free-ranging antelopes, namely the puku (Kobus vordanii), reedbuck (Redunca arundinum), bushbuck (Tragelaphus sylvaticus), and kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), and showed the presence of Babesia parasites only in the puku. In the puku, the prevalence of babesiosis was estimated at 33.3% (n=12), while the overall prevalence in all examined animals was 8.5% (n=47). The parasites showed morphological characteristics of paired ring-like stages with the length varying between 1.61 microm and 3.02 microm (mean=2.12 microm, n=27; SD=0.76 microm). Both the infected and non-infected pukus showed good body condition scores (BCS), while the dominant tick species detected from all animals were Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus spp., and Boophilus spp. To our knowledge this is the first report of Babesia spp. infection in pukus in Zambia. These findings suggest that wildlife could play an important role in the epidemiology of babesiosis in Zambia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Wild/parasitology , Antelopes/parasitology , Arachnid Vectors/classification , Asymptomatic Diseases , Babesia/isolation & purification , Babesiosis/epidemiology , Erythrocytes/parasitology , Prevalence , Rhipicephalus/classification , Tick Infestations/epidemiology , Ticks/parasitology , Zambia/epidemiology
15.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 12(4): 482-487, out.-dez. 2010. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-578990

ABSTRACT

O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o efeito in vivo do óleo de citronela, no controle do carrapato bovino [Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus], da mosca-dos-chifres (Haematobia irritans), da mosca-dos-estábulos (Stomoxys calcitrans) e da mosca doméstica (Musca domestica). Foram utilizadas 15 vacas da raça Holandês, distribuídas em três grupos de cinco animais cada um. Os tratamentos foram: controle negativo, amitraz a 0,025 por cento e óleo de citronela a 4 por cento. Para avaliação foram contadas fêmeas ingurgitadas de carrapato e moscas antes (média dos dias -3, -2, -1) e após a aplicação dos produtos nos dias 7, 14, 21 e 28; também foram coletadas amostras de sangue. Em 28 dias, houve necessidade de se reaplicar o amitraz e o fitoterápico para controlar a infestação com carrapato. A relação entre o número de aplicações foi de 1:2,5 para o amitraz e o óleo de citronela, respectivamente. A eficácia no controle do carrapato foi de 71,8 e 30,9 por cento para o amitraz e óleo de citronela a 4 por cento, respectivamente, na média pós-tratamento. Verificou-se baixo controle de moscas no tratamento constituído pelo fitoterápico. Não houve diferença entre os tratamentos para os parâmetros sanguíneos.


This study aimed to evaluate the in vivo effect of citronella oil on the control of bovine ticks [Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus], horn flies (Haematobia irritans), stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans) and houseflies (Musca domestica). Fifteen Holstein cows were allocated to three groups of five animals each. The treatments were: negative control, amitraz at 0.025 percent and citronella oil at 4 percent. Engorged female ticks and flies were counted before (mean of days -3, -2, -1) and at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after treatment; blood samples were also collected. Within 28 days, amitraz and the phytotherapic agent had to be reapplied to control tick infestation. The relationship among the number of applications was 1:2.5 for amitraz and citronella oil, respectively. The efficacy of tick control was, on average, 71.8 and 30.9 percent for amitraz and citronella oil at 4 percent respectively, post-treatment. Lower control of flies was observed for the phytotherapic group. There was no difference among treatments for blood parameters.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Cattle/parasitology , Insect Control/methods , Cymbopogon/parasitology , Ectoparasitic Infestations/prevention & control , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Ticks/parasitology , Insecticides/analysis , Insecticides/therapeutic use , Muscidae/parasitology
16.
Infectio ; 14(4): 264-276, oct.-dic. 2010.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: lil-635652

ABSTRACT

La fiebre manchada de las Montañas Rocosas es una infección producida por Rickettsia rickettsii, un cocobacilo polimorfo perteneciente a la familia Rickettsiaceae. A pesar de que ha pasado más de un siglo desde que fue descrita, continúa siendo una de las zoonosis más importantes en todo el mundo. Aunque los casos se presentan de manera focal y esporádica, en los últimos años se ha notado un incremento de su incidencia en los Estados Unidos y parece estar resurgiendo en varios países de Suramérica. En Colombia, poco se sabía de la enfermedad desde 1937, cuando fue descrita por primera vez, pero, en los últimos años se han presentado nuevos casos con alta tasa de mortalidad. Dado que los hallazgos clínicos y de laboratorio son inespecíficos, la fiebre manchada de las Montañas Rocosas debe incluirse en el diagnóstico diferencial de los síndromes febriles de causa no clara. A continuación se presenta una revisión de la literatura, señalando los aspectos más importantes del resurgimiento de la enfermedad en Colombia y se resaltan su etiopatogenia, manifestaciones clínicas, diagnóstico y tratamiento, con el objeto de mejorar el conocimiento local de esta infección, probablemente subdiagnosticada, que puede curarse fácilmente con unas cuantas dosis de antibióticos por vía oral.


Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) is an infection caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, a pleomorphic cocobacillae which belongs to the Rickettsiaceae family. Although it has been more than a century since its first description, this disease is still one of the most important zoonosis in the world. Usually cases occur in focal and sporadic form, but an unusual increase in the frequency of cases during the last few years has drawn the attention of surveillance systems in United States and some South American countries. Little was known about the disease in Colombia when it was first described in 1937, but in recent years new cases have been reported showing high mortality rates. Since clinical and laboratory findings have not been specific, the RMSF must be included in the differential diagnosis of febrile syndromes of unknown origin. A literature review follows herein, pointing out the most important features of the cases diagnosed in Colombia and highlighting their pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment, and attempting to improve local knowledge of this infection. The disease is probably under-diagnosed and could be treated with a few doses of PO antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rickettsia rickettsii , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever , Hemorrhagic Fevers, Viral , Rickettsiaceae , Therapeutics , Ticks/parasitology , Triacetoneamine-N-Oxyl , Zoonoses , Pathogenesis, Homeopathic , Colombia , Diagnosis, Differential , Fever , Infections , Laboratories , Anti-Bacterial Agents
17.
Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology. 2010; 40 (2): 499-514
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-113070

ABSTRACT

Ticks and blood samples were collected every month from March 2009 through April 2010 from different sites in Sinai to detect babesial parasites using PCR assay based on nuclear small subunit rRNA gene. Ticks were found to contain babesial DNA. Sequence determination and analysis of amplified portions of nss-rDNA revealed their identity with B. bovis and a high degree of homology with B. bigemina and B. divergens. The results represent the first genetic evidence of different species of Babesia and identified the role of Ixodes ricinus as a vector of zoonotic B. microti infection. Rodent isolate [HK] and American isolate [GI] were studied in transmission experiments. The present study used in vitro culture of zoonotic Babesia sp. EU1 from blood samples of rodent in Sinai. This study provides an evidence of transovarian and transstadial transmissions of the parasite within I. ricinus, which emphasizes that this tick could be a vector and reservoir of EU1


Subject(s)
Ixodes , Ticks/parasitology , Rodentia/parasitology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
18.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 60(5): 1277-1280, out. 2008. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-500103

ABSTRACT

Eight wild fowls kept in captivity at a Brazilian Zoo were examined from july 1994 to October 2000. One hundred twenty-three Ixodidae specimens were collected and sent to the Ixodides Laboratory at the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. They were examined by stereomicroscopy and were identified as Amblyomma longirostre (53), A. pacae (50), A. cajennense (14), and A. parvum (6).


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Zoo , Animals, Wild/parasitology , Ticks/parasitology
19.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 17(2): 113-114, abr.-jun. 2008. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-617167

ABSTRACT

Findings of epimastigotes forms of a tripanosomatide is reported in the hemolymph of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Morphological evidences suggest they are similar to Trypanosoma theileri, a species described as non pathogenic to cattle, and usually transmitted by tabanids.


Descreve-se a ocorrência de formas epimastigotas de um tripanosomatideo na hemolinfa do carrapato do bovino Boophilus microplus no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Evidências morfológicas sugerem tratar-se de Trypanosoma theileri , espécie descrita como não patogênica aos bovinos e que usualmente é transmitida por tabanídeos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ticks/parasitology , Trypanosoma/isolation & purification , Brazil , Hemolymph/parasitology
20.
Rev. cient. (Maracaibo) ; 17(6): 566-571, nov.-dic. 2007. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-548566

ABSTRACT

El presente estudio determinó la fluctuación poblacional de las fases no parasíticas de Rhipicephalus sanguineus durante octubre 2000 - septiembre 2001. Mensualmente se recolectaron todas las garrapatas presentes en los distintos ambientes identificados dentro de las instalaciones del Bioterio de la Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias de la Universidad Central deVenezuela, Maracay, estado Aragua, Venezuela. Se recolectaron 16.065 ejemplares de R. sanguineus en diferentes fases de desarrollo: 5.981 larvas, 7.378 ninfas, 796 machos y 1.916 hembras; el mayor número se obtuvo en el interior de las jaulas (13.364), representando las ninfas la fase más abundante, tanto en el interior como en el exterior. El área pared/piso se destacó con el mayor número de ejemplares (6.830), seguida de huecos/grietas (6.068), ambas con predominio de ninfas; el análisis estadístico mostró significancia (P<0,05) solamente para los machos, demostrando que el área influyó en la presencia de esta fase. Las mayores poblaciones de garrapatas se obtuvieron en agosto, septiembre, enero y julio en el interior de las jaulas y en diciembre, en el exterior de las mismas. Se determinó significancia estadística (P<0,05) del ambiente interno sobre la presencia de los estadios larvas, ninfas y machos, no así para las hembras. En el ambiente externo, la presencia de garrapatas fue escasa (21) siendo las hembras la fase más recolectada (12); no hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas (P>0,05) del ambiente externo sobre la presencia de hembras. Al correlacionar las distintas fases con la temperatura interna, se encontraron diferencias significativas (P<0,05); en relación con la humedad sólo se estableció significancia para la presencia de machos en el área huecos-grietas (P<0,05). Estos resultados confirman la adaptabilidad de R. sanguineus a las edificaciones urbanas y su alta prolificidad en microhábitantes internos y externos, afectados por condiciones ambientales como humedad y temperatura.


This study determined poblational fluctuations of all non-parasitic forms in each developmental stage of Rhipicephalus sanguineus between October 2000 and September 2001. Through monthly sampling, all ticksfound in each identified area of the kennel at the Universidad Central de Venezuela, college of Veterinay Sciences, Maracay, Venezuela. A total of 16,065 specimens of R. sanguineus in all developmental stages were collected: 5,981 larvae, 7,378 nymphs, 796 adult and 1.916 females; the highest was found inside the dog as well outside the dog cage. The area between wall and floor had the highest number of specimens (6,830), followed by the area of holes and cracks (6,068); both showed prevalence of nymphs. Statistical analysis on developmental stage and internal environment was a significative association (P<0.05) only for males, indicating that the area affected the presence this stage. The largest populations of the ticks were found inside the cages in August, September, January and July and outside of them in December. Statistical tests showed significative differences in the internal environment for the presence of larvae, nymph and male stages, but not for female. In the external environment, ticks were scarcely present (21) being the females the most collected specimen (12). There was no significant effect (P<0.05) of external environment on the presence of females. Applying correlation tests between different stages and internal temperature, significant differences were found (P<0.05). Regarding humidity, there was only statistical significant differences for males found in holes and cracks (P<0.05). These results confirm R. sanguineus adaptability to urban buildings and its high rate of reproduction in internal and external microhabitats, both being affected by environmental conditions, such as humidity and temperature.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Parasitic Diseases/pathology , Ticks/parasitology , Rhipicephalus sanguineus , Parasitology
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