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Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 925-942, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927755


Cartilage has poor self-recovery because of its characteristics of no blood vessels and high extracellular matrix. In clinical treatment, physical therapy or drug therapy is usually used for mild cartilage defects, and surgical treatment is needed for severe ones. In recent years, cartilage tissue engineering technology provides a new way for the treatment of cartilage defects. Compared with the traditional surgical treatment, cartilage tissue engineering technology has the advantages of small wound and good recovery. The application of microcarrier technology in the design of tissue engineering scaffolds further expands the function of scaffolds and promotes cartilage regeneration. This review summarized the main preparation methods and development of microcarrier technology in recent years. Subsequently, the properties and specific application scenarios of microcarriers with different materials and functions were introduced according to the materials and functions of microcarriers used in cartilage repair. Based on our research on osteochondral integrated layered scaffolds, we proposed an idea of optimizing the performance of layered scaffolds through microcarriers, which is expected to prepare bionic scaffolds that are more suitable for the structural characteristics of natural cartilage.

Cartilage , Extracellular Matrix/chemistry , Technology , Tissue Engineering/methods , Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939633


For the damage and loss of tissues and organs caused by urinary system diseases, the current clinical treatment methods have limitations. Tissue engineering provides a therapeutic method that can replace or regenerate damaged tissues and organs through the research of cells, biological scaffolds and biologically related molecules. As an emerging manufacturing technology, three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting technology can accurately control the biological materials carrying cells, which further promotes the development of tissue engineering. This article reviews the research progress and application of 3D bioprinting technology in tissue engineering of kidney, ureter, bladder, and urethra. Finally, the main current challenges and future prospects are discussed.

Bioprinting , Regeneration , Technology , Tissue Engineering/methods
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 56-82, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929195


Contributing to organ formation and tissue regeneration, extracellular matrix (ECM) constituents provide tissue with three-dimensional (3D) structural integrity and cellular-function regulation. Containing the crucial traits of the cellular microenvironment, ECM substitutes mediate cell-matrix interactions to prompt stem-cell proliferation and differentiation for 3D organoid construction in vitro or tissue regeneration in vivo. However, these ECMs are often applied generically and have yet to be extensively developed for specific cell types in 3D cultures. Cultured cells also produce rich ECM, particularly stromal cells. Cellular ECM improves 3D culture development in vitro and tissue remodeling during wound healing after implantation into the host as well. Gaining better insight into ECM derived from either tissue or cells that regulate 3D tissue reconstruction or organ regeneration helps us to select, produce, and implant the most suitable ECM and thus promote 3D organoid culture and tissue remodeling for in vivo regeneration. Overall, the decellularization methodologies and tissue/cell-derived ECM as scaffolds or cellular-growth supplements used in cell propagation and differentiation for 3D tissue culture in vitro are discussed. Moreover, current preclinical applications by which ECM components modulate the wound-healing process are reviewed.

Humans , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Decellularized Extracellular Matrix , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Tissue Engineering/methods , Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929039


Carbon nanotube (CNT) composite materials are very attractive for use in neural tissue engineering and biosensor coatings. CNT scaffolds are excellent mimics of extracellular matrix due to their hydrophilicity, viscosity, and biocompatibility. CNTs can also impart conductivity to other insulating materials, improve mechanical stability, guide neuronal cell behavior, and trigger axon regeneration. The performance of chitosan (CS)/polyethylene glycol (PEG) composite scaffolds could be optimized by introducing multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs). CS/PEG/CNT composite scaffolds with CNT content of 1%, 3%, and 5% (1%=0.01 g/mL) were prepared by freeze-drying. Their physical and chemical properties and biocompatibility were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the composite scaffolds had a highly connected porous structure. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy proved that the CNTs were well dispersed in the CS/PEG matrix and combined with the CS/PEG nanofiber bundles. MWCNTs enhanced the elastic modulus of the scaffold. The porosity of the scaffolds ranged from 83% to 96%. They reached a stable water swelling state within 24 h, and swelling decreased with increasing MWCNT concentration. The electrical conductivity and cell adhesion rate of the scaffolds increased with increasing MWCNT content. Immunofluorescence showed that rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells grown in the scaffolds had characteristics similar to nerve cells. We measured changes in the expression of nerve cell markers by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and found that PC12 cells cultured in the scaffolds expressed growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43), nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR), and class III β‍-tubulin (TUBB3) proteins. Preliminary research showed that the prepared CS/PEG/CNT scaffold has good biocompatibility and can be further applied to neural tissue engineering research.

Animals , Rats , Axons , Biocompatible Materials/chemistry , Chitosan/chemistry , Nanotubes, Carbon/chemistry , Nerve Regeneration , Polyethylene Glycols , Porosity , Tissue Engineering/methods , Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941002


OBJECTIVE@#To compare the effects of three different crosslinkers on the biocompatibility, physical and chemical properties of decellularized small intestinal submucosa (SIS) porous scaffolds.@*METHODS@#The SIS porous scaffolds were prepared by freeze-drying method and randomly divided into three groups, then crosslinked by glutaraldehyde (GA), 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodi-imide (EDC) and procyanidine (PA) respectively. To evaluate the physicochemical property of each sample in different groups, the following experiments were conducted. Macroscopic morphologies were observed and recorded. Microscopic morphologies of the scaffolds were observed using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and representative images were selected. Computer software (ImageJ) was used to calculate the pore size and porosity. The degree of crosslinking was determined by ninhydrin experiment. Collagenase degradation experiment was performed to assess the resistance of SIS scaffolds to enzyme degradation. To evaluate the mechanical properties, universal mechanical testing machine was used to determine the stress-strain curve and compression strength was calculated. Human bone marrow mesenchymal cells (hBMSCs) were cultured on the scaffolds after which cytotoxicity and cell proliferation were assessed.@*RESULTS@#All the scaffolds remained intact after different crosslinking treatments. The FESEM images showed uniformed interconnected micro structures of scaffolds in different groups. The pore size of EDC group[(161.90±13.44) μm] was significantly higher than GA group [(149.50±14.65) μm] and PA group[(140.10±12.06) μm] (P < 0.05). The porosity of PA group (79.62%±1.14%) was significantly lower than EDC group (85.11%±1.71%) and GA group (84.83%±1.89%) (P < 0.05). PA group showed the highest degree of crosslinking whereas the lowest swelling ratio. There was a significant difference in the swelling ratio of the three groups (P < 0.05). Regarding to the collagenase degradation experiment, the scaffolds in PA group showed a significantly lower weight loss rate than the other groups after 7 days degradation. The weight loss rates of GA group were significantly higher than those of the other groups on day 15, whereas the PA group had the lowest rate after 10 days and 15 days degradation. PA group showed better mechanical properties than the other two groups. More living cells could be seen in PA and EDC groups after live/dead cell staining. Additionally, the proliferation rate of hBMCSs was faster in PA and EDC groups than in GA group.@*CONCLUSION@#The scaffolds gained satisfying degree of crosslinking after three different crosslinking treatments. The samples after PA and EDC treatment had better physicochemical properties and biocompatibility compared with GA treatment. Crosslinking can be used as a promising and applicable method in the modification of SIS scaffolds.

Humans , Biocompatible Materials/chemistry , Cross-Linking Reagents/chemistry , Porosity , Tissue Engineering/methods , Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry , Weight Loss
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 9(6): 522-531, dic. 31, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178951


Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting of cells is an emerging area of research but has not been explored yet in the context of periodontal tissue engineering. Objetive: This study reports on the optimization of the 3D bioprinting scaffolds and tissues used that could be applied clinically to seniors for the regenerative purpose to meet individual patient treatment needs. Material and Methods: We methodically explored the printability of various tissues (dentin pulp stem/progenitor cells, periodontal ligament stem/progenitor cells, alveolar bone stem/progenitor cells, advanced platelet-rich fibrin and injected platelet-rich fibrin) and scaffolds using 3D printers pertaining only to periodontal defects. The influence of different printing parameters with the help of scaffold to promote periodontal regeneration and to replace the lost structure has been evaluated. Results: This systematic evaluation enabled the selection of the most suited printing conditions for achieving high printing resolution, dimensional stability, and cell viability for 3D bioprinting of periodontal ligament cells. Conclusion: The optimized bioprinting system is the first step towards the reproducible manufacturing of cell laden, space maintaining scaffolds for the treatment of periodontal lesions.

La bioimpresión tridimensional (3D) de células es un área emergente de investigación, pero aún no se ha explorado en el contexto de la ingeniería de tejidos periodontales. Objetivo: Este estudio informa sobre la optimización de los tejidos y andamios de bioimpresión 3D utilizados que podrían aplicarse a personas mayores en el entorno clínico con fines regenerativos para satisfacer las necesidades de tratamiento de cada paciente. Material y Métodos: Exploramos metódicamente la capacidad de impresión de varios tejidos (células madre / progenitoras de la pulpa de dentina, células madre / progenitoras del ligamento periodontal, células madre / progenitoras de hueso alveolar, fibrina rica en plaquetas avanzada y fibrina rica en plaquetas inyectada) y andamios utilizando impresoras 3D que pertenecen solo a defectos periodontales. Se ha evaluado la influencia de diferentes parámetros de impresión con la ayuda de andamios para promover la regeneración periodontal y reemplazar la estructura perdida. Resultados: Esta evaluación sistemática permitió la selección de las condiciones de impresión más adecuadas para lograr una alta resolución de impresión, estabilidad dimensional y viabilidad celular para la bioimpresión 3D de células del ligamento periodontal. Conclusión: El sistema de bioimpresión optimizado es el primer paso hacia la fabricación reproducible de andamios de mantenimiento de espacio cargados de células para el tratamiento de lesiones periodontales

Humans , Tissue Engineering/methods , Bioprinting/methods , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Periodontal Diseases/therapy , Regeneration , Stem Cells
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 27(4): 168-174, out./dez. 2020. il.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1369237


Tissue engineering replaces injured tissues by manipulating cells, making scaffolds, and using molecules that stimulate the tissue. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are good candidates for tissue engineering, as this is one of the cell types which are recruited to repair injured tissues. Scaffolds are structural devices that allow cell fixation and migration, with polypropylene meshes being an example. This study aims to evaluate the culture of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs), isolated from C57Bl/6 GFP + mice, in two types of polypropylene meshes (macroporous and microporous) in conventional culture plates and plates coated with methacrylate, over a period of fifteen days. The objective was to obtain the best interaction protocol between the mesh and the cells. The choice of the best method was based on adherence, maintenance of adherence and viability during culture. The amount of ADSCs adhering was checked daily by counting in a Neubauer Chamber and by using a growth curve performed with the MTT assay. The ADSCs adhering to the meshes were visualized with DAPI, panotic, hematoxylin and eosin, immunohistochemistry (integrin), and immunofluorescence (actin). ADSCs adhere to all forms of culture and to the two types of polypropylene mesh. ADSCs adhered more to the microporous mesh, within the seven day period of culture and in the plates without methacrylate. Thus, polypropylene meshes offer a good scaffold for ADSCs to adhere to.

A engenharia de tecidos substitui tecidos danificados com a manipulação de células, confecção de arcabouços e a utilização de moléculas que estimulem o tecido. As células-tronco mesenquimais (MSCs) são boas candidatas para engenharia de tecido, pois são um dos tipos celulares recrutadas para a reparação de tecidos lesionados. O arcabouço deve ser um dispositivo estrutural que forneça uma estrutura para o crescimento e a diferenciação celular no sítio, sendo a tela de polipropileno um exemplo. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o cultivo de células-tronco mesenquimais de tecido de adiposo (ADSCs), isoladas de camundongos C57Bl/6 GFP+, em dois tipos de telas de polipropileno (macroporosa e microporosa) em placas de cultura convencionais e revestidas com metacrilato, durante quinze dias, para obter o melhor protocolo de interação entre a tela e as células. A escolha do melhor método foi baseada na adesão, manutenção da adesão e viabilidade durante cultivo. A quantidade de ADSCs aderidas foi verificada diariamente em contagem em Câmara de Neubauer e através de uma curva de crescimento realizada através de ensaio de MTT. As ADSCs aderidas nas telas foram visualizadas com a marcação de DAPI, panótico, hematoxilina e eosina, imumo-histoquímica (integrina) e imunofluorescência (actina). Nas duas formas de cultivo e nos dois tipos de telas de polipropileno houve aderência das ADSCs. Houve maior aderência na tela microporosa, no período de sete dias de cultivo e em placas sem metacrilato. Conclui-se que a tela de polipropileno oferece um bom arcabouço para as ADSCs se aderirem.

Animals , Mice , Polypropylenes/analysis , Tissue Embedding/methods , Tissue Engineering/methods , Tissue Scaffolds , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Mice
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190003, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132227


Abstract Autologous fibrin matrices derived from the Leukocyte and Platelet Rich Plasma (L-PRP) and Leukocyte and Platelet Rich Fibrin (L-PRF) techniques present great potential to act as a bioactive scaffold in regenerative medicine, contributing to the maintenance of cell viability, proliferation stimulus and differentiation. In contrast, there are few studies that characterize the bioactive potential of these fibrin scaffolds by considering the process of production. The objective of this work was to characterize the intrinsic potential of maintaining cell viability of different fibrin scaffolds containing platelets and leukocytes. In order to achieve that, blood samples from a volunteer were collected and processed to obtain fibrin clots using the suggested techniques. To characterize the potential for in vitro viability, mesenchymal stem cells from human infrapatellar fat were used. The scaffolds were cellularized (1x105 cells/scaffolds) and maintained for 5 and 10 days under culture conditions with Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium, without addition of fetal bovine serum, and subsequently subjected to analyses by Fourrier transform infra-red spectroscopy, circular dichroism and fluorescence microscopy. The results demonstrated distinct intrinsic potential viability between the scaffolds, and L-PRP was responsible for promoting higher levels of viability in both periods of analysis. No viable cells were identified in the fibrin matrix used as controls. These results allow us to conclude that both fibrin substrates have presented intrinsic potential for maintaining cell viability, with superior potential exhibited by L-PRP scaffold, and represent promising alternatives for use as bioactive supports in musculoskeletal regenerative medicine.

Humans , Male , Adult , Adipose Tissue/cytology , Tissue Engineering/methods , Platelet-Rich Plasma/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/physiology , Platelet-Rich Fibrin/cytology , Cell Survival , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Tissue Scaffolds , Flow Cytometry
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(4): e8993, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089353


The central nervous system shows limited regenerative capacity after injury. Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating traumatic injury resulting in loss of sensory, motor, and autonomic function distal from the level of injury. An appropriate combination of biomaterials and bioactive substances is currently thought to be a promising approach to treat this condition. Systemic administration of valproic acid (VPA) has been previously shown to promote functional recovery in animal models of SCI. In this study, VPA was encapsulated in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microfibers by the coaxial electrospinning technique. Fibers showed continuous and cylindrical morphology, randomly oriented fibers, and compatible morphological and mechanical characteristics for application in SCI. Drug-release analysis indicated a rapid release of VPA during the first day of the in vitro test. The coaxial fibers containing VPA supported adhesion, viability, and proliferation of PC12 cells. In addition, the VPA/PLGA microfibers induced the reduction of PC12 cell viability, as has already been described in the literature. The biomaterials were implanted in rats after SCI. The groups that received the implants did not show increased functional recovery or tissue regeneration compared to the control. These results indicated the cytocompatibility of the VPA/PLGA core-shell microfibers and that it may be a promising approach to treat SCI when combined with other strategies.

Animals , Male , Rats , Spinal Cord Injuries/therapy , Central Nervous System/drug effects , Valproic Acid/administration & dosage , Polylactic Acid-Polyglycolic Acid Copolymer/chemistry , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Rats, Wistar , Microfibrils/chemistry , Tissue Engineering/methods , Disease Models, Animal , Tissue Scaffolds
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(1): 11-17, July 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011228


Abstract Background: Pericardium tissue allograft can be used for surgical repair in several procedures. One of the tissue engineering strategies is the process of decellularization. This process decreases immunogenic response, but it may modify the natural extracellular matrix composition and behavior. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of cell removal, maintenance of extracellular matrix properties and mechanical integrity of decellularized human pericardium using a low concentration solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Methods: Decellularization was performed with sodium dodecyl sulfate and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Histological analysis, DNA quantification, evaluation of glycosaminoglycans and collagen were performed. Biomechanical assay was performed using tensile test to compare the decellularization effects on tissue properties of tensile strength, elongation and elastic modulus. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: There was reduction in visible nuclei present in pericardium tissue after decellularization, but it retained collagen and elastin bundles similar to fresh pericardium. The DNA contents of the decellularized pericardium were significantly reduced to less than 511.23 ± 120.4 ng per mg of dry weight (p < 0.001). The biomechanical assay showed no significant difference for fresh or decellularized tissue. Conclusion: The decellularization process reduces cell content as well as extracellular matrix components without changing its biomechanical properties.

Resumo Fundameto: O enxerto de pericárdio pode ser usado em muitos procedimentos de correção cirúrgica. Uma das estratégias da engenharia tecidual é o processo de descelularização. No entanto, embora esse processo diminua a resposta imunogênica, a descelularização pode modificar tanto o comportamento como a composição da matriz extracelular natural. Objetivos: Avaliar a eficácia da descelularização usando baixa concentração de dodecil sulfato de sódio na remoção celular, na manutenção das propriedades da matriz extracelular e na integridade mecânica do pericárdio humano descelularizado. Métodos: A descelularização foi realizada com dodecil sulfato de sódio e ácido etilenodiamino tetra-acético. Foi realizada análise histológica, quantificação de DNA, e avaliação de glicosaminoglicanos e colágeno. O estudo biomecânico foi conduzido pelo teste de tração para comparar os efeitos da descelularização sobre as propriedades teciduais de resistência à tração, alongamento e módulo de elasticidade. Foi considerado um valor de p < 0,05 como estatisticamente significativo. Resultados: Observou-se uma redução na quantidade de núcleos presentes no pericárdio após a descelularização, apesar de manter quantidades similares de feixes de elastina e de colágeno. As concentrações de DNA do pericárdio descelularizado foram significativamente reduzidas para menos que 511,23 ± 120,4 ng por mg de peso seco (p < 0,001). O teste biomecânico não apontou diferenças entre os tecidos fresco e descelularizado. Conclusão: A descelularização reduziu a concentração de células bem como os componentes da matriz extracelular sem afetar suas propriedades biomecânicas.

Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Pericardium/cytology , Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate/pharmacology , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology , Cell Separation/methods , Tissue Engineering/methods , Pericardium/drug effects , Biomechanical Phenomena , Regenerative Medicine , Tissue Scaffolds
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19170775, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011522


Abstract Tissue engineering suggests different forms to reconstruct tissues and organs. One of the ways is through the use of polymeric biomaterials such as poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA). PLLA is a recognized material in tissue engineering due to its characteristics as biocompatibility and bioresorbability. In this work PLLA fibrous membranes were produced by a simple technique known as rotary jet spinning. The rotary jet spinning consists of fibrous membranes production, with fibers of scale nano/micrometric, from a polymeric solution through the centrifugal force generated by the equipment. The membranes formed were subjected to preliminary in vitro assays to verify the cytotoxicity of the membranes made in contact with the cells. Direct cytotoxicity assays were performed through the MTT, AlamarBlue® and Live/Dead® tests, with fibroblastic and osteoblastic cells. The results obtained in this study showed that PLLA membranes produced by rotary jet spinning showed promising results in the 24-hours contact period of the cells with the PLLA fibrous membranes. The information presented in this preliminary study provides criteria to be taken in the future procedures that will be performed with the biomaterial produced, aiming at its improvement.

Biocompatible Materials , Lactic Acid , Tissue Engineering/methods , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation
Int. j. morphol ; 37(1): 111-117, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990014


SUMMARY: Arterial obstruction in small diameter (<6 mm) vessels are many times treated with grafts, however autologous aren't always available and synthetic have a high rate of complications. Decellularization of umbilical arteries may provide a solution, but the ideal method is debatable. We compare effectiveness between SDS and Triton X-100. Umbilical cords obtained from full term pregnancies with normal development and no evident complications in the newborn, were micro-dissected within 12 h and stored in phosphate buffered saline without freezing. Arteries were then processed for decellularization using 0.1 % and 1 % SDS, and 1 % Triton X100 protocols. Evaluation of cellular and nuclear material, collagen fibers, elastic fibers, and glycosoaminoglycans of the extracellular matrix (ECM) were evaluated as well as morphometric analysis under histological and immunohistochemical techniques. Triton X-100 was ineffective, preserving nuclear remains identified by immunofluorescence, had the most notable damage to elastic fibers, and decrease in collagen. SDS effectively eliminated the nuclei and had a less decrease in elastic fibers and collagen. Laminin was preserved in all groups. No significant differences were identified in luminal diameters; however the middle layer decreased due to decellularization of muscle cells. In conclusion, 0.1 % SDS decellularization was the most effective in eliminating cells and preserving the main components of the ECM.

RESUMEN: La obstrucción arterial en vasos de pequeño diámetro (<6 mm) se trata muchas veces con injertos, sin embargo, los autólogos no siempre están disponibles y los sintéticos tienen una alta tasa de complicaciones. La descelularización de las arterias umbilicales puede proporcionar una solución, pero el método ideal es discutible. Comparamos la efectividad entre los métodos SDS y Triton X-100. Cordones umbilicales obtenidos a partir de embarazos a término con evolución normal y sin complicaciones evidentes del recién nacido, se microdiseccionaron en 12 horas y se almacenaron en solución salina con fosfato sin congelación. Las arterias se procesaron luego para la descelularización usando los protocolos de SDS al 0,1 % y 1 %, y Triton X-100 al 1 %. Se realizó la evaluación de material celular y nuclear, fibras de colágeno, fibras elásticas y glucosoaminoglicanos de la matriz extracelular (MEC), así como el análisis morfométrico bajo técnicas histológicas e inmunohistoquímicas. Triton X-100 fue ineficaz, conservando los restos nucleares identificados por inmunofluorescencia, tuvo el daño más notable a las fibras elásticas y la disminución del colágeno. SDS efectivamente eliminó los núcleos y tuvo una disminución menor en las fibras elásticas y el colágeno. Laminina fue preservado en todos los grupos. No se identificaron diferencias significativas en los diámetros luminales; sin embargo, la capa media disminuyó debido a la descelularización de las células musculares. la descelularización con SDS al 0,1 % fue la más efectiva para eliminar células y preservar los principales componentes de la MEC.

Humans , Umbilical Arteries/cytology , Umbilical Arteries/metabolism , Tissue Engineering/methods , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Umbilical Arteries/transplantation , Umbilical Cord , Immunohistochemistry , Cell Separation , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Collagen , Vascular Grafting
Artrosc. (B. Aires) ; 26(3): 83-87, 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1048246


Introducción: En la actualidad existen diferentes métodos y técnicas de preservación articular. La utilización de una matriz de atelocolágeno combinada con microperforaciones otorga un soporte adecuado para la inducción de la condrogénesis a partir de las células mesenquimales provenientes de la médula ósea. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo es describir la técnica quirúrgica y presentar los resultados de una serie de pacientes con lesiones condrales severas, tratados con microperforaciones asociado a una matriz de atelocolágeno. Material y Método: Se evaluaron los pacientes intervenidos quirúrgicamente por lesión de cartílago grado IV de más de 3 cm2 a los que se le aplicó matriz de atelocolágeno combinado con microperforaciones. El mínimo seguimiento fue de 24 meses. En pacientes con deseje o inestabilidad asociada se realizaron procedimientos combinados en el mismo acto quirúrgico. Describimos la técnica quirúrgica, resultados funcionales pre y postoperatorios con las escalas de Lysholm, IKDC y Escala Visual Análoga (EVA) del dolor fueron. Se realizó una evaluación radiográfica. Analizamos las complicaciones del procedimiento. Resultado: Fueron operados 12 pacientes. A uno se le realizó un reemplazo articular de su rodilla a los 10 meses de la cirugía y fue considerado falla con finalización del seguimiento. Once fueron evaluados clínicamente, nueve hombres y dos mujeres, con una edad promedio de 48 años y seguimiento promedio de 34 meses. Ocho procedimientos en cóndilo interno, 2 en cóndilo externo y 4 en tróclea. La mediana de la escala de IKDC pre/post operatorio fue 41/55 (p 0.016), Lysholm 35/82 (p 0.004) y EVA 9/3 (p 0.002). La evaluación radiológica no evidenció cambios degenerativos. Se registró 1 artrofibrosis post operatoria. Conclusión: En nuestra serie, el tratamiento con atelocolágeno combinado con microperforaciones mejoró la clínica de los pacientes con lesión severa del cartílago articular de rodilla. Tipo de trabajo: Serie de casos Nivel de Evidencia: IV

ntroduction: Different surgical approaches are currently available to treat knee chondral defects. The technique used in this article combines microfractures with the use of an injectable atelocollagen matrix (Cartifill). The matrix covers the defect and improves the mechanical stability of the blood clot and maintains the chondrogenic progenitor cells and growth factors in the defective area. The aim of our study is to evaluate and describe the results in a series of patients treated with atelocollagen matrix and microfractures. Material and Methods: All patients treated with atelocollagen matrix due to a cartilage lesion with a minimum follow-up of 24 months were evaluated. Patients undergoing associated surgeries (osteotomies, meniscectomies, mosaicplasty, ligament reconstruction) in the same surgical procedure were included in the study. Clinical function was assessed before and after surgery with the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), the Lysholm score and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Radiographic control was requested according to availability. Results: Twelve patients met the inclusion criteria. Three women. Average age of 50 years. Eight applications in medial condyle, 2 in lateral condyle and 4 in trochlea. One post-operative arthrofibrosis was recorded. One of the patients underwent an articular replacement of his knee 10 months after the surgery with finalization of follow-up. The pre / post-operative average was 39/52 (IKDC), 37/76 (Lysholm) and 8.5 / 3.5 (VAS). Conclusion: In our series, atelocollagen matrix combined with microfractures improved the clinical symptoms of patients with severe knee articular cartilage injury. However, a better selection of patients who require this procedure should be applied in future interventions. Type of Study: Case Series. Level of Evidence: IV

Adult , Middle Aged , Arthroscopy/methods , Cartilage, Articular/surgery , Cartilage, Articular/injuries , Collagen/therapeutic use , Chondrocytes/transplantation , Tissue Engineering/methods , Knee Injuries/surgery
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 17(3): 359-368, nov 19, 2018. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247808


Introdução: a regeneração e o reparo de tecidos ósseos perdidos é objeto de estudo da Bioengenharia Tecidual. O uso de biomateriais substitutos ósseos biomiméticos visa estimular os sistemas celulares e bioquímicos para restabelecer de modo mais eficiente o tecido ósseo nos casos de sua reconstrução. Ao investigar o processo de remodelação, é vital identificar áreas de novo crescimento para avaliar a eficácia dos biomateriais implantados e respectivos regimes de tratamento. A avaliação qualitativa e quantitativa da regeneração óssea pode ser realizada através da aplicação de marcadores como o Xilenol, a Tetraciclina, a Calceína e a Alizarina. A administração desses marcadores de forma associada possibilita ainda marcar sequencialmente camadas de nova deposição e remodelação durante o reparo. Objetivo: estabelecer um protocolo para utilização dos marcadores fluorescentes de reparo ósseo xilenol, tetraciclina, calceína e alizarina, em ratos. Metodologia: foram utilizados 35 ratos da linhagem Wistar, machos adultos, com massa corpórea entre 350 e 400g, e idade aproximada de 4 a 5 meses, distribuídos randomicamente em 5 grupos experimentais, submetidos à confecção de defeito ósseo circular de 8 mm em região de calvária, e administração dos diferentes marcadores segundo os grupos; XO ­ Xilenol; Ca ­ Calceína; Al ­ Alizarina; Te ­ Tetraciclina; C ­ Controle. Após 15 dias de experimento, os animais foram eutanasiados e as calvárias processadas e analisadas por histomorfometria, microscopia de epifluorescência e microscopia de fluorescência. Resultados: todos protocolos empregados para utilização dos marcadores fluorescentes xilenol, calceína, alizarina e tetracicilina foram úteis para identificar área de deposição mineral durante o período analisado de regeneração óssea em ratos. As imagens obtidas pela microscopia de fluorescência revela a presença dos marcadores incorporados à matriz óssea neoformada, no entanto a utilização da Alizarina e Calceína dentro dos protocolos testados mostraram-se mais eficientes. Conclusão: os protocolos testados nesse estudo apresentaram-se viáveis para utilização em pesquisas envolvendo marcadores de regeneração óssea, com resultados superiores para Alizarina e Calceína

Introduction: The regeneration and repair of lost bone tissues is the subject of a study of Tissue Bioengineering. The use of biomimetic biomaterial bone substitutes aims to stimulate the cellular and biochemical systems to restore more efficiently the bone tissue in the cases of its reconstruction. When investigating the remodeling process, it is vital to identify areas of new growth to evaluate the efficacy of implanted biomaterials and their treatment regimens. The qualitative and quantitative evaluation of bone regeneration can be performed through the use of markers such as Xylenol, Tetracycline, Calcein and Alizarin. The administration of such markers in an associated manner also makes it possible to sequentially mark layers of new deposition and remodeling during the repair. Objective: to establish a protocol for the use of fluorescent xylenol, tetracycline, calcein and alizarin bone repair markers in rats. Metodology: thirtyfive male adult Wistar rats with a body mass ranging from 350 to 400 g and approximately 4 to 5 months old were randomly assigned to 5 experimental groups submitted to a circular bone defect of 8 mm in the region of calvaria, and administration of the different markers according to the groups; XO ­ Xylenol; Ca ­ Calcein; Al-Alizarin; Te ­ Tetracycline; C ­ Control. After 15 days of experiment, the animals were euthanized and the calvaria processed and analyzed by histomorphometry, epifluorescence microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. Results: all protocols used for fluorescence markers xylenol, calcein, alizarin and tetracycline were useful to identify area of mineral deposition during the analyzed period of bone regeneration in rats. The images obtained by fluorescence microscopy revealed the presence of the markers incorporated into the neoformed bone matrix, however the use of Alizarin and Calcein within the protocols tested were more efficient. Conclusion: the protocols tested in this study were feasible for use in research involving markers of bone regeneration, with superior results for Alizarin and Calcein.

Animals , Male , Rats , Bone Regeneration/drug effects , Tissue Engineering/methods , Fluorescent Dyes/pharmacology , Tetracycline/pharmacology , Xylenes/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Pilot Projects , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Microscopy, Fluorescence
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(1): e6382, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889010


Biological biomaterials for tissue engineering purposes can be produced through tissue and/or organ decellularization. The remaining extracellular matrix (ECM) must be acellular and preserve its proteins and physical features. Placentas are organs of great interest because they are discarded after birth and present large amounts of ECM. Protocols for decellularization are tissue-specific and have not been established for canine placentas yet. This study aimed at analyzing a favorable method for decellularization of maternal and fetal portions of canine placentas. Canine placentas were subjected to ten preliminary tests to analyze the efficacy of parameters such as the type of detergents, freezing temperatures and perfusion. Two protocols were chosen for further analyses using histology, scanning electron microscopy, immunofluorescence and DNA quantification. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was the most effective detergent for cell removal. Freezing placentas before decellularization required longer periods of incubation in different detergents. Both perfusion and immersion methods were capable of removing cells. Placentas decellularized using Protocol I (1% SDS, 5 mM EDTA, 50 mM TRIS, and 0.5% antibiotic) preserved the ECM structure better, but Protocol I was less efficient to remove cells and DNA content from the ECM than Protocol II (1% SDS, 5 mM EDTA, 0.05% trypsin, and 0.5% antibiotic).

Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Dogs , Placenta/cytology , Tissue Engineering/methods , Extracellular Matrix , Fetus/cytology , Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate/pharmacology , Biocompatible Materials , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Reproducibility of Results , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Collagen/analysis , Fibronectins/analysis , Laminin/analysis , Edetic Acid , Cold Temperature , Tissue Engineering/veterinary , Immersion
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 16(3): eRB4538, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-953182


ABSTRACT Cardiovascular diseases are the major cause of death worldwide. The heart has limited capacity of regeneration, therefore, transplantation is the only solution in some cases despite presenting many disadvantages. Tissue engineering has been considered the ideal strategy for regenerative medicine in cardiology. It is an interdisciplinary field combining many techniques that aim to maintain, regenerate or replace a tissue or organ. The main approach of cardiac tissue engineering is to create cardiac grafts, either whole heart substitutes or tissues that can be efficiently implanted in the organism, regenerating the tissue and giving rise to a fully functional heart, without causing side effects, such as immunogenicity. In this review, we systematically present and compare the techniques that have drawn the most attention in this field and that generally have focused on four important issues: the scaffold material selection, the scaffold material production, cellular selection and in vitro cell culture. Many studies used several techniques that are herein presented, including biopolymers, decellularization and bioreactors, and made significant advances, either seeking a graft or an entire bioartificial heart. However, much work remains to better understand and improve existing techniques, to develop robust, efficient and efficacious methods.

RESUMO Doenças cardiovasculares são responsáveis pelo maior número de mortes no mundo. O coração possui capacidade de regeneração limitada, e o transplante, por consequência, representa a única solução em alguns casos, apresentando várias desvantagens. A engenharia de tecidos tem sido considerada a estratégia ideal para a medicina cardíaca regenerativa. Trata-se de uma área interdisciplinar, que combina muitas técnicas as quais buscam manter, regenerar ou substituir um tecido ou órgão. A abordagem principal da engenharia de tecidos cardíacos é criar enxertos cardíacos, sejam substitutos do coração inteiro ou de tecidos que podem ser implantados de forma eficiente no organismo, regenerando o tecido e dando origem a um coração completamente funcional, sem desencadear efeitos colaterais, como imunogenicidade. Nesta revisão, apresentase e compara-se sistematicamente as técnicas que ganharam mais atenção nesta área e que geralmente focam em quatro assuntos importantes: seleção do material a ser utilizado como enxerto, produção do material, seleção das células e cultura de células in vitro. Muitos estudos, fazendo uso de várias das técnicas aqui apresentadas, incluindo biopolímeros, descelularização e biorreatores, têm apresentado avanços significativos, seja para obter um enxerto ou um coração bioartifical inteiro. No entanto, ainda resta um grande esforço para entender e melhorar as técnicas existentes, para desenvolver métodos robustos, eficientes e eficazes.

Humans , Heart Transplantation/methods , Tissue Engineering/methods , Myocardium/cytology , Biopolymers , Heart Transplantation/trends , Cell Culture Techniques/methods , Bioreactors , Tissue Engineering/trends , Tissue Scaffolds
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 16(4): eRB4587, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975099


ABSTRACT The biology of stem cells is one of the most dynamic and promising fields of the biological sciences, since it is the basis for the development of organisms. Its biological complexity demands efforts from several lines of research aimed mainly at its therapeutic use. Nanotechnology has been emerging as a new field of study, which shows great potential in the treatment of various diseases. This new area of health has been called "Nanomedicine" or "Bionanotechnology", which can be applied in Medicine by transport and drug delivery systems, robotic tools to be used in diagnostic and surgical processes, nanobiomaterials, gene therapies, nanobiomedical devices, among others. Because stem cells and Nanotechnology are two areas of extremely promising science, a new field of study, called "stem cell Nanotechnology", has gradually emerged. In this, Nanotechnology is used to help the stem cells apply their therapeutic potential in the treatment, cure, and repair of the damaged tissues, in an effective and safe way. In this way, stem cell Nanotechnology has generated great interest, since it may result in significant contributions to Regenerative Medicine and tissue engineering. The present work aims to present the state-of-the-art regarding its therapeutic use in Human Medicine.

RESUMO A biologia das células-tronco é um dos campos mais dinâmicos e promissores das ciências biológicas, pois é a base do desenvolvimento dos organismos. Sua complexidade biológica demanda esforços de diversas linhas de pesquisa, visando principalmente à sua utilização terapêutica. A Nanotecnologia surge como um novo campo de estudo, o qual demonstra grande potencial no que tange ao tratamento de diversas doenças. Esta nova área da saúde vem sendo denominada "Nanomedicina" ou "Bionanotecnologia", a qual pode ser aplicada na Medicina por meio da utilização de sistemas de transporte e liberação de fármacos, ferramentas robóticas a serem utilizadas em processos de diagnóstico e cirurgia, nanobiomateriais, terapias gênicas, dispositivos nanobiomédicos, entre outros. Em razão das células-tronco e a Nanotecnologia serem duas áreas da ciência extremante promissoras, um novo campo de estudo, denominado "Nanotecnologia das células-tronco", surge gradativamente. Neste, a Nanotecnologia é utilizada de forma a auxiliar as células-tronco a exercerem seu potencial terapêutico no tratamento, na cura e na reparação dos tecidos lesionados, de forma eficaz e segura. A Nanotecnologia das células-tronco tem gerado grande interesse, podendo resultar em contribuições significativas na Medicina Regenerativa e na engenharia de tecidos. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo apresentar o estado da arte visando à sua utilização terapêutica na Medicina Humana.

Humans , Nanotechnology/methods , Multipotent Stem Cells , Regenerative Medicine/methods , Adult Stem Cells , Bone Diseases/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Tissue Engineering/methods , Nanostructures/therapeutic use , Nanomedicine/methods , Neoplasms/therapy , Nervous System Diseases/therapy
Clinics ; 73: e562, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974903


OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop a new histological scoring system for use in a partial-thickness cartilage repair animal model. Although previous papers have investigated the regeneration of articular cartilage, the good results achieved in small animals have not been replicated in large animal models or humans, possibly because of the frequent use of models with perforation of the subchondral bone plates. Partial-thickness lesions spare the subchondral bone, and this pattern is the most frequent in humans; therefore, new therapies should be tested using this model. However, no specific histological score exists to evaluate partial-thickness model results. METHODS: Histological sections from 30 ovine knees were reviewed to develop a new scoring system. The sections were subjected to H&E, Safranin O, and Masson's trichrome staining. RESULTS: This paper describes a new scoring tool that is divided into sections in detail: repair of tissue inside the lesion, cartilage around the lesion and degenerative changes at the base of the lesion. Scores range from 0 to 21; a higher score indicates better cartilage repair. DISCUSSION: Unlike existing tools, this new scale does not assign points for the positioning of a tidemark; we propose evaluation of the degenerative changes to the subchondral bone and calcified cartilage layer. It is necessary to remove the whole joint to access and study the evolution of the lesion as well as the surrounding tissue. CONCLUSION: This article emphasizes the importance of a partial-thickness animal model of cartilage repair and presents a new histological scoring system.

Animals , Regeneration/physiology , Cartilage, Articular/injuries , Cartilage, Articular/pathology , Tissue Engineering/methods , Disease Models, Animal , Reference Standards , Time Factors , Biopsy , Bone and Bones/physiology , Bone and Bones/pathology , Sheep , Cartilage Diseases/physiopathology , Cartilage Diseases/pathology , Reproducibility of Results , Chondrocytes/physiology , Chondrocytes/pathology , Hindlimb
Actual. osteol ; 13(2): 157-176, Mayo - Ago. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118319


Existen numerosas patologías que generan situaciones invalidantes debido a problemas asociados a nivel de defectos óseos. Esto genera, en muchas oportunidades, cuestiones sanitarias de alto impacto. La ingeniería de tejidos óseos pretende generar propuestas novedosas para reparar pérdidas o fracturas óseas, promoviendo regenerar el tejido mediante el implante de matrices biodegradables que puedan actuar como estructuras para la adhesión celular, favoreciendo el crecimiento y la diferenciación hasta formar hueso de novo. El incremento notable de los conocimientos en las áreas biotecnológicas, de síntesis química, así como de biomedicina, permiten el desarrollo de numerosos tipos de matrices de tercera generación, biodegradables y no tóxicas, con características que proponen sean consideradas en la regeneración tisular ósea. Este trabajo intenta resumir los tipos de matrices que mayor impacto han tenido hasta el momento en la medicina regenerativa ósea, mostrando los casos más relevantes de resultados experimentales y clínicos, y propone algunas perspectivas que se deberían considerar para poder aplicarlas a la práctica clínica. Esta es un área que invita a los investigadores a posicionarse en un pensamiento complejo desde el punto de vista científico-filosófico. (AU)

There are several pathologies that generate disability due to complications associated with bone defects. This often generates high impact health troubles. Bone tissue engineering aims to generate novel means to repair bone loss or bone fractures, promoting tissue regeneration through the implantation biodegradables scaffolds, which can act as structures for cell adhesion, that promts cell growth and differentiation for the novo bone formation. The remarkable for the novo bone formation in biotechnology, chemical synthesis, and biomedical knowledge allows the development of numerous types of third generation scaffolds, applied to promote bone tissue regeneration. This brief report aims to review the scaffolds that have had more impact in bone regenerative medicine so far, describing the most relevant experimental and clinical results. This is an area that invites researchers to situate themselves in a complex thought of scientific-philosophical point of view. (AU)

Humans , Tissue Engineering/methods , Regenerative Medicine/methods , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Bone and Bones/chemistry , Bone Diseases/therapy , Bone Regeneration , Osseointegration , Tissue Engineering/trends , Regenerative Medicine/trends , Fractures, Bone/therapy