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Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880868


Mineralized tissue regeneration is an important and challenging part of the field of tissue engineering and regeneration. At present, autograft harvest procedures may cause secondary trauma to patients, while bone scaffold materials lack osteogenic activity, resulting in a limited application. Loaded with osteogenic induction growth factor can improve the osteoinductive performance of bone graft, but the explosive release of growth factor may also cause side effects. In this study, we innovatively used platelet-rich fibrin (PRF)-modified bone scaffolds (Bio-Oss

Autografts , Bone Regeneration , Cell Differentiation , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Osteogenesis , Tissue Engineering , Tissue Scaffolds
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879964


Temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJOA) is mainly manifested as perforation of temporomandibular joint disc (TMJD) and destruction of condylar osteochondral complex (COCC). In recent years, tissue engineering technology has become one of the effective strategies in repairing this damage. With the development of scaffold material technology, composite scaffolds have become an important means to optimize the performance of scaffolds with the combined advantages of natural materials and synthetic materials. The gelling method with the minimally invasive concept can greatly solve the problems of surgical trauma and material anastomosis, which is beneficial to the clinical transformation of temporomandibular joint tissue engineering. Extracellular matrix scaffolds technology can solve the problem of scaffold source and maximize the simulation of the extracellular environment, which provides an important means for the transformation of temporo joint tissue engineering to animal level. Due to the limitation of the source and amplification of costal chondrocytes, the use of mesenchymal stem cells from different sources has been widely used for temporomandibular joint tissue engineering. The fibrochondral stem cells isolated from surface layer of articular cartilage may provide one more suitable cell source. Transforming growth factor β superfamily, due to its osteochondrogenesis activity has been widely used in tissue engineering, and platelet-rich derivative as a convenient preparation of compound biological factor, gradually get used in temporomandibular joint tissue engineering. With the deepening of research on extracellular microenvironment and mechanical stimulation, mesenchymal stem cells, exosomes and stress stimulation are increasingly being used to regulate the extracellular microenvironment. In the future, the combination of complex bioactive factors and certain stress stimulation may become a trend in the temporomandibular joint tissue engineering research. In this article, the progress on tissue engineering in repairing COCC and TMJD, especially in scaffold materials, seed cells and bioactive factors, are reviewed, so as to provide information for future research design and clinical intervention.

Animals , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Temporomandibular Joint/surgery , Temporomandibular Joint Disc/surgery , Tissue Engineering , Tissue Scaffolds
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879449


In the process of repairing of bone defects, bone scaffold materials need to be implanted to restore the corresponding tissue structure at the injury. At present, the repair materials used for bone defects mainly include autogenous bone, allogeneic bone, metal materials, bioceramics, polymer materials and various composite materials. Different materials have demonstrated strong reconstruction ability in bone repair, but the ideal bone implants in the clinic are still yet to be established. Except for autogenous bone, other materials used in bone defect repair are unable to perfectly balance biocompatibility, bone formation, bone conduction and osteoinduction. Combining the latest advances in materials sciences and clinical application, we believe that composite materials supplementedwith Chinese medicine, tissue cells, cytokines, trace elements, etc. and manufactured using advanced technologies such as additive manufacturing technology may have ideal bone repair performance, and may have profound significance in clinical repair of bone defects of special type. This article reviewed to the domestic and foreign literature in recent years, and elaborates the current status of bone defect repair materials in clinical application and basic research in regard to the advantages, clinical options, shortcomings, and how to improve the autogenous bone, allogeneic bone and artificial bone materials, in order to provide a theoretical basis for clinical management of bone defects.

Acrylic Resins , Biocompatible Materials , Bone Substitutes , Bone and Bones , Osteogenesis , Tissue Engineering , Tissue Scaffolds
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878420


Oromaxillofacial hard tissue defects is still a difficult problem in clinical treatment. Regeneration of oromaxillofacial hard tissue based on tissue engineering technology has a good clinical application prospect. The functional modification of scaffolds is one of key factors that influence the outcome of tissue regeneration. The biomimetic design of biomaterials through simulating the natural structure and composition of oromaxillofacial hard tissue has gradually become a research hotspot due to its advantages of simplicity and efficiency. In this article, the biomimetic modification of biomaterials for oromaxillofacial hard tissue regeneration is reviewed, expecting to provide a new idea for the treatment of oromaxillofacial hard tissue defect.

Biocompatible Materials , Biomimetics , Bone Regeneration , Dental Implants , Tissue Engineering , Tissue Scaffolds
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(9): e11055, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278585


Because bone-associated diseases are increasing, a variety of tissue engineering approaches with bone regeneration purposes have been proposed over the last years. Bone tissue provides a number of important physiological and structural functions in the human body, being essential for hematopoietic maintenance and for providing support and protection of vital organs. Therefore, efforts to develop the ideal scaffold which is able to guide the bone regeneration processes is a relevant target for tissue engineering researchers. Several techniques have been used for scaffolding approaches, such as diverse types of biomaterials. On the other hand, metallic biomaterials are widely used as support devices in dentistry and orthopedics, constituting an important complement for the scaffolds. Hence, the aim of this review is to provide an overview of the degradable biomaterials and metal biomaterials proposed for bone regeneration in the orthopedic and dentistry fields in the last years.

Humans , Orthopedics , Biocompatible Materials , Bone Regeneration , Tissue Engineering , Dentistry , Tissue Scaffolds
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879289


Cryogels are a type of hydrogel material which are fabricated by cryopolymerization at subzero temperature. Due to their unique macroporous structure, shape memory properties and injectability, cryogels have gained significant interest in the fields of tissue engineering for encouraging the repair and regeneration of injured tissues. In this review, the basic concepts relevant to cryogels are introduced, and then the fabrication principle, the process parameters and the unique properties of cryogel are discussed. Next, the latest advances of cryogels as three-dimensional scaffold for various tissue engineering applications are given. Finally, this review summarizes the current limitations of cryogels, and strategies to further improve their properties for tissue engineering. The purpose of this article is to provide a reference guide for the researchers in related fields.

Cryogels , Porosity , Tissue Engineering , Tissue Scaffolds
Rev. Fac. Med. (Bogotá) ; 68(4): 603-607, oct.-dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1149562


Resumen La impresión 3D es una tecnología interesante en constante evolución. También conocida como manufactura aditiva, consiste en la conversión de diseños digitales a modelos físicos mediante la adición de capas sucesivas de material. En años recientes, y tras el vencimiento de múltiples patentes, diversos campos de las ciencias de la salud se han interesado en sus posibles usos, siendo la cirugía plástica una de las especialidades médicas que más ha aprovechado sus ventajas y aplicaciones, en especial la capacidad de crear dispositivos altamente personalizados a costos accesibles. Teniendo en cuenta lo anterior, el objetivo del presente artículo es describir los usos de la impresión 3D en cirugía plástica reconstructiva a partir de una revisión de la literatura. Las principales aplicaciones de la impresión 3D descritas en la literatura incluyen su capacidad para crear modelos anatómicos basados en estudios de imagen de pacientes, que a su vez permiten planificar procedimientos quirúrgicos, fabricar implantes y prótesis personalizadas, crear instrumental quirúrgico para usos específicos y usar biotintas en ingeniería tisular. La impresión 3D es una tecnología prometedora con el potencial de implementar cambios positivos en la práctica de la cirugía plástica reconstructiva en el corto y mediano plazo.

Abstract 3D printing is an interesting technology in constant evolution. Also known as additive manufacturing, it consists of the conversion of digital designs into physical models by successively adding material layer by layer. In recent years, and after the expiration of multiple patents, several fields of health sciences have approached this type of technology, plastic surgery being one of the medical specialties that has taken advantage of its benefits and applications, especially the ability to create highly customized devices at low costs. With this in mind, the objective of this work is to describe the uses of 3D printing in reconstructive plastic surgery based on a literature review. The main applications of 3D printing described in the literature include its ability to create anatomical models based on patient imaging studies, which in turn allow planning surgical procedures, manufacturing custom implants and prostheses, creating surgical or instrumental simulators, and using bioinks in tissue engineering. 3D printing is a promising technology with the potential to cause positive changes in the field of reconstructive plastic surgery in the short and medium term.

Humans , Surgery, Plastic , Tissue Scaffolds , Tissue Engineering , Bioprinting
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(4): 670-677, dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134556


RESUMEN: El tratamiento de dientes inmaduros necróticos es hoy un gran desafío clínico. La ausencia de cierre del ápice y el reducido grosor de las paredes de la dentina hacen que el tratamiento endodóntico del diente sea difícil e impredecible. Tradicionalmente, estos dientes han sido tratados con apexificación y obturación del canal radicular, sin embargo, con este tratamiento el diente permanece desvitalizado y con paredes de dentina frágiles y cortas, lo que compromete su pronóstico. La endodoncia regenerativa, por el contrario, busca revitalizar el diente e inducir una maduración de la raíz, y se basa en la utilización de las células madre mesenquimales presentes en la región periapical, los factores de crecimiento presentes en la dentina y un andamio que permite el crecimiento de tejido nuevo al interior del canal. Los resultados clínicos son alentadores, ya que en general existe maduración de la raíz y revascularización del diente, sin embargo, el tejido neoformado es tejido de tipo reparativo y, a excepción de estudios ocasionales, no se ha observado regeneración de dentina y pulpa. La endodoncia regenerativa se originó para tratar dientes inmaduros necróticos. Sin embargo, recientemente, estudios preliminares han expandido la aplicación de la endodoncia regenerativa a dientes maduros necróticos, es decir, en pacientes adultos. Los resultados clínicos son positivos y similares a los del diente inmaduro, si n embargo, la investigación referente a la revitalización de dientes maduros se encuentra en etapas tempranas y requiere de un mayor nivel de evidencia antes de ser ofrecida sistemáticamente como terapia a pacientes adultos. Los beneficios potenciales justifican mayor investigación al respecto. Este artículo resume la evidencia científica disponible con respecto a la revitalización de dientes inmaduros y maduros necróticos, sus fundamentos biológicos, los resultados esperados y limitaciones, así como el protocolo clínico.

ABSTRACT: Nowadays, the treatment of immature necrotic teeth is an important clinical challenge. The absence of apex closure and low thickness of the dentin walls, make endodontic treatment unpredictable and difficult. Traditionally, these teeth have been treated with apexification and obturation of the root canal. As a result of this treatment, the tooth remains devitalized and with fragile and short dentin walls, which compromises its prognosis. Regenerative endodontics, on the other hand, seeks to revitalize the tooth and induce root maturation, and is based on the use of mesenchymal stem cells present in the periapical tissues, growth factors present in the dentin and a scaffold that allows growth of new tissue in the root ca- nal. The clinical results are encouraging, since generally, there is root maturation and revascularization of the tooth. However, the newly formed tissue is reparative tissue and with the exception of some studies, no regeneration of dentin and pulp has been reported. Regenerative endodontics emerged to treat necrotic immature teeth. However, recently, preliminary studies have applied regenerative endodontics in mature necrotic teeth, in adult patients. Preliminary results are positive and are similar to those of immature teeth. Nevertheless, research regarding the revitalization of mature teeth is in the early stages and requires further evidence before being systematically administered as therapy in adult patients. However, the potential benefits justify further research in this regard. This article summarizes the available scientific evidence regarding the revitalization of immature and mature necrotic teeth, their biological basis, the expected results and limitations, as well as the clinical protocols for each case.

Humans , Adult , Dental Pulp Necrosis/therapy , Dentition, Permanent , Regenerative Endodontics/methods , Clinical Protocols/standards , Clinical Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome , Neovascularization, Physiologic , Dental Pulp Necrosis/drug therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Tissue Scaffolds
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 909-913, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124875


Porous titanium alloy scaffold was widely used in treating bone defect caused by traumatic injury and osteomyelitis, which was incapable of self-healing. The implantation of scaffold produced stress shielding thereby forming osteolysis. The objective of this study was to analysis trabecular morphological features of osseointegrated bone. 14 New Zealand rabbits were divided into two groups, surgery group and healthy control group. 7 rabbits in surgery group were selected to perform 3D printed porous titanium alloy scaffold implantation surgery with preload at the defect of femoral condyle for osseointegration. The other 7 rabbits in control group were feed free. After 90 days healing, femoral condyles were extracted to perform micro-CT scanning with hydroxyapatite calibration phantom. Mean bone mineral density (BMD), bone volume fraction (BV/TV), BS/TV (bone surface area ratio), Tb.Th (thickness of trabeculae), Tb.N (number of trabeculae), Tb.Sp (trabecular separation) and DA (degree of anisotropy) were calculated from micro-CT images. The results revealed that osseointegration inside and at the surface of scaffolds worked well from grey values of micro-CT images. After 12 weeks healing, mean bone mineral densities (BMD) in surgery group and healthy control group were calculated as 800±20mg/cm3 and 980±90mg/cm3, respectively. This revealed that the strength of trabeculae in surgery group might lower than that in the healthy group. Trabecular morphological parameters test showed that trabecular morphological parameters at the surface of scaffolds in the surgery group deteriorated significantly. It was found from micro-CT images that ingrowth bone was filled with pores of scaffold. Overall, the effect of osseointegration was promoted through the change of mechanical micro-environment in the scaffold region. Overall, preload could improve osseointegration effect in the long-term after surgery. However, the trabecular morphology in the surgery group was deteriorated, which might bring secondary fracture risk again.

La malla de aleación de titanio poroso se usó ampliamente en el tratamiento de defectos óseos causados por lesiones traumáticas y osteomielitis. El implante de la malla generó una protección contra el estrés, formando así osteolisis. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar las características morfológicas trabeculares del hueso osteointegrado. Se dividieron 14 conejos (Neozelandeses) en dos grupos, grupo cirugía y grupo control saludable. Se seleccionaron 7 conejos en el grupo de cirugía para realizar una implantación de mallas de aleación de titanio poroso, impresas en 3D con precarga en el defecto del cóndilo femoral para la osteointegración. Los 7 conejos restantes del grupo control se mantuvieron sin alimentación. Después de 90 días de curación, se extrajeron los cóndilos femorales para realizar una exploración por micro-CT con un espectro de calibración de hidroxiapatita. Se calcularon a partir de imágenes de micro-CTDensidad mineral ósea media (DMO), fracción de volumen óseo (BV / TV), BS / TV (relación de área de superficie ósea), Tb.Th (espesor de trabéculas), Tb.N (número de trabéculas), Tb.Sp (trabecular separación) y DA (grado de anisotropía). Los resultados revelaron que la osteointegración dentro y en la superficie de los andamios funcionó bien a partir de los valores grises de las imágenes de micro-CT. Después de 12 semanas de curación, las densidades medias de minerales óseos (DMO) en el grupo cirugía y en el grupo control sano se calcularon como 800 ± 20 mg/cm3 y 980 ± 90 mg/cm3, respectivamente. Esto reveló que la fuerza de las trabéculas en el grupo de cirugía podría ser menor que la del grupo sano. La prueba de parámetros morfológicos trabeculares mostró que en el grupo de cirugía, la superficie de las mallas, se deterioraron significativamente. Se descubrió a partir de imágenes de microCT que el hueso en crecimiento estaba lleno de poros de andamio. En general, el efecto de la osteointegración se promovió mediante el cambio del microambiente mecánico en la región de la malla. En general, la precarga podría mejorar el efecto de osteointegración a largo plazo después de la cirugía. Sin embargo, la morfología trabecular en el grupo de cirugía se deterioró, lo que podría traer un nuevo riesgo de fractura secundaria.

Animals , Rabbits , Bone Diseases/surgery , Osseointegration/physiology , Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Prostheses and Implants , Titanium/chemistry , Porosity , Alloys , X-Ray Microtomography , Femur/surgery
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881038


Due to the poor repair ability of cartilage tissue, regenerative medicine still faces great challenges in the repair of large articular cartilage defects. Quercetin is widely applied as a traditional Chinese medicine in tissue regeneration including liver, bone and skin tissues. However, the evidence for its effects and internal mechanisms for cartilage regeneration are limited. In the present study, the effects of quercetin on chondrocyte function were systematically evaluated by CCK8 assay, PCR assay, cartilaginous matrix staining assays, immunofluorescence assay, and western blotting. The results showed that quercetin significantly up-regulated the expression of chondrogenesis genes and stimulated the secretion of GAG (glycosaminoglycan) through activating the ERK, P38 and AKT signalling pathways in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, in vivo experiments revealed that quercetin-loaded silk protein scaffolds dramatically stimulated the formation of new cartilage-like tissue with higher histological scores in rat femoral cartilage defects. These data suggest that quercetin can effectively stimulate chondrogenesis in vitro and in vivo, demonstrating the potential application of quercetin in the regeneration of cartilage defects.

Animals , Cartilage/cytology , Chondrocytes/drug effects , Chondrogenesis/drug effects , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Quercetin/pharmacology , Rats , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Tissue Scaffolds
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827539


Tubular dentin is of great significance in the process of tooth tissue and tooth regeneration, because it is not only the structural feature of primary dentin, but also can affect the tooth sensory function, affect the differentiation of dental pulp cells and provide strong mechanical support for teeth. Scaffold is one of the three elements of tissue engineering dentin regeneration. Most experiments on dentin regeneration involve the study of the microstructure and mechanical properties of the scaffold. The microstructure and mechanical characteristics of scaffold materials have important effects on the differentiation and adhesion of odontoblast, it can directly affect the tissue structure of regenerated dentin.

Cell Differentiation , Dental Pulp , Dentin , Odontoblasts , Regeneration , Tissue Engineering , Tissue Scaffolds
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(4): e8993, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089353


The central nervous system shows limited regenerative capacity after injury. Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating traumatic injury resulting in loss of sensory, motor, and autonomic function distal from the level of injury. An appropriate combination of biomaterials and bioactive substances is currently thought to be a promising approach to treat this condition. Systemic administration of valproic acid (VPA) has been previously shown to promote functional recovery in animal models of SCI. In this study, VPA was encapsulated in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microfibers by the coaxial electrospinning technique. Fibers showed continuous and cylindrical morphology, randomly oriented fibers, and compatible morphological and mechanical characteristics for application in SCI. Drug-release analysis indicated a rapid release of VPA during the first day of the in vitro test. The coaxial fibers containing VPA supported adhesion, viability, and proliferation of PC12 cells. In addition, the VPA/PLGA microfibers induced the reduction of PC12 cell viability, as has already been described in the literature. The biomaterials were implanted in rats after SCI. The groups that received the implants did not show increased functional recovery or tissue regeneration compared to the control. These results indicated the cytocompatibility of the VPA/PLGA core-shell microfibers and that it may be a promising approach to treat SCI when combined with other strategies.

Animals , Male , Rats , Spinal Cord Injuries/therapy , Central Nervous System/drug effects , Valproic Acid/administration & dosage , Polylactic Acid-Polyglycolic Acid Copolymer/chemistry , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Rats, Wistar , Microfibrils/chemistry , Tissue Engineering/methods , Disease Models, Animal , Tissue Scaffolds
Actual. osteol ; 16(3): 211-231, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253844


Hematoma, inflamación, angiogénesis y osteogénesis son distintas etapas que se superponen durante el proceso de reparación de una fractura ósea. Durante las primeras etapas se liberan distintos factores de crecimiento quimioatractantes que producen el reclutamiento de diversas células para generar la formación de un hueso funcional con su respectiva vasculatura. Debido a la importancia que posee la angiogénesis en el desarrollo de una adecuada red vascular, tanto para la formación ósea como en su reparación, en los últimos años los especialistas en ingeniería de tejido óseo han estudiado la manera de fomentar tanto la osteogénesis como la angiogénesis durante la reparación ósea. En este trabajo de revisión, se recopilan y discuten los principales conceptos sobre distintas estrategias a fin de lograr un implante sintético con funcionalidad dual promoviendo los procesos que garanticen la angiogénesis y la osteogénesis en forma acoplada utilizando distintos tipos de scaffolds y sistemas de liberación de drogas osteoinductoras y angioinductoras. La liberación dual de factores osteoinductores y angioinductores debe producirse en forma témporo-espacial controlada para garantizar los efectos deseados sin producir efectos adversos como tumores o hueso ectópico. Se deben tener en cuenta varios factores como el tipo y la arquitectura de hueso, tipo de daño, edad, sexo y condiciones patológicas del paciente. En cuanto a los materiales se debe considerar el tipo de material para usar como scaffold, los factores inductores seleccionados, su combinación y sistemas de liberación. El avance en estos estudios hará que la Ingeniería de Tejido Óseo sea una alternativa terapéutica en el futuro. (AU)

Hematoma, inflammation, angiogenesis, and osteogenesis are different stages that overlap during the healing process of a bone fracture. During the first stages, different chemoattractant growth factors are released which produce the recruitment of various cells that will induce the formation of a functional bone with its respective vasculature. Due to the importance of angiogenesis for the development of an adequate vascular network in both bone formation and repair, in recent years specialists in bone tissue engineering have studied how to promote both osteogenesis and angiogenesis during bone repair. In this review, the main concepts on different strategies developed to achieve a synthetic implant with dual functionality, promoting processes that guarantee angiogenesis and osteogenesis in a coupled way using different types of scaffolds and osteo-drug delivery systems and angioinductors, are collected and discussed. The dual release for osteoinductive and angioinductive factors must ensure the release of them in a controlled time-space manner to guarantee the desired effects without producing adverse effects such as tumors or ectopic bone. Several factors must be taken into account, such as bone type and architecture, type of damage to be repaired, age, sex, and pathological conditions of the patient. Regarding the materials, the type of material to be used as scaffolds, selected inducing factors and drug release system must be considered. Advances in these studies will make Bone Tissue Engineering a therapeutic alternative in the future. (AU)

Humans , Tissue Engineering/trends , Fractures, Bone/rehabilitation , Osteogenesis , Biocompatible Materials , Drug Delivery Systems , Neovascularization, Physiologic , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Tissue Scaffolds
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190003, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132227


Abstract Autologous fibrin matrices derived from the Leukocyte and Platelet Rich Plasma (L-PRP) and Leukocyte and Platelet Rich Fibrin (L-PRF) techniques present great potential to act as a bioactive scaffold in regenerative medicine, contributing to the maintenance of cell viability, proliferation stimulus and differentiation. In contrast, there are few studies that characterize the bioactive potential of these fibrin scaffolds by considering the process of production. The objective of this work was to characterize the intrinsic potential of maintaining cell viability of different fibrin scaffolds containing platelets and leukocytes. In order to achieve that, blood samples from a volunteer were collected and processed to obtain fibrin clots using the suggested techniques. To characterize the potential for in vitro viability, mesenchymal stem cells from human infrapatellar fat were used. The scaffolds were cellularized (1x105 cells/scaffolds) and maintained for 5 and 10 days under culture conditions with Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium, without addition of fetal bovine serum, and subsequently subjected to analyses by Fourrier transform infra-red spectroscopy, circular dichroism and fluorescence microscopy. The results demonstrated distinct intrinsic potential viability between the scaffolds, and L-PRP was responsible for promoting higher levels of viability in both periods of analysis. No viable cells were identified in the fibrin matrix used as controls. These results allow us to conclude that both fibrin substrates have presented intrinsic potential for maintaining cell viability, with superior potential exhibited by L-PRP scaffold, and represent promising alternatives for use as bioactive supports in musculoskeletal regenerative medicine.

Humans , Male , Adult , Adipose Tissue/cytology , Tissue Engineering/methods , Platelet-Rich Plasma/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/physiology , Platelet-Rich Fibrin/cytology , Cell Survival , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Tissue Scaffolds , Flow Cytometry
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828181


Tissue engineering technology and stem cell research based on tissue engineering have made great progresses in overcoming the problems of tissue and organ damage, functional loss and surgical complications. Traditional method is to use biological substitute materials to repair tissues, while tissue engineering technology focuses on combining seed cells with biological materials to form biological tissues with the same structure and function as its own to repair tissue defects. The advantage is that such tissue engineering organs and tissues can solve the problem that the donor material is limited, and effectively reduce complications. The purpose of tissue engineering is to find suitable seed cells and biomaterials which can replace the biological function of original tissue and build suitable microenvironment . This paper mainly describes current technologies of tissue engineering in various fields of urology, and discusses the future trend of tissue engineering technology in the treatment of complex urinary diseases. The results of this study show that although there are relatively few clinical trials, the good results of the existing studies on animal models reveal a bright future of tissue engineering technology for the treatment of various urinary diseases.

Animals , Biocompatible Materials , Humans , Tissue Engineering , Tissue Scaffolds , Urology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828180


Bladder has many important functions as a urine storage and voiding organ. Bladder injury caused by various pathological factors may need bladder reconstruction. Currently the standard procedure for bladder reconstruction is gastrointestinal replacement. However, due to the significant difference in their structure and function, intestinal segment replacement may lead to complications such as hematuria, dysuria, calculi and tumor. With the recent advance in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, new techniques have emerged for the repair of bladder defects. This paper reviews the recent progress in three aspects of urinary bladder tissue engineering, i.e., seeding cells, scaffolds and growth factors.

Humans , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Regenerative Medicine , Tissue Engineering , Tissue Scaffolds , Urinary Bladder
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879357


Ligament tissue engineering is currently a novel approach to the treatment of ligament injury, which can replace the deficiency of autografts. Ligament tissue engineering consists of four basic elements:seed cells, nanoscaffolds, growth factors, and mechanical stimulation. At present, the main problem in ligament tissue engineering is how to control seed cells to ligament cells more controllly. The study found that each physical property of the natural bio ligament and mechanical stimulation (uniaxial stretching) plays an important role in the differentiation of stem cells into ligament cells. Therefore, the design of nanofiber scaffolds must consider the elastic modulus of the material and the material. Structure(material arrangement, porosity and diameter, etc.), elastic modulus and material structure in different ranges will guide cells to differentiate into different lineages. Considering that the ligament is the main force-bearing tissue of the human body, mechanical stimulation is also essential for stem cell differentiation, especially uniaxial stretching, which best meets the stress of the ligament in the body. A large number of studies have found the frequency and amplitude of stretching. And time will also lead the cells to differentiate in different directions. RhoA/ROCK plays a regulatory role in cytoskeletal remodeling and cell differentiation. It is also found that RhoA/ROCK protein participates in the process of nanofiber arrangement and uniaxial stretching to guide stem cells to differentiate into ligament cells, specifically how to influence stem cell differentiation. It is not clear at present that understanding the effects of physical properties on stem cell differentiation and understanding the mechanism of action of RhoA/ROCK protein will provide a new theoretical basis for further optimization of ligament tissue engineering.

Cell Differentiation , Environment , Humans , Ligaments , Research , Tissue Engineering , Tissue Scaffolds
Odovtos (En línea) ; 21(3): 77-88, Sep.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1091494


ABSTRACT In recent years, tissue engineering has evolved considerably, due to the problems in the biomedical area concerning tissue regeneration therapies. Currently, work has been focused on the synthesis and physicochemical characterization of poly lactic acid scaffolds, a synthetic polyester that has been extensively study for its excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability. Moreover, sterilization strategies of scaffold are a crucial step for its application in tissue regeneration, however, the sterilization process have to maintain the structural and biochemical properties of the scaffold. Therefore, it is very important to carry out studies on the sterilization methods of the sample's material, since translational medicine is intended for in vivo applications. The aim of the present study was designed to analyze the effects of different sterilization techniques, i.e. ethylene oxide (ETO), gamma radiation (GR) and hydrogen peroxide- based plasma (H2O2) in biodegradable PLA scaffolds, and to determine the best sterilization technique to render a sterile product with minimal degradation and deformation, and good tissue response. Analysis of surface morphology showed that ETO and GR modified the PLA scaffolds without any change in its chemical composition. Moreover, the histological response showed that the scaffolds are biocompatible and those sterilized by GR showed a more severe inflammatory response, accompanied with the presence of giant foreign body cells. In conclusion, the results show that among sterilization techniques used in the preset study, the best results were observed with H2O2 sterilization, since it did not significantly modify the surface structure of the PLA fibers and their in vivo response did not cause an unfavorable tissue reaction.

RESUMEN En los últimos años, la ingeniería de tejidos ha evolucionado considerablemente, debido a las incógnitas en las terapias de regeneración en el área biomédica. Actualmente, se ha trabajado en la síntesis y caracterización fisicoquímica de andamios de poliácido láctico, el cual es un polímero sintético que se ha estudiado para aplicaciones en ingeniería de tejidos, debido a su biocompatibilidad y biodegradabilidad. El proceso de esterilización es un paso crucial en la aplicación de andamios en terapias de regeneración, sin embargo, la técnica de esterilización debe mantener las propiedades estructurales y bioquímicas del andamio. Por lo tanto, es muy importante realizar estudios sobre los métodos de esterilización de dichos andamios, ya que la medicina traslacional está diseñada para aplicaciones in vivo. El objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar los efectos de diferentes técnicas de esterilización como óxido de etileno (ETO), radiación gamma (GR) y plasma a base de peróxido de hidrógeno (H2O2) en andamios biodegradables de PLA, y determinar la mejor técnica de esterilización con mínima degradación y deformación, así como una respuesta tisular favorable. La estructura de la superficie de los andamios de PLA se modificó principalmente con las técnicas de óxido de etileno y radiación gamma, sin embargo, ninguna técnica modificó su composición química. Con la respuesta histológica se demostró que los andamios de PLA son biocompatibles y que los esterilizados por radiación gamma desencadenan una mayor respuesta inflamatoria y la formación de células gigantes de cuerpo extraño. En conclusión, los resultados muestran que las técnicas de esterilización utilizadas pueden modificar la morfología del andamio, sin embargo; los mejores resultados se observaron con la esterilización por plasma a base de peróxido de hidrógeno, ya que no modificó significativamente la estructura de la superficie de las fibras de PLA y su respuesta in vivo no provocó una reacción desfavorable en el tejido.

Biomedical and Dental Materials , Sterilization , Ethylene Oxide/analysis , Tissue Scaffolds , Hexachlorocyclohexane , Compomers
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 1132-1141, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012409


Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) have self-renewal and differentiation capacity essential for sperm production throughout the male reproductive life. The electrospun polycaprolactone/gelatin (PCL/Gel) nanofibrous scaffold mimics important features of the extracellular matrix (ECM), which can provide a promising technique for the proliferation and differentiation of SSCs in vitro. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of PCL/Gel nanofibrous scaffold on the propagation and differentiation of neonate mouse SSCs (mSSCs). mSSCs were enzymatically isolated, and the cells were purified by differential plating method and seeded on scaffold. After 2 weeks, viability, colony number and diameter, and expression of specific spermatogonial cell genes were investigated. After mSSCs propagation, the cells were cultivated in a differentiation medium on the scaffold for another 2 weeks, and differentiating cells were analyzed by real-time PCR. The number of mSSC colony (P<0.01) and expression levels of specific spermatogonial genes Plzf and Inga6 (P<0.01) and also differentiation genes c-Kit, Tp1 and Ptm1 (P<0.05) were higher in scaffold group compared with control during the culture period. We conclude that mSSCs can be expanded and can differentiate toward spermatid cells on PCL/Gel nanofibrous scaffold with improved developmental parameters.

Las células madre espermatogónicas (CME) tienen capacidad de auto renovación y diferenciación esenciales para la producción de esperma a lo largo de la vida reproductiva masculina. El «scaffold¼ nanofibroso de policaprolactona / gelatina (PCL / Gel) electrohilado imita características importantes de la matriz extracelular (MEC), que puede proporcionar una técnica prometedora para la proliferación y diferenciación de CME in vitro. El objetivo del presente estudio fue investigar los efectos del «scaffold¼ nanofibroso PCL / Gel en la propagación y diferenciación de CME de ratones neonatos (mSSC). Los mSSC se aislaron enzimáticamente y las células se purificaron mediante un método de siembra diferencial y se sembraron en un «scaffold¼. Después de 2 semanas, se investigaron la viabilidad, el número y el diámetro de las colonias y la expresión de genes específicos de células espermatogónicas. Después de la propagación de mSSC, las células se cultivaron en un medio de diferenciación en el «scaffold¼ durante otras 2 semanas, y las células se analizaron mediante PCR en tiempo real. El número de colonias mSSC (P <0,01) y los niveles de expresión de los genes espermatogónicos específicos Plzf e Inga6 (P <0,01) y también los genes de diferenciación c-Kit, Tp1 y Ptm1 (P <0,05) fueron mayores en el grupo de «scaffold¼ en comparación con el control durante el período de cultivo. Concluimos que los mSSC pueden expandirse y diferenciarse en células espermátidas en un «scaffold¼ de nanofibras PCL / Gel con parámetros de desarrollo mejorados.

Animals , Male , Mice , Spermatogonia/cytology , Spermatogonia/metabolism , Cell Differentiation/physiology , Cell Proliferation/physiology , Polyesters/chemistry , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Cell Survival , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Tissue Scaffolds , Nanofibers/chemistry , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Animals, Newborn