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1.
Braz. dent. sci ; 24(1): 1-6, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1145536

ABSTRACT

Objective: Forensic dentistry has used some methods for the human identification process. However, there is a need to study characteristics that are able to perform identification more specifically, increasing accuracy. Considering the role of dental arch assessment in prediction of gender and ethnicity, the purpose of this study was to assess the volume of pulp chamber as a mean to obtain new forensic evidence. Material and methods: For this task, 1.190 cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were retrospectively selected and subdivided according to the population number, gender, age and ethnicity. All DICOM files were imported to the open-source software ITK-SNAP®(http://www.itksnap.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php). The segmentation process was performed in all pulp chamber aiming to obtain pulp tissue ́s volume. Results: As a result, the pulp chamber volume of mandibular canine teeth showed to be larger in white population than in non-white (P-value = 0.003) and in male individuals in comparison with female (P-value = 0.038). Conclusion: These results, however, must be confirmed by future studies with a larger sample size and by the assessment of other variables, including texture analysis and density of dental tissues. (AU)


Objetivo: A odontologia forense tem usado alguns métodos para o processo de identificação humana. Porém, há a necessidade de estudar características que consigam de forma mais específica realizar a identificação aumentando a precisão. Considerando o papel da avaliação da arcada dentária na predição de gênero e etnia, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o volume da câmara pulpar mandibular como meio de obtenção de novas evidências periciais. Material e métodos: Foram selecionadas 1.190 imagens de tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico (TCFC) e subdivididas de acordo com o número da população, sexo, idade e etnia. Todos os arquivos em formato DICOM foram importados para o software de código aberto ITK-SNAP® (http://www.itksnap.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php) onde o processo de segmentação foi realizado em todas as câmaras pulpares visando a obtenção da volumetria. Resultados: Como resultado, o volume da câmara pulpar dos caninos inferiores mostrou-se maior na população branca do que na não branca (P-valor = 0,003), no sexo masculino em comparação ao feminino (P-valor = 0,038). Conclusão: Esses resultados, entretanto, devem ser confirmados por estudos futuros com maior tamanho amostral e pela avaliação de outras variáveis, incluindo análise de textura e densidade dos tecidos dentários. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Ethnic Groups , Titrimetry , Dental Pulp Cavity , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Forensic Dentistry , Gender Identity
2.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(3): 285-292, set. 2020. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130603

ABSTRACT

Los posibles efectos adversos que se producen en transfusiones incompatibles ABO son un riesgo latente en el uso de concentrados de plaquetas grupo O, por lo que la titulación de hemolisinas anti-A/B constituye una de las estrategias para su prevención. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la frecuencia de títulos de hemolisinas de isotipos IgG e IgM anti-A/B en donantes de sangre. Se trató de un estudio descriptivo, transversal y aleatorio simple con un tamaño muestral de 308 muestras. Se aplicó la metodología en tubo, gel salino y anti-inmunoglobulina IgG y, mediante soluciones seriadas, se evidenció el título. Adicionalmente, se realizó una encuesta sobre los posibles factores de riesgo para el aumento de estos títulos. Se aplicó estadística descriptiva mediante el uso del software informático SPSS versión 22.0 y la relación entre variables independientes a través del análisis estadístico de Chi-cuadrado y, para establecer la concordancia de las lecturas visuales de las tarjetas de gel, se aplicó el índice kappa. Se determinó la existencia de hemolisinas de isotipo IgG e IgM anti-A/B de títulos superiores a 1/64. Existió una relación estadísticamente significativa entre embarazos y títulos de IgG anti-A/B >1/128 y el aumento de hemolisinas de isotipo IgM y la ingesta de probióticos. Los resultados demostraron la necesidad de implementar la titulación de hemolisinas previo a la transfusión de concentrados plaquetarios no isogrupo, por lo que se recomienda una investigación de riesgo-beneficio y el seguimiento de pacientes con transfusiones de concentrados plaquetarios incompatibles ABO.


The possible adverse effects that occur in incompatible ABO transfusions are a latent risk in the use of group O platelet concentrates, so the titration of anti-A/B hemolysins is one of the strategies for its prevention. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of hemolysins titers IgG and IgM anti-A/B isotypes in blood donours. It was a simple randomized descriptive cross-sectional study with a sample size of 308 samples. The methodology was applied in tube, saline gel and anti-IgG anti-immunoglobulin and by means of serial solutions the title was verified. Additionally, a survey was conducted on the possible risk factors for the increase in securities. Descriptive statistics were used through the application of the SPSS version 22.0 software and the relationship between independent variables through the Chi-square statistical analysis and the kappa index was applied to match the visual readings of the gel cards. The existence of IgG and IgM anti-A/B isotype hemolysins of titers greater than 1/64 was determined. There was a statistically significant relationship between pregnancies and anti-A/B IgG titres>1/128; and the increase in IgM isotype hemolysins and probiotic intake. The results demonstrate the need to implement hemolysin titration prior to transfusion of non-isogroup platelet concentrates, so a risk-benefit investigation and follow-up of patients with transfusions of ABO incompatible platelet concentrates is recommended.


Os possíveis efeitos adversos que ocorrem em transfusões incompatíveis ABO são um risco latente no uso de concentrados de plaquetas do grupo O, portanto a titulação de hemolisinas anti-A/B é uma das estratégias para sua prevenção. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a frequência de títulos de hemolisinas de isotipos IgG e IgM anti-A/B em doadores de sangue. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo transversal aleatório simples, com tamanho de amostra de 308 amostras. A metodologia foi aplicada em tubo, gel salino e anti-imunoglobulina IgG e utilizando soluções em série, o título foi verificado. Além disso, foi realizada uma pesquisa sobre os possíveis fatores de risco para o aumento destes títulos. A estatística descritiva foi utilizada através da aplicação do software informático SPSS versão 22.0 e a relação entre variáveis independentes por meio da análise estatística do qui-quadrado e, para estabelecer a concordância com as leituras visuais dos cartões de gel, o índice kappa foi aplicado. Foi determinada a existência de hemolisinas de isotipo IgG e IgM anti-A/B de títulos maiores que 1/64. Existiu uma relação estatisticamente significante entre gestações e títulos de IgG anti-A/B>1/128; e o aumento de hemolisinas do isotipo IgM e a ingestão de probióticos. Os resultados demonstram a necessidade de implementar a titulação da hemolisina antes da transfusão de concentrados de plaquetas não isogrupo, por isso, recomenda-se uma investigação de risco-benefício e acompanhamento de pacientes com transfusões de concentrados de plaquetas incompatíveis com ABO.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Blood Platelets , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Software , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Immunoglobulins , Risk Factors , Probiotics , Hemolysin Proteins , Volunteers , Blood , Blood Donors , Risk , Statistical Analysis , Morbidity , Titrimetry , Aftercare , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Disease Prevention
3.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(4): 512-515, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136220

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Pesquisas recentes demonstram que o hipocampo apresenta uma redução de volume no final da idade adulta, mantendo uma estreita relação com o declínio cognitivo. A aquisição da imagem por diversos métodos de medição de volume nos leva a encontrar na ressonância magnética o método de destaque, pois permite quantificar o volume de determinadas estruturas cerebrais utilizando a reconstrução computadorizada tridimensional das imagens obtidas. OBJETIVOS Confirmar a existência de diferenças entre o volume hipocampal e o declínio cognitivo leve, doença de Alzheimer e cognição normal. MÉTODOS Levantamento bibliográfico de estudos que apresentassem dados referentes aos distúrbios da doença de Alzheimer, alterações macroscópicas cerebrais detectadas com softwares na ressonância magnética e segmentação. Foram adicionados estudos apenas da medição volumétrica do hipocampo, objetivando-se chegar a valores que possam estabelecer uma correlação do menor valor estrutural hipocampal e risco de desenvolvimento da doença. RESULTADOS Um total de 1.070 indivíduos foi analisado em seis estudos clínicos, demonstrando a relação da diminuição do hipocampo na neuroimagem, correlacionado com o comprometimento cognitivo leve e doença de Alzheimer. CONCLUSÕES O desenvolvimento de um valor padrão para esse fim seria bastante útil na coleta de dados, permitindo melhor compreensão de algumas alterações que podem ocorrer na cognição, determinar valores prognósticos e até, em um futuro próximo, fator de risco imagiológico para a doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Cognitive Dysfunction , Hippocampus/diagnostic imaging , Titrimetry , Hippocampus/anatomy & histology , Hippocampus/pathology
4.
Educ. med. super ; 33(4): e1961, oct.-dic. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1089935

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Algunas carreras de la salud en Chile cuentan con un panorama complejo en su empleabilidad, debido a la escasa regulación del mercado educativo, y a un explosivo aumento de la oferta académica, la matrícula y la titulación de los programas. Esto genera un gran número de titulados que compiten por insertarse en el mercado; sin embargo, actualmente no se tiene la capacidad de asegurar su ocupación. La Kinesiología vive la misma situación, por lo que en 2019 muestra una empleabilidad de un 49,6 por ciento en el primer año de egreso. Objetivo: Reflexionar sobre la empleabilidad actual y el subsecuente desempleo como problema a abordar y asumir con responsabilidad por universidades en su formación y políticas, tomando en cuenta las repercusiones socio-personales que esta situación podría acarrear a los actuales egresados de Kinesiología. Desarrollo: Se abordan temáticas relacionadas con el concepto de empleabilidad, la formación por competencias y la empleabilidad, entre otros aspectos relacionados con no poder ejercer la profesión estudiada. Conclusiones: Sobre la base de los antecedentes expuestos, se sustenta que el ámbito académico tiene un papel fundamental dentro de los diversos factores y estructuras que determinan la mayor o menor empleabilidad de un profesional. Por otro lado, las posibles repercusiones que sufren los egresados que no pueden insertarse en el mercado laboral, llaman a reflexionar al ámbito académico sobre su desempeño en la actual empleabilidad que presentan los kinesiólogos y acerca de qué acciones podrían desarrollar para resolver dicha problemática(AU)


Introduction: Some health majors in Chile have a complex panorama regarding their employability, due to the scarce regulation of the educational market, and an explosive increase in academic offer, enrollment and degree issuing of the programs. This generates a large number of graduates competing to enter the market. However, there is currently no capacity to secure their occupation. Kinesiology experiences the same situation, a reason why in 2019 it shows an employability of 49.6 percent after the first year of graduation. Objective: To reflect on current employability and subsequent unemployment as a problem to be addressed and assumed with responsibility by universities in their training and policies, taking into account the socio-personal repercussions that this situation could have on current Kinesiology graduates. Development: Topics related to the concept of employability, skills training and employability are addressed, among other aspects related to not being able to practice the profession studied. Conclusions: On the basis of the exposed background, it is argued that the academic setting plays a fundamental role within the various factors and structures that determine the greater or lesser employability of a professional. On the other hand, the possible repercussions suffered by graduates who cannot be inserted in the labor market call the academic setting actors to reflect on their performance in the current employability that kinesiologists present and about the actions that they could take to solve this problem(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Social Control, Formal , Unemployment , Titrimetry , Employment
5.
Rev. argent. radiol ; 83(3): 95-101, set. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057407

ABSTRACT

Objetivo Desde la aparición de la tractografía, al tratarse de una técnica no invasiva y que usa la ampliamente conocida resonancia magnética (RM), el estudio de la sustancia blanca se ha facilitado. A partir de eso, se han logrado grandes descubrimientos en cuanto a fascículos cerebrales involucrados en funciones cognitivas. Sin embargo, su evaluación sigue siendo subjetiva y depende de la experiencia y entrenamiento del evaluador, razón por la cual se ha limitado su aplicabilidad en la práctica clínica. En ese sentido, es conveniente parametrizar volúmenes cerebrales de sustancia blanca en población sana a través de una herramienta electrónica que se pueda reproducir y así poderlo aplicar en enfermos. Materiales y métodos Se reportan 10 sujetos sanos desde el punto de vista neurológico. Para cada sujeto, se adquirieron imágenes ponderadas por difusión y los resultados se visualizaron mediante FiberNavigator (http://scilus.github.io/fibernavigator). Finalmente, esa misma herramienta fue utilizada para purificar los fascículos objeto de estudio y realizar el conteo de las fibras. Resultados Se obtuvieron valores de volumetría del fascículo longitudinal superior (FLS), fascículo longitudinal inferior (FLI), fascículo frontoccipital inferior (FFI), fascículo uncinado (FU) y fascículo del cíngulo (FC), identificando que no existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre el número de fibras que componen los fascículos cerebrales. Discusión Los resultados alcanzados de la anatomía y la direccionalidad de fibras de los fascículos cerebrales de este estudio coinciden con el resto de la evidencia publicada hasta el momento, sin encontrar diferencias en cuanto a su organización y recorrido. Conclusión Aunque esos resultados no sirven como valores de referencia para ser aplicados en pacientes con patología neurológica, brindamos información inexistente hasta el momento, con ese equipo en específico y la reproducción entre los distintos usuarios y el software.


Objective Since the appearance of tractography, as it is a non-invasive technique and uses the widely known magnetic resonance (MR), the study of white matter has been facilitated. After this, great discoveries have been made regarding the brain fascicles involved in cognitive functions. However, its evaluation continues to be subjective and depends on the evaluator's experience and training. That the reason why its applicability has been limited in clinical practice. Because of this, it is convenient to parametrize cerebral volumes of white matter in healthy population through an electronic, reproducible tool that could be applied in patients. Materials and Methods Ten neurologically healthy subjects are reported, for each subject we acquired images weighted by diffusion and the results were visualized by means of FiberNavigator (http://scilus.github.io/fibernavigator). Finally, this same tool was used to purify the fascicles under study and perform the fiber count. Results Volumetric values of the upper longitudinal fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior frontoccipital fasciculus, uncinated fasciculus and cingulate fasciculus were obtained, identifying that there are not statistically significant differences in the number of fibers that make up the cerebral fascicles. Discussion The results achieved of the anatomical and fiber directionality of the cerebral fascicles of this study, coincide with the rest of the evidence published up to now, without finding differences regarding its organization and route. Conclusion Although these results do not serve as reference values to be applied in patients with neurological pathology, do we provide nonexistent information so far, with this specific equipment and the reproducibility between the different users and the software.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cognition/physiology , White Matter/diagnostic imaging , Reference Values , Anisotropy , Titrimetry/standards , Diffusion Tensor Imaging/standards , Nerve Fibers
6.
São Paulo; s.n; 2019. 74 p. ilust, tabelas.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1179978

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O linfedema de membros inferiores é um dos efeitos adversos mais incapacitantes do tratamento do câncer e pode afetar a qualidade de vida (QV). A volumetria optoeletrônica (VOPE) é um método não invasivo moderno para detectar o linfedema. Este artigo descreve a validação do Questionário de Funcionalidade, Incapacidade e Saúde do Linfedema para Linfedema de Membro Inferior (Lymph-ICF-LL) em pacientes com linfedema secundário ao câncer e avaliação com VOPE. Objetivo: O primeiro objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a validade do Questionário de Funcionalidade, Incapacidade e Saúde do Linfedema de Membro Inferior (Lymph-ICF-LL) como uma escala de sintomas para linfedema de membros inferiores em pacientes oncológicos após 6 meses de cirurgia linfonodal. O segundo objetivo foi comparar métodos de avaliação de volume de membros utilizando métodos objetivos, medidas de circunferência e avaliação clínica. Métodos: 84 pacientes com câncer ginecológico ou melanoma cutâneo com e sem presença de linfedema de membros inferiores completaram a avaliação clínica, questionário de QV e volumetria da perna com perimetria com fita métrica e 55 destes pacientes foram também avaliados com volumetria optoeletrônica. Resultados: A mediana do score total do questionário entre foi de 15 e a média foi 22.A média do score para pacientes portadores de linfedema foi significamente maior que para os não portadores, 31,54 (IC 25,84 e 37,22) e 2,55 (IC 1.04 e 4.06) respectivamente (p< 0,0001). Quanto pior o grau de linfedema, pior a qualidade de vida (p<0,0001). O volume do MID na PM apresentou média de 7743 ml e mediana de 7318 ml e na VOPE média de 8134 ml e mediana de 8307 ml. A concordância observada entre os dois métodos, pelo coeficiente de correlação de Pearson, foi de 0,79 (moderada). A média e o desvio padrão da diferença entre as medidas da VOPE e perimetria para perna esquerda e direita foi de 77 ml (dp +-1793 ml) e 54 ml (dp+- 1331 ml) e seus limites de concordância -7664 ml a 3193ml e -2928 ml a 2958 ml respectivamente. A diferença absoluta média foi de 42 ml (dp +- 1211 ml) com limites de concordância entre -1211 ml a 2747ml e a diferença relativa foi de 1,08 (dp 6,26) e seus limites de concordância -22,03 e 9,17. A volumetria indireta pela perimetria teve forte correlação (k=0.5823) com a avaliação clínica subjetiva do especialista em linfedema Conclusão: O Questionário de Funcionalidade, Incapacidade e Saúde do Linfedema para Linfedema de Membro Inferior (Lymph-ICF-LL) é uma válida ferramenta específica de QV em portadores de linfedema que pode ser usada em pacientes com linfedema secundário oncológico. Existe considerável viés de medição entre a perimetria e a volumetria optoeletrônica; seus resultados devem ser comparados com cautela, uma vez que não são intercambiáveis


Background: Lower-limb lymphedema (LLL) is one of the most disabling adverse effects of cancer treatment and can impact Quality of life (QoL). Optoelectronic volumetry (OPVO) is a modern non-invasive method to detect lymphedema. This paper describes the validation of Lymphedema Functioning, Disability and Health Questionnaire for Lower Limb Lymphedema (Lymph-ICF-LL) in patients with LLL secondary to cancer and OPVO evaluation. Objective: The first aim of this study was to determine the validity of Lymphedema Functioning, Disability and Health Questionnaire for Lower Limb Lymphedema (Lymph-ICF-LL) as a symptom scale for lower limb lymphedema in oncologic patients after 6 months of lymph node surgery.The second aim was to compare leg volume assessment using objective methods, circumference measurements and clinical evaluation. Methods: 84 gynecologic cancer and cutaneous melanoma survivors with and without lymphedema completed the clinical evaluation, Lymph-ICF-LL and lower limb volume evaluation with perimetry and 55 patients were also evaluated with optoelectronic volumetry. Results: The median total score of the questionnaire was 15 and the average was 22. The mean score for lymphedema patients was significantly higher than for non-lymphedema patients, 31.54 (CI 25.84 and 37.22) and 2.55 (CI 1.04 and 4.06) respectively (p <0.0001). The worse the degree of lymphedema, the worse the quality of life (p <0.0001). The average PM volume was 7743 ml and a median of 7318 ml, and the average VOPE of 8134 ml and a median of 8307 ml. The agreement observed between the two methods by Pearson's correlation coefficient was 0.79 (moderate). The mean and standard deviation of the difference between left and right leg VOPE and perimeter measurements were 77 ml (dp + -1793 ml) and 54 ml (dp + - 1331 ml) and their limits of agreement -7664 ml to 3193ml and -2928 ml to 2958 ml respectively. The mean absolute difference was 42 ml (dp + - 1211 ml) with agreement limits between -1211 ml and 2747 ml and the relative difference was 1.08 (dp 6.26) and their agreement limits -22.03 and 9.17. Indirect volume perimetry was strongly correlated (k = 0.5823) with the subjective clinical assessment of the lymphedema specialist. Conclusion: Lymphedema Functioning, Disability and Health Questionnaire for Lower Limb Lymphedema (Lymph-ICF-LL) is as validated condition-specific tool of QoL, which can be used for oncology secondary lymphedema. There is a considerable measurement bias between perimetry and optoelectronic volumetry, its results should be compared with caution since they are not interchangeable


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Titrimetry/methods , Lower Extremity , Lymphedema/therapy , Neoplasms/therapy
7.
Rev. argent. radiol ; 82(2): 57-63, jun. 2018. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-958054

ABSTRACT

Objetivo La atrofia hipocampal es uno de los biomarcadores radiológicos más sensibles de la enfermedad de Alzheimer (EA) y existen diferentes métodos para evaluarla: análisis subjetivo visual (ASV), análisis objetivo manual (AOM) y análisis objetivo automático (AOA). Nos proponemos comparar esos métodos, y evaluar si el AOA presenta una confiabilidad cercana al AOM (método de referencia) y superior al ASV. Materiales y Métodos Se seleccionaron retrospectivamente imágenes de resonancia magnética (RM) fast spoiled gradient-echo (FSPGR) de 28 sujetos (14 con deterioro cognitivo leve, 7 con EAy 7 controles). El ASV fue realizado por 10 radiólogos, clasificando la atrofia hipocampal en: nula, leve, moderada o severa. El AOM se basó en la segmentación manual de los hipocampos por dos operadores. El AOA fue realizada por medio del software FreeSurfer 5.3. Se calcularon coeficientes de correlación rho de Spearman para las variables discretas y coeficientes de correlación intraclase para las variables continuas. Resultados Los coeficientes de correlación entre los dos operadores que realizaron el AOM fueron de 0,88 (p < 0,0001) para los hipocampos izquierdos y de 0,86 (p < 0,0001) para los hipocampos derechos. El coeficiente de correlación entre todos los ASV (promediados) y AOM fue de-0,81 (IC 95%-0,96- -0,66). Los coeficientes de correlación entre el AOA y el AOM fue de 0,54 (p < 0,0001) para los hipocampos izquierdos y de 0,61 (p < 0,0001) para los hipocampos derechos. Conclusión Si bien el AOA tiene moderada correlación con el método de referencia, no es superior al ASV promedio y se deberían tomar recaudos antes de ser implementado en la práctica asistencial.


Objective Hippocampal atrophy is one of the most sensible radiological biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease. There are different methods to evaluate atrophy: visual subjective analysis (VSA), manual objective analysis (MOA) and automatic objective analysis (AOA). We will compare these methods and evaluate if AOA has a confidence similar to MOA (gold standard), and better than VSA. Materials and Methods We retrospectively selected 3D FSPGR MRI from 28 subjects of whom 14 had mild cognitive impairment, 7 Alzheimer's disease and 7 controls. VSA was performed by 10 radiologists who classified hippocampal atrophy in none, mild, moderate and severe. ForMOA, two operatorsmanually segmented both hippocampus from all subjects. AOA was performed by FreeSurfer 5.3. Spearman's rho correlation coefficient was calculated for discrete variables and intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated for continuous variables. Results Correlation coefficients between the operators that performed MOA was 0.88 (p < 0.0001) for left hippocampi and 0.86 (p < 0,0001) for right hippocampi. Correlation coefficients between mean VSA and MOA was-0,81 (95% CI-0,96- -0,66). Correlation coefficients between AOA and AOM was 0.54 (p < 0.0001) for left hippocampi and 0.61 (p < 0.0001) for right hippocampi. Conclusion Even though AOA has moderate correlation with the gold standard it is not superior to average VSA and should be implemented with care in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Titrimetry/methods , Cerebrum/pathology , Alzheimer Disease/diagnostic imaging , Hippocampus/diagnostic imaging , Atrophy/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Biomarkers , Retrospective Studies
8.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(1): e15181, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839459

ABSTRACT

Sildenafil citrate (SILC) is a potent phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor used for erectile dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. This study shows two simple, fast and alternative analytical methods for SILC determination by non-aqueous titration and by derivative ultraviolet spectrophotometry (DUS) in active pharmaceutical ingredient and/or dosage forms. The quantitation method of SILC active pharmaceutical ingredient by non-aqueous acid-base titration was developed using methanol as solvent and 0.1 mol/L of perchloric acid in acetic acid as titrant. The endpoint was potentiometrically detected. The non-aqueous titration method shows satisfactory repeatability and intermediate precision (RSD 0.70-1.09%). The neutralization reaction occurred in the stoichiometric ratio 1:1 in methanol. The determination of SILC active pharmaceutical ingredient or dosage forms by DUS was developed in the linear range from 10 to 40 µg/mL, in 0.01 mol/L HCl, using the first order zero-peak method at λ 256 nm. The DUS method shows selectivity toward tablets excipients, appropriate linearity (R2 0.9996), trueness (recovery range 98.86-99.30%), repeatability and intermediate precision in three concentration levels (RSD 1.17-1.28%; 1.29-1.71%, respectively). Therefore, the methods developed are excellent alternatives to sophisticated instrumental methods and can be easily applied in any pharmaceutical laboratory routine due to simple and fast executions.


Subject(s)
Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet/methods , Titrimetry/methods , Sildenafil Citrate/analysis , Tablets/pharmacology , Vasodilator Agents/classification
9.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 51(1): 43-52, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-751362

ABSTRACT

One titrimetric and two spectrophotometric methods are proposed for the determination of diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) in bulk drug and in formulations using potassium iodate and potassium iodide as reagent. The methods employ the well-known analytical reaction between iodate and iodide in the presence of acid. In titrimetry (method A), the drug was treated with a measured excess of thiosulfate in the presence of unmeasured excess of iodate-iodide mixture and after a standing time of 10 min, the surplus thiosulfate was determined by back titration with iodine towards starch end point. Titrimetric assay is based on a 1:3 reaction stoichiometry between DEC and iodine and the method is applicable over 2.0-10.0 mg range. The liberated iodine is measured spectrophotometrically at 370 nm (method B) or the iodine-starch complex measured at 570 nm (method C). In both methods, the absorbance is found to be linearly dependent on the concentration of iodine, which in turn is related to DEC concentration. The calibration curves are linear over 2.5-50 and 2.5-30 µg mL-1 DEC for method B and method C, respectively. The calculated molar absorptivity and Sandell sensitivity values were 6.48×103 L mol-1 cm-1 and 0.0604 µg cm-2, respectively, for method B, and their respective values for method C are 9.96×103 L mol-1 cm-1 and 0.0393 µg cm-2. The intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision studies were carried out according to the ICH guidelines. The methods were successfully applied to the analysis of DEC formulations.


Propõem-se titulação e dois métodos espectrofotométricos para a determinação de citrato de dietilcarbamazina (DEC) a granel e em suas formulações, usando iodato de potássio e iodeto de potássio como reagente. Os métodos utilizam a reação analítica conhecida entre iodato e iodeto, na presença de ácido. Na titulometria (Método A), o fármaco foi tratado com excesso medido de tiossulfato, na presença de excesso não medido de mistura iodato-iodeto e, depois de um tempo de repouso de 10 min, o excesso de tiossulfato foi determinado por titulação de retorno com iodo até o ponto final com amido. A titulação é baseada em reação com estequiometria 1:3 entre DEC e iodo e o método é aplicável na faixa de 2.0-10.0 mg. O iodo liberado é medido espectrofotometricamente a 370 nm (método B) ou o complexo de iodo-amido medido a 570 nm (método C). Em ambos os métodos, a absorvância é considerada linearmente dependente da concentração de iodo, a qual, por sua vez, está relacionada à concentração de DEC. As curvas de calibração são lineares para concentrações de DEC de 2.5-50 e 2.5-30 mg mL- 1 para o método B e para o método C, respectivamente. A absortividade molar calculada e os valores de sensibilidade Sandel foram 6.48×103 L mol-1 cm- 1 e 0.0604 ug cm-2, respectivamente, para o método B, e os seus respectivos valores para o método C são 9.96×103 L mol-1 cm-1 e 0.0393 mg cm-2. Os estudos de exatidão e precisão intra-dia e inter-dia foram realizados de acordo com as diretrizes da ICH. Os métodos foram aplicados com sucesso na análise de formulações de DEC.


Subject(s)
Diethylcarbamazine/analysis , Iodates/analysis , Iodides/analysis , Spectrophotometry , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/classification , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Titrimetry/methods
10.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Diabetes ; 49(1): 13-31, Marzo 2015. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-879867

ABSTRACT

Introducción: dada la existencia de limitaciones importantes que pueden influir en la técnica de inyección y por consiguiente en la evolución sobre el tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus se realizaron estas recomendaciones, las cuales fueron adaptadas culturalmente a nuestro país. Materiales y métodos: se realizó una revisión bibliográfica vinculada a las técnicas de inyección de insulina, las formas de titulación de la misma y el uso de otros fármacos inyectables como el glucagón y los análogos de GLP1. Se estudiaron las barreras terapéuticas en el tratamiento con insulina y el rol que ocupa la educación sobre este tema dentro del equipo de salud tratante. Conclusiones: existe una amplia oferta de insulinas y sus análogos. Es responsabilidad del equipo de salud conocer las características de las mismas y realizar las indicaciones más adecuadas para conseguir las metas glucémicas propuestas para cada paciente en particular, disminuir el riesgo de las complicaciones asociadas a la enfermedad y contribuir a la mejor calidad de vida posible para todas las personas con DM


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Glucagon , Insulin , Titrimetry
11.
Rev. am. med. respir ; 15(1): 11-13, mar. 2015.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-842893

ABSTRACT

En la RAMR Vol. n° 1 del 2015 se publica el artículo; "Noche partida. Utilidad y tolerancia comparada con titulación de CPAP en noche completa" de Guardia y colaboradores del Hospital Nacional Profesor Alejandro Posadas. Este interesante trabajo muestra la utilidad de una estrategia de diagnóstico y titulación de la CPAP en la misma noche usando polisomnografía (PSGNP) en un hospital público donde la lista de espera supera los cuatro meses. Si bien el estudio fue retrospectivo, con las limitaciones de este tipo de análisis, sus resultados basados en 314 pacientes (216 en el grupo PSGNP y 98 con polisomnografía de noche completa) mostraron datos de tolerancia y titulación eficaz de 88% vs. 65%, respectivamente


Subject(s)
Titrimetry , Polysomnography
12.
J. appl. oral sci ; 23(1): 94-100, Jan-Feb/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741596

ABSTRACT

Objective Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) has been used in endodontics as an intracanal medicament due to its antimicrobial effects and its ability to inactivate bacterial endotoxin. The inability to totally remove this intracanal medicament from the root canal system, however, may interfere with the setting of eugenol-based sealers or inhibit bonding of resin to dentin, thus presenting clinical challenges with endodontic treatment. This study used a chemical titration method to measure residual Ca(OH)2 left after different endodontic irrigation methods. Material and Methods Eighty-six human canine roots were prepared for obturation. Thirty teeth were filled with known but different amounts of Ca(OH)2 for 7 days, which were dissolved out and titrated to quantitate the residual Ca(OH)2 recovered from each root to produce a standard curve. Forty-eight of the remaining teeth were filled with equal amounts of Ca(OH)2 followed by gross Ca(OH)2 removal using hand files and randomized treatment of either: 1) Syringe irrigation; 2) Syringe irrigation with use of an apical file; 3) Syringe irrigation with added 30 s of passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), or 4) Syringe irrigation with apical file and PUI (n=12/group). Residual Ca(OH)2 was dissolved with glycerin and titrated to measure residual Ca(OH)2 left in the root. Results No method completely removed all residual Ca(OH)2. The addition of 30 s PUI with or without apical file use removed Ca(OH)2 significantly better than irrigation alone. Conclusions This technique allowed quantification of residual Ca(OH)2. The use of PUI (with or without apical file) resulted in significantly lower Ca(OH)2 residue compared to irrigation alone. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Calcium Hydroxide/chemistry , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Root Canal Preparation/methods , Therapeutic Irrigation/methods , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Reproducibility of Results , Sodium Chloride/chemistry , Time Factors , Titrimetry/methods , Ultrasonic Therapy/methods
13.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 29(1): 1-6, 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777225

ABSTRACT

A low pH and a high titratable acidity of juices and cola-based beverages are relevant factors that contribute to dental erosion, but the relative importance of these properties to maintain salivary pH at demineralizing levels for long periods of time after drinking is unknown. In this crossover study conductedin vivo, orange juice, a cola-based soft drink, and a 10% sucrose solution (negative control) were tested. These drinks differ in terms of their pH (3.5 ± 0.04, 2.5 ± 0.05, and 5.9 ± 0.1, respectively) and titratable acidity (3.17 ± 0.06, 0.57 ± 0.04 and < 0.005 mmols OH- to reach pH 5.5, respectively). Eight volunteers with a normal salivary flow rate and buffering capacity kept 15 mL of each beverage in their mouth for 10 s, expectorated it, and their saliva was collected after 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 s. The salivary pH, determined using a mini pH electrode, returned to the baseline value at 30 s after expectoration of the cola-based soft drink, but only at 90 s after expectoration of the orange juice. The salivary pH increased to greater than 5.5 at 15 s after expectoration of the cola drink and at 30 s after expectoration of the orange juice. These findings suggest that the titratable acidity of a beverage influences salivary pH values after drinking acidic beverages more than the beverage pH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Beverages , Citrus sinensis/chemistry , Saliva/chemistry , Buffers , Carbonated Beverages , Cross-Over Studies , Citric Acid/chemistry , Cola/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Reference Values , Time Factors , Titrimetry , Tooth Erosion/chemically induced
14.
Rev. cuba. farm ; 47(4)oct.-dic. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-703947

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: validar el método para control de la calidad del nitrato de miconazol en una nueva crema al 2 por ciento. Métodos: se realizó la validación según los parámetros exigidos para la categoría I y considerando la metodología y los criterios de aceptación vigentes en Cuba. Una vez validado, se aplicó al análisis de los tres lotes elaborados a escala piloto. Resultados: los resultados fueron satisfactorios, cumpliendo en todos los parámetros los límites establecidos. El método fue lineal, exacto y preciso en el rango de 10 a 30 mg/g y no hubo interferencias de ninguno de los componentes de la nueva formulación. Los lotes presentaron correcta dosificación, sin diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las réplicas y los lotes analizados. Conclusiones: El método evaluado resulta válido para el objetivo con el cual se propuso(AU)


Objective: to validate a quality control method for a 2 percent new miconazole nitrate cream. Methods: the validation was made following the category I parameters and taking into account the methodology and acceptance criteria in force in Cuba. Once validated, the analysis of the three batches was applied on pilot scale. Results: the results were satisfactory since they fulfilled all the set parameters. The method was linear, accurate and precise in the 10-30 mg/g range. there was no interference from any of the components of the new formulation. The batches presented correct dosing, without any statistically significant differences between replicas and analyzed batches. Conclusions: the evaluated method proved to be valid for the stated purpose(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Titrimetry/methods , Validation Studies as Topic , Miconazole/therapeutic use , Cuba
15.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 19(1): 75-80, ene.-jun. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: lil-729607

ABSTRACT

La proyección socioeducativa en materia de salud para las ciencias sanitarias, así como las acciones educativas en campos socio-sanitarios, es determinante en los procesos, acciones y programas preventivos; y también, en la promoción de la salud ciudadana. En este artículo se presentan algunos fundamentos disciplinares de la Educación Social (ES), regulada como titulación profesional en Europa; y la Educación Social para la Salud (ESS), como especialización dentro de la misma. Igualmente, se recorren ciertas consideraciones sobre la profesionalización de los educadores sociales a partir de la Academia, así como las principales definiciones competenciales e implicaciones prácticas para los campos de acción. La ESS se encuentra dentro de los estudios de ES y de la práctica profesional, ofreciendo posibilidades de transformación y mejora, fundamentalmente a partir de la Educación en el ámbito no formal. Colombia presenta múltiples fenómenos y problemáticas sociales generalizadas y específicas donde la ES y la ESS pueden ser, a partir de su contextualización, muy útiles para la mejora del país.


The social-educational projection in matter of health for health sciences, as well as the educational actions in social and health fields, are crucial in the processes, actions and programs of prevention, as in the promotion of community health. In this paper there are given some disciplinary foundations of the Social Education (ES), regulated as a professional graduate in Europe, and in Social Education for Health (ESS) as a specialization within it. Likewise, certain considerations about the professionalization of social educators from the Academy are given, and some main definitions of competence and practical realities for the fields of action. Social Education for Health (ESS) is within the studies of Social Education and the professional practice, offering different possibilities of transformation and improvement, mainly from education in the non formal field. Colombia presents different general and specific social phenomena and problems where Social Education and Social Education for Health can be, from the contextualization, very useful for the transformation and improvement of the country.


Subject(s)
Humans , Preventive Health Services , Projection , Education , Academies and Institutes , Specialization , Teaching/trends , Mental Competency , Titrimetry , Health Promotion
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-285993

ABSTRACT

The main physiological role of iodine in the body is to synthesize thyroid hormone. Both iodine deficiency and iodine excess can lead to severe thyroid diseases. While its role in thyroid diseases has increasingly been recognized, few relevant platforms and techniques for iodine detection have been available in China. This paper summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of currently iodine detection methods including direct titration, arsenic cerium catalytic spectrophotometry, chromatography with pulsed amperometry, colorimetry based on automatic biochemistry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, so as to optimize the iodine nutrition for patients with thyroid diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Iodides , Iodine , Metabolism , Mass Spectrometry , Spectrophotometry , Thyroid Diseases , Diagnosis , Titrimetry
17.
J. epilepsy clin. neurophysiol ; 18(2): 41-44, 2012. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-658975

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Verificar variação no volume hipocampal e talâmico entre pacientes com epilepsia de lobo temporal mesial (ELTM) refratários ou responsivos ao tratamento medicamentoso. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados 26 pacientes com ELTM com boa resposta ao tratamento medicamentoso (grupo "benigno"), 25 refratários e 23 controles por meio do delineamento manual dos limites anatômicos do hipocampo e tálamo, em cortes sequenciais das imagens de RM. O Software DISPLAY foi utilizado. Análise estatística foi realizada com o programa Systat 9. RESULTADOS: Houve diferença estatística entre os controles e os grupos benigno e refratário para os volumes do tálamo ipsilateral ao foco epileptogênico (p=0,00004). Não houve diferença estatística entre os três grupos para os volumes de tálamo contralateral ao foco epileptogênico. Houve correlação significativa entre hipocampo ipsilateral e tálamo ipsilateral ao foco epileptogênico (r=0,35 e p=0,004). Quanto maior a idade, menor o volume talâmico ipsilateral (p=0,002 e r=-0,37). CONCLUSÃO: Os dados demonstraram que atrofia hipocampal está presente também em pacientes com ELTM e bom controle medicamentoso, sem diferença significativa com a atrofia de pacientes refratários. A atrofia do tálamo foi correlacionada com a idade dos pacientes, o que também pode indicar que outros fatores além da frequência de crises influenciam o grau de lesão nesta estrutura.


OBJECTIVE: To investigate the variation of thalamic and hippocampal volume in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) refractory or responsive to drug therapy. METHODS: We analyzed 26 patients with MTLE responsive to drug therapy, 25 refractory and 23 controls through the manual delineation of anatomic limits of the hippocampus and thalamus, in sequential sections of MR images. The DISPLAY software was used. Statistical analysis was performed using the program Systat 9. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences between controls and patients groups for thalamic volumes ipsilateral to epileptogenic focus (p=0.00004). There was no statistical difference between the 3 groups for the volumes of the thalamus contralateral to the epileptogenic focus. There was significant correlation between ipsilateral hippocampus and thalamus ipsilateral to epileptogenic focus (r=0.35, p=0.004). The older the age, the lower the ipsilateral thalamic volume (p=0.002 and r=-0.37). CONCLUSION: The data showed that hippocampal atrophy is also present in patients with TLE and good seizure control. The atrophy of thalamus was correlated with the age of patients, which may also indicate that other factors besides the seizure frequency influences the degree of damage of this structure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Titrimetry , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe
18.
Odonto (Säo Bernardo do Campo) ; 19(37): 55-62, jan.-jun.2011. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-789951

ABSTRACT

Analisar a capacidade de dissolução tecidual de diferentes soluções de hipoclorito de sódio em tecido conjuntivo e muscular esquelético de ratos.Metodologia: foram obtidos 60 fragmentos de tecido conjuntivo (dorso) e muscular esquelético (língua) de ratos da linhagem Wistar, que foram submetidos à ação solvente das soluções de hipoclorito de sódio comercializadas, prontas para uso, Hipoclor 1%, HW 1% e 2,5%, Limpa Bem 2,5% e soluções manipuladas nas mesmas concentrações. O tempo de dissolução foi cronometrado. O método de titulometria com iodo foi utilizado para confirmação do teor de cloro ativo das soluções utilizadas.Resultados: a análise estatística revelou diferença não significante entre os dois diferentes tecidos (p>0.05) e apresentou diferença significante (p<0.001) entre as concentrações de 1% e 2,5%. O tempo médio de dissolução em minutos no tecido conjuntivo foi: Limpa Bem 2,5% (80,4); Manipulado 2,5% (100,2); Hipoclor 1% (164,2); HW 2,5% (205,6); Manipulado 1% (278,4). No tecido muscular esquelético o tempo médio foi: Limpa Bem 2,5% (111,6); Manipulado 2,5% (171,6); Hipoclor 1% (178,5); HW 2,5% (219); Manipulado 1% (289,6). O HW 1% não foi capaz de dissolver os tecidos. Os resultados da titulometria demonstraram que as soluções testadas apresentavam teor de cloro ativo aceitáveis, com exceção da marca HW nas concentrações de 1% e 2,5%.Conclusão: ambos tecidos podem ser utilizados para a verificação da capacidade de dissolução tecidual do hipoclorito de sódio e que esta obedece uma relação diretamente proporcional a concentração do teor de cloro ativo...


The aim of this study was to analyze the ability of different solutions of sodium hypochlorite to dissolve connective and skeletal-muscle tissue of rats. Methodology: it was obtained 60 pieces of connective tissue (back) and skeletal-muscle (tongue) of Wistar rats that were subjected to solvent action of sodium hypochlorite solutions marketed, ready to use, 1% Hipoclor, 1 and 2, 5% HW, 2.5% Limpa Bem and solutions manipulated at the same concentrations. The dissolution time was recorded. The method of titration with iodine was used to confirm the active chlorine content of solutions used. Results: statistical analysis revealed no significant difference between the two different tissues (p> 0.05) and significantly difference (p <0.001) between concentrations 1% and 2.5%. The average time in minutes to dissolve the connective tissue was: 2.5% Limpa Bem (80.4); 2.5% Manipulated (100.2); 1% Hipoclor (164.2), 2.5% HW ( 205.6); 1% Manipulated (278.4). In skeletal muscle the average time was: 2.5% Limpa Bem (111.6); 2.5% Manipulated (171.6); 1% Hipoclor (178.5), 2.5% HW (219); 1% Manipulated (289.6). The 1% HW was not able to dissolve the tissues. The results of titrations demonstrated that the solutions tested had acceptable levels of chlorine, with the exception of brand HW concentrations of 1% and 2.5%.Conclusion: both tissues can be used for verifying the ability of tissue dissolution of sodium hypochlorite and that obeys a directly proportional to the concentration of active chlorine content...


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Sodium Hypochlorite/chemistry , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Muscle, Skeletal , Connective Tissue , Dissolution , Materials Testing , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors , Titrimetry
19.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 47(2): 251-260, Apr.-June 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-595813

ABSTRACT

One titrimetric and two spectrophotometric methods have been described for the determination of ofloxacin (OFX) in bulk drug and in tablets, employing N-Bromosuccinimide as an analytical reagent. The proposed methods involve the addition of a known excess of NBS to OFX in acid medium, followed by determination of unreacted NBS. In titrimetry, the unreacted NBS is determined iodometrically, and in spectrophotometry, unreacted NBS is determined by reacting with a fixed amount of either indigo carmine (Method A) or metanil yellow (Method B). In all the methods, the amount of NBS reacted corresponds to the amount of OFX. Titrimetry allows the determination of 1-8 mg of OFX and the calculations are based on a 1:5 (OFX:NBS) reaction stoichiometry. In spectrophotometry, Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration ranges 0.5-5.0 µg/mL for method A and 0.3-3.0 µg/mL for method B. The molar absorptivities are calculated to be 5.53x10(4) and 9.24x10(4) L/mol/cm for method A and method B, respectively. The methods developed were applied to the assay of OFX in tablets, and results compared statistically with those of a reference method. The accuracy and reliability of the methods were further ascertained by performing recovery tests via the standard-addition method.


Descrevem-se métodos, um titulométrico e dois espectrofotométricos, para a determinação de ofloxacino (OFX) na matéria-prima e em comprimidos, empregando a N-bromossuccinimida (NBS) como reagente analítico. Os métodos propostos envolvem a adição de excesso conhecido de NBS ao OFX, em meio ácido, seguida de determinação do NBS que não reagiu. Na titulometria, o NBS que não reagiu é determinado iodometricamente e na espectrofotometria, o NBS que não reagiu é determinado pela reação com quantidade fixa de índigo carmim (Método A) ou amarelo de metanila (Método B). Em todos os métodos, a quantidade de NBS que reagiu corresponde à quantidade de OFX. A titulometria permite a determinação de 1-8 mg de OFX e os cálculos se baseiam na estequiometria de reação de 1:5 (OFX:NBS). Na espectrofotometria, a Lei de Beer é obedecida nas faixas de concentração de 0,5-5,0 µg/mL, para o método A, e de 0,3-3,0 µg/mL, para o método B, respectivamente. Os métodos desenvolvidos foram aplicados para o teste de OFX em comprimidos e os resultados foram comparados estatisticamente com aqueles do método de referência. A precisão e a confiabilidade dos métodos foram, posteriormente, verificadas por meio dos testes de recuperação via método de adição de padrão.


Subject(s)
Bromosuccinimide/diagnosis , Spectrophotometry/methods , Ofloxacin/diagnosis , Titrimetry/methods , Analytic Sample Preparation Methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/diagnosis , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods
20.
Jordan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2011; 4 (3): 209-221
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-123027

ABSTRACT

One titrimetric and two spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of olanzapine [OLP] in bulk drug and dosage forms. The methods use N-bromosuccinimide [NBS] and two-dyes, namely quinoline yellow and metanil yellow, as reagents. In titrimetry, an acidified solution of OLP was titrated directly with NBS using methyl orange as indicator. Spectrophotometry involves the addition of a known excess of NBS to OLP in acid medium followed by determination of unreacted NBS by reacting with a fixed amount of either quinoline yellow and measuring the absorbance at 410 nm [method A] or metanil yellow and measuring the absorbance at 530 nm [method B]. Titrimetric method is applicable over a range of 1-10 mg of OLP, and the reaction stoichiometry is found to be 1:6 [OLP: NBS]. In spectrophotometry, Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration ranges of 0.1-1.2 and 0.1-1.5 micro g ml[-1] OLP for method A and method B, respectively. The molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity, limits of detection and quantification are also reported for both the spectrophotometric methods. The proposed methods were applied successfully to the determination of OLP in tablets. The reliability and accuracy of the methods were further ascertained by recovery studies. A major advantage of the use of NBS is that the by-product succinimide can be easily recovered and recycled to NBS


Subject(s)
Spectrophotometry , Titrimetry , Benzodiazepines , Pharmacy
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