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3.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 191-197, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971385

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is a vaso-specific inflammatory marker that exacerbates atherosclerotic through inflammatory responses. It can be used to predict the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular events and to assess the residual risk of cardiovascular diseases. This study aims to investigate the correlation between smoking and serum Lp-PLA2 levels in overweight and obese men, and to provide evidence for preventing the cardiovascular diseases.@*METHODS@#Male subjects, who participated in health examination at the Health Management Center, Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University from May 1, 2020 to April 30, 2021, were selected. The smoking status and other information were collected by the Self-test Scale of Physical Examination. According to the smoking status, they were divided into a never-smoking group, a current smoking group, a quit smoking group and a passive smoking group. According to the daily smoking amount, the current smoking subjects were divided into a <10 cigarettes group, a 10 to 20 cigarettes group, a 21 to 30 cigarettes group, and a >30 cigarettes group. According to the smoking years, the current smoking subjects were divided into a <5 years group, a 5 to 10 years group, a 11 to 20 years group, and a >20 years group.Serum Lp-PLA2 levels and other clinical indexes in different smoking groups were measured and compared, the correlation between smoking and serum Lp-PLA2 levels in overweight and obese men was analyzed by logistic regression analysis.@*RESULTS@#Serum Lp-PLA2 levels were significantly different between the never-smoking group and the current smoking group (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that, before adjusting other influencing factors and in terms of smoking status, the current smoking group (OR=1.81, 95% CI 1.27 to 2.58, P<0.01) and the quit smoking group (OR=2.09, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.90, P<0.05) were positively correlated with serum Lp-PLA2 levels compared with the never-smoking group, while the passive smoking group had no correlation with serum Lp-PLA2 levels (OR=1.27, 95% CI 0.59 to 2.73, P>0.05). In terms of daily smoking amount, the 10 to 20 cigarettes group (OR=2.09, 95% CI 1.40 to 3.12, P<0.001) and the 21 to 30 cigarettes group (OR=1.98, 95% CI 1.22 to 3.20, P<0.01) were positively correlated with serum Lp-PLA2 levels compared with the never-smoking group, while the <10 cigarettes group (OR=1.45, 95% CI 0.81 to 2.60, P>0.05) and the >30 cigarettes group (OR=1.17, 95% CI 0.60 to 2.28, P>0.05) had no correlation with serum Lp-PLA2 levels. In terms of smoking years, the 5 to 10 years group (OR=1.94, 95% CI 1.07 to 3.53, P<0.05), the 11 to 20 years group (OR=2.06, 95% CI 1.33 to 3.18, P<0.01), and the >20 years group (OR=1.66, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.47, P<0.05) were positively correlated with serum Lp-PLA2 levels compared with the never-smoking group, while the <5 years group had no correlation with serum Lp-PLA2 levels (OR=1.12, 95% CI 0.38 to 3.33, P>0.05). After adjusting for age and other indicators, the correlation between smoking years and serum Lp-PLA2 levels was the same as before adjustment among the above smoking groups, except that the correlation between the smoking 5 to 10 years group and serum Lp-PLA2 levels was not significant (OR=1.77, 95% CI 0.95 to 3.29, P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Smoking is correlated with serum Lp-PLA2 levels in overweight and obese men.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , 1-Alkyl-2-acetylglycerophosphocholine Esterase , Overweight , Cardiovascular Diseases , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Biomarkers , Obesity , Smoking , Risk Factors
4.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 24-37, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970288

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the association between exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) and 23 diseases, categorized into four classifications, among the Chinese population.@*METHODS@#We searched the literature up to June 30, 2021, and eligible studies were identified according to the PECOS format: Participants and Competitors (Chinese population), Exposure (SHS), Outcomes (Disease or Death), and Study design (Case-control or Cohort).@*RESULTS@#In total, 53 studies were selected. The odds ratio (OR) for all types of cancer was 1.79 (1.56-2.05), and for individual cancers was 1.92 (1.42-2.59) for lung cancer, 1.57 (1.40-1.76) for breast cancer, 1.52 (1.12-2.05) for bladder cancer, and 1.37 (1.08-1.73) for liver cancer. The OR for circulatory system diseases was 1.92 (1.29-2.85), with a value of 2.29 (1.26-4.159) for stroke. The OR of respiratory system diseases was 1.76 (1.13-2.74), with a value of 1.82 (1.07-3.11) for childhood asthma. The original ORs were also shown for other diseases. Subgroup analyses were performed for lung and breast cancer. The ORs varied according to time period and were significant during exposure in the household; For lung cancer, the OR was significant in women.@*CONCLUSION@#The effect of SHS exposure in China was similar to that in Western countries, but its definition and characterization require further clarification. Studies on the association between SHS exposure and certain diseases with high incidence rates are insufficient.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Asthma/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms , East Asian People , Lung Neoplasms/etiology , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , China
5.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 1032-1039, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985505

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the risk intensity and related influencing factors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among high-stress rescue workers, and to provide effective tools for the risk assessment of PTSD in military rescue workers. Method: From June to August 2022, cluster sampling was used to select the high-stress rescue personnel of an Army department as the survey subjects. The acute Stress reaction (ASD) scale and PTSD checklist were used to evaluate the risk of PTSD in military rescue personnel. Multivariate logistic regression were used to analyze the influencing factors of PTSD. Results: The age of 4 460 subjects was (24.38±4.072) years old, including 4 396 males (98.6%). The positive rate of initial screening for ASD was 2.85% (127/4 460). The positive rate of PTSD was 0.67% (30/4 460). Multivariate logistic regression model analysis showed that female, older age, recent trauma exposure history, passive smoking and alcohol consumption were at higher risk of ASD, the values of OR (95%CI) were 4.183 (1.819-9.618), 6.278 (1.363-28.912), 3.094 (1.500-6.379), 2.059 (1.298-3.267) and 2.607 (1.614-4.211), respectively; Lower education level was associated with lower risk of ASD, OR (95%CI) was 0.593 (0.359-0.978); People who are older, thinner, have a history of mental illness, and drink alcohol were at higher risk for PTSD, the values of OR (95%CI) were 20.144 (2.459-165.043), 10.287 (2.218-47.700), 91.104 (8.592-965.980) and 2.866 (1.144-7.180), respectively. Conclusion: Gender, age, education level, passive smoking, alcohol consumption, past history of mental illness and body mass index may be related to the potential risk of PTSD in rescue workers,passive smoking, alcohol consumption, and weight controlling should be focused on to reduce potential risks of PTSD.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Female , Young Adult , Adult , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/prevention & control , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Risk Assessment , Military Personnel , Alcohol Drinking
6.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 445-451, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969926

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the association between physical exercise and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in people infected with HBV. Methods: The information about the 3 813 participants infected with HBV, including the prevalence of NAFLD, prevalence of physical exercise and other covariates, were collected from the National Science and Technology Major Project of China during 2016-2020. The logistic regression model was used to evaluate the association between physical exercise and NAFLD in HBV infected patients, and subgroup analysis was performed to identify the effect modifiers. Results: A total of 2 259 HBV infected participants were included in the final analysis and 454 (20.10%) had NAFLD. After adjusting for covariates, we found that moderate physical exercise was a protective factor for NAFLD (OR=0.66, 95%CI: 0.46-0.94). Subgroup analysis suggested that the protective effect of moderate physical exercise on NAFLD might be stronger in women (OR=0.61, 95%CI: 0.36-1.01), those <45 years old (OR=0.24, 95%CI: 0.06-0.80), those who had low education level (OR=0.16, 95%CI: 0.04-0.49), those who had low annual income (OR=0.39, 95%CI: 0.16-0.89 for <30 000 yuan RMB; OR=0.64, 95%CI: 0.40-1.00 for 30 000-80 000 yuan RMB), those who had hypertension (OR=0.45, 95%CI: 0.21-0.88), those with BMI ≥24.0 kg/m2 (OR=0.66, 95%CI: 0.43-1.01), those who had more daily fruit or vegetable intake (OR=0.61, 95%CI: 0.38-0.97), those who had more daily meat intake (OR=0.49, 95%CI: 0.23-0.97), and those who had no smoking history (OR=0.66, 95%CI: 0.45-0.95) or passive smoking exposure (OR=0.61, 95%CI: 0.37-0.97). Conclusions: Among HBV infected patients, moderate physical exercise was negatively associated with the prevalence of NAFLD. Women, young people, those who had low education level, those who had low annual income, those with hypertension, those with high BMI, those who had more daily fruit or vegetable and meat intakes, and those who had no smoking history or passive smoking exposure might be more sensitive to the protective effect.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Middle Aged , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Hepatitis B virus , Risk Factors , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Exercise , Hypertension
7.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 527-536, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981083

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This study assesses the impact of smoke-free legislation on the incidence rate for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke in Shenzhen.@*METHODS@#Data on ischemic ( n = 72,945) and hemorrhagic ( n = 18,659) stroke and AMI ( n = 17,431) incidence covering about 12 million people in Shenzhen from 2012 to 2016 were used. Immediate and gradual changes in incidence rates were analyzed using segmented Poisson regression.@*RESULTS@#Following the smoke-free legislation, a 9% (95% CI: 3%-15%) immediate reduction was observed in AMI incidence, especially in men (8%, 95% CI: 1%-14%) and in those aged 65 years and older (17%, 95% CI: 9%-25%). The gradual annual benefits were observed only in hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke incidence, with a 7% (95% CI: 2%-11%) and 6% (95% CI: 4%-8%) decrease per year, respectively. This health effect extended gradually to the 50-64 age group. In addition, neither the immediate nor gradual decrease in stroke and AMI incidence rates did not show statistical significance among the 35-49 age group ( P > 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Smoke-free legislation was enforced well in Shenzhen, which would generate good experiences for other cities to enact and enforce smoke-free laws. This study also provided more evidence of the health benefits of smoke-free laws on stroke and AMI.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Adult , Incidence , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Stroke/etiology , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , China/epidemiology , Tobacco Smoke Pollution
8.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 924-930, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985614

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the relationship between secondhand smoke exposure and dyslipidemia among adults in Beijing and to provide a scientific basis for relevant intervention. Methods: Data were from Beijing Adult Non-communicable and Chronic Diseases and Risk Factors Surveillance Program in 2017. A total of 13 240 respondents were selected by multistage cluster stratified sampling method. The monitoring contents include a questionnaire survey, physical measurement, collection of fasting venous blood, and determination of related biochemical indicators. SPSS 20.0 software was used for the chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of total dyslipidemia (39.27%), hypertriglyceridemia (22.61%), and high LDL-C (6.03%) were the highest among those exposed to daily secondhand smoke. Among the male respondents, the prevalence of total dyslipidemia (44.42%) and hypertriglyceridemia (26.12%) were the highest among those exposed to secondhand smoke daily. Multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjustment for confounding factors showed that compared with no exposure to secondhand smoke, the population with an average exposure frequency of 1-3 days per week had the highest risk of total dyslipidemia (OR=1.276, 95%CI: 1.023-1.591). Among the patients with hypertriglyceridemia, those exposed to secondhand smoke daily had the highest risk (OR=1.356, 95%CI: 1.107-1.661). Among the male respondents, those exposed to secondhand smoke for 1-3 days per week had a higher risk of total dyslipidemia (OR=1.366, 95%CI: 1.019-1.831), and the highest risk of hypertriglyceridemia (OR=1.377, 95%CI: 1.058-1.793). There was no significant correlation between the frequency of secondhand smoke exposure and the risk of dyslipidemia among female respondents. Conclusions: Secondhand smoke exposure in Beijing adults, especially men, will increase the risk of total dyslipidemia, especially hyperlipidemia. Improving personal health awareness and minimizing or avoiding exposure to secondhand smoke is necessary.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Female , Male , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Beijing , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Hypertriglyceridemia/epidemiology , Fasting
9.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(supl.1): e00107421, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374864

ABSTRACT

Estimates suggest that exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is related to 1.2 million deaths per year worldwide. Synergy between various anti-smoking legislative and educational measures is essential to stimulate cessation and prevent initiation. This article aimed to explore how legislative protection from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in enclosed workplaces in Brazil, whose strengthening occurred in a phased manner between 1996 and 2014, possibly contributed to the protection from passive smoking at home. We evaluated, via generalized linear models, the absolute and relative differences in the proportion of individuals living in smoke-free homes between those exposed and not exposed to passive smoking in enclosed workplaces, both crude and adjusted by sociodemographic and smoking behavior variables, and stratified by non-smokers and smokers. Data from three national surveys conducted in 2008, 2013, and 2019 were used. Regardless of smoking status and year when the data were analyzed, individuals who were employed in smoke-free workplaces were more likely to live in smoke-free homes than smokers who were employed in workplaces that allowed smoking. Adjusted absolute difference increased from +5.5% in 2008 to +10.5% in 2013 among non-smokers, and from +7.1% in 2013 to 15.6% in 2019 among smokers (p-values for additive interaction ≤ 0.05). Strengthening the Brazilian smoke-free legislation was likely associated with a reduction in passive smoking at home, which, therefore, may also reduce the burden of mortality, morbidity, and costs for society related to smoking.


Estima-se que a exposição à fumaça ambiental de tabaco esteja relacionada a 1,2 milhão de mortes por ano no mundo. A sinergia das diversas medidas antitabaco, tanto legislativas quanto educativas, é essencial para estimular a cessação e prevenir a iniciação do tabagismo. O artigo tem como objetivo explorar a possível contribuição da proteção legislativa contra a exposição à fumaça ambiental de tabaco nos locais fechados de trabalho no Brasil, cujo fortalecimento ocorreu por fases entre 1996 e 2014, para a proteção contra o tabagismo passivo em casa. Foram utilizados modelos lineares generalizados para avaliar as diferenças absolutas e relativas na proporção de brasileiros que vivem em domicílios sem fumaça ambiental de tabaco, entre aqueles expostos e não expostos ao tabagismo passivo em locais de trabalho fechados, brutas e ajustadas por variáveis sociodemográficas e de comportamento de tabagismo, estratificadas entre fumantes e não fumantes. Foram usados os dados de três inquéritos nacionais, realizados em 2008, 2013 e 2019. Independentemente de condição de tabagista e do ano de análise, os indivíduos empregados em locais de trabalho livres de tabaco apresentaram maior probabilidade de residir em domicílios livres de tabaco, comparado com aqueles que trabalhavam em locais onde fumar era permitido. A diferença absoluta ajustada aumentou de +5,5% em 2008 para +10,5% em 2013 entre não fumantes, e de +7,1% em 2013 para +15,6% em 2019 entre fumantes (valores de p de interação aditiva ≤ 0,05). É provável que o fortalecimento da legislação antitabaco no Brasil esteve associado a uma redução no tabagismo passivo em casa, o que, portanto, pode reduzir a carga de morbimortalidade e de custos para a sociedade, relacionados ao tabagismo.


Se estimó que la exposición al humo del tabaco ambiental está relacionada con 1,2 millones de muertes por año en todo el mundo. La sinergia de varias medidas antitabaco legislativas y educacionales es esencial para estimular dejar de fumar y prevenir comenzar a fumar. La propuesta de este artículo fue explorar la posible contribución de la protección legislativa ante la exposición al humo del tabaco ambiental en lugares de trabajo cerrados en Brasil, cuyo afianzamiento se produjo de manera gradual entre 1996 y 2014, para la protección de los fumadores pasivos en casa. Se utilizaran modelos lineales generalizados para evaluar las diferencias absolutas y relativas en la proporción de individuos que viven en hogares libres de humos, entre quienes estaban expuestos y no expuestos como fumadores pasivos en lugares de trabajo cerrados, crudas y ajustadas por variables sociodemográficas y comportamiento de fumador, y estratificadas por no fumadores y fumadores. Se usaron los datos de las tres encuestas nacionales llevadas a cabo en 2008, 2013 y 2019. Independientemente del estatus del consumo de tabaco y el año de análisis, los individuos que fueron empleados en un lugar de trabajo libre de humos tenían más probabilidades de vivir en un hogar libre de humos en comparación con los fumadores que trabajaban en donde se fumaba. La diferencia ajustada absoluta aumentó del +5,5% en 2008 al +10,5% en 2013 entre no fumadores, y del +7,1% en 2013 al +15,6% en 2019 entre fumadores (valores de p de interacción aditiva ≤ 0,05). El fortalecimiento de la legislación antitabaco en Brasil estuvo presumiblemente asociado con una reducción con los fumadores pasivos en el hogar, y, por consiguiente, podría también reducir la carga de mortalidad, morbilidad y costes para la sociedad en relación con el tabaquismo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/prevention & control , Smoke-Free Policy , Nicotiana , Brazil/epidemiology , Smoking , Workplace
11.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 681-685, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935443

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the changes in tobacco use and exposure in primary school students in Shandong province in 2012 and 2019. Methods: A multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method was used in the survey. In 2012 and 2019, 5 861 and 4 021 students from 3 different cities of Shandong province were selected as the study population. The questionnaire was filled anonymously by the subjects. χ2 test was conducted to compare the difference of groups. Results: In 2012 and 2019, the rate of attempting smoking among pupils under this study in Shandong province were 6.0%and 6.3%, respectively, while the current smoking rate were 1.2%and 2.3%, respectively. The sex ratio of male and female students attempting to smoke was 2.56∶1 in 2012 and 1.31∶1 in 2019. The sex ratio of current smoking rate was 2.43∶1 and 2.00∶1, respectively in 2012 and in 2019. The rate of tobacco exposure in the public places was 50.5%and 41.4%, respectively. The rate of tobacco exposure in family was 49.7% and 46.4%, respectively. Two rates of tobacco exposure decreased, but the reduction in family (3.3%) was far less than that in public places (9.1%). In 2019, the rate of tobacco exposure in family was higher than that in public places. Conclusions: The tobacco exposure rate declined in senior pupils in Shandong province. However, the situation is still grim for the current smoking rate, growth trend of girls tobacco use, and tobacco exposure in family.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Cities , Environment , Prevalence , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Tobacco Use/epidemiology
12.
Cambios rev. méd ; 20(2): 46-52, 30 Diciembre 2021. ilus, tabs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368285

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. Los cambios de color en los dientes acrílicos dependen de varios factores, con el humo de cigarrillo como uno de los principales agentes de igmentación de las prótesis. OBJETIVO. Valorar el grado de pigmentación en dientes acrílicos sometidos al humo del cigarrillo, mediante espectrofotometría digital. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Estudio observacional, analítico, de caso y control. Muestra de 60 dientes acrílicos divididos en dos grupos: A (resina acrílica de 3 capas) y B (resina acrílica de 4 capas). Se subdividió en: grupo 1: dientes sometidos a humo de cigarrillo estándar con filtro de carbón; grupo 2: dientes sometidos a humo de cigarrillo estándar sin filtro; y, grupo 3: grupo control. Cada uno de éstos se expuso a 150 cigarrillos, 5 diarios durante 30 días y el grupo control fue mantenido a 37ºC en saliva artificial durante 30 días sin aplicación de humo de cigarrillo. Para la toma de color se empleó espectrofotómetro Vita Easyshade®. Los análisis se realizaron en el programa estadístico International Business Machines Statistical Package for the Social Sciences mediante la prueba de Kruskal-Wallis y comparaciones de Dunn. RESULTADOS. Se determinó que la pigmentación del grupo B fue mayor a la del grupo A, con una diferencia significativa entre ellos (p< 0,05). No se encontró datos estadísticamente significativos entre cigarrillos (con filtro - sin filtro). CONCLUSIÓN. La exposición al humo de cigarrillo pigmentó los dientes acrílicos de ambas propiedades siendo mayor en los dientes de resina acrílica de 4 capas.


INTRODUCTION. Color changes in acrylic teeth depend on several factors, with cigarette smoke as one of the main agents of denture pigmentation. OBJECTIVE. To assess the degree of pigmentation in acrylic teeth subjected to cigarette smoke, using digital spectrophotometry. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Observational, analytical, case-control study. Sample of 60 acrylic teeth divided into two groups: A (3-layer acrylic resin) and B (4-layer acrylic resin). It was subdivided into: group 1: teeth subjected to standard cigarette smoke with charcoal filter; group 2: teeth subjected to standard cigarette smoke without filter; and, group 3: control group. Each of these was exposed to 150 cigarettes, 5 daily for 30 days and the control group was maintained at 37ºC in artificial saliva for 30 days without application of cigarette smoke. Vita Easyshade® spectrophotometer was used for color determination. The analyses were performed in the statistical program International Business Machines Statistical Package for the Social Sciences using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn's comparisons. RESULTS. It was determined that the pigmentation of group B was greater than that of group A, with a significant difference between them (p< 0,05). No statistically significant data was found between cigarettes (filtered - unfiltered). CONCLUSION. Cigarette smoke exposure pigmented acrylic teeth of both properties being higher in 4-layer acrylic resin teeth.


Subject(s)
Humans , Saliva, Artificial , Pigmentation , Jaw, Edentulous , Dental Prosthesis , Color Perception , Cigarette Smoking , Students, Dental , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Tooth Diseases , Acrylic Resins , In Vitro Techniques , Dentistry , Tooth Wear
13.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 5(3): 267-273, jul.set.2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399346

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify possible risks factors of exposure to indoor air pollution (IAP)/outdoor air pollution (OAP) and their relationship with noncommunicable diseases in men and women treated by primary care physicians. Method: In total, 551 patients (382 women) attended three basic health units in Uruguaiana, Brazil, for various complaints, and completed a questionnaire about risk factors for exposure to IAP/OAP. Results: Women were significantly more exposed to wood-burning pollutants (79.6% vs. 52.7%, p < 0.0001) for having more housework-related activities; men had more outdoor activities and spent extended periods in traffic (47.3% vs. 18.8%, p < 0.0001). Arterial hypertension (AH)/ chronic respiratory disease (CRD) were more frequent among women. Patients with AH/CRD were more exposed to OAP because of their work (18.1% vs. 11%, p = 0.02) or for living near a source of air pollution (45.6% vs. 29.6%, p = 0.0002) or on a street with heavy traffic (41.7% vs. 33%, p = 0.04). Passive smoking, active smoking, using wood, charcoal, or firewood for cooking, heating, or drying, or burning charcoal indoors were not associated with a higher prevalence of AH/CRD. Conclusion: Exposure to OAP was associated with AH/CRD. Women were more exposed to IAP from burning firewood, and men were more exposed to fossil fuel burning. Knowledge of these behaviors should be directed to primary care physicians and all health professionals so that preventive and educational measures can be implemented.


Objetivo: Identificar possíveis fatores de risco da exposição à poluição intradomiciliar (PID) e extradomiciliar (PED) e sua relação com doenças não transmissíveis (DNT) em homens e mulheres tratados por médicos de atenção primária. Método: Quinhentos e cinquenta e um pacientes (382 mulheres) atendidos em três unidades básicas de saúde em Uruguaiana, Brasil, por queixas diversas, responderam a um questionário sobre os fatores de risco para exposição à PID/PED. Resultados: As mulheres foram significantemente mais expostas aos poluentes da queima de lenha (79,6% vs. 52,7%, p < 0,0001) por terem mais atividades domésticas; os homens praticaram mais atividades ao ar livre e passaram longos períodos no trânsito (47,3% vs. 18,8%, p < 0,0001). Hipertensão arterial (HA) / Doença respiratória crônica (DRC) foram mais frequentes entre as mulheres. Pacientes com HA/DRC foram mais expostos à PED devido ao trabalho (18,1% vs. 11%, p = 0,02), ou por viver perto de uma fonte de poluição do ar (45,6% vs. 29,6%, p = 0,0002), ou em uma rua com trânsito intenso (41,7% vs. 33%, p = 0,04). O fumo passivo, o fumo ativo, o uso de lenha ou carvão para cozinhar, aquecer ou secar ou queimar carvão em ambientes fechados não foram associados a maior prevalência de HA/DRC. Conclusão: A exposição à PED foi associada a HA/CRD. As mulheres foram mais expostas à PID pela queima de lenha, e os homens foram mais expostos à queima de combustíveis fósseis. O conhecimento destes comportamentos deve ser direcionado aos médicos da atenção básica e a todos os profissionais da saúde, para que medidas preventivas e educacionais possam ser implementadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Air Pollution, Indoor , Air Pollution , Environmental Pollutants , Environmental Pollution , Patients , Primary Health Care , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Nicotiana , Wood , Smoking , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Health Personnel , Physicians, Primary Care , Fossil Fuels , Hypertension
14.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 93(2): e1268, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280363

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La neumonía adquirida en la comunidad continúa siendo un problema de salud global. Objetivo: Caracterizar desde la óptica clínico-epidemiológica la neumonía adquirida en la comunidad en la edad pediátrica. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal y prospectivo de pacientes entre 1 mes-18 años, no vacunados con antineumocócica, ingresados en el Hospital Pediátrico Centro Habana, enero 2018-julio 2019 con diagnóstico confirmado por radiología de neumonía adquirida en la comunidad. Los pacientes no presentaban enfermedades crónicas, exceptuando el asma. Los padres o tutores dieron su consentimiento. Se evaluaron variables demográficas y clínicas, factores de riesgo, evolución y complicaciones según grupo de edad. Resultados: Se estudiaron 277 enfermos, predominaron los niños entre 1 a 4 años de edad (39,4 por ciento), superioridad del sexo masculino (55,2 por ciento). Los síntomas más frecuentes fueron: fiebre (98,9 por ciento), disnea (99,3 por ciento), tos (98,9 por ciento) y disminución del murmullo vesicular (96,4 por ciento). Como factores de riesgo predominaron la asistencia a círculos infantiles (31,8 por ciento), lactancia materna inadecuada (23,8 por ciento) y el tabaquismo pasivo (16,6 por ciento). Hubo complicaciones en 110 niños (39,7 por ciento) con predominio de derrame pleural, sobre todo en prescolares y asociación significativa entre complicaciones y edad. No hubo fallecimientos. Conclusiones: Es importante la vigilancia de las neumonías y su desarrollo clínico epidemiológico, para la prevención y diagnóstico en esa etapa previa a la introducción de la vacuna antineumoccócica. En población no vacunada contra el neumococo, es estrategia significativa reducir los factores de riesgo modificables como la insuficiente lactancia materna, el tabaquismo pasivo y la malnutrición(AU)


Introduction: Community-acquired pneumonia continues to be a global health problem. Objective: Characterize from the clinical-epidemiological perspective community-acquired pneumonia in the pediatric ages. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional and prospective study of patients from 1 month to 18 years old not vaccinated with pneumococcal vaccine, admitted in Centro Habana Pediatric Hospital from January 2018 to July 2019 with diagnosis confirmed by radiology of pneumonia acquired in the community. Patients did not have chronic diseases, except for asthma. Parents or guardians consented. Demographic and clinical variables, risk factors, evolution and complications were assessed according to the age group. Results: 277 patients were studied, children from 1 to 4 years old predominated (39.4 percent); there was male superiority (55.2 percent). The most common symptoms were fever (98.9 percent), dyspnea (99.3 percent), cough (98.9 percent) and decreased vesicular murmur (96.4 percent). As risk factors, attendance to nurseries (31.8 percent), inadequate breastfeeding (23.8 percent) and passive smoking (16.6 percent) predominated. There were complications in 110 children (39.7 percent) with prevalence of pleural effusion, especially in pre-schoolers and significant association among complications and age. There were no deaths. Conclusions: Monitoring of pneumonia and its epidemiological clinical development is important for prevention and diagnosis at this stage prior to the introduction of the pneumococcal vaccine. In populations not vaccinated against pneumococcus, it is a significant strategy to reduce modifiable risk factors such as insufficient breastfeeding, passive smoking and malnutrition(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pleural Effusion , Asthma , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Dyspnea , Malnutrition
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(3): 773-779, jun. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385414

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Exposure to air pollution and its pollutants has been associated with important effects on human health since the first years of life, thus it has been seen that exposure to tobacco smoke and wood smoke is directly related to cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, respiratory and cancers. However, exposure to air pollution during fetal development and its effects on brain structure and function during early childhood and adolescence have been little studied. In this review we have analyzed the literature on prenatal exposure to tobacco and wood smoke and its relationship with hypothalamic development and cognition in the first years of life.The molecular, morphological and physiological aspects of the relationship between pre- and postnatal exposure to tobacco and wood smoke with neural developmental, cognitive and behavioral problems during early childhood and adolescence have not yet been fully clarified. The information available in the scientific literature based on antecedents obtained from epidemiological studies has been negatively affected by confounding variables and great methodological challenges that make it impossible to affirm an exact causal relationship with certainty.


RESUMEN: La exposición a la contaminación del aire se ha asociado con importantes efectos en la salud humana desde los primeros años de vida. Estudios han demostrado con certeza que la exposición al humo de tabaco y humo de leña está directamente relacionada con enfermedades cardiovasculares, pulmonares, respiratorias y cánceres. Sin embargo, la exposición a la contaminación del aire durante el desarrollo fetal y sus efectos a posteriori sobre la estructura y función del cerebro durante la primera infancia y la adolescencia son aún desconocidos. En esta revisión analizamos la literatura sobre la exposición prenatal al tabaco y al humo de leña y su relación con el desarrollo hipotalámico y la cognición en los primeros años de vida. Los aspectos moleculares, morfológicos y fisiológicos de la asociación entre la exposición pre y postnatal al humo de tabaco o al humo de leña con problemas del desarrollo neurológico normal, cognitivos y de comportamiento durante la primera infancia y la adolescencia aún no se han aclarado completamente. La información disponible en la literatura científica basada en antecedentes obtenidos de estudios epidemiológicos ha sido afectada negativamente por variables de confusión y grandes desafíos metodológicos que hacen imposible afirmar una relación directa y causal exacta con certeza.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Child , Adolescent , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Cognition/drug effects , Inhalation Exposure/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Hypothalamus/drug effects , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Smoke , Wood
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(1): 11-17, feb. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385288

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: This study aims to evaluate the ability of resveratrol (RSV) antioxidant to attenuate the oxidative stress condition induced by secondhand exposure of cigarettes and waterpipe smoking using animal model. Forty-eight mice were divided equally into six different groups, and RSV was delivered to certain groups intraperitoneally with a dose of 25 mg/kg/day. The process of smoking exposure was performed using a specialized smoking machine. The experiment duration lasts for six consecutive weeks. Five µm sections of lung were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for light microscopy, and 70 nm ultrathin sections of lung stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate were prepared for transmission electron microscopy to observe the cellular ultrastructure. In lung, RSV reduced the deterioration and blebbing of bronchiole epithelium, reduced the inflammation, increased the surface area of alveolar sac, and reduced the thickening of alveolar walls. Also, blood vessels were less congested and less dilated with less diffusion of extravasated blood. Ultrastructural images illustrated that RSV protects the normal structure of alveolar septum, prevents DNA damage and alveolar degeneration, showed less degree of apical membrane blebbing and retained the uniform pattern of mitochondria. In conclusion, RSV has ameliorative effects against the oxidative stress condition induced by secondhand (side stream) exposure of cigarette and waterpipe tobacco smoking.


RESUMEN: Este estudio tiene como objetivo evaluar la capacidad del antioxidante resveratrol (RSV) para atenuar el estrés oxidativo inducido por la exposición de segunda mano a los cigarrillos y al tabaquismo en pipa de agua, utilizando un modelo animal. Se dividieron cuarenta y ocho ratones en seis grupos diferentes, y se administró RSV a ciertos grupos por vía intraperitoneal con una dosis de 25 mg / kg / día. El proceso de exposición al tabaquismo se realizó utilizando una máquina de fumar especializada. La duración del experimento fue de seis semanas consecutivas. Para realizar la microscopía óptica se tiñeron secciones de pulmón de cinco µm con hematoxilina y eosina, y se prepararon secciones ultrafinas de 70 nm de pulmón teñidas con acetato de uranilo y citrato de plomo para la microscopía electrónica de transmisión para observar la ultra estructura celular. En el pulmón, el RSV redujo el deterioro y la formación de ampollas del epitelio de los bronquiolos, redujo la inflamación, aumentó la superficie del saco alveolar y redujo el engrosamiento de las paredes alveolares. Además, los vasos sanguíneos se encontraron menos congestionados y menos dilatados y con menor difusión de sangre extravasada. Las imágenes ultraestructurales mostraron que el RSV protege la estructura normal del tabique alveolar, previene el daño del ADN y la degeneración alveolar, mostrando un menor grado de formación de ampollas en la membrana apical y además retuvo el patrón uniforme de las mitocondrias. En conclusión, el RSV tiene efectos de mejora contra el estrés oxidativo inducido por la exposición de segunda mano (corriente secundaria) al fumar cigarrillos y pipas de agua.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Lung/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Tobacco, Waterpipe/adverse effects , Resveratrol/administration & dosage , Lung/pathology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Microscopy , Antioxidants/administration & dosage
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(1): 318-326, feb. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385294

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: In this study the consequences of prenatal exposure to tobacco smokes on the histo-morphological changes of cerebellum was assessed by comparing the smoker mice to the nonsmoker mice. A total of 30 pregnant cd-1 mice were divided into three groups of 10 mice each and with two replicates per group (5 mice each). Following acclimation for five days, the mice were placed in a special modified smoking machine for 2 hours per day over a two- and three-week period for group two and group three, respectively. Group one was considered as a control group. Mice in the control group were exposed simultaneously to fresh air from the room, while those in the treatment groups were exposed to tobacco smoke from six commercial filter cigarettes, containing 0.8 mg of nicotine, 10 mg of tar, and 10 mg of carbon monoxide, for three 1-hour exposure periods every day for three weeks. The mice in the control group were exposed to room air for three 1-hour periods every day for the same period of three weeks. The results from this study showed a correlation between maternal smoking and histological changes in Neuron purkinjense (Purkinje cells) of the cerebellum. They also showed that prenatal smoking period may have caused more damage in the histology and structure of Neuron purkinjense in some juvenile mice. An increased incidence of morphology damage of the cerebellum's Neuron purkinjense' structures was also observed in fetuses with prolonged exposure to tobacco smoking. Exposure of in utero maternal smoking may interfere with brain biological development parameters, giving rise to structural abnormalities of the cerebellum. This study concluded that tobacco smoke exposure to pregnant mice may affect neurodevelopment which may induce behavioural changes as a result of reduced cerebellar size and function.


RESUMEN: Se evaluaron los efectos producidos por la exposición prenatal al humo de tabaco en ratones expuestos y no expuestos y los cambios histomorfológicos observados en el cerebelo en ambos grupos. Un total de 30 ratones cd-1 preñados se dividieron en tres grupos de 10 ratones cada uno y con dos réplicas por grupo (5 ratones cada uno). Después de la aclimatación durante cinco días, los ratones se colocaron en una máquina de fumar modificada, especial durante 2 horas al día, durante un período de dos y tres semanas para el grupo dos y el grupo tres, respectivamente. El grupo uno se consideró como grupo control. Los ratones del grupo de control fueron expuestos simultáneamente al aire limpio de la habitación, mientras que los grupos de tratamiento fueron expuestos al humo de tabaco de seis cigarrillos comerciales, que contenían 0,8 mg de nicotina, 10 mg de alquitrán y 10 mg de monóxido de carbono. durante tres períodos de 1 hora diariamente, durante tres semanas. Los ratones del grupo de control se expusieron al aire ambiente durante tres períodos de 1 hora todos los días durante el mismo período de tres semanas. Los resultados de este estudio mostraron una correlación entre el tabaquismo materno y los cambios histológicos en las neuronas purkinjenses (células de Purkinje). Se observó además que el período de tabaquismo prenatal puede haber causado mayor daño en la histología y estructura de las neuronas purkinjenses en algunos ratones jóvenes. También se observó una mayor incidencia de daño morfológico de las estructuras de las neuronas purkinjenses del cerebelo en fetos con exposición prolongada al tabaquismo. La exposición al tabaquismo materno en el útero puede interferir con los parámetros de desarrollo biológico del cerebro, dando lugar a anomalías estructurales del cerebelo. Este estudio concluyó que la exposición al humo del tabaco en ratones preñados puede afectar el desarrollo neurológico, lo que puede inducir cambios de comportamiento como resultado de la reducción del tamaño y la función del cerebelo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Cerebellum/drug effects , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Purkinje Cells/drug effects , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects
18.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 67(supl.1): 22-25, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287837

ABSTRACT

Despite substantial evidence on the negative effect of active smoking to Covid-19, the impact of passive smoking in the course of disease remains largely unclear. Our aim was to reflect passive smoking as a risk factor in the current pandemic. Studies are needed to increase our knowledge on passive smoking and Covid-19 implications. The reflections current findings strongly support interventions and policies to curb the tobacco epidemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Tobacco Products , COVID-19 , Smoking/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eAO6000, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345968

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To analyze whether passive inhalation of cigarette smoke causes morphological, structural, and functional changes in kidneys of rats. Methods Wistar rats, aged eight weeks, weighing on average 260g, were divided into Control Group and Smoking Group. Each group was subdivided into four groups of ten animals for morphofunctional analysis, in a period of seven and 28 days. The Smoking Group was exposed to smoke of 40 cigarettes per day, at certain times and in automated equipment for cigarette burning, called smoking machine (SM-MC-01). After the exposure period, urine and blood samples were collected for the functional analyses, and the kidneys were dissected and submitted to histological procedures for morphoquantitative analyses. Results After exposure of animals of the Smoking Group, the following were observed: lower weight gain; lower water and feed intake; decreased renal weight, diameter, and volume; reduction in cortical thickness and glomerular volume density; decrease in glomerular and capsular diameter; increase in mesangial density; decreased urine volume; increased levels of glucose, serum creatinine and microalbuminuria; decreased urinary creatinine levels and creatinine clearance rate. Conclusion Passive smoking negatively influences renal morphology and glomerular filtration rate, with effects similar to those described in the literature regarding active smoking.


RESUMO Objetivo Analisar se a inalação passiva da fumaça do cigarro proporciona alterações morfológicas, estruturais e funcionais nos rins de ratos. Métodos Ratos Wistar, com oito semanas de idade, pesando, em média, 260g, foram divididos em Grupo Controle e Grupo Tabagista. Cada grupo foi subdividido em quatro grupos de dez animais para análise morfofuncional, em um período de sete e 28 dias. O Grupo Tabagista foi exposto à fumaça de 40 cigarros por dia, em horários determinados e equipamento automatizado de queima de cigarros, denominado smoking machine (SM-MC-01). Após o período de exposição, foram coletadas amostras de urina e sangue para as análises funcionais, e os rins foram dissecados e submetidos a procedimentos histológicos para análises morfoquantitativas. Resultados Após a exposição dos animais do Grupo Tabagista, observou-se menor ganho de peso; menor consumo de água e ração; menor peso, diâmetro e volume renal; redução em espessura cortical e densidade de volume glomerular; diminuição no diâmetro glomerular e capsular; aumento na densidade mesangial; volume urinário diminuído; níveis aumentados de glicose, creatinina sérica e microalbuminúria; níveis reduzidos de creatinina urinária e redução da taxa de depuração da creatinina. Conclusão O tabagismo passivo influencia negativamente na morfologia renal e na taxa de filtração glomerular, com efeitos semelhantes aos descritos na literatura em relação ao tabagismo ativo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Smoking/adverse effects , Rats, Wistar , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Kidney
20.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 24(supl.2): e210006, 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351757

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To compare indicators of tobacco use, secondhand smoke, cessation and exposure to pro- and anti-tobacco media in 2013 and 2019, and to describe these indicators according to sociodemographic variables in 2019. Methods: Cross-sectional study with data from the National Health Survey. The indicators of use, secondhand smoke, cessation and exposure to tobacco-related media were evaluated. Prevalence and confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated for the total population in 2013 and 2019 and according to sociodemographic variables for 2019. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to assess differences in prevalence. Results: There was an improvement in most of the indicators studied: an increase in ex-smokers, a reduction in secondhand smoke and attempts to quit smoking. All pro- and anti-tobacco media exposure indicators declined. When considering the prevalence according to sociodemographic characteristics in 2019, 43.8% (95%CI 41.6-46.0) of men tried to quit smoking, and 50.8% (95%CI 48.5-53.2) of women. Secondhand smoke at home was higher among women (10.2%; 95%CI 9.7-10.8). Among those who thought about quitting smoking because of warnings, the proportion was higher among women (48.0%; 95%CI 45.3-50.6). Tobacco use was higher among men (43.8%; 95%CI 41.6-46.0), in the population aged 40 to 59 years (14.9%; 95%CI 14.2-15.6), with a lower level of education (17.6%; 95%CI 16.8-18.4). Conclusion: The study showed improvement in tobacco-related indicators between the years studied. It is noteworthy that this advance was smaller in relation to the other periods previously analyzed, and therefore, greater investments in public policies to combat and control smoking in Brazil are necessary.


RESUMO: Objetivo: Comparar indicadores de uso do tabaco, fumo passivo, cessação e exposição à mídia pró e antitabaco em 2013 e 2019 e descrever esses indicadores segundo variáveis sociodemográficas em 2019. Métodos: Estudo transversal com dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde. Avaliaram-se os indicadores de uso, fumo passivo, cessação e exposição à mídia relacionada ao tabaco. Estimaram-se as prevalências e intervalos de confiança (IC95%) para a população total em 2013 e 2019 e segundo variáveis sociodemográficas para 2019. Para avaliar diferenças nas prevalências, usou-se a regressão de Poisson com variância robusta. Resultados: Houve melhoria dos indicadores de uso do tabaco; aumento de ex-fumantes e redução do fumo passivo e da tentativa de parar de fumar. Todos os indicadores de exposição à mídia pró e contra o tabaco diminuíram. Ao se considerarem as prevalências segundo características sociodemográficas em 2019, 43,8% (IC95% 41,6-46,0) dos homens e 50,8% (IC95% 48,5-53,2) das mulheres tentaram parar de fumar. O fumo passivo no domicílio foi maior nas mulheres (10,2%; IC95% 9,7-10,8). Entre os que pensaram em parar de fumar por causa das advertências, a proporção foi maior nas mulheres (48,0%; IC95% 45,3-50,6). O uso do tabaco foi mais elevado nos homens (43,8%; IC95% 41,6-46,0), na população de 40-59 anos (14,9%; IC95% 14,2-15,6) e naquela com menor nível de instrução (17,6%; IC95% 16,8-18,4). Conclusão: O estudo mostrou melhoria dos indicadores relacionados ao tabaco entre os anos estudados. Ressalta-se que esse avanço foi menor em relação a outros períodos analisados previamente, e, portanto, torna-se necessário maiores investimentos em políticas públicas de enfrentamento e controle do tabagismo no Brasil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Nicotiana , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Surveys , Tobacco Use
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