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1.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 93(2): e1268, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280363

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La neumonía adquirida en la comunidad continúa siendo un problema de salud global. Objetivo: Caracterizar desde la óptica clínico-epidemiológica la neumonía adquirida en la comunidad en la edad pediátrica. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal y prospectivo de pacientes entre 1 mes-18 años, no vacunados con antineumocócica, ingresados en el Hospital Pediátrico Centro Habana, enero 2018-julio 2019 con diagnóstico confirmado por radiología de neumonía adquirida en la comunidad. Los pacientes no presentaban enfermedades crónicas, exceptuando el asma. Los padres o tutores dieron su consentimiento. Se evaluaron variables demográficas y clínicas, factores de riesgo, evolución y complicaciones según grupo de edad. Resultados: Se estudiaron 277 enfermos, predominaron los niños entre 1 a 4 años de edad (39,4 por ciento), superioridad del sexo masculino (55,2 por ciento). Los síntomas más frecuentes fueron: fiebre (98,9 por ciento), disnea (99,3 por ciento), tos (98,9 por ciento) y disminución del murmullo vesicular (96,4 por ciento). Como factores de riesgo predominaron la asistencia a círculos infantiles (31,8 por ciento), lactancia materna inadecuada (23,8 por ciento) y el tabaquismo pasivo (16,6 por ciento). Hubo complicaciones en 110 niños (39,7 por ciento) con predominio de derrame pleural, sobre todo en prescolares y asociación significativa entre complicaciones y edad. No hubo fallecimientos. Conclusiones: Es importante la vigilancia de las neumonías y su desarrollo clínico epidemiológico, para la prevención y diagnóstico en esa etapa previa a la introducción de la vacuna antineumoccócica. En población no vacunada contra el neumococo, es estrategia significativa reducir los factores de riesgo modificables como la insuficiente lactancia materna, el tabaquismo pasivo y la malnutrición(AU)


Introduction: Community-acquired pneumonia continues to be a global health problem. Objective: Characterize from the clinical-epidemiological perspective community-acquired pneumonia in the pediatric ages. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional and prospective study of patients from 1 month to 18 years old not vaccinated with pneumococcal vaccine, admitted in Centro Habana Pediatric Hospital from January 2018 to July 2019 with diagnosis confirmed by radiology of pneumonia acquired in the community. Patients did not have chronic diseases, except for asthma. Parents or guardians consented. Demographic and clinical variables, risk factors, evolution and complications were assessed according to the age group. Results: 277 patients were studied, children from 1 to 4 years old predominated (39.4 percent); there was male superiority (55.2 percent). The most common symptoms were fever (98.9 percent), dyspnea (99.3 percent), cough (98.9 percent) and decreased vesicular murmur (96.4 percent). As risk factors, attendance to nurseries (31.8 percent), inadequate breastfeeding (23.8 percent) and passive smoking (16.6 percent) predominated. There were complications in 110 children (39.7 percent) with prevalence of pleural effusion, especially in pre-schoolers and significant association among complications and age. There were no deaths. Conclusions: Monitoring of pneumonia and its epidemiological clinical development is important for prevention and diagnosis at this stage prior to the introduction of the pneumococcal vaccine. In populations not vaccinated against pneumococcus, it is a significant strategy to reduce modifiable risk factors such as insufficient breastfeeding, passive smoking and malnutrition(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pleural Effusion , Asthma , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Dyspnea , Malnutrition
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922416

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the incidence of preterm birth and risk factors for preterm birth.@*METHODS@#A prospective cohort study was performed for the pregnant women in early pregnancy and their spouses, who underwent prenatal examination for the first time in Hunan Provincial Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital from May 2014 to December 2016 and decided to be hospitalized for delivery. A questionnaire survey was performed to collect exposure information possibly related to preterm birth. The hospital's medical record system was used for information verification and to record the pregnancy outcome. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the risk factors for preterm birth.@*RESULTS@#A total of 6 764 pregnant women with complete data were included, and the incidence rate of preterm birth was 17.09%. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that a history of adverse pregnancy outcomes, eating areca nut before pregnancy, a history of pregnancy complications, a history of hepatitis, no folate supplementation during pregnancy, medication during pregnancy, active smoking and passive smoking during pregnancy, drinking during pregnancy, unbalanced diet during pregnancy, high-intensity physical activity during pregnancy, and natural conception after treatment of infertility or assisted conception as the way of conception were risk factors for preterm birth (@*CONCLUSIONS@#There are many risk factors for preterm birth. Special attention should be paid to the life behaviors of pregnant women during pregnancy, and health education should be strengthened for pregnant women and their spouses to develop good living habits and reduce the incidence of preterm births.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Premature Birth/etiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Tobacco Smoke Pollution
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922180

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The effects of environmental chemical exposure on blood pressure (BP) have been confirmed, but the association between exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) and hypertension risk and BP in the general population remains unknown.@*METHODS@#Cross-sectional associations between SHS exposure and hypertension risk and BP values were evaluated using data for subjects who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2016. Logistic regression and linear regression were performed after adjusting for age, sex, race, alcohol consumption, poverty-to-income ratio (PIR), body mass index (BMI), estimated glomerular filtration rate, physical activity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and NHANES cycle. Restricted cubic spline models were created to display the potential nonlinear association between SHS and BP levels.@*RESULTS@#Higher risk of hypertension was found at the highest SHS concentrations (OR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.04, 1.24, P for trend = 0.007). Additionally, SHS exposure had a strong positive association with systolic blood pressure (SBP) but was negatively associated with diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Furthermore, the nonlinear model result showed a significant association between SHS and SBP (P = 0.017); however, the nonlinear model result was not significant for SHS or DBP.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Our results suggest a potential association between high SHS exposure and the risk of hypertension. Further research is needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Blood Pressure , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
4.
Rev. Fac. Odontol. Porto Alegre ; 61(2): 22-29, jul-dez. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1281072

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of active and passive smoking during pregnancy and its association with sociodemographic indicators, as well as perinatal and postnatal outcomes in newborns. Methods: This cross-sectional study was comprised of 431 pairs of mothers/ newborns. The study variables were: preterm birth, birth weight, oral mucosal lesions, sociodemographic indicators and smoking data. We collected data from medical records and through a self-administered questionnaire answered by mothers. A pediatric dentist examined the newborns for oral mucosal lesions. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between active and passive smoking and the other variables (α=5%). Results: The prevalence of active (9.5%) and passive smoking (4.2%) during pregnancy was low. Active smoking was statistically associated with low birth weight (OR: 2.4; 95%CI:1.1-5.3), lower schooling level (OR: 0.2; 95%CI:0.1-0.5) and mothers aged ≥36 years old (OR: 4.9; 95%CI:1.2-20.0). Passive smoking was not statistically associated with the other variables. There was no association between active or passive smoking during pregnancy and premature birth and oral lesions of the newborn. Conclusions: The prevalence of active and passive smoking were low. Active smoking was associated with low birth weight, maternal age and mother's schooling, suggesting a social influence of smoking behavior among a population with a lower educational level. There was no association between active and passive smoking and prematurity and oral lesions of the newborn. (AU)


Objetivo: O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a prevalência de tabagismo ativo e passivo durante a gestação e a associação entre indicadores sociodemográficos, bem como desfechos pré e pós-parto em recém-nascidos. Metodologia: Este estudo transversal foi composto por 431 pares de mães/recém-nascidos. As variáveis estudadas foram: nascimento prematuro, peso ao nascer, lesões mucosas orais, indicadores sociodemográficos e dados sobre tabagismo. Coletamos dados por meio de prontuários e por questionário auto-aplicado respondido pelas mães. Um dentista pediátrico examinou os recém-nascidos para lesões mucosas orais. A regressão logística foi utilizada para a análise bivariada e multivariada dos dados (α=5%). Resultados: Prevalência de tabagismo ativo (9,5%) e tabagismo passivo (4,2%) durante a gravidez foi baixo. O tabagismo ativo foi estatisticamente associado ao baixo peso ao nascer (OR: 2,4; 95%CI:1,1-5,3), às mães com menor escolaridade (OR: 0,2; 95%CI:0,1-0,5), e mães com idade ≥36 anos (OR: 4,9; 95%CI:1,2-20,0); enquanto o tabagismo passivo não esteve estatisticamente associado a nenhuma variável. Não houve associação entre tabagismo durante a gestação com nascimento prematuro e lesões orais de recém-nascidos. Conclusões: As prevalências de tabagismos passivo e ativo foram baixas. O tabagismo ativo esteve associado ao baixo peso ao nascer, à idade materna e à escolaridade da mãe, sugerindo influência social do comportamento do tabagismo entre a população com menor escolaridade. Não houve associação entre tabagismo ativo e passivo com prematuridade e lesões de mucosa oral em recém-nascido. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Tobacco Smoking/adverse effects , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Socioeconomic Factors , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Premature Birth , Mouth Mucosa
6.
Braz. dent. j ; 31(3): 281-289, May-June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132293

ABSTRACT

Abstract Smoking is a risk factor for serious health problems and is associated with several changes in the tissues of the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the collagen percentage, mast cells density, intensity of immunolabeled cells by anti-HIF-1α in the musculature lingual of rats exposed to secondhand smoke. Twenty-seven female Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: rats not exposed to tobacco smoke inhalation (Control group) (n=7); rats exposed to smoke inhalation for 30 days (TAB 30) (n=10); and rats exposed to smoke inhalation for 45 days (TAB 45) (n=10). Subsequently, the animals were submitted to euthanasia and removal of the tongue for histological and immunohistochemistry processing and analysis. In the groups TAB 30 and TAB 45 there were a lower percentage of collagen, a higher density of mast cells and a greater intensity of anti-HIF-1α immunolabeled cells compared to Control group. There was also a positive and significant correlation between the percentage of collagen and mast cell density. There was not significative difference between TAB 30 e TAB 45 in any of the parameters evaluated. Therefore, the exposure of rats to secondhand smoke for 45 days causes decrease in perimysial collagen fibers, increase in the number of mast cells and increase in the immunolabeling for HIF-1α in lingual muscle cells. The present study was the first to evaluate the percentage of collagen, mast cell density and immunostaining for HIF-1α in rat tongues exposed to tobacco smoke.


Resumo O tabagismo é um fator de risco para sérios problemas de saúde e está associado a diversas alterações nos tecidos da cavidade oral. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a porcentagem de colágeno, densidade de mastócitos e intensidade de células imunomarcadas por anti-HIF-1α na musculatura lingual de ratos expostos passivamente à fumaça principal do cigarro. Vinte e sete ratos Wistar albinos fêmeas foram divididos em três grupos: ratos não expostos à inalação da fumaça do tabaco (grupo controle) (n=7); ratos expostos à inalação da fumaça por 30 dias (TAB 30) (n=10); e ratos expostos à inalação da fumaça por 45 dias (TAB 45) (n=10). Posteriormente, os animais foram submetidos à eutanásia e remoção da língua para processamento e análise histológica e imuno-histoquímica. Nos grupos TAB 30 e TAB 45, houve diminuição do percentual de colágeno, maior densidade de mastócitos e maior intensidade de células imunomarcadas por anti-HIF-1α em comparação ao grupo controle. Houve também correlação positiva e significativa entre a porcentagem de colágeno e a densidade de mastócitos. Não houve diferença significativa entre TAB 30 e TAB 45 em nenhum dos parâmetros avaliados. Portanto, a exposição passiva de ratos à fumaça principal do cigarro por 45 dias provoca diminuição das fibras de colágeno perimisial, aumento do número de mastócitos e aumento da imunomarcação para o HIF-1α em células musculares linguais. O presente estudo foi o primeiro a avaliar a porcentagem de colágeno, densidade de mastócitos e imunomarcação para o HIF-1α em línguas de ratos expostos à fumaça do tabaco.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Tobacco , Immunohistochemistry , Smoking , Rats, Wistar
8.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(2): 295-303, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088850

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Cigarette smoking is usually associated with hypertension and may modify vasoconstrictor response. Objective: The present study aimed to analyze and compare the interaction of passive cigarette smoking and hypertension on epinephrine and felypressin blood pressure effects after intravascular injection. Method: 45-day male Wistar rats had the main left renal artery partially constricted and the right kidney removed (1K1C model). Rats were placed in the chamber for exposition to passive cigarette smoking (10 cigarettes) during 10 min (6 days a week). Hypertensive rats received atenolol (90 mg/kg/day) by gavage for two weeks. Hypotensive and hypertensive response, response duration and heart rate were recorded from direct blood pressure values. The significance level was 5%. Results: Passive cigarette smoking increased maximal hypertensive response to epinephrine in normotensive and 1K1C-atenolol treated rats and to felypressin only in 1K1C-atenolol treated rats; it also reduced epinephrine hypotensive response. Epinephrine increased heart rate in normotensive and hypertensive passive smokers or non-smoker rats. Comparing the two vasoconstrictors, epinephrine showed greater hypertensive response in normotensive smokers, 1K1C-atenolol treated smokers and non-smokers. However, in normotensive-nonsmoker rats, felypressin showed a greater and longer hypertensive effect. Conclusions: Our results suggest that passive cigarette smoking may reduce epinephrine vasodilation and increase hypertensive response when compared to felypressin. Therefore, felypressin may be safe for hypertensive patients to avoid tachycardia and atenolol interaction, but for normotensive and non-smoker patients, epinephrine may be safer than felypressin.


Resumo Fundamento: O tabagismo geralmente está associado à hipertensão e pode modificar a resposta vasoconstritora. Objetivo: O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar e comparar a interação do tabagismo passivo e hipertensão sobre os efeitos da epinefrina e felipressina na pressão arterial após injeção intravascular. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos de 45 dias tiveram a artéria renal principal esquerda parcialmente obstruída e o rim direito removido (modelo 1K1C). Os ratos foram colocados na câmara para exposição ao tabagismo passivo (10 cigarros) durante 10 minutos (6 dias por semana). Ratos hipertensos receberam atenolol (90 mg/kg/dia) por gavagem durante duas semanas. A resposta hipotensora e hipertensiva, a duração da resposta e a frequência cardíaca foram registradas a partir da medida dos valores diretos da pressão arterial. O nível de significância foi de 5%. Resultados: O tabagismo passivo aumentou a resposta hipertensiva máxima à epinefrina em ratos normotensos e ratos 1K1C tratados com atenolol e à felipressina apenas em ratos 1K1C tratados com atenolol; também reduziu a resposta hipotensiva à epinefrina. A epinefrina aumentou a frequência cardíaca em ratos fumantes passivos ou não-fumantes, normotensos e hipertensos. Comparando os dois vasoconstritores, a epinefrina apresentou maior resposta hipertensiva em fumantes normotensos, ratos 1K1C fumantes e não fumantes tratados com atenolol. No entanto, em ratos normotensos e não fumantes, a felipressina apresentou um efeito hipertensivo maior e mais prolongado. Conclusões: Nossos resultados sugerem que o tabagismo passivo pode reduzir a vasodilatação da epinefrina e aumentar a resposta hipertensiva quando comparado à felipressina. Portanto, a felipressina pode ser segura para pacientes hipertensos, com o objetivo de evitar a interação entre taquicardia e atenolol, mas para pacientes normotensos e não-fumantes, a epinefrina pode ser mais segura que a felipressina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Atenolol/pharmacology , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Epinephrine/pharmacology , Felypressin/pharmacology , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Time Factors , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Vasodilation/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Interactions , Heart Rate/drug effects , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypotension
9.
Fisioter. Pesqui. (Online) ; 27(1): 48-56, jan.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090408

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o desenvolvimento motor de crianças de quatro a 17 meses e investigar sua associação com fatores de risco sociodemográficos. Estudo transversal, descritivo, composto por crianças de quatro a 17 meses provenientes da unidade de internação pediátrica de um hospital público de Porto Alegre (RS), clinicamente estáveis e com alta breve prevista. Para a avaliação dos fatores de risco sociodemográficos foi utilizado um questionário elaborado pelas pesquisadoras, que abordou fatores biológicos, sociais e ambientais. Para a avaliação do desenvolvimento motor foi utilizada a Alberta Infant Motor Scale na versão traduzida, adaptada e validada para a população brasileira. Para a análise estatística foi utilizado o teste t de Student e o teste qui-quadrado, com nível de significância de 5% (p≤0,05). De um total de 110 crianças avaliadas, o desempenho motor se mostrou aquém do esperado em mais da metade delas (63,6%, n=70). Houve associação estatisticamente significativa entre o desenvolvimento motor e vacinas atrasadas (p=0,005), convivência com tabagistas em casa (p=0,047) e recebimento de benefício socioeconômico (p=0,036). Conclui-se que esses fatores sociais podem estar associados a fatores de risco ao desenvolvimento motor de crianças de quatro a 17 meses.


RESUMEN El presente estudio tuvo el objetivo de evaluar el desarrollo motor de niños de 4 a 17 meses de edad e investigar su asociación con factores de riesgo sociodemográficos. Es un estudio transversal, descriptivo, en el cual participaron niños de 4 a 17 meses de la unidad de hospitalización pediátrica de un hospital público en Porto Alegre (Brasil), clínicamente estables y con la espera de recibir el alta pronto. Para la evaluación de los factores de riesgo sociodemográficos, se utilizó un cuestionario desarrollado por los investigadores, que abordó los factores biológicos, sociales y ambientales. Para la evaluación del desarrollo motor, se utilizó la Alberta Infant Motor Scale en la versión traducida, adaptada y validada para la población brasileña. En el análisis estadístico, se aplicaron la prueba t de Student y la prueba chi-cuadrado, con un nivel de significación del 5% (p≤0,05). De 110 niños evaluados, más de la mitad de ellos (63,6%, n=70) tuvieron rendimiento motor inferior a lo esperado. Hubo una asociación estadísticamente significativa entre el desarrollo motor y las vacunas tardías (p=0,005), la convivencia con fumadores en el hogar (p=0,047) y el recibimiento de beneficios socioeconómicos (p=0,036). Se concluye que estos factores sociales pueden estar asociados con factores de riesgo para el desarrollo motor de niños de 4 a 17 meses.


ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the motor development of children aged four to 17 months and investigate its association with sociodemographic risk factors. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted with clinically stable children aged four to 17 months from the pediatric inpatient unit of a public hospital in Porto Alegre, RS, and whose hospital discharge would happen soon. For the evaluation of sociodemographic risk factors, a questionnaire developed by the researchers was used which addressed biological, social and environmental factors. The Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS), in its version translated, adapted and validated to Brazilian Portuguese, was used in the evaluation of motor development. In statistical analysis, Student's t-test and Chi-square test were used with significance level of 5% (p≤0.05) for all tests. From a total of 110 evaluated children, motor performance was lower than expected in more than half of them (63.6%, n=70). Motor development presented statistically significant associations with delayed vaccines (p=0.005), cohabitation with smokers (p=0.047), and receiving socioeconomic benefits (p=0.036). In conclusion, social factors such as delayed vaccines, cohabitation with smokers and receiving socioeconomic benefits may be associated with risk factors related to motor development of children aged four months to 17 months old.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child Development , Social Vulnerability , Motor Skills/physiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Developmental Disabilities/prevention & control , Developmental Disabilities/rehabilitation , Developmental Disabilities/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Motor Disorders/diagnosis , Motor Disorders/prevention & control , Motor Disorders/rehabilitation , Motor Disorders/epidemiology
10.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO5262, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090059

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To compare the frequency of respiratory tract infections in children treated with OM-85 BV and placebo during the 3-month therapy period, and observation for a further 3 months after treatment. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted with 54 children (6 months to 5 years old) with no past history of recurrent respiratory infections attending daycare center. Family members were instructed to administer one capsule per day for 10 consecutive days, for 3 months of OM-85 BV or placebo. Telephone interviews were conducted every 30 days. Results There was no significant difference in the number of respiratory infections between the groups. The mean number of respiratory tract infection in the OM-85 BV Group in the first 3 months was 0.92±0.87, and in the Placebo Group was 0.74±1.02, and at 6 months it was 1.62±1.47 and 1.03±1.34, respectively. Conclusion OM-85 BV was not effective in the primary prevention of respiratory tract infections. Although most authors recommend the use of this immunostimulant in children with a history of recurrent respiratory infections, more studies are needed to define its usefulness in the primary prevention of respiratory infections in healthy children exposed to few risk factors.


RESUMO Objetivo Comparar a frequência de infecções do trato respiratório em crianças tratadas com OM-85 BV e placebo durante o período de terapia de 3 meses, e observação por mais 3 meses após o tratamento. Métodos Foi realizado estudo randomizado, duplo-cego, controlado por placebo com 54 crianças (6 meses a 5 anos) sem história prévia de infecções respiratórias recorrentes, que frequentavam creches. Os membros da família foram instruídos a administrar uma cápsula por dia durante 10 dias consecutivos, durante 3 meses, de OM-85 BV ou placebo. Entrevistas telefônicas foram realizadas a cada 30 dias. Resultados Não houve diferença significativa no número de infecções respiratórias entre os grupos. O número médio de infecções do trato respiratório no Grupo OM-85 BV nos primeiros 3 meses foi de 0,92±0,87 e, no Grupo Placebo, de 0,74±1,02, e aos 6 meses foi de 1,62±1,47 e 1,03±1,34, respectivamente. Conclusão O OM-85 BV não foi eficaz na prevenção primária de infecções do trato respiratório. Embora a maioria dos autores recomende o uso deste imunoestimulante em crianças com história de infecções respiratórias recorrentes, mais estudos são necessários para definir sua utilidade na prevenção primária de infecções respiratórias em crianças saudáveis expostas a poucos fatores de risco.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Primary Prevention/methods , Cell Extracts/therapeutic use , Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Breast Feeding , Child Day Care Centers , Pilot Projects , Double-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome
11.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO4781, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056034

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To estimate the frequency of secondhand smoke exposure among patients with asthma. Methods A cross-sectional study of asthma patients and non-asthmatic controls using questionnaires to identify secondhand smoke exposure at home, school, work, and public places. Results We studied 544 severe asthma patients, 452 mild/moderate asthma patients, and 454 non-asthmatic patients. Among severe patients, the mean age was 51.9 years, 444 (81.6%) were female, 74 (13.6%) were living with a smoker, 383 (71.9%) reported exposure in public spaces and, of the 242 (44.5%) who worked/ studied, 46 (19.1%) reported occupational exposure. Among those with mild/moderate asthma, the mean age was 36.8 years, 351 (77.7%) were female, 50 (11.1%) reported living with a smoker, 381 (84.9%) reported exposure in public settings and, of the 330 (73.0%) who worked/ studied, 58 (17.7%) reported occupational exposure. An association between secondhand smoke exposure and disease control was found among patients with mild/moderate asthma. Among those interviewed, 71% of severe asthma patients and 63% of mild/moderate asthma patients avoided certain places due to fear of secondhand smoke exposure. Conclusion Secondhand smoke exposure is a situation frequently reported by a significant proportion of asthma patients. Individuals with asthma are exposed to this agent, which can hamper disease control, exacerbate symptoms and pose unacceptable limitations to their right to come and go in public settings.


RESUMO Objetivo Estimar a frequência de exposição à fumaça secundária do cigarro entre pacientes com asma. Métodos Estudo transversal, que avaliou pacientes com asma e controles sem asma, por meio de questionários, para identificar a exposição secundária à fumaça do cigarro no ambiente domiciliar, escolar, no trabalho e em ambientes públicos. Resultados Estudamos 544 asmáticos graves, 452 com asma leve/moderada e 454 sem asma. Entre os asmáticos graves, a média de idade foi de 51,9 anos, 444 (81,6%) eram do sexo feminino, 74 (13,6%) tinham fumantes em sua residência, 383 (71,9%) relataram exposição em ambientes públicos e, dos 242 (44,5%) que trabalhavam e/ou estudavam, 46 (19,1%) admitiram exposição ocupacional. Entre asmáticos leves/moderados, a média de idade foi de 36,8 anos, 351 (77,7%) eram do sexo feminino, 50 (11,1%) afirmaram haver tabagistas em sua residência, 381(84,9%) relataram exposição em ambientes públicos e, dos 330 (73,0%) que trabalhavam e/ou estudavam, 58 (17,7%) referiram exposição ocupacional. Encontrou-se associação entre exposição à fumaça secundária do cigarro e controle da doença entre pacientes com asma leve/moderada. Entre os entrevistados, 71% dos pacientes asmáticos graves e 63% daqueles com asma leve/moderada relataram evitar frequentar certos ambientes pelo receio da exposição à fumaça secundária do cigarro − relato mais associado aos pacientes com asma grave. Conclusão A exposição secundária à fumaça do cigarro é uma situação frequente e relatada por uma proporção significativa de asmáticos. Indivíduos com asma encontram-se expostos a este agente, que pode dificultar o controle da doença, exacerbar sintomas e lhes impor limitação inaceitável ao direito de ir e vir em ambientes públicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Asthma/epidemiology , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Quality of Life , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Inhalation Exposure , Middle Aged
12.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(5): 591-600, sep.-oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127322

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Determinar los factores asociados con la exposición al humo de tabaco de segunda mano (HTSM) en lugares públicos y privados. Material y métodos: Se analizó la Encuesta Nacional de Consumo de Drogas, Alcohol y Tabaco 2016. La exposición al HTSM se evaluó mediante modelos Poisson multinivel. La muestra del estudio incluye únicamente no fumadores. Resultados: La exposición al HTSM fue similar en los estados que tienen prohibición total para fumar en espacios cerrados en comparación con estados con prohibición parcial. Adultos jóvenes, hombres y personas con nivel educativo alto tienen mayor exposición al HTSM en bares y restaurantes. Los hombres tienen mayor exposición al HTSM en el trabajo, los adultos de mayor edad en el transporte público, mientras las mujeres y adolescentes en el hogar. Conclusiones: La exposición al HTSM continúa elevada y afecta diferencialmente a la población mexicana. Para reducirla, se requiere aplicar totalmente el artículo octavo del Convenio Marco para el Control del Tabaco.


Abstract: Objective: To assess the correlates of secondhand smoke exposure (SHS) in public and private settings. Materials and methods: Data came from the 2016 National Survey of Drug, Alcohol and Tobacco use. Multilevel Poisson models were conducted to evaluate factors associated with SHS. Results: Having a higher education, being male and being a young adult were associated with higher SHS in bars and restaurants. Men had greater SHS at work, while women and adolescents had greater exposure at home. Adults older than 45 years had higher SHS on public transportation compared to adolescents between 12-17 years old. Conclusions: Exposure to SHS remains high and affects the population differentially. To reduce SHS, it is necessary to apply Article 8 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Public Facilities , Cross-Sectional Studies , Private Facilities , Correlation of Data , Mexico
13.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(4): 436-447, Jul.-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099319

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivos: Revisar la aplicación del Convenio Marco de la OMS para el Control del Tabaco en las Américas, describir dos estudios de caso nacionales y analizar la evidencia sobre los cigarrillos electrónicos desde la perspectiva de salud pública. Material y métodos: Revisión de la legislación de control de tabaco y la evidencia científica sobre los cigarrillos electrónicos. Resultados: La aplicación de políticas no es homogénea, con avances importantes en ambientes libres de humo, advertencias sanitarias gráficas y vigilancia epidemiológica, pero desafíos pendientes en la prohibición total de la publicidad, incremento de impuestos y cesación tabáquica. La interferencia de la industria tabacalera es uno de los principales obstáculos para avanzar y los nuevos productos crean incertidumbre sobre su regulación. Conclusiones: Se necesita revitalizar la voluntad política para aplicar integralmente el Convenio, tomando decisiones basadas en evidencia ante los nuevos desafíos y defendiendo los logros de la interferencia de la industria.


Abstract: Objectives: To review the implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in the Americas, describe two national case studies and analyze the evidence on electronic cigarettes from a public health perspective. Materials and methods: Revision of the tobacco control legislation and the scientific evidence regarding electronic cigarettes. Results: Implementation of tobacco control policies is not homogeneous, with important advances in smoke-free environments, pictorial health warnings, and epidemiological surveillance, but challenges that remain for the implementation of a total ban of tobacco advertising, increases in tobacco taxes, and tobacco cessation programs. Tobacco industry interference is one of the main obstacles for advancing and novel products create uncertainty about their regulation. Conclusion: There is a need for political will for a comprehensive implementation of the Convention, with evidence-based decisions to confront challenges and to defend the achievements from tobacco industry interference.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tobacco Products/legislation & jurisprudence , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Smoking Prevention/legislation & jurisprudence , Panama , Taxes , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/prevention & control , World Health Organization , Advertising , Evidence-Based Practice , Smoke-Free Policy , Smoking Prevention/trends , Health Plan Implementation , Health Promotion/methods , International Cooperation , Lobbying , Mexico
14.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(8): 3013-3024, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011867

ABSTRACT

Resumo O Brasil foi um dos primeiros países do mundo a proibir os Dispositivos Eletrônicos de Fumar (DEFs), tal proibição foi motivada pela inexistência de evidências relativas às alegadas propriedades terapêuticas e da inocuidade destes produtos. Por conta de tal proibição, A Anvisa foi criticada, especialmente de grupos de usuários. Estes grupos argumentam que tal ação proibiu um produto que auxiliaria a cessação ao tabagismo e seria menos tóxico que os cigarros comuns. Assim sendo, surge o questionamento se esta decisão foi acertada ou não. Os dados disponíveis mostram que os DEFs possuem formulações diversas e algumas substâncias tóxicas são liberadas durante sua utilização em níveis significativos. Estudos em animais e em humanos demonstraram potencial efeito tóxico. Os DEFs também demostraram que podem afetar a saúde de fumantes passivos. Quanto a seu uso como ferramenta de cessação, os estudos ainda não são conclusivos. Observou-se também um alto grau de uso entre adolescentes em países que seu uso foi autorizado. Desta forma o Brasil ao proibir estes produtos, impediu que a população consumisse um produto sem comprovação que auxiliasse no tratamento do tabagismo, com indícios de significativa toxidade e altamente atrativo aos jovens.


Abstract Brazil was one of the first countries in the world to ban Electronic Smoking Devices (ESDs). This ban was motivated by the lack of evidence regarding the alleged therapeutic properties and harmlessness of these products. Anvisa was criticized for this move, especially by electronic cigarette's users groups. These groups argue that prohibition prevented people's access to a product that would aid smoking cessation and be less toxic than ordinary cigarettes. Thus, the question arises as to whether this decision was successful. Available data show that ESDs have diverse formulations and some toxic substances are released at significant levels during use. Studies in animals and humans have shown a potential toxic effect, also affecting the health of passive smokers. Studies are still inconclusive regarding its use as a cessation tool. A high level of use among adolescents was observed in countries whose use was authorized. Thus, Brazil's ban prevented the population from consuming a product that has not been proven effective toward smoking cessation, with indications of significant toxicity and highly attractive to young people.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Adolescent , Smoking Cessation/methods , Smoke-Free Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Vaping/legislation & jurisprudence , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/prevention & control , Brazil , Vaping/adverse effects , Vaping/prevention & control
16.
Fisioter. Pesqui. (Online) ; 26(2): 164-169, abr.-jun. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012148

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Nicotine delays the healing process and increases the levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), an enzyme that plays a key role in the production of reactive oxygen species during the inflammatory process. Laser Photobiomodulation (PBM) is one of the most used electrophysical agents in the treatment of the calcaneal tendon, however, its effects on MPO activity need to be further elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of laser PBM on MPO activity after inflicting an injury to the calcaneal tendon of rats exposed to cigarette smoke. Thirty-four male Wistar rats with 90 days of age were used. After 14 days of exposure to cigarette smoke, the animals were divided into three experimental groups: control group (CG, n=12), not submitted to injury or treatment; sham group (ShG, n=10), submitted to partial calcaneal tendon injury and laser PBM simulation; and laser PBM group (PBMG, n=12), submitted to partial calcaneal tendon lesion and treated with laser PBM within the first minute after injury. PBM decreased MPO activity levels in PBMG compared to ShG (CG: 1.38±0.69pg/ml; ShG: 3.78±1.09pg/ml; PBMG: 2.58±0.93pg/ml; p<0.005). In conclusion, applying laser PBM immediately after inflicting damage to the calcaneal tendon attenuates acute inflammatory activity in rats exposed to cigarette smoke.


RESUMO A nicotina retarda o processo de cicatrização e eleva os níveis da enzima mieloperoxidase (MPO), a qual possui um papel fundamental na produção de espécies reativas de oxigênio durante o processo inflamatório. A fotobiomodulação laser (FBM) é um dos agentes eletrofísicos mais utilizados no tratamento do tendão calcâneo, no entanto, os seus efeitos sobre a atividade da MPO carecem de maior elucidação. Este estudo objetivou avaliar os efeitos da FBM sobre a atividade da MPO, após lesão do tendão calcâneo em ratos expostos à fumaça de cigarro. Foram utilizados 34 ratos Wistar, machos, com 90 dias de vida. Após 14 dias de exposição à fumaça de cigarro, os animais foram divididos em três grupos experimentais: grupo controle (GC, n=12), não submetido à lesão ou tratamento; grupo sham (GSh, n=10), submetido à lesão parcial do tendão calcâneo e a simulação da FBM laser; grupo FBM laser (GFBM, n=12), submetido à lesão parcial do tendão calcâneo e tratados com FBM laser, no primeiro minuto após a lesão. A FBM diminuiu os níveis de atividade da MPO no GFBM em comparação ao GSh (GC: 1,38±0,69 pg/ml; GSh: 3,78±1,09pg/ml; GFBM: 2,58±0,93pg/ml; p<0,005). Conclui-se que a FBM laser aplicada imediatamente após lesão do tendão calcâneo, atenua a atividade inflamatória aguda em ratos expostos à fumaça de cigarro.


RESUMEN La nicotina retarda el proceso de cicatrización y eleva los niveles de la enzima mieloperoxidasa (MPO), que tiene un papel fundamental en la producción de especies reactivas de oxígeno durante el proceso inflamatorio. La fotobiomodulación con láser (FBM) es uno de los agentes electrofísicos más utilizados en el tratamiento del tendón calcáneo, sin embargo sus efectos sobre la actividad de la MPO carecen de mayor elucidación. Este estudio objetivó evaluar los efectos de la FBM sobre la actividad de la MPO después de lesión del tendón calcáneo en ratones expuestos al humo de cigarrillo. Se utilizaron 34 ratones Wistar, machos, con 90 días de vida. Después de 14 días de exposición al humo de cigarrillo, los animales fueron divididos en tres grupos experimentales: grupo de control (GC, n=12), no sometido a la lesión o tratamiento; grupo sham (GSh, n=10), sometido a la lesión parcial del tendón calcáneo y a la simulación de la FBM láser; y el grupo FBM láser (GFBM, n=12), sometido a la lesión parcial del tendón calcáneo y tratado con FBM láser, en el primer minuto después de la lesión. La FBM disminuyó los niveles de actividad de MPO en el GFBM en comparación con el GSh (GC: 1,38±0,69 pg/ml; GSh: 3,78±1,09pg/ml; GFBM: 2,58±0,93pg/ml, p<0,005). Se concluye que la FBM láser aplicada inmediatamente después de la lesión del tendón calcáneo atenúa la actividad inflamatoria aguda en ratones expuestos al humo de cigarrillo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Achilles Tendon/physiopathology , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Low-Level Light Therapy , Tendinopathy/therapy , Wound Healing/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Models, Animal , Inflammation/physiopathology , Nicotine/adverse effects
17.
Rev. Hosp. Niños B.Aires ; 61(272): 18-24, abr. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-995538

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los episodios de obstrucción bronquial durante el primer año de vida en los lactantes sanos, constituyen una consulta frecuente en pediatría. El objetivo es evaluar el impacto del tabaquismo prenatal como factor asociado a padecer episodios de sibilancias en el primer año de vida en lactantes sanos, sin historia familiar de asma y/o atopía. Métodos: Estudio transversal realizado entre mayo del 2012/2013 en el Hospital de Niños "Ricardo Gutiérrez", mediante una encuesta dirigida a madres de lactantes sanos de 12 a 15 meses de edad, sin antecedentes familiares de asma y /o atopía. El objetivo fue evaluar el tabaquismo prenatal como factor de riesgo asociado a padecer episodios de obstrucción bronquial en lactantes sanos, en el primer año de vida. Resultados: Se contactaron 601 madres de lactantes sanos de 12 a 15 meses de edad. Fueron elegibles 379 para completar la encuesta acerca de lo ocurrido en el primer año de vida de sus hijos. Mediante análisis multivariado, los factores de riesgo asociados a padecer al menos un episodio de sibilancia fueron: exposición prenatal (EP) al humo del tabaquismo materno (p=0.03 ODDS= 3 IC 95% 1,09 ­ 8,27), sexo masculino (p=0,002, ODDS 2,03 IC 1,29-3,20), edad del primer resfrío (p < 0,001 ODDS 0,76 IC 0,69-0,83). Conclusiones: En lactantes sanos, sin factores de riesgo para asma y/o atopía, el tabaquismo prenatal constituyó un factor de riesgo para generar sibilancias broncopulmonares e infecciones virales respiratorias a una edad más temprana.


Introduction: During the first year of life of healthy infants, bronchial obstructive episodes are a frequent reason of consultation in pediatric practice. The objective was to assess the impact of prenatal smoking as a risk factor associated to bronchospasm episodes during the first year of life in healthy infants without family history of asthma and/or atopia. Methods: Cross-sectional study performed between May, 2012 and May 2013 at Hospital de Niños "Ricardo Gutiérrez", through a survey completed by mothers of healthy infants from 12 to 15 months old without asthma and/or atopia family antecedents. Main purpose was to assess the prenatal smoking as a risk factor associated to bronchospasm episodes during the first year of life in healthy infants. Results: 601 mothers of patients 12 to 15 months old were contacted, among which 379 completed the survey in relation to what had happened during the first twelve months of their children's life. Through multivariate analysis, the risk factors associated to suffer at least one bronchial obstructive episode were: prenatal exposure to maternal smoking (p=0.03 ODDS= 3 IC 95% 1,09 ­ 8,27), male gender (p=0,002 ODDS 2,03 IC 1,29- 3,20), age at first cold (p < 0,001 ODDS 0,76 IC 0,69-0,83). Conclusions: In healthy infants, without risk factors associated to asthma y/o atopia, prenatal smoking represented a risk factor to generate bronchopulmonary wheezing and viral respiratory infections at a younger age.


Subject(s)
Infant , Risk Factors , Infant Health , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Respiratory Sounds
18.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(1): 13-24, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1004750

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of research on knowledge/attitudes regarding the dangers of exposure to secondhand smoking (SHS) among women. The relationship between exposure to SHS, socioeconomic status (SES) and knowledge/attitudes regarding the risks of SHS has often been ignored. We therefore aimed to examine (1) whether SES and exposure to SHS were independently associated with knowledge/attitudes regarding the risks of SHS; and (2) whether women with low SES and exposure to SHS were uniquely disadvantaged in terms of deficient knowledge and more dismissive attitudes towards the risks of SHS. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in the Rajshahi district, Bangladesh. METHODS: A total of 541 women were interviewed. Knowledge of and attitudes towards the risks of SHS were the outcomes of interest. RESULTS: A majority of the respondents were exposed to SHS at home (49.0%). Only 20.1% had higher levels of knowledge, and only 37.3% had non-dismissive attitudes towards the risks of SHS. Participants in the low SES group and those exposed to SHS had lower odds of higher knowledge and their attitudes towards the risks of SHS were more dismissive. Regarding deficient levels of knowledge and scores indicating more dismissive attitudes, women in the low SES group and who were exposed to SHS were not uniquely disadvantaged. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to SHS and low SES were independently associated with deficient knowledge and scores indicating more dismissive attitudes. Regarding knowledge/attitudes, the negative effect of exposure to SHS extended across all socioeconomic backgrounds and was not limited to women in either the low or the high SES group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Spouses , Social Class , Socioeconomic Factors , Bangladesh , Logistic Models , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Self Report
19.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 150 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007562

ABSTRACT

O Sistema Nervoso Central (SNC) humano é formado por cerca de 86,1 bilhões de neurônios entre o encéfalo e a medula espinhal. O desenvolvimento pré-natal humano (tempo da concepção ao nascimento) possui cerca de 38 semanas, e é dividido na fase embrionária que corresponde ao período das 8 semanas iniciais da gestação, seguido pela fase fetal. A fase embrionária é o período mais vulnerável à ocorrência de anormalidades congênitas. Por ser um órgão com grande período de desenvolvimento, o SNC está sujeito às alterações genéticas, epigenéticas e ambientais. Durante a fase de implantação do embrião, o DNA é mais vulnerável às influências externas, como à fumaça do cigarro, aumentando o risco de retardo do desenvolvimento fetal, o risco de morte súbita pós-natal e de anormalidades do sistema imune. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar os efeitos da exposição à fumaça do cigarro sobre o processo de neuroinflamação da prole de camundongos C57BL/6 expostos à fumaça do cigarro durante a gestação e desafiados ou não com LPS. Para tanto, camundongos C57BL/6 fêmeas prenhes foram expostas à fumaça do cigarro desde o plug vaginal até o nascimento da prole. No 3º dia de vida, os filhotes foram separados para três linhas de trabalho: 1) in vivo: os animais foram desafiados com LPS pelo período de 4h, seguidos de eutanasia e análises de PCR Array do SNC. 2) in vitro: os encéfalos dissecados foram utilizados para a preparação de cultura mista de glia e da cultura enriquecida com neurônio. Após a maturação celular, as células foram estimuladas com LPS 100 ng/mL e, após 24h, foram realizados ensaios de CBA, citometria de fluxo, PCR, dosagem de NO, avaliação de morte celular e metilação global. 3) Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental (EAE): após o desmame, os animais foram mantidos em suas caixas moradia por 8 semanas sem nenhum estímulo externo, e então foram imunizados com MOG35-55 para o desenvolvimento da EAE. Nos experimentos in vivo observamos o aumento da transcrição de genes relacionados ao processo inflamatório, como interleucinas e quimiocinas. Em relação aos experimentos in vitro observamos maior crescimento de células astrocitárias (astrogliose), e células da microglia com aumento de moléculas co-estimuladoras (CD80 e CD86) bem como da transcrição e concentração de citocinas pró-inflamatórias e produção de NO. Em cultura enriquecida de neurônio, foi observado aumento na porcentagem de células em apoptose no grupo exposto à fumaça do cigarro desafiados ou não com LPS. O bloqueio da atividade da microglia pela minociclina reverteu a apoptose e diminuiu a produção de NO minimizando a morte celular. Em relação aos experimentos de EAE, os animais expostos à fumaça do cigarro no período gestacional, quando imunizados na vida adulta apresentam aumento no grau da doença bem como maior persistência da mesma quando observado escore clínico, além de acompanhados de um grau maior de infiltrado celular e desmielinização. Desta forma podemos concluir que a exposição à fumaça do cigarro durante o período gestacional leva a uma programação fetal com aumento da resposta neuroinflamatória frente a um estimulo sistêmico, trazendo consequências na vida adulta


The human central nervous system (CNS) is made up of about 86.1 billion neurons between the brain and the spinal cord. The human prenatal development (time from conception to birth) is about 38 weeks, and is divided into the embryonic phase that corresponds to the period of the initial 8 weeks of gestation, followed by the fetal phase. The embryonic stage is the period most vulnerable to the occurrence of congenital abnormalities. Because it is an organ with a long period of development, the CNS is subject to genetic, epigenetic and environmental changes. During the embryo implantation phase, DNA is more vulnerable to external influences such as cigarette smoke, increasing the risk of delay on fetal development, risk of sudden postnatal death, and abnormalities of the immune system. In this context, the aim of this work is to evaluate the effects of exposure to cigarette smoke on the neuroinflammation process of offspring of C57BL/6 mice exposed to cigarette smoke during gestation and challenged or not with LPS. For this, pregnant female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to cigarette smoke from vaginal plug to offspring birth. On the 3rd day of life the offspring were separated into three lines of work: 1) in vivo: the animals were challenged with 1mg/Kg LPS and after 4h they followed to euthanasia; PCR analysis of the CNS was made in this period. 2) in vitro: dissected encephalons were used for the preparation of mixed culture of glia and the culture enriched with neuron. After cell maturation, the cells were stimulated with 100 ng/mL LPS and, after 24 hours, CBA, flow cytometry, PCR, NO assay, cell death and global methylation assays were performed. 3) Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE): After weaning, the animals were kept in their housing for 8 weeks without any external stimulus, and then were immunized with MOG35-55 for the development of EAE. In the in vivo experiments we observed increased transcription of genes related to the inflammatory process, such as interleukins and chemokines. In vitro experiments showed higher growth of astrocytes (astrogliosis) and microglia cells with increased stimulatory molecules (CD80 and CD86) as well as the transcription and concentration of proinflammatory cytokines and NO production. In the enriched neuron culture, an increase in the percentage of cells in apoptosis was observed in the group exposed to cigarette smoke challenged or not with LPS. Blocking microglial activity by minocycline reversed apoptosis and decreased NO production by minimizing cell death. The EAE experiments shows that the animals exposed to cigarette smoke in the gestational period, when immunized in adulthood, present an increase in the degree of the disease as well as a greater persistence of the disease; The higher as the clinical score higher is the degree of cellular infiltration and demyelination. In this way we can conclude that the exposure to cigarette smoke during the gestational period leads to a fetal programming with increased neuroinflammatory response to a systemic stimulus and that this is able to last until the adult stage


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental/complications , Prenatal Care/classification , Congenital Abnormalities , In Vitro Techniques , Central Nervous System
20.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1122275

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El tabaco es una de las principales causas de muertes prevenibles en el mundo. Los estudiantes, a pesar de tener un factor protector como lo es su formación académica continúan consumiendo el mismo. Objetivo general. Establecer la prevalencia de tabaquismo activo y pasivo entre los estudiantes de 6to año de la carrera de Medicina. Objetivo específico. Determinar la actitud frente al tabaquismo: grado de motivación, etapa de la adicción y el nivel de dependencia; definir tiempo de inicio del mismo en relación con la progresión en la carrera. Materiales y métodos. Estudio cuantitativo, observacional, descriptivo, de corte transversal del 01 de enero al 30 de abril del año 2019. Los datos se obtuvieron mediante una encuesta estructurada multiple-choice, anónima y auto-administrada. Resultados. Se analizaron 160 encuestas. La prevalencia de fumadores fue del 10%, y 15.6% de exfumadores. El 53.1% estaban expuestos al humo ambiental (fumadores pasivos). El consumo promedio es de 6 cigarrillos/día. El 43.75% de la población de fumadores comenzó antes del primer año de la carrera y sólo un 12.5% en años avanzados de la carrera. El 31.25% fumaban entre los 30 a 60 minutos luego de despertar, mientras que el resto lo hacía pasada la hora. 12.5% de los fumadores encontraba difícil no fumar en los lugares donde está prohibido. El 87.5% les gustaría dejar de fumar, un 62.5% tiene "bastante" y "mucho" interés en dejarlo y un 37.5% que tiene poco o ningún interés. Conclusiones. Los resultados de este estudio permitirán orientar a políticas de salud pública para el control del consumo de tabaco y al mismo tiempo servir para la evaluación de las mismas. Palabras claves. Estudiantes, medicina, tabaquismo, prevalencia, actitud


Summary Introduction. Tobacco is one of the leading causes of preventable deaths in the world. The students, despite having a protective factor, as is their academic education, continue to consume it. Overall objective. To establish the prevalence of active and passive smoking, among the 6th year students of the Medicine career. Specific objective. Determine the attitude towards smoking: degree of motivation, stage of addiction and the level of dependence; define start time of the same in relation to the progression in the race. Materials and methods. Quantitative, observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study from January 1 to April 30 of the year 2019. The data was obtained through a structured multiple-choice, anonymous and self-administered survey. Results. 160 surveys were analyzed. The prevalence of smokers was 10%, and 15.6% of ex-smokers. 53.1% were exposed to environmental smoke (passive smoking). The average consumption is 6 cigarettes / day. 43.75% of the smoking population began before the first year of the race and only 12.5% in advanced years of the race. The 31.25% smoked between 30 to 60 minutes after waking up, while the rest did it after the hour. 12.5% of smokers found it difficult not to smoke in places where it is prohibited. 87.5% would like to quit smoking, 62.5% have "enough" and "a lot" interest in quitting and 37.5% have little or no interest. Conclusions. The results of this study will allow orienting public health policies for the control of tobacco consumption and at the same time serve for the evaluation of them. Keywords. Students, medicine, smoking, prevalence, attitude


Resumo Introdução. O tabaco é uma das principais causas de mortes evitáveis no mundo. Os alunos, apesar de terem como fator de proteção a sua formação acadêmica, continuam a consomem-lo. Objetivo geral. Estabelecer a prevalência de tabagismo ativo e passivo entre os alunos do 6º ano da carreira de Medicina. Objetivo específico. Determinar a atitude em relação ao tabagismo: grau de motivação, estágio da dependência e nível de dependência; definir a hora de início do mesmo em relação à progressão na corrida. Materiais e métodos. Estudo quantitativo, observacional, descritivo, seção transversal de 1 janeiro - 30 abril 2019. Os dados foram obtidos através de uma pesquisa estruturada de múltipla escolha, anônimo e auto-administrado. Resultados. 160 inquéritos foram analisados. A prevalência de fumantes foi de 10% e de 15,6% dos ex-fumantes. 53,1% foram expostos ao fumo ambiental (tabagismo passivo). O consumo médio é de 6 cigarros / dia. 43,75% da população de fumantes começaram antes do primeiro ano da carreira e apenas 12,5% nos anos avançados. Os 31,25% fumaram entre 30 a 60 minutos após o despertar, enquanto o restante o fez após a hora. 12,5% dos fumantes acharam difíceis não fumar em locais proibidos. 87,5% gostariam de parar de fumar, 62,5% têm interesse "suficiente" e "muito" em sair e 37,5% que têm pouco ou nenhum interesse. Conclusões. Os resultados deste estudo vão orientar políticas públicas de saúde para controle do consumo de tabaco e, ao mesmo tempo, servem para a avaliação do mesmo. Palavras chaves. Estudantes, medicina, tabagismo, prevalência, atitud.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Students/statistics & numerical data , Tobacco Use Disorder , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tobacco Use , Smokers/statistics & numerical data , Non-Smokers/statistics & numerical data , Ex-Smokers
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