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1.
Rev. Fac. Odontol. Porto Alegre ; 61(2): 22-29, jul-dez. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1281072

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of active and passive smoking during pregnancy and its association with sociodemographic indicators, as well as perinatal and postnatal outcomes in newborns. Methods: This cross-sectional study was comprised of 431 pairs of mothers/ newborns. The study variables were: preterm birth, birth weight, oral mucosal lesions, sociodemographic indicators and smoking data. We collected data from medical records and through a self-administered questionnaire answered by mothers. A pediatric dentist examined the newborns for oral mucosal lesions. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between active and passive smoking and the other variables (α=5%). Results: The prevalence of active (9.5%) and passive smoking (4.2%) during pregnancy was low. Active smoking was statistically associated with low birth weight (OR: 2.4; 95%CI:1.1-5.3), lower schooling level (OR: 0.2; 95%CI:0.1-0.5) and mothers aged ≥36 years old (OR: 4.9; 95%CI:1.2-20.0). Passive smoking was not statistically associated with the other variables. There was no association between active or passive smoking during pregnancy and premature birth and oral lesions of the newborn. Conclusions: The prevalence of active and passive smoking were low. Active smoking was associated with low birth weight, maternal age and mother's schooling, suggesting a social influence of smoking behavior among a population with a lower educational level. There was no association between active and passive smoking and prematurity and oral lesions of the newborn. (AU)


Objetivo: O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a prevalência de tabagismo ativo e passivo durante a gestação e a associação entre indicadores sociodemográficos, bem como desfechos pré e pós-parto em recém-nascidos. Metodologia: Este estudo transversal foi composto por 431 pares de mães/recém-nascidos. As variáveis estudadas foram: nascimento prematuro, peso ao nascer, lesões mucosas orais, indicadores sociodemográficos e dados sobre tabagismo. Coletamos dados por meio de prontuários e por questionário auto-aplicado respondido pelas mães. Um dentista pediátrico examinou os recém-nascidos para lesões mucosas orais. A regressão logística foi utilizada para a análise bivariada e multivariada dos dados (α=5%). Resultados: Prevalência de tabagismo ativo (9,5%) e tabagismo passivo (4,2%) durante a gravidez foi baixo. O tabagismo ativo foi estatisticamente associado ao baixo peso ao nascer (OR: 2,4; 95%CI:1,1-5,3), às mães com menor escolaridade (OR: 0,2; 95%CI:0,1-0,5), e mães com idade ≥36 anos (OR: 4,9; 95%CI:1,2-20,0); enquanto o tabagismo passivo não esteve estatisticamente associado a nenhuma variável. Não houve associação entre tabagismo durante a gestação com nascimento prematuro e lesões orais de recém-nascidos. Conclusões: As prevalências de tabagismos passivo e ativo foram baixas. O tabagismo ativo esteve associado ao baixo peso ao nascer, à idade materna e à escolaridade da mãe, sugerindo influência social do comportamento do tabagismo entre a população com menor escolaridade. Não houve associação entre tabagismo ativo e passivo com prematuridade e lesões de mucosa oral em recém-nascido. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Tobacco Smoking/adverse effects , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Socioeconomic Factors , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Premature Birth , Mouth Mucosa
3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(2): 295-303, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088850

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Cigarette smoking is usually associated with hypertension and may modify vasoconstrictor response. Objective: The present study aimed to analyze and compare the interaction of passive cigarette smoking and hypertension on epinephrine and felypressin blood pressure effects after intravascular injection. Method: 45-day male Wistar rats had the main left renal artery partially constricted and the right kidney removed (1K1C model). Rats were placed in the chamber for exposition to passive cigarette smoking (10 cigarettes) during 10 min (6 days a week). Hypertensive rats received atenolol (90 mg/kg/day) by gavage for two weeks. Hypotensive and hypertensive response, response duration and heart rate were recorded from direct blood pressure values. The significance level was 5%. Results: Passive cigarette smoking increased maximal hypertensive response to epinephrine in normotensive and 1K1C-atenolol treated rats and to felypressin only in 1K1C-atenolol treated rats; it also reduced epinephrine hypotensive response. Epinephrine increased heart rate in normotensive and hypertensive passive smokers or non-smoker rats. Comparing the two vasoconstrictors, epinephrine showed greater hypertensive response in normotensive smokers, 1K1C-atenolol treated smokers and non-smokers. However, in normotensive-nonsmoker rats, felypressin showed a greater and longer hypertensive effect. Conclusions: Our results suggest that passive cigarette smoking may reduce epinephrine vasodilation and increase hypertensive response when compared to felypressin. Therefore, felypressin may be safe for hypertensive patients to avoid tachycardia and atenolol interaction, but for normotensive and non-smoker patients, epinephrine may be safer than felypressin.


Resumo Fundamento: O tabagismo geralmente está associado à hipertensão e pode modificar a resposta vasoconstritora. Objetivo: O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar e comparar a interação do tabagismo passivo e hipertensão sobre os efeitos da epinefrina e felipressina na pressão arterial após injeção intravascular. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos de 45 dias tiveram a artéria renal principal esquerda parcialmente obstruída e o rim direito removido (modelo 1K1C). Os ratos foram colocados na câmara para exposição ao tabagismo passivo (10 cigarros) durante 10 minutos (6 dias por semana). Ratos hipertensos receberam atenolol (90 mg/kg/dia) por gavagem durante duas semanas. A resposta hipotensora e hipertensiva, a duração da resposta e a frequência cardíaca foram registradas a partir da medida dos valores diretos da pressão arterial. O nível de significância foi de 5%. Resultados: O tabagismo passivo aumentou a resposta hipertensiva máxima à epinefrina em ratos normotensos e ratos 1K1C tratados com atenolol e à felipressina apenas em ratos 1K1C tratados com atenolol; também reduziu a resposta hipotensiva à epinefrina. A epinefrina aumentou a frequência cardíaca em ratos fumantes passivos ou não-fumantes, normotensos e hipertensos. Comparando os dois vasoconstritores, a epinefrina apresentou maior resposta hipertensiva em fumantes normotensos, ratos 1K1C fumantes e não fumantes tratados com atenolol. No entanto, em ratos normotensos e não fumantes, a felipressina apresentou um efeito hipertensivo maior e mais prolongado. Conclusões: Nossos resultados sugerem que o tabagismo passivo pode reduzir a vasodilatação da epinefrina e aumentar a resposta hipertensiva quando comparado à felipressina. Portanto, a felipressina pode ser segura para pacientes hipertensos, com o objetivo de evitar a interação entre taquicardia e atenolol, mas para pacientes normotensos e não-fumantes, a epinefrina pode ser mais segura que a felipressina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Atenolol/pharmacology , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Epinephrine/pharmacology , Felypressin/pharmacology , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Time Factors , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Vasodilation/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Interactions , Heart Rate/drug effects , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypotension
4.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(8): 3013-3024, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011867

ABSTRACT

Resumo O Brasil foi um dos primeiros países do mundo a proibir os Dispositivos Eletrônicos de Fumar (DEFs), tal proibição foi motivada pela inexistência de evidências relativas às alegadas propriedades terapêuticas e da inocuidade destes produtos. Por conta de tal proibição, A Anvisa foi criticada, especialmente de grupos de usuários. Estes grupos argumentam que tal ação proibiu um produto que auxiliaria a cessação ao tabagismo e seria menos tóxico que os cigarros comuns. Assim sendo, surge o questionamento se esta decisão foi acertada ou não. Os dados disponíveis mostram que os DEFs possuem formulações diversas e algumas substâncias tóxicas são liberadas durante sua utilização em níveis significativos. Estudos em animais e em humanos demonstraram potencial efeito tóxico. Os DEFs também demostraram que podem afetar a saúde de fumantes passivos. Quanto a seu uso como ferramenta de cessação, os estudos ainda não são conclusivos. Observou-se também um alto grau de uso entre adolescentes em países que seu uso foi autorizado. Desta forma o Brasil ao proibir estes produtos, impediu que a população consumisse um produto sem comprovação que auxiliasse no tratamento do tabagismo, com indícios de significativa toxidade e altamente atrativo aos jovens.


Abstract Brazil was one of the first countries in the world to ban Electronic Smoking Devices (ESDs). This ban was motivated by the lack of evidence regarding the alleged therapeutic properties and harmlessness of these products. Anvisa was criticized for this move, especially by electronic cigarette's users groups. These groups argue that prohibition prevented people's access to a product that would aid smoking cessation and be less toxic than ordinary cigarettes. Thus, the question arises as to whether this decision was successful. Available data show that ESDs have diverse formulations and some toxic substances are released at significant levels during use. Studies in animals and humans have shown a potential toxic effect, also affecting the health of passive smokers. Studies are still inconclusive regarding its use as a cessation tool. A high level of use among adolescents was observed in countries whose use was authorized. Thus, Brazil's ban prevented the population from consuming a product that has not been proven effective toward smoking cessation, with indications of significant toxicity and highly attractive to young people.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Adolescent , Smoking Cessation/methods , Smoke-Free Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Vaping/legislation & jurisprudence , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/prevention & control , Brazil , Vaping/adverse effects , Vaping/prevention & control
6.
Fisioter. Pesqui. (Online) ; 26(2): 164-169, abr.-jun. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012148

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Nicotine delays the healing process and increases the levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), an enzyme that plays a key role in the production of reactive oxygen species during the inflammatory process. Laser Photobiomodulation (PBM) is one of the most used electrophysical agents in the treatment of the calcaneal tendon, however, its effects on MPO activity need to be further elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of laser PBM on MPO activity after inflicting an injury to the calcaneal tendon of rats exposed to cigarette smoke. Thirty-four male Wistar rats with 90 days of age were used. After 14 days of exposure to cigarette smoke, the animals were divided into three experimental groups: control group (CG, n=12), not submitted to injury or treatment; sham group (ShG, n=10), submitted to partial calcaneal tendon injury and laser PBM simulation; and laser PBM group (PBMG, n=12), submitted to partial calcaneal tendon lesion and treated with laser PBM within the first minute after injury. PBM decreased MPO activity levels in PBMG compared to ShG (CG: 1.38±0.69pg/ml; ShG: 3.78±1.09pg/ml; PBMG: 2.58±0.93pg/ml; p<0.005). In conclusion, applying laser PBM immediately after inflicting damage to the calcaneal tendon attenuates acute inflammatory activity in rats exposed to cigarette smoke.


RESUMO A nicotina retarda o processo de cicatrização e eleva os níveis da enzima mieloperoxidase (MPO), a qual possui um papel fundamental na produção de espécies reativas de oxigênio durante o processo inflamatório. A fotobiomodulação laser (FBM) é um dos agentes eletrofísicos mais utilizados no tratamento do tendão calcâneo, no entanto, os seus efeitos sobre a atividade da MPO carecem de maior elucidação. Este estudo objetivou avaliar os efeitos da FBM sobre a atividade da MPO, após lesão do tendão calcâneo em ratos expostos à fumaça de cigarro. Foram utilizados 34 ratos Wistar, machos, com 90 dias de vida. Após 14 dias de exposição à fumaça de cigarro, os animais foram divididos em três grupos experimentais: grupo controle (GC, n=12), não submetido à lesão ou tratamento; grupo sham (GSh, n=10), submetido à lesão parcial do tendão calcâneo e a simulação da FBM laser; grupo FBM laser (GFBM, n=12), submetido à lesão parcial do tendão calcâneo e tratados com FBM laser, no primeiro minuto após a lesão. A FBM diminuiu os níveis de atividade da MPO no GFBM em comparação ao GSh (GC: 1,38±0,69 pg/ml; GSh: 3,78±1,09pg/ml; GFBM: 2,58±0,93pg/ml; p<0,005). Conclui-se que a FBM laser aplicada imediatamente após lesão do tendão calcâneo, atenua a atividade inflamatória aguda em ratos expostos à fumaça de cigarro.


RESUMEN La nicotina retarda el proceso de cicatrización y eleva los niveles de la enzima mieloperoxidasa (MPO), que tiene un papel fundamental en la producción de especies reactivas de oxígeno durante el proceso inflamatorio. La fotobiomodulación con láser (FBM) es uno de los agentes electrofísicos más utilizados en el tratamiento del tendón calcáneo, sin embargo sus efectos sobre la actividad de la MPO carecen de mayor elucidación. Este estudio objetivó evaluar los efectos de la FBM sobre la actividad de la MPO después de lesión del tendón calcáneo en ratones expuestos al humo de cigarrillo. Se utilizaron 34 ratones Wistar, machos, con 90 días de vida. Después de 14 días de exposición al humo de cigarrillo, los animales fueron divididos en tres grupos experimentales: grupo de control (GC, n=12), no sometido a la lesión o tratamiento; grupo sham (GSh, n=10), sometido a la lesión parcial del tendón calcáneo y a la simulación de la FBM láser; y el grupo FBM láser (GFBM, n=12), sometido a la lesión parcial del tendón calcáneo y tratado con FBM láser, en el primer minuto después de la lesión. La FBM disminuyó los niveles de actividad de MPO en el GFBM en comparación con el GSh (GC: 1,38±0,69 pg/ml; GSh: 3,78±1,09pg/ml; GFBM: 2,58±0,93pg/ml, p<0,005). Se concluye que la FBM láser aplicada inmediatamente después de la lesión del tendón calcáneo atenúa la actividad inflamatoria aguda en ratones expuestos al humo de cigarrillo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Achilles Tendon/physiopathology , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Low-Level Light Therapy , Tendinopathy/therapy , Wound Healing/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Models, Animal , Inflammation/physiopathology , Nicotine/adverse effects
7.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 150 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007562

ABSTRACT

O Sistema Nervoso Central (SNC) humano é formado por cerca de 86,1 bilhões de neurônios entre o encéfalo e a medula espinhal. O desenvolvimento pré-natal humano (tempo da concepção ao nascimento) possui cerca de 38 semanas, e é dividido na fase embrionária que corresponde ao período das 8 semanas iniciais da gestação, seguido pela fase fetal. A fase embrionária é o período mais vulnerável à ocorrência de anormalidades congênitas. Por ser um órgão com grande período de desenvolvimento, o SNC está sujeito às alterações genéticas, epigenéticas e ambientais. Durante a fase de implantação do embrião, o DNA é mais vulnerável às influências externas, como à fumaça do cigarro, aumentando o risco de retardo do desenvolvimento fetal, o risco de morte súbita pós-natal e de anormalidades do sistema imune. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar os efeitos da exposição à fumaça do cigarro sobre o processo de neuroinflamação da prole de camundongos C57BL/6 expostos à fumaça do cigarro durante a gestação e desafiados ou não com LPS. Para tanto, camundongos C57BL/6 fêmeas prenhes foram expostas à fumaça do cigarro desde o plug vaginal até o nascimento da prole. No 3º dia de vida, os filhotes foram separados para três linhas de trabalho: 1) in vivo: os animais foram desafiados com LPS pelo período de 4h, seguidos de eutanasia e análises de PCR Array do SNC. 2) in vitro: os encéfalos dissecados foram utilizados para a preparação de cultura mista de glia e da cultura enriquecida com neurônio. Após a maturação celular, as células foram estimuladas com LPS 100 ng/mL e, após 24h, foram realizados ensaios de CBA, citometria de fluxo, PCR, dosagem de NO, avaliação de morte celular e metilação global. 3) Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental (EAE): após o desmame, os animais foram mantidos em suas caixas moradia por 8 semanas sem nenhum estímulo externo, e então foram imunizados com MOG35-55 para o desenvolvimento da EAE. Nos experimentos in vivo observamos o aumento da transcrição de genes relacionados ao processo inflamatório, como interleucinas e quimiocinas. Em relação aos experimentos in vitro observamos maior crescimento de células astrocitárias (astrogliose), e células da microglia com aumento de moléculas co-estimuladoras (CD80 e CD86) bem como da transcrição e concentração de citocinas pró-inflamatórias e produção de NO. Em cultura enriquecida de neurônio, foi observado aumento na porcentagem de células em apoptose no grupo exposto à fumaça do cigarro desafiados ou não com LPS. O bloqueio da atividade da microglia pela minociclina reverteu a apoptose e diminuiu a produção de NO minimizando a morte celular. Em relação aos experimentos de EAE, os animais expostos à fumaça do cigarro no período gestacional, quando imunizados na vida adulta apresentam aumento no grau da doença bem como maior persistência da mesma quando observado escore clínico, além de acompanhados de um grau maior de infiltrado celular e desmielinização. Desta forma podemos concluir que a exposição à fumaça do cigarro durante o período gestacional leva a uma programação fetal com aumento da resposta neuroinflamatória frente a um estimulo sistêmico, trazendo consequências na vida adulta


The human central nervous system (CNS) is made up of about 86.1 billion neurons between the brain and the spinal cord. The human prenatal development (time from conception to birth) is about 38 weeks, and is divided into the embryonic phase that corresponds to the period of the initial 8 weeks of gestation, followed by the fetal phase. The embryonic stage is the period most vulnerable to the occurrence of congenital abnormalities. Because it is an organ with a long period of development, the CNS is subject to genetic, epigenetic and environmental changes. During the embryo implantation phase, DNA is more vulnerable to external influences such as cigarette smoke, increasing the risk of delay on fetal development, risk of sudden postnatal death, and abnormalities of the immune system. In this context, the aim of this work is to evaluate the effects of exposure to cigarette smoke on the neuroinflammation process of offspring of C57BL/6 mice exposed to cigarette smoke during gestation and challenged or not with LPS. For this, pregnant female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to cigarette smoke from vaginal plug to offspring birth. On the 3rd day of life the offspring were separated into three lines of work: 1) in vivo: the animals were challenged with 1mg/Kg LPS and after 4h they followed to euthanasia; PCR analysis of the CNS was made in this period. 2) in vitro: dissected encephalons were used for the preparation of mixed culture of glia and the culture enriched with neuron. After cell maturation, the cells were stimulated with 100 ng/mL LPS and, after 24 hours, CBA, flow cytometry, PCR, NO assay, cell death and global methylation assays were performed. 3) Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE): After weaning, the animals were kept in their housing for 8 weeks without any external stimulus, and then were immunized with MOG35-55 for the development of EAE. In the in vivo experiments we observed increased transcription of genes related to the inflammatory process, such as interleukins and chemokines. In vitro experiments showed higher growth of astrocytes (astrogliosis) and microglia cells with increased stimulatory molecules (CD80 and CD86) as well as the transcription and concentration of proinflammatory cytokines and NO production. In the enriched neuron culture, an increase in the percentage of cells in apoptosis was observed in the group exposed to cigarette smoke challenged or not with LPS. Blocking microglial activity by minocycline reversed apoptosis and decreased NO production by minimizing cell death. The EAE experiments shows that the animals exposed to cigarette smoke in the gestational period, when immunized in adulthood, present an increase in the degree of the disease as well as a greater persistence of the disease; The higher as the clinical score higher is the degree of cellular infiltration and demyelination. In this way we can conclude that the exposure to cigarette smoke during the gestational period leads to a fetal programming with increased neuroinflammatory response to a systemic stimulus and that this is able to last until the adult stage


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental/complications , Prenatal Care/classification , Congenital Abnormalities , In Vitro Techniques , Central Nervous System
8.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 13(2): 67-69, mar. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-947285

ABSTRACT

Chile has the highest prevalence of tobacco use among adolescents in the Americas, and girls between the ages of 13 and 15 are the heaviest smokers worldwide. Smoking in adolescents produces addiction to nicotine, damage to the cardiopulmonary system, and is also a gateway to the use of illicit drugs. In the United States, electronic cigarettes are more frequently used by young people than conventional cigarettes, since they are believed to be less harmful to health; however, it is known that these devices produce combustion and deliver nicotine by inhalation, leading then to traditional cigarette smoking and exposure to carcinogenic substances. Due to this, tobacco control efforts must be made for: public policies (tobacco tax increases, mass advertising campaigns, smoke-free environments, restriction of advertising), early register and timely treatment of adolescents who have initiated tobacco consumption through the ABC-D intervention, as it appears in the First Clinical Practice Guidelines for Smoking Treatment, Chile 2017. In order to achieve this, it is necessary that health professionals receive training. Regarding secondhand smoke, pediatricians must refer parents to smoking cessation, which that may be done by telephone (6003607777, Salud Responde Program, MINSAL; this number appears on cigarette packets).


Chile tiene la mayor prevalencia de consumo de tabaco en adolescentes de la región de las américas, y las niñas de 13 a 15 años son las que más fuman a nivel mundial. El tabaquismo en adolescentes produce adicción a la nicotina, daño en el aparato cardiorrespiratorio, siendo además puerta de entrada para el uso de drogas ilícitas. En Estados Unidos, los cigarrillos electrónicos son más frecuentemente utilizados por los jóvenes que el cigarrillo convencional, creyendo que son menos dañinos para la salud, sin embargo, se sabe que estos dispositivos producen combustión y entregan nicotina por vía inhalada por lo que su uso lleva al consumo de cigarrillo tradicional y la exposición a sustancias cancerígenas. Por todo lo anterior, los esfuerzos del control del tabaco deben estar puestos: en políticas públicas (aumento del impuesto al tabaco, campañas publicitarias masivas, ambientes cerrados libres de humo, restricción de la publicidad ), la pesquisa precoz y tratamiento oportuno del adolescente que ya se ha iniciado en el consumo de tabaco a través del ABC-D tal como aparece en las Primeras Guías de Práctica Clínica de Tratamiento del Tabaquismo, Chile , 2017 para esto se necesita que los profesionales de salud reciban entrenamiento . Respecto al humo de segunda mano los pediatras deben derivar a los padres a cesación del tabaco que puede ser telefónica (6003607777, Salud Responde MINSAL, este número aparece en las cajetillas de cigarrillos)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Tobacco Use Disorder/therapy , Tobacco Use Cessation , Adolescent Health , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Counseling
9.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 13(2): 70-71, mar. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-947304

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is the first cause of death in Chilean cancer patients. Globally it accounts for more than 8 million annual deaths. Of the new cases of cancer, more than 6 million are smoking related, making smoking the most important cancer risk factor and the cause of about 20 % of the global cancer-related mortality. The incidence of lung cancer is directly associated with smoking exposure levels during life, exposure that increases the risk of this disease up to 30 times. This risk decreases exponentially with smoking cessation, especially if it occurs in early life stages. In Chile, 85 % of lung cancers in men and 40 % in women may be explained by smoking, equivalent to 1926 per year. Brief counseling is recommended according to the Clinical Guidelines for the Treatment of Smoking in Chile 2017, and if that is not possible, all smokers with cancer should be referred to smoking cessation therapy, which may be done by telephone (6003607777, Salud Responde Program, MINSAL; the number is on cigarette packets).


El cáncer de pulmón constituye la primera causa de muerte por cáncer en Chile. A nivel mundial da cuenta de más de 8 millones de fallecimientos anuales, de los nuevos casos de cáncer, más de 6 millones están relacionados con tabaco, constituyendo el tabaquismo un importante factor de riesgo y causa directa de cerca del 20% de la mortalidad global asociada a cáncer. La incidencia de cáncer de pulmón está directamente relacionada el nivel de exposición a tabaquismo durante la vida, la exposición puede aumentar el riesgo de esta enfermedad hasta 30 veces. El riesgo disminuye exponencialmente con la cesación de esta adicción, especialmente si ocurre en etapas tempranas de la vida. En Chile el 85% de los cánceres de pulmón en hombres y el 40% en mujeres estarían explicados por tabaquismo, equivalentes a 1926 anuales, siendo la recomendación realizar consejería breve según las Guías Clínicas de Tratamiento del Tabaquismo Chile 2017 y si no es posible derivar a todos los fumadores con cáncer a terapia de cesación del tabaquismo que puede ser telefónica Salud Responde MINSAL 6003607777, el numero está en las cajetillas de cigarrillos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tobacco Use Disorder/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Chile/epidemiology , Global Health
10.
J. bras. pneumol ; 44(1): 12-17, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893887

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate risk factors associated with asthma symptoms in adolescents in the 13- to 14-year age bracket. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving adolescents enrolled in randomly selected public schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, and conducted with the use of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire and its supplementary module for risk factor assessment. The ISAAC questionnaire was completed by the students themselves, whereas the supplementary questionnaire was completed by their parents or legal guardians. Variables showing p ≤ 0.25 in the univariate analysis were included in the multivariate analysis. Stepwise regression with backward elimination was used for variable selection. Results: We evaluated 375 adolescents, 124 (33.1%) of whom had asthma symptoms. The final multivariate analysis model revealed that asthma symptoms were associated with birth weight < 2,500 g (p < 0.001), day care center or nursery attendance (p < 0.002), maternal history of asthma (p < 0.001), contact with animals during the first year of life (p < 0.027), current contact with animals outside the home (dogs, cats, or farm animals; p < 0.005), and more than 20 cigarettes per day smoked by parents or other household members (p < 0.02). Conclusions: Exposure to animals in and outside the home is associated with asthma symptoms, as is environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Families, health professionals, and administrators of health care facilities should take that into account in order to prevent asthma and reduce asthma morbidity.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar os fatores de risco associados aos sintomas relacionados à asma em adolescentes de 13 e 14 anos. Métodos: Estudo transversal realizado com alunos matriculados em escolas públicas de Belo Horizonte (MG), selecionadas aleatoriamente, com a utilização dos questionários International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood e de seu módulo complementar para a avaliação dos potenciais fatores de risco. O primeiro questionário foi respondido pelos alunos, e o segundo foi respondido pelos pais e/ou responsáveis. Após a análise univariada, todas as variáveis cujo valor de p foi igual ou inferior a 0,25 foram submetidas à análise multivariada. A seleção das variáveis foi realizada pelo método passo a passo com eliminação retrógrada de variáveis. Resultados: Foram avaliados 375 adolescentes, dos quais 124 (33,1%) apresentavam sintomas de asma. O modelo final da análise multivariada revelou que sintomas de asma estiveram associados a peso ao nascimento < 2.500 g (p < 0,001), frequência a creches ou berçários (p < 0,002), história materna de asma (p < 0,001), contato com animais durante o primeiro ano de vida (p < 0,027), contato atual com animais fora da residência (cão, gato ou outros animais em fazenda; p < 0,005) e consumo de mais que 20 cigarros por dia por residentes no mesmo domicílio que o adolescente (p < 0,02). Conclusões: As exposições intra e extradomiciliar a animais domésticos e ao tabaco estiveram associadas à presença de sintomas de asma. Esses resultados devem ser considerados tanto pelos familiares como pelos profissionais e gestores dos serviços de saúde na prevenção da asma e na redução do seu impacto na morbidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Asthma/etiology , Asthma/physiopathology , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Logistic Models , Respiratory Sounds/etiology , Respiratory Sounds/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Environmental Exposure , Hypersensitivity/etiology , Hypersensitivity/physiopathology
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(6): 6982, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889095

ABSTRACT

Maternal smoking is a risk factor for progeny obesity. We have previously shown, in a rat model of neonatal tobacco smoke exposure, a mild increase in food intake and a considerable increase in visceral adiposity in the adult offspring. Males also had secondary hyperthyroidism, while females had only higher T4. Since brown adipose tissue (BAT) hypofunction is related to obesity, here we tested the hypothesis that higher levels of thyroid hormones are not functional in BAT, suggesting a lower metabolic rate. We evaluated autonomic nerve activity in BAT and its function in adult rats that were exposed to tobacco smoke during lactation. At birth, litters were adjusted to 3 male and 3 female pups/litter. From postnatal day (PND) 3 to 21, Wistar lactating rats and their pups were divided into SE group, smoke-exposed in a cigarette smoking machine (4 times/day) and C group, exposed to filtered air. Offspring were sacrificed at PND180. Adult SE rats of both genders had lower interscapular BAT autonomic nervous system activity, with higher BAT mass but no change in morphology. BAT UCP1 and CPT1a protein levels were decreased in the SE groups of both genders. Male SE rats had lower β3-AR, TRα1, and TRβ1 expression while females showed lower PGC1α expression. BAT Dio2 mRNA and hypothalamic POMC and MC4R levels were similar between groups. Hypothalamic pAMPK level was higher in SE males and lower in SE females. Thus, neonatal cigarette smoke exposure induces lower BAT thermogenic capacity, which can be obesogenic at adulthood.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Adipose Tissue, Brown/physiopathology , Biomarkers/analysis , Sympathetic Nervous System/physiopathology , Thermogenesis/physiology , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Adipose Tissue, Brown/metabolism , Animals, Newborn , Blotting, Western , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/analysis
13.
Clinics ; 72(12): 785-789, Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-890700

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of secondhand cigarette smoke exposure on longitudinal growth of the tibia of growing rats and some parameters of bone quality. METHODS: Forty female rats were randomly divided into four groups: control: rats were sham exposed; 30 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 30 days; 45 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 45 days; and 60 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 60 days. Blood samples were collected to evaluate the levels of cotinine and alkaline phosphatase. Both tibias were dissected and weighed; the lengths were measured, and the bones were then stored in a freezer for analysis of bone mineral content and mechanical resistance (maximal load and stiffness). RESULTS: Exposure of rats to tobacco smoke significantly compromised bone health, suggesting that the harmful effects may be time dependent. Harmful effects on bone growth were detected and were more pronounced at 60-day follow-ups with a 41.8% reduction in alkaline phosphatase levels (p<0.01) and a decrease of 11.25% in tibia length (p<0.001). Furthermore, a 41.5% decrease in bone mineral density was observed (p<0.001), leading to a 42.8% reduction in maximum strength (p<0.001) and a 56.7% reduction in stiffness (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Second hand cigarette smoke exposure in rats affected bones that were weaker, deforming them and making them osteopenic. Additionally, the long bone was shorter, suggesting interference with growth. Such events seem to be related to time of exposure.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Tibia/growth & development , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Bone Density , Inhalation Exposure/adverse effects , Cotinine/blood , Tibia/physiopathology , Bone Remodeling , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood
14.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 33(4): 284-292, dic. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899698

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de esta comunicación fue evaluar el perfil epidemiológico de los pacientes con Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica (EPOC) de la Región del Maule. Para ello, se contó con 127 pacientes EPOC clínicamente estables derivados por parte del neumólogo o que fueron atendidos en el centro de diagnóstico terapéutico del Hospital Regional de Talca durante el año 2016. Los pacientes fueron sometidos a una serie de pruebas de función pulmonar y debieron contestar un cuestionario para conocer antecedentes clínicos y epidemiológicos. Tras el estudio, fueron clasificados de acuerdo al criterio GOLD que integra medidas de síntomas, disnea, espirometría y riesgo de exacerbaciones. El 56% de los pacientes fueron varones y el promedio de edad en ambos sexos fue de 71,4 años (IC 95% 67,89-71,28). Un 27% tuvieron un nivel de escolarización ≤ 4 años. El 25% fueron clasificados como GOLD A, el 33% B, el 9% C y el 33% D. El 61% de los pacientes presentaron una exposición significativa simultánea a humo de cigarrillo y humo de biomasa. Los pacientes EPOC de la Región del Maule son fundamentalmente varones, adultos mayores y, frecuentemente, con bajo nivel de escolaridad. Los principales factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de la enfermedad en esta cohorte fueron la exposición simultánea a humo de tabaco y de combustibles de biomasa. La mayoría de los pacientes se encuentran en los estadios más leves de la enfermedad. Nuestros hallazgos identificaron las principales áreas que deben ser intervenidas para mejorar el manejo de la EPOC en la Región del Maule.


This study aimed to assess the epidemiological profile of subjects from the Maule Region (Chile) suffering from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). We recruited 127 stable-COPD patients who were attended by a pulmonologist or treated at Hospital Regional de Talca during 2016. All patients underwent lung functional tests and answered a standardized questionnaire to obtain clinical and epidemiological data. Patients were classified according to the GOLD combined COPD assessment criteria, which included symptomatic assessment with the patient's spirometric classification and risk of exacerbations. GOLD A, B, C and D categories consisted of 25%, 33%, 9% and 33% of patients respectively. The mean age was 71.4 years (CI 95% 64.7-73.7) and 56% of the patients were male. A 27% of subjects completed 4 or less years of schooling. 61% of patients showed a significant combined exposure to both cigarette and biomass smoke. COPD patients from the Maule Region are mostly elderly male, often showing a low educational level. The main COPD risk factor in this cohort was the simultaneous exposure to cigarette and biomass smoke. Most patients are in the milder stages of COPD. Our findings identified the main areas that can be intervened to improve COPD management in the Maule Region.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Severity of Illness Index , Comorbidity , Chile/epidemiology , Prevalence , Statistical Analysis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy
15.
Buenos Aires; GCBA. Gerencia Operativa de Epidemiología; 3 nov. 2017. a) f: 15 l:25 p. graf.(Boletín Epidemiológico Semanal: Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, 2, 63).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1103862

ABSTRACT

Investigación que sigue los hallazgos de un estudio previo realizado entre junio de 2005 y junio de 2006, sobre el humo ambiental de tabaco y sus efectos en las madres y sus hijos, donde se encuestaron 100 madres de niños que se atendieron en el Hospital Zubizarreta. de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires. La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo determinar cuál es la situación actual de las familias que asisten al mismo hospital, en relación a la exposición al tabaco y si hay algún cambio en la distribución de fumadores en los hogares de los pacientes, o si se expone menos a los niños fumando fuera de las viviendas en las familias de fumadores. Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico descriptivo transversal para el que se confeccionó una encuesta semiestructurada anónima que se les realizó a las madres de niños/as entre 4 meses y 12 años de edad que concurrieron al hospital. La misma fue administrada por médicos del Consultorio Externo de Pediatría y una voluntaria que concurrió por 1 mes para efectuarla. El estudio se llevó a cabo entre julio de 2016 y julio de 2017, y se trabajó sobre las variables socio demográficas incluidas en el Índice de Graffar modificado, como tipo de vivienda, trabajo, escolaridad entre otros. A su vez se incluyen datos de salud, sobre antecedentes obstétricos de la madre y de procesos de enfermedad de los/as hijos/as y del consumo o no de tabaco, entre otras variables


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adult , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/analysis , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/prevention & control , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Tobacco Use Disorder/diagnosis , Tobacco Use Disorder/ethnology , Tobacco Use Disorder/epidemiology , Child Health/trends , Child Health/statistics & numerical data , Health Surveys , Smokers/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Municipal
16.
Rev. eletrônica enferm ; 19: 1-11, Jan.Dez.2017. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-912830

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se investigar os fatores de riscos biológicos e ambientais de crianças expostas ou não à poluição tabágica ambiental (PTA). Estudo transversal, realizado com 670 crianças, de ambos os sexos, de oito a 12 anos em escolas de Anápolis (GO), com análise de questionário adaptado direcionado aos pais/responsáveis. Os pais do grupo de crianças não expostas à PTA (NEPTA) apresentaram maior escolaridade. O grupo de crianças expostas à PTA (EPTA) teve maior histórico de doença respiratória. O EPTA reside com um tabagista, comumente o pai, que fumam até 20 cigarros diários. O EPTA morava em residências com menos janelas, menor circulação de ar e maior registro de mofo. O EPTA apresenta mais doenças respiratórias e condições socioeconômicas desfavoráveis. Portanto, a exposição e o ambiente que vivem necessitam de maior cuidado. Profissionais de saúde e educadores devem promover a proteção, educação e estimular o abandono do tabagismo parental.


We aimed to investigate the biological and environmental risk facotrs of children exposed or not to environmental tobacco pollution (ETP). A cross-sectional study with 670 children of both sexes, aged between eight and 12 years, from schools located in Anápolis (GO). We used an adapted questionnaire directed to parents/guardians. The parents of children of the non-exposed to ETP group (NETP) were more educated. The group of children exposed to ETP (EETP) had a higher history of respiratory disease. The EETP resides with a smoker, commonly fathers, who smoke up to 20 cigarretes a day. The EETP lived in houses with fewer windows, less air circulation and more registries of mold. The EETP presents more respiratory diseases and unfavourable socioeconomic conditions. Therefore, there is a need for more care for the exposure and the environment where they live. Health professionals and educators should promote protection, education and stimulate the abandonment of parent smoking.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Tobacco Use Disorder/etiology , Child Development , Risk Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies
17.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 83(4): 420-425, July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889288

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: In teenagers with perennial allergic rhinitis, exposure to tobacco cigarette smoke increases the count of eosinophils in the nasal mucosa; the recruitment of eosinophils arises from the combined action of a number of cellular and molecular signals, including eotaxin. Objective: To assess the effect of exposure to tobacco cigarette smoke on the count of immunoreactive cells to eotaxin-1 and eosinophils on the nasal mucosa of children and teenagers with perennial allergic rhinitis. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, forty-four patients were evaluated (aged 7-19 years old): 22 with and 22 with no exposure to tobacco cigarette smoke. After replying to 2 validated questionnaires, on Asthma and Allergies in Childhood and on the severity of nasal symptoms, nasal mucosal samples were obtained by scraping the middle one-third of the inferior turbinates. Then counts of immunoreactive cells to eotaxin-1 and eosinophils were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results: Patients with exposure to tobacco cigarette smoke showed higher cell counts of both eotaxin-1 and eosinophils than patients with no exposure to the smoke, with no correlation between the two variables. However, both counts, of eotaxin-1 and eosinophils, were related to the cotinine/creatinine ratio. Conclusions: Exposure to tobacco cigarette smoke can increase eotaxin-1 and the count of eosinophils in the nasal mucosa of young patients with perennial allergic rhinitis.


Resumo Introdução: Em adolescentes com rinite alérgica perene, a exposição à fumaça do cigarro de tabaco aumenta a contagem de eosinófilos na mucosa nasal. O recrutamento de eosinófilos surge da ação combinada de alguns sinais celulares e moleculares, inclusive a eotaxina. Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito da exposição à fumaça do cigarro de tabaco na contagem de células imunorreativas a eotaxina-1 e eosinófilos na mucosa nasal de crianças e adolescentes com rinite alérgica perene. Método: Em um estudo transversal, 44 pacientes foram avaliados (entre sete e 19 anos): 22 com e 22 sem exposição à fumaça do cigarro de tabaco. Depois de responder a dois questionários validados, sobre asma e alergias na infância e sobre a gravidade dos sintomas nasais, as amostras de mucosa nasal foram obtidas por meio de raspagem do terço médio das conchas inferiores. Em seguida, as contagens de células imunorreativas para eotaxina-1 e eosinófilos foram avaliadas por imuno-histoquímica. Resultados: Os pacientes com exposição à fumaça do cigarro de tabaco apresentaram contagens de células mais elevadas tanto para eotaxina-1 como para eosinófilos em comparação com os pacientes sem exposição à fumaça, sem correlação entre as duas variáveis. No entanto, ambas as contagens, de eotaxina-1 e eosinófilos foram relacionadas com a razão cotinina/creatinina. Conclusões: A exposição à fumaça do cigarro de tabaco pode aumentar a eotaxina-1 e a contagem de eosinófilos na mucosa nasal de pacientes jovens com rinite alérgica perene.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal/immunology , Eosinophils/immunology , Chemokine CCL11/immunology , Nasal Mucosa/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Immunohistochemistry , Cell Count , Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Eosinophils/cytology , Chemokine CCL11/analysis , Nasal Mucosa/cytology , Nasal Mucosa/chemistry
19.
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 130(1): 21-22, mar. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-973064

ABSTRACT

Se explica qué es el humo de segunda y de tercera mano, y cómo persiste en el tiempo. Se detalla cómo afecta a los no fumadores y a los niños. Se describen los síntomas y signos de la intoxicación por tabaco.


It explains what is second-hand and third-hand smoke and how it persists over time. It is detailed how it affects non-smokers and the children. Symptoms and signs of tobacco poisoning are described.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/prevention & control , Smoking/adverse effects , Tobacco Use Disorder , Residence Time , Pediatrics
20.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 135(1): 29-33, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-846275

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a chronic infectious pathogen with high prevalence. This study investigated the interaction between environmental tobacco exposure and H. pylori infection on the incidence of chronic tonsillitis in Chinese children. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study performed in an outpatient clinic in China. METHODS: Pediatric patients with chronic tonsillitis were enrolled. H. pylori infection was determined according to the presence of H. pylori CagA IgG antibodies. Serum cotinine levels and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure were determined for all participants. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in H. pylori infection between the children with chronic tonsillitis and children free of disease, but there was a significant difference in ETS between the two groups (P = 0.011). We next studied the association between ETS and chronic tonsillitis based on H. pylori infection status. In the patients with H. pylori infection, there was a significant difference in ETS distribution between the chronic tonsillitis and control groups (P = 0.022). Taking the participants without ETS as the reference, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that those with high ETS had higher susceptibility to chronic tonsillitis (adjusted OR = 2.33; 95% CI: 1.67-3.25; adjusted P < 0.001). However, among those without H. pylori infection, ETS did not predispose towards chronic tonsillitis. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that tobacco exposure should be a putative mediator risk factor to chronic tonsillitis among children with H. pylori infection.


RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) é um patógeno infeccioso crônico com alta prevalência. Este estudo investigou a interação entre exposição à fumaça ambiental do tabaco (FAT) e infecção pelo H. pylori sobre a incidência de amigdalite crônica em crianças chinesas. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo transversal desenvolvido num ambulatório na China. MÉTODOS: Pacientes pediátricos com amigdalite crônica foram recrutados. A infecção por H. pylori foi determinada segundo a presença de anticorpos H. pylori CagA IgG. Foi determinado o nível de cotinina sérica e exposição à FAT de todos os participantes. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença significativa entre crianças com amigdalite crônica na infecção por H. pylori e sem amidalite, mas existia diferença significativa na FAT entre os dois grupos (P = 0,011). Em seguida, estudamos a associação entre FAT e amigdalite crônica com base no status de infecção por H. pylori. Nos pacientes com infecção por H. pylori, houve diferença significativa na distribuição de FAT entre os grupos de amigdalite crônica e controle (P = 0,022). Tomando os participantes sem FAT como referência, a análise de regressão logística multivariada mostrou que aqueles com alta FAT tinha maior susceptibilidade à amigdalite crônica (OR ajustado IC = 2,33, 95%: 1,67-3,25, ajustado P < 0,001). No entanto, naqueles sem infecção por H. pylori, a FAT não predispôs a amigdalite crônica. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos achados sugerem que a exposição ao tabaco é um fator de risco para amigdalite crônica em crianças com infecção por H. pylori.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Tonsillitis/etiology , Helicobacter Infections/complications , Bacterial Proteins/blood , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Helicobacter pylori/immunology , Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Antigens, Bacterial/blood
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