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1.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 24(8): 3013-3024, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011867

ABSTRACT

Resumo O Brasil foi um dos primeiros países do mundo a proibir os Dispositivos Eletrônicos de Fumar (DEFs), tal proibição foi motivada pela inexistência de evidências relativas às alegadas propriedades terapêuticas e da inocuidade destes produtos. Por conta de tal proibição, A Anvisa foi criticada, especialmente de grupos de usuários. Estes grupos argumentam que tal ação proibiu um produto que auxiliaria a cessação ao tabagismo e seria menos tóxico que os cigarros comuns. Assim sendo, surge o questionamento se esta decisão foi acertada ou não. Os dados disponíveis mostram que os DEFs possuem formulações diversas e algumas substâncias tóxicas são liberadas durante sua utilização em níveis significativos. Estudos em animais e em humanos demonstraram potencial efeito tóxico. Os DEFs também demostraram que podem afetar a saúde de fumantes passivos. Quanto a seu uso como ferramenta de cessação, os estudos ainda não são conclusivos. Observou-se também um alto grau de uso entre adolescentes em países que seu uso foi autorizado. Desta forma o Brasil ao proibir estes produtos, impediu que a população consumisse um produto sem comprovação que auxiliasse no tratamento do tabagismo, com indícios de significativa toxidade e altamente atrativo aos jovens.


Abstract Brazil was one of the first countries in the world to ban Electronic Smoking Devices (ESDs). This ban was motivated by the lack of evidence regarding the alleged therapeutic properties and harmlessness of these products. Anvisa was criticized for this move, especially by electronic cigarette's users groups. These groups argue that prohibition prevented people's access to a product that would aid smoking cessation and be less toxic than ordinary cigarettes. Thus, the question arises as to whether this decision was successful. Available data show that ESDs have diverse formulations and some toxic substances are released at significant levels during use. Studies in animals and humans have shown a potential toxic effect, also affecting the health of passive smokers. Studies are still inconclusive regarding its use as a cessation tool. A high level of use among adolescents was observed in countries whose use was authorized. Thus, Brazil's ban prevented the population from consuming a product that has not been proven effective toward smoking cessation, with indications of significant toxicity and highly attractive to young people.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Adolescent , Smoking Cessation/methods , Smoke-Free Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Vaping/legislation & jurisprudence , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/prevention & control , Brazil , Vaping/adverse effects , Vaping/prevention & control
2.
Salud pública Méx ; 59(2): 128-136, mar.-abr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-846072

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: To analyze successful national smokefree policy implementation in Colombia, a middle income country. Materials and methods: Key informants at the national and local levels were interviewed and news sources and government ministry resolutions were reviewed. Results: Colombia’s Ministry of Health coordinated local implementation practices, which were strongest in larger cities with supportive leadership. Nongovernmental organizations provided technical assistance and highlighted noncompliance. Organizations outside Colombia funded some of these efforts. The bar owners’ association provided concerted education campaigns. Tobacco interests did not openly challenge implementation. Conclusions: Health organization monitoring, external funding, and hospitality industry support contributed to effective implementation, and could be cultivated in other low and middle income countries.


Resumen: Objetivo: Analizar la implementación exitosa de políticas nacionales de ambientes libres de humo en Colombia, un país de ingresos medios. Material y métodos: Entrevistas con informantes claves a nivel nacional y local, y revisión de artículos en las noticias y resoluciones ministeriales nacionales. Resultados: El Ministerio de Salud de Colombia coordinó las prácticas locales para la implementación, que fueron más fuertes en las ciudades grandes y en las ciudades con líderes políticos que la apoyaron. Organizaciones no gubernamentales proporcionaron asistencia técnica y destacaron el incumplimiento. Organizaciones fuera de Colombia financiaron algunos de estos esfuerzos. La asociación de propietarios de bares proporcionó campañas de educación concertadas. Intereses tabacaleros no desafiaron abiertamente la implementación. Conclusiones. La vigilancia de las organizaciones no gubernamentales, la financiación externa y el apoyo de la industria de la hospitalidad contribuyeron a una implementación eficaz. Tales factores pueden ser cultivados en países de ingresos bajos y medios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Smoke-Free Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Public Policy , Restaurants/legislation & jurisprudence , Restaurants/organization & administration , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/prevention & control , Universities , Organizations , Colombia , Tobacco Industry , Guideline Adherence , Financing, Organized , Government Agencies , Health Promotion
3.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 33(supl.3): e00140315, 2017. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-889815

ABSTRACT

Resumo: O tabagismo passivo causa sérios e mortais efeitos à saúde. Desde 1996, o Brasil vem avançando na implementação da legislação antifumo em locais públicos fechados. Este artigo busca avaliar a percepção do cumprimento da legislação antifumo nas cidades de Porto Alegre (Rio Grande do Sul), Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo, com base nos resultados da pesquisa ITC-Brasil (International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project). Os resultados desta pesquisa mostraram uma redução significativa da proporção de pessoas que notaram indivíduos fumando em restaurantes e bares entre 2009 e 2013 nas três cidades pesquisadas. Paralelamente, houve um aumento da proporção de fumantes que referiram ter fumado na área externa desses estabelecimentos. Tais resultados provavelmente refletem uma implementação exitosa das leis antifumo. Vale ressaltar que ao diminuir a exposição ao fumo passivo, aumentamos ainda mais a desnormalização do tabagismo na população em geral, podendo assim diminuir sua iniciação e aumentar a cessação de fumar.


Resumen: El tabaquismo pasivo causa serios y mortales efectos para la salud. Desde 1996, Brasil ha avanzado en la implementación de la legislación antitabaco en locales públicos cerrados. Este artículo busca evaluar la percepción del cumplimiento de la legislación antitabaco en las ciudades de Porto Alegre (Rio Grande do Sul), Río de Janeiro y São Paulo, Brasil, en base a los resultados de la investigación ITC-Brasil (International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project). Los resultados de esta investigación mostraron una reducción significativa de la proporción de personas que notaron individuos fumando en restaurantes y bares entre 2009 y 2013 en las tres ciudades investigadas. Paralelamente, hubo un aumento de la proporción de fumadores que informaron haber fumado en el área externa de esos establecimientos. Tales resultados probablemente reflejan una implementación exitosa de las leyes antitabaco. Vale resaltar que al disminuir la exposición al humo pasivo, aumentamos incluso más la desnormalización del tabaquismo en la población en general, pudiendo así disminuir su iniciación y aumentar el abandono del tabaco.


Abstract: Passive smoking causes severe and lethal effects on health. Since 1996 Brazil has been moving forward in the implementation of anti-smoking legislation in enclosed public spaces. This article aims to evaluate the perceived enforcement of anti-smoking legislation in the cities of Porto Alegre (Rio Grande do Sul State), Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil, based on the results of the ITC-Brazil Survey (International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project). The results of the survey showed a significant reduction in the proportion of people who saw individuals smoking in restaurants and bars between 2009 and 2013 in the three cities surveyed. Concurrently there was an increase in the proportion of smokers who mentioned having smoked in the outer areas of these facilities. These results likely reflect a successful implementation of anti-smoking laws. Of note is the fact that by decreasing passive smoking we further enhance smoking denormalization among the general population, decreasing smoking initiation and increasing its cessation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Restaurants/legislation & jurisprudence , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/prevention & control , Law Enforcement , Perception , Public Policy , Telephone , Urban Population , Brazil , Interviews as Topic , Surveys and Questionnaires , Health Policy
4.
Salud pública Méx ; 58(1): 62-70, ene.-feb. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-773570

ABSTRACT

Objective. To analyze the passage of Costa Rica's 2012 tobacco control law. Materials and methods. Review of legislation, newspaper articles, and key informant interviews. Results. Tobacco control advocates, in close collaboration with international health groups, recruited national, regional and international experts to testify in the Legislative Assembly, implemented grassroots advocacy campaigns, and generated media coverage to enact strong legislation in March 2012 consistent with the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, despite tobacco industry lobbying efforts that for decades blocked effective tobacco control legislation. Conclusion. Costa Rica's experience illustrates how with resources, good strategic planning, aggressive tactics and perseverance tobacco control advocates can overcome tobacco industry opposition in the Legislative Assembly and Executive Branch. This determined approach has positioned Costa Rica to become a regional leader in tobacco control.


Objetivo. Analizar la adopción de la ley de control del tabaco de 2012 en Costa Rica. Material y métodos. Revisión de la legislación, artículos de periódicos y entrevistas con informantes clave. Resultados. Los defensores del control del tabaco, en estrecha colaboración con grupos internacionales de salud pública y expertos nacionales, regionales e internacionales, reclutados para testificar en la Asamblea Legislativa, implementaron campañas de comunicación e incidencia política que resultaron en la aprobación en marzo de 2012 de una legislación fuerte y en consonancia con el Convenio Marco para el Control del Tabaco de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Todo esto a pesar de los esfuerzos de la industria tabacalera que, por décadas, había logrado bloquear la aprobación de una legislación eficaz de control del tabaco en Costa Rica. Conclusión. La experiencia de Costa Rica ilustra cómo con recursos, una buena planificación estratégica, tácticas agresivas y perseverancia, los defensores del control del tabaco pudieron superar la oposición de la industria tabacalera en la Asamblea Legislativa y el Poder Ejecutivo. La adopción de una ley efectiva de control de tabaco ha posicionado a Costa Rica como un líder regional en el control de tabaco.


Subject(s)
Humans , Smoking/legislation & jurisprudence , Tobacco Industry/legislation & jurisprudence , Health Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Lobbying , Tobacco , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/prevention & control , Tobacco Use Disorder/prevention & control , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Smoking Cessation/legislation & jurisprudence , Costa Rica
5.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-156427

ABSTRACT

Background. Smoking tobacco affects the health of smokers as well as non-smokers who are exposed to secondhand smoke. The Government of India enacted the Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act in 2003, which included a ban on smoking in public places and on sale of tobacco around educational institutions. We assessed the extent of compliance with these laws in restaurants and educational institutions in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey using an observation checklist in restaurants and educational institutions in Chennai. We used cluster sampling for restaurants and random sampling for schools and colleges. We collected data regarding the signage displaying prohibition of smoking as per the law and sale of tobacco products around educational institutions. We estimated the proportions for various indicators. Results. Among the 400 restaurants surveyed, 371 (92.8%) did not have any signage displaying prohibition of smoking and of the 29 restaurants with signage, only 4 were as per the specifications. There were 62 (15.5%) smoking events in restaurants at the time of visit for survey. Among the 287 schools surveyed, only 8 (2.8%) had the signage displaying prohibition of smoking and 2 (0.7%) had the signage for ban on sale of tobacco products. Of the 54 colleges surveyed, 8 (14.8%) had the signage displaying prohibition of smoking and 7 (13%) had the signage for ban on sale of tobacco products. Conclusion. There was low compliance of smoke-free laws in restaurants and educational institutions in Chennai. We recommend a robust monitoring mechanism to ensure the enforcement of smoke-free laws in public places.


Subject(s)
Humans , India , Law Enforcement , Location Directories and Signs/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Public Policy , Restaurants/legislation & jurisprudence , Schools/legislation & jurisprudence , Smoking/legislation & jurisprudence , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence
6.
Rev. am. med. respir ; 12(3): 86-89, set. 2012. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-667887

ABSTRACT

El tabaquismo es una adicción de altísima morbimortalidad en el mundo dándose la particularidad de que el inicio de la misma ocurre, en general, en jóvenes, muchos de ellos escolarizados. Las legislaciones restrictivas respecto del consumo en espacios públicos tienen como objetivo disminuir la exposición al humo de segunda mano pero también hacen que los fumadores, que desarrollan sus actividades en estas áreas, disminuyan o cesen en su consumo. En este trabajo analizamos el impacto de una ordenanza municipal sobre ambientes 100% libres de humo de tabaco seguida de un importante trabajo de divulgación, en docentes en contacto directo con jóvenes, comparando una encuesta realizada dosaños antes y otra similar dos años después de promulgada la ordenanza. Se observó disminución del consumo de tabaco dentro del ámbito escolar (del 60.7 al 17.9%), se revirtió la extensión de zonas “permitidas” para fumar dentro de los establecimientos escolares (del 49% al 6,6%) y disminuyó o cesó el hábito de fumar en un elevado porcentaje de docentes (70,5%), lo que sin duda refleja el cambio en la visión de los alumnos sobre esta adicción.Concluimos que las legislaciones restrictivas (ambientes 100% libres de humo de tabaco) asociadas a trabajo de difusión y esclarecimiento sobre el tema, tienen un importante impacto en la lucha contra el tabaquismo.


Smoking is an addiction associated to high morbidity and mortality worldwide with the peculiarity that the smoking habit starts in young people during the school years. Restrictive laws on tobacco consumption in public spaces aim to reduce exposure to second-handsmoke but also to induce smokers to reduce or stop their consumption in these spaces. This paper analyzes the impact of a municipal ordinance on 100% tobacco smoke-free environments, followed by an important communication program, on teachers in direct contact with young people, comparing a survey two years before and a similar survey two years after the enactment of the ordinance. Tobacco consumption decreased in the school settings (from 60.7 to 17.9%), the availability of smoking areas diminished (from 49% to 6.6%) and the smoking habit was reduced or stopped in a significant percent of teachers (70.5%), which undoubtedly reflects a change in the view of the students about this addiction. We conclude that restrictive laws (environments 100% free of tobacco smoke) associated with communication activities have an important impact in the fight against smoking.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Promotion , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking/legislation & jurisprudence , Smoking/prevention & control , Argentina , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence , Faculty , Schools
8.
Salud pública Méx ; 54(3): 225-232, mayo-jun. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-626694

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the economic impact of a 100% smoke-free law on bars and restaurants in an Argentinean province. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a time series analysis of restaurant and bar revenues in the province of Santa Fe 31 months before and 29 months after the implementation of the 100% smokefree environment law. The neighboring province of Entre Rios without smoking restrictions at the time of this study, was used as the control province. RESULTS: Average taxable revenues post-legislation in the province of Santa Fe as a whole and in the two most important cities were higher when compared to the total provincial revenue pre-legislation. No significant differences were observed with the total revenue from the province of Entre Rios. CONCLUSIONS: We found no statistically significant evidence that the 100% smoke-free environment legislation in the province of Santa Fe, Argentina, had a negative impact on the revenues of local bars and restaurants.


OBJETIVOS: Evaluar el impacto económico de una ley de ambientes 100% libres de humo de tabaco sobre las ventas de bares y restaurantes en una provincia argentina. MATERIAL y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un análisis de serie temporal sobre las ventas de bares y restaurantes en Santa Fe, 31 meses antes y 29 meses después de la ley. Se utilizó a la provincia vecina de Entre Ríos, sin ley en el momento del estudio, como provincia control. RESULTADOS: El promedio de ventas post-ley tanto en la provincia de Santa Fe como en sus dos ciudades más importantes fue mayor al compararse con el promedio provincial total pre-ley. No se observaron diferencias significativas en las ventas totales al ser comparadas con la provincia de Entre Ríos. CONCLUSIONES: No se demostró evidencia estadísticamente significativa sobre el impacto negativo de la legislación de ambientes 100% libres de humo sobre las ventas de bares y restaurantes en la provincia de Santa Fe.


Subject(s)
Humans , Restaurants/legislation & jurisprudence , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/prevention & control , Argentina , Fossil Fuels , Public Policy , Restaurants/economics , Seasons , Salaries and Fringe Benefits/statistics & numerical data , Taxes/statistics & numerical data , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence
11.
Neumol. pediátr ; 6(1): 29-30, 2011.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-588415

ABSTRACT

Desde mediados de los años 50, se ha demostrado científicamente la asociación causal entre exposición a tabaquismo ambiental y diversas patologías en todas las etapas de la vida. La Organización Mundial de la Salud promovió un Convenio Marco (CMCT), para disminuir la carga de enfermedad, discapacidad y muerte evitable producida por el tabaquismo, el que fue ratificado por el Parlamento chileno, no obstante necesita ser corregida para lograr una eliminación de la exposición a tabaco en espacios de uso público. Posterior a la implementación de la ley anti-tabaco en Chile, se evaluó el efecto de la restricción parcial de fumar constatándose que los niveles de nicotina ambiental se mantienen altos, independientemente del estatus de fumador del local (fumador, mixto o no fumador). Las áreas “libres de humo” en locales mixtos presentaron niveles más altos de nicotina que locales para no fumadores, los sistemas de ventilación y barrera son insuficientes para eliminar completamente el humo de tabaco, algunos clientes no respetan la prohibición de fumar, y trabajadores y clientes están altamente expuestos al humo de tabaco. La actual legislación no protege a las personas de los riesgos de la exposición a humo de tabaco. Basados en la evidencia científica irrefutable se hace imperiosa una modificación de la actual ley anti-tabaco por una que prohíba completamente fumar en lugares públicos. Los legisladores y autoridad sanitaria tienen un rol de protección que es insoslayable por lo que están llamados a hacer las modificaciones necesarias para garantizar a todos la protección de su salud.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence , Tobacco Use Disorder/legislation & jurisprudence , Chile
12.
Indian J Cancer ; 2010 Jul; 47 Suppl(): S75-80
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-144609

ABSTRACT

Beginning with the Cigarettes Act, 1975, a number of legislative strategies and programs to curb tobacco use have been implemented in India, with limited success. Currently, the Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act, 2003, is designed to curb the use of tobacco in order to protect and promote public health. This review presents a critical appraisal of the current situation in its historical context.


Subject(s)
Humans , India/epidemiology , Smoking/epidemiology , Smoking/legislation & jurisprudence , Smoking/prevention & control , Tobacco Industry/legislation & jurisprudence , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/prevention & control
13.
Indian J Cancer ; 2010 Jul; 47 Suppl(): S39-42
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-144603

ABSTRACT

'The Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act, 2003,' known as COTPA in short, was enacted by the Government of India to control the tobacco menace. One of the successful strategies adopted by the government of Tamilnadu for implementing this Tobacco Control Act was the concept of 'Smoke-free educational institutions'. The process for having smoke-free educational institutions was started by the NGOs motivating the school authorities, to ensure that the set of guidelines, which were devised based the COPTA Act, was followed. The institution was later certified as a smoke-free institution, after verification by the government. The role of the stakeholders and the challenges we faced are discussed in this article.


Subject(s)
Attitude to Health , Guidelines as Topic , Health Plan Implementation/organization & administration , Health Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Humans , India , Schools , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/prevention & control
14.
Indian J Cancer ; 2010 Jul; 47 Suppl(): S24-29
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-144600

ABSTRACT

Background : The Indian government enacted 'The cigarettes and other tobacco products act, 2003' (COTPA), which prohibits smoking in public places. Aim : To validate the efficacy of the Act of 2003, enacted by the Government of India, to prevent secondhand smoking in public places. Settings and Design : The study is based on a non-random sample survey of 2,600 bus passengers carried out in the premises of three mega public road transport organizations in Karnataka state, India, in June 2007. Methods and Material : The information was gathered through administration of structured schedules. A sample of 1,000 each for the terminus of Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation (BMTC) and Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) in Bangalore and, 600 for North West Karnataka Road Transport Corporation (NWKRTC) in Hubli-Dharwad city was distributed proportionately according to the number of platforms in each terminus. Statistical Analysis Used : Simple Averages. Results : There is some reduction in smoking in general as perceived by 69% of the passengers as compared to the scenario a year before the enactment of COTPA. The observed smoking is lower in the bus premises of BMTC where there is strict regulation, and higher in the bus premises of NWKRTC, which has not taken any regulatory measures. Conclusions : Knowing smoking is banned in public places can itself create awareness depending on the coverage extended by media and implementing an agency to reach the public. The implementation of an act depends on the willingness of stakeholders to act upon it. The implementation of COTPA as done by BMTC could well become a role model for replication elsewhere, if BMTC can strive harder to accomplish a 100% smoke-free zone.


Subject(s)
Humans , India/epidemiology , Public Facilities , Risk Factors , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/analysis , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/prevention & control
15.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 27(4): 283-290, abr. 2010.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-548483

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Documentar a reação da indústria do cigarro à regulamentação do fumo em locais públicos no Brasil, iniciada com legislação em 1996 Métodos: Foram pesquisados os bancos de dados Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (legacy.library.ucsf.edu/) e British American Tobacco (BAT) Company Documents (bat.library.ucsf.edu/). Utilizaram-se as palavras-chave Brasil/Brazil; Souza Cruz; fumo passivo, tabagismo passivo/passive smoking; fumo de segunda mão/secondhand smoking; convivência em harmonia/courtesy of choice; e nomes de instituições, políticos e pessoas atuantes na área de controle de tabaco. Foram pesquisados ainda os websites de fabricantes de cigarro e de estabelecimentos da indústria da hospitalidade no Brasil, e sites de notícias, jornais e revistas. A pesquisa foi limitada a documentos com datas entre 1995 e 2005. Resultados: A primeira lei a restringir o fumo no Brasil (lei 9 294 de 1996) beneficiou a indústria por sua redação, pela qual um mesmo espaço poderia ser compartilhado por fumantes e não-fumantes desde que houvesse uma separação entre as duas categorias (área de fumantes e área de não-fumantes). Como em outros países, a indústria do cigarro criou parcerias com associações de hotéis, bares e restaurantes para evitar a aprovação de leis que exijam espaços 100 por cento livres de fumo, conforme preconizado pela Organização Mundial da Saúde. Entretanto, leis locais em municípios e estados representativos (como Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo) têm tido sucesso em criar espaços 100 por cento livres de fumo. Conclusões: É fundamental que o Brasil reconheça os prejuízos causados pelo fumo e revise a sua lei federal de regulamentação do fumo em locais fechados. O conhecimento acerca das estratégias da indústria permite que políticos e profissionais de saúde preparem argumentos de oposição a medidas que podem comprometer a saúde pública.


Objectives: To document the response of the tobacco industry to the regulation of smoking in public places in Brazil starting in 1996. Methods: The Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (legacy.library.ucsf.edu/) and the British American Tobacco (BAT) Company Documents (bat.library.ucsf.edu/) were searched. The following key words were used: Brasil/Brazil; Souza Cruz; fumo passivo, tabagismo passivo/passive smoking; fumo de segunda mão/secondhand smoking; convivência em harmonia/courtesy of choice; along with the names of institutions, politicians, and individuals associated with tobacco control. We also searched the websites of cigarette manufacturers and hospitality industry organizations and businesses, news websites, and online newspapers and magazines. The search was limited to the period from 1995 to 2005. Results: The text of the first law restricting smoking in Brazil (no. 9 294, of 1996) benefited the industry by stating that smokers and nonsmokers could share the same space provided that specific areas were designated as smoking and nonsmoking. As in other countries, the tobacco industry established partnerships with hotel, bar, and restaurant associations to prevent the passing of laws creating 100 percent smoke-free environments, as recommended by the World Health Organization. However, local state and city laws in major cities and states (such as Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo) have been successful in ensuring the creation of 100 percent smoke-free places. Conclusions: It is essential that Brazil recognize the damage caused by smoking and revise its federal law regulating smoking in closed environments. The knowledge concerning the strategies employed by the industry may be useful for politicians and health care professionals to prepare arguments opposing measures that can be detrimental to public health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tobacco Industry , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/prevention & control , Brazil , Cooperative Behavior , Dissent and Disputes , Health Policy , Lobbying , Restaurants/legislation & jurisprudence , Societies , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence
16.
Salud pública Méx ; 52(supl.2): S157-S167, 2010. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-571808

ABSTRACT

Objective. To evaluate indoor air pollution in hospitality venues in Argentina. Material and Methods. PM2.5 levels were measured in a convenience sample of venues in 15 cities with different legislative contexts following a protocol developed by Roswell Park Cancer Institute. Results. 554 samples were collected. Across all 5 smokefree cities the mean PM2.5 level was lower during daytime vs. evening hours, 24 vs. 98 PM2.5 respectively (p=.012). In the three cities evaluated before and after legislation, PM2.5 levels decreased dramatically (p<0.001 each). Overall, PM2.5 levels were 5 times higher in cities with no legislation vs. smokefree cities (p<0.001). In cities with designated smoking areas, PM2.5 levels were not statistically different between smoking and non-smoking areas (p=0.272). Non-smoking areas had significantly higher PM2.5 levels compared to 100 percent smokefree venues in the same city (twofold higher) (p=0.017). Conclusions. Most of the participating cities in this study had significantly lower PM2.5 levels after the implementation of 100 percent smokefree legislation. Hence, it represents a useful tool to promote 100 percent smokefree policies in Argentina.


Objetivo. Evaluar la polución ambiental del sector gastronómico en Argentina. Material y métodos. Se midieron los niveles de partículas respirables (PM2.5) en una muestra por conveniencia de establecimientos de 15 ciudades con diferente legislación, siguiendo un protocolo del Instituto de Cáncer Roswell Park. Resultados. Se recolectaron 554 muestras. En cinco ciudades libres de humo (CLH) la media de PM2.5 durante el día fue baja y menor a la observada durante la noche, 24 vs. 98 PM2.5 respectivamente (p=.012). En las tres ciudades evaluadas antes y después de la legislación, las PM2.5 disminuyeron drásticamente (p<0.001 cada una). Las PM2.5 fueron cinco veces mayores en ciudades sin legislación comparadas con CLH (p<0.001). En ciudades con restricción parcial, no hubo diferencia significativa entre las PM2.5 en el sector fumador y no fumador (p=0.272). Los sectores no fumadores tuvieron niveles PM2.5 significativamente más altos comparados con los lugares 100 por ciento libres de humo de la misma ciudad (p= 0.017). Conclusiones. La mayoría de las ciudades participantes en este estudio tuvieron niveles PM2.5 significativamente más bajos tras la implementación de leyes pro ambientes 100 por ciento libres de humo de tabaco, por lo que representa una herramienta útil para promover legislación 100 por ciento libre de humo en Argentina.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Air Pollution, Indoor/legislation & jurisprudence , Environmental Monitoring , Health Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Smoking/legislation & jurisprudence , Smoking/prevention & control , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/analysis , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence , Argentina , Air Pollution, Indoor/prevention & control , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/prevention & control , Urban Health
17.
Salud pública Méx ; 52(supl.2): S244-S253, 2010. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-571817

ABSTRACT

Objective. To assess the impact of Mexico City and federal smoke-free legislation on secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure and support for smoke-free laws. Material and Methods. Pre- and post-law data were analyzed from a cohort of adult smokers who participated in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Suvey in four Mexican cities. For each indicator, we estimated prevalence, changes in prevalence, and between-city differences in rates of change. Results. Self-reported exposure to smoke-free media campaigns generally increased more dramatically in Mexico City. Support for prohibiting smoking in regulated venues increased overall, but at a greater rate in Mexico City than in other cities. In bars and restaurants/cafés, self-reported SHS exposure had significantly greater decreases in Mexico City than in other cities; however, workplace exposure decreased in Tijuana and Guadalajara, but not in Mexico City or Ciudad Juárez. Conclusions. Although federal smoke-free legislation was associated with important changes smoke-free policy impact, the comprehensive smoke-free law in Mexico City was generally accompanied by a greater rate of change.


Objetivo. Evaluar el impacto de la legislación federal y del Distrito Federal (DF) de espacios libres de humo de tabaco (ELHT) sobre la exposición al humo de tabaco y el apoyo a las leyes. Material y métodos. Se analizaron datos antes y después de la ley en una cohorte de fumadores adultos de cuatro ciudades mexicanas donde se aplicó la Encuesta Internacional para Evaluar las Políticas Públicas para el Control del Tabaco (Encuesta ITC). Para cada indicador, se estimó la prevalencia, cambios en la prevalencia y diferencias entre ciudades en las tasas de cambio. Resultados. La exposición autorreportada a las campañas sobre los ELHT incrementaron dramáticamente en el DF. El apoyo para prohibir fumar en lugares regulados aumentó en general, pero aumentó más en el DF. La exposición autorreportada al humo de tabaco en bares y restaurantes, en el DF disminuyó significativamente más que en las otras ciudades; sin embargo, la exposición en lugares de trabajo disminuyó en Tijuana y Guadalajara, pero no en el DF o Ciudad Juárez. Conclusiones. La ley federal que promovió ELHT tuvo impactos importantes; sin embargo, la ley del DF, que es más integral, fue acompañada por unas mayores tasas de cambio.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Smoking/legislation & jurisprudence , Smoking/prevention & control , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/prevention & control , Longitudinal Studies , Mexico , Urban Health
18.
Salud pública Méx ; 52(supl.2): S277-S282, 2010.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-571821

ABSTRACT

La Ley General para el Control del Tabaco, aprobada en febrero de 2008, busca proteger a la población mexicana de los efectos nocivos del tabaco y asegurar el derecho de los no fumadores a vivir y convivir en espacios 100 por ciento libres de humo de tabaco. La Ley considera el desarrollo de espacios libres de humo, pero también posibilita la existencia de áreas interiores para fumar. El presente ensayo examina la Ley y su Reglamento, artículo por artículo, evaluando su capacidad para asegurar la protección a la salud de la población de los efectos del humo de tabaco ambiental. El análisis revela imprecisiones conceptuales y operativas importantes, pero principalmente, señala de manera puntual las razones por las que las áreas interiores para fumar representan un riesgo a la salud de la población. Se concluye que la Ley debe ser reformada, eliminando la provisión de áreas interiores para fumar, de cualquier estructura cubierta en las áreas para fumar al aire libre y definiendo la distancia mínima entre estas áreas y las áreas 100 por ciento libres de humo de tabaco.


The General Law for Tobacco Control, signed in February 2008, aims to protect the Mexican population against the negative effects associated with tobacco consumption and to guarantee the non-smoker's rights to live and relate in 100 percent smoke-free environments. The Law supports the development of smoke-free areas, but it also allows for indoor smoking areas. The present essay examines the Law and its Rule of Procedure, article by article, evaluating its capability to assure the protection of the population against the effects of environmental tobacco smoke. The analysis reveals conceptual and operative important imprecision, but mainly, discusses in detail the reasons why indoor smoking areas represent a health risk for the population. It concludes that the Law must be reformed, eliminating the provision of indoor smoking areas, any kind of roof in outdoor smoking areas and establising a minimum distance between these areas and the 100 percent smoke-free environments.


Subject(s)
Humans , Smoking/legislation & jurisprudence , Smoking/prevention & control , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/prevention & control , Mexico
19.
Salud pública Méx ; 52(supl.2): S347-S354, 2010. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-571830

ABSTRACT

Latin America is at the forefront of global progress in smokefree workplaces. Comprehensive smokefree laws have been implemented in four countries, and in many cities, states and provinces. More than 130 million people in Latin America are now protected from secondhand tobacco smoke. Nevertheless, a survey of tobacco control advocates and governments in Latin America found several challenges to progress in smokefree workplaces: the need for voluntary workplace programs where there is no smokefree legislation; weak legislation or lack of comprehensive national smokefree laws; tobacco industry attempts to undermine progress with smokefree laws or overturn existing laws via litigation; lack of compliance with laws; the need for monitoring and evaluation of smokefree laws; the need to make better use of mass media campaigns; and strengthening civil society. However, much progress has already been achieved to address these challenges, in particular through collaborations and the exchange of experience and expertise across Latin America.


América Latina está a la vanguardia del movimiento en favor de lugares de trabajo libres de humo de tabaco. Se han implementado leyes integrales de ambientes libres de humo en cuatro países, y en muchas ciudades, estados y provincias. Gracias a la implementación de estas políticas, más de 130 millones de personas en América Latina están ahora protegidas del humo de tabaco ajeno. Sin embargo, existen varios desafíos para un continuo progreso en la implementación de lugares de trabajo libres de humo de tabaco. A partir de una encuesta realizada con activistas y funcionarios gubernamentales de América Latina, se indentificaron los siguientes desafíos principales: necesidad de adoptar programas voluntarios en los lugares del trabajo cuando no exista legislación; legislación débil o falta de leyes nacionales integrales de ambientes libres de humo de tabaco; intentos de la industria tabacalera por dificultar el progreso de las leyes de ambientes libres de humo o anular leyes existentes a través del litigio; falta de cumplimiento de las leyes; necesidad de monitoreo y evaluación de las leyes de ambientes libres de humo; necesidad de utilizar más eficientemente las campañas de medios masivos de comunicación; y fortalecimiento de la sociedad civil. No obstante, se ha alcanzado ya un gran progreso para enfrentar estos desafíos, particularmente a través de colaboraciones y el intercambio de experiencias entre los países latinoamericanos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Smoking/legislation & jurisprudence , Smoking/prevention & control , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/prevention & control , Latin America , Tobacco Industry
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-164453

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of the workplace smoking ban in South Korea, where the male smoking rate is high (57%), on smoking behavior and secondhand smoke exposure. METHODS: A workplace smoking ban legislation implemented in April 2003 requires offices, meeting rooms, and lobbies located in larger than 3,000 square meter buildings (or 2,000 square meter multipurpose buildings) should be smoke free. A representative cross-sectional survey, the third wave (2005) of health supplements in the National Health Nutrition Survey of South Korea, was used to measure the impact of the 2003 workplace smoking ban implementation on smoking behavior. It contained 3,122 observations of adults 20 to 65 years old (excluding self-employed and non-working populations). A multivariate statistical model was used. The self-reported workplace smoking ban policy (full workplace ban, partial workplace ban, and no workplace ban) was used as the key measure. RESULTS: A full workplace smoking ban reduced the current smoking rate by 6.4 percentage points among all workers and also decreased the average daily consumption among smokers by 3.7 cigarettes relative to no smoking ban. Secondhand smoke showed a dramatic decrease of 86 percent (= -1.74/2.03)from the sample mean for full workplace ban. However, public anti-smoking campaign did not show any significant impact on smoking behavior. CONCLUSIONS: The full workplace ban policy is effective in South Korea. Male group showed bigger impact of smoking ban policy than female group. The public antismoking campaign did not show any effectiveness.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Health Promotion/organization & administration , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea , Sex Factors , Smoking/legislation & jurisprudence , Smoking Cessation , Socioeconomic Factors , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence , Workplace/legislation & jurisprudence
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