Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 2.343
Filter
2.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 39(2): 299-307, 20240220. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1532686

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El aneurisma de la aorta abdominal (AAA) es la dilatación de la aorta abdominal mayor de 1,5 veces el diámetro esperado. Su prevalencia es variable, con tasas reportadas de hasta el 12,5 %. Se considera como causa de muerte de más de 10.000 personas al año en los Estados Unidos. El objetivo de esta revisión de la literatura fue describir los factores de riesgo y las herramientas de tamizaje de AAA. Métodos. Se realizó una búsqueda de la literatura utilizando dos ecuaciones en bases de datos electrónicas, empleando términos seleccionados de "Medical Subject Heading" (MeSH) y "Descriptores en Ciencias de la Salud" (DeCS). Se evaluó la calidad de los estudios con la herramienta STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology). Resultados. Se recolectaron 40 artículos y a partir de ellos se construyó el texto de revisión, identificando en estos, los factores de riesgo asociados al desarrollo de AAA, tales como sexo masculino, tabaquismo, hipertensión arterial, antecedente familiar y obesidad, entre otros. La diabetes mellitus parece actuar como factor protector. Dentro de los instrumentos de tamizaje, el ultrasonido abdominal es uno de los más usados. Conclusión. El AAA es una patología multifactorial. En la actualidad la ultrasonografía de aorta es el método de elección para el tamizaje, permitiendo la detección precoz. El tamizaje de AAA con métodos no invasivos, como el ultrasonido, es útil sobre todo en zonas con prevalencia alta de la patología y en pacientes con determinados factores de riesgo.


Introduction. Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a dilation of the abdominal aorta greater than 1.5 times the expected diameter. Its prevalence is variable, with reported rates of up to 12.5%. It is considered the cause of death of more than 10,000 people a year in the United States. The objective of this literature review was to describe risk factors and screening tools for AAA. Methods. A literature search was conducted using two equations in electronic databases, using terms selected from "Medical Subject Heading" (MeSH) and "Descriptors in Health Sciences" (DeCS). The quality of the studies was evaluated with the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) tool. Results. Forty articles were collected and from them the review text was constructed, identifying the risk factors associated with the development of AAA, such as male sex, smoking, high blood pressure, family history and obesity, among others. Diabetes mellitus seems to act as a protective factor. Among the screening instruments, abdominal ultrasound is one of the most used. Conclusion. AAA is a multifactorial pathology. Currently, aortic ultrasonography is the method of choice for screening, allowing early detection. Screening for AAA with non-invasive methods, such as ultrasound, is useful especially in areas with a high prevalence of this pathology and in patients with certain risk factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mass Screening , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal , Computed Tomography Angiography , Aortic Diseases , Tobacco Use Disorder , Ultrasonography
3.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 12(1): 1-7, jan.-dez. 2024. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1530656

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar e identificar a prevalência e fatores de risco associados ao tabagismo e outras formas de consumo de tabaco entre acadêmicos da saúde. Métodos: A pesquisa contou com 407 acadêmicos dos cursos de Biomedicina, Educação Física, Enfermagem, Farmácia, Fisioterapia e Nutrição de uma Instituição de Ensino Superior. A coleta de dados foi realizada no mês de maio de 2020, por um formulário eletrônico, disponibilizado em e-mail institucional, grupos de estudos e redes sociais. O procedimento ocorreu após aprovação pelo Comitê de Ética, cujo parecer 3.966.951. Resultados: A maioria dos participantes (79,6%) eram do sexo feminino, solteiros (75,2%) com idade média de 25,32 anos. O consumo de tabaco foi confirmado por 10,8% participantes. Quanto ao consumo de produtos derivados de tabaco 24,1% dos entrevistados já consumiram produto de tabaco, 8,6% assumiram tabagismo ocasional, e 4,2% tabagismo ativo. Conclusões: A associação entre tabagismo e as variáveis sociodemográficas demonstrou que alunos do curso de Farmácia (OR: 5,25 [IC:1,34-20,22] p=0,017), homens (OR: 1,71 [IC: 1,01 ­ 2,91]), estudantes turno matutino (OR: 1,96 [IC:1,02-3,78] p=0,04) e que residem com tabagistas (OR:4,44 [IC: 2,24-8,80]) apresentaram maiores chances de serem tabagista. A associação em relação ao consumo de derivados do tabaco, os homens apresentaram maiores prevalências de consumo de derivados de tabaco (OR: 1,71 [IC: 1,01 ­ 2,91] p=0,045) bem como, alunos do curso de Farmácia (OR: 6,40 [IC:2,31-17,7] P<0,01), que estudam no turno Noturno (OR:1,85 [IC:1,16-8,82] p=0,009) e entre os que residem com tabagistas (OR: 4,49 [IC:2,24-8,80] p<0,001).


Introduction: The present study aimed to investigate and identify the prevalence and risk factors associated with smoking and other forms of tobacco consumption among health academics. Methods: The survey involved 407 students from Biomedicine, Physical Education, Nursing, Pharmacy, Physiotherapy and Nutrition courses at a Higher Education Institution. Data collection was carried out in May 2020, through an electronic form, available in institutional email, study groups and social networks. The entire procedure took place after approval by the Ethics Committee. Results: Most participants (79.6%) were female, single (75.2%) with a mean age of 25.32 years. Tobacco consumption was confirmed by 10.8% of the participants. As for the consumption of tobacco products, 24.1% of the interviewees had already consumed some tobacco product, 8.6% assumed occasional smoking, and 4.2% active smoking. Conclusions: The association between smoking and sociodemographic variables showed that Pharmacy students (OR: 5.25 [CI:1.34-20.22] p=0.017), men (OR: 1.71 [CI: 1.01 ­ 2.91]), morning shift students (OR: 1.96 [CI:1.02-3.78] p=0.04) and those who live with smokers (OR:4.44 [CI : 2.24-8.80]) were more likely to be smokers. The association in relation to the consumption of tobacco derivatives, men had a higher prevalence of consumption of tobacco derivatives (OR: 1.71 [CI: 1.01 ­ 2.91] p=0.045) as well as Pharmacy students (OR: 6.40 [CI:2.31-17.7] P<0.01), those who study the night shift (OR:1.85 [CI:1.16-8.82] p=0.009 ) and among those who live with smokers (OR: 4.49 [CI:2.24-8.80] p<0.001).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Tobacco Use Disorder , Students, Health Occupations
4.
Rev. cient. cienc. salud ; 6: 1-7, 30-01-2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1532702

ABSTRACT

El interrogatorio sobre hábito tabáquico no debe obviarse jamás, pues el abanico de posibilidades diagnósticas inherentes es amplio. Es un gesto clínico fundamental frente a individuos que consultan por síntomas y/o hallazgos radiológicos casuales. Presentamos tres casos clínicos: síndrome de combinación de fibrosis pulmonar y enfisema, neumonitis intersticial descamativa e histiocitosis de células de Langerhans, como parte del abanico de las enfermedades pulmonares intersticiales difusas asociadas a tabaco (EPIDAT), donde la tomografía de alta resolución de tórax tiene un rol destacado. Palabras clave: tabaquismo; enfisema; enfermedades pulmonares intersticiales; histiocitosis de células de Langerhans


Questioning about smoking habits should never be ignored, since the range of inherent diagnostic possibilities is wide. It is a fundamental clinical step facing individuals who consult for symptoms and/or casual radiological findings. We present three clinical cases: the combined syndrome of pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema, desquamative interstitial pneumonitis, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis, as part of the range of tobacco-associated diffuse interstitial lung diseases (EPIDAT), where high-resolution chest tomography has a prominent role. Key words: smoking; emphysema; interstitial lung diseases; Langerhans cell histiocytosis


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Histiocytosis, Langerhans-Cell , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Emphysema , Tobacco Use Disorder
6.
São Paulo; s.n; 2024. 165 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1532074

ABSTRACT

Introdução - A gestação é o fator decisório para o crescimento e desenvolvimento da criança ao longo da vida, a qual pode haver problemas ocasionados, sobretudo, pelo tabagismo materno. O ato de fumar envolve a absorção de centenas de substâncias tóxicas que influencia desde o ventre até a fase adulta, no risco de desenvolver patologias como sobrepeso e obesidade. Objetivo: Avaliar o estado nutricional de filhos de mulheres fumantes na gestação e comparar com os filhos de mulheres não fumantes durante o primeiro ano de vida. Métodos: Estudo do tipo transversal incluído em estudo epidemiológico do tipo coorte (projeto FAPESP 2015/03333-6), realizado na cidade de Araraquara e região, envolvendo gestantes atendidas em 34 Unidades Básicas de Saúde e na Maternidade Municipal "Gota de Leite". As mulheres foram acompanhadas durante a gestação e posteriormente, os respectivos filhos também foram avaliados até 12 meses de idade (binômio mãe fumante-filho: 55 e binômio mãe não fumante-filho: 960). O estado nutricional das crianças foi avaliado pelo z-escore de IMC/idade. Todas as crianças foram avaliadas imediatamente após o nascimento, e no 1º, 3º, 6º 9º e 12 º mês. O teste qui- quadrado de Pearson e t de Student foram utilizados para comparar amostras as variáveis socioeconômicas e demográficas com a variável de interesse. Para avaliar a diferença do tempo segundo o z-escore do IMC/idade aos meses 1, 3, 6, 9 e 12 e a diferença intragrupos (fumou e não fumou) foi realizada análise de variância (ANOVA) com medidas repetidas, seguida de pós-teste de Sidak. Resultados: Verificou-se: 7,7% das mulheres fumaram na gestação; em relação à idade houve diferença estatística significante entre os grupos, apresentando-se em sua maioria entre 20 a 34 anos; quanto à escolaridade, os grupos apresentaram significância estatística, e boa parte tinham escolaridade entre 9 e 11 anos de estudo; a média de renda per capita no grupo de mães fumantes foi R$ 506,45 e no grupo de mães não fumantes foi R$ 770,22 (p<0,005). Quanto as características das crianças, a média de peso e comprimento ao nascer dos filhos de mães fumantes foi de 3096,70g e 48,12cm, respectivamente, e no grupo de filhos de mães não fumantes foi de 3285,63g e 49,30cm, respectivamente (p<0,005). Verificou-se que as médias de IMC/I z-escore entre os meses 1, 3, 6, 9 e 12 no grupo filhos de mães fumantes não houve diferença estatisticamente significante (p<0,143) e no grupo de filhos de mães não fumantes houve diferença estatisticamente significante (p<0,005); e na comparação intergrupos de médias de IMC/I z-escore não houve diferença estatisticamente significante (p<0,293). Conclusão: Dessa forma conclui-se que não houve associação entre o tabagismo materno na gestação e as médias de de IMC/I entre os meses 1, 3, 6, 9 e 12, nesta população.


Introduction - Pregnancy is a decisive factor for the child's growth and development throughout life, and there can be problems caused, above all, by maternal smoking. Smoking involves the absorption of hundreds of toxic substances that influence the risk of developing pathologies such as overweight and obesity, from the womb to adulthood. Objective: To assess the nutritional status of the children of women who smoke during pregnancy and compare this with the children of women who don't smoke during the first year of life. Methods: Cross-sectional study included in a cohort epidemiological study (FAPESP project 2015/03333-6), carried out in the city of Araraquara and region, involving pregnant women treated in 34 Basic Health Units and in the Municipal Maternity "Gota de Leite". The women were monitored during pregnancy and subsequently, their children were also evaluated up to 12 months of age (smoking mother-child binomial: 55 and non-smoking mother-child binomial: 960). The children's nutritional status was assessed using the BMI/age z-score. All children were evaluated immediately after birth, and at the 1st, 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th month. Pearson's chi-square test and Student's t test were used to compare socioeconomic and demographic variables with the variable of interest. To evaluate the time difference according to the BMI/age z-score at months 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 and the intragroup difference (smoked and did not smoke), analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures was performed, followed by Sidak post-test. Results: It was found that 7.7% of the women had smoked during pregnancy; with regard to age, there was a statistically significant difference between the groups, most of whom were between 20 and 34 years old; with regard to schooling, the groups were statistically significant and most had between 9 and 11 years of schooling; the average per capita income in the group of mothers who smoked was R$ 506.45 and in the group of mothers who did not smoke was R$ 770.22 (p<0.005). As for the children's characteristics, the average birth weight and length of the children of smoking mothers was 3096.70g and 48.12cm, respectively, and in the group of children of non-smoking mothers it was 3285.63g and 49.30cm, respectively (p<0.005). The mean BMI/A z-score between months 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 in the group of children of smoking mothers showed no statistically significant difference (p<0.143) and in the group of children of non-smoking mothers there was a statistically significant difference (p<0.005); and in the inter-group comparison of mean BMI/A z-score there was no statistically significant difference (p<0.293). Conclusion: It follows that there was no association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and the mean BMI/A between months 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 in this population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Tobacco Use Disorder , Body Mass Index , Nutritional Status , Overweight , Obesity
7.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 24: e230065, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1550588

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the level of oral cancer awareness and risk factors perception and the relationship between this awareness and the sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics. Material and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted among rural and urban residents in Lagos State, Nigeria. A multi-stage random sampling method was utilized. The sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics of respondents, as well as their knowledge about oral cancer risk factors, were assessed with a validated questionnaire. The bivariate association was done using an independent t-test and one-way ANOVA. Multivariate regression was used to determine the association between predictor variables and oral cancer knowledge scores. The statistical significance level is set at p<0.05. Results: 590 participants between 18 and 82 years (mean age 34.5 ±13.7) completed the survey. The prevalence of cigarette smoking was 25.7%, of which 16 (1.5%) were heavy smokers (20+ cigarettes per day). The prevalence of alcohol consumption was 66.1%, with 57 (9.7%) being heavy drinkers, consuming drinks for 5-7 days of the week. A high proportion of the respondents (>60%) exhibited gaps in their knowledge of oral cancer. Uneducated participants had lower oral cancer knowledge than those with >12 years of formal education (aOR = 5.347; 95% CI: 4.987-6.240). Participants who were smokers had lower oral cancer knowledge compared with non-smokers (aOR = 3.341; 95% CI: 2.147-4.783); Participants who consumed alcohol had more deficient oral cancer knowledge compared with non-drinkers (aOR = 1.699; 95% CI: 1.087-2.655); While heavy smokers aOR = 4.023; 95% CI: 3.615-4.825) and heavy drinkers aOR = 4.331; 95% CI: 3.158-5.939) had lower oral cancer knowledge compared with those who did not abuse both substances. Conclusion: A high proportion of the respondents exhibited gaps in their knowledge of oral cancer in their responses. Delayed diagnosis of oral cancer can be reduced by increasing the awareness and knowledge of the populace about risk factors and also in the recognition of its signs and symptoms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Mouth Neoplasms/diagnosis , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Risk Factors , Sociodemographic Factors , Tobacco Use Disorder , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Multivariate Analysis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Analysis of Variance , Papillomavirus Infections , Alcoholism , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Nigeria/epidemiology
8.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 31: e3816, Jan.-Dec. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1424042

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: to analyze quality of life and factors associated among public university employees retired due to disabilities. Method: a cross-sectional study conducted with a sample of public university employees retired due to disabilities. A characterization questionnaire and the World Health Organization Quality of Life - Disabilities instrument were applied via telephone or online contacts from November 2019 to September 2020. The associated factors were verified through multiple linear regression. Results: of the 80 retirees due to disability, 15% were professors and 85% had a technical-administrative career. As for the factors associated with Quality of Life, continuous medication use (βadj: -0.25; p=0.02) and problems in the nervous system (βadj: -0.21; p<0.05) were associated with the Overall domain; continuous medication use (βadj: -0.23; p=0.04), to the Physical domain; smoking (βadj: -0.21; p<0.05) and mental and behavioral disorders (βadj: -0.21; p<0.01), to the Psychological domain; smoking (βadj: -0.46; p<0.01) and respiratory (βadj: -0.21; p=0.03) and circulatory (βadj: -0.21; p=0.03) problems, to the Social domain; smoking (βadj: -0.33; p<0.01) and problems in the nervous system (βadj: -0.22; p=0.04), to the Environmental domain; mental and behavioral disorders, to the Disabilities module (βadj: -0.29; p<0.01) and to the Discrimination domain (βadj: -0.21; p<0.05); and smoking (βadj: -0.32; p<0.01) and problems in the nervous system (βadj: -0.20; p<0.05), to the Inclusion domain. The Autonomy domain did not present any association. Conclusion: the retirees under study presented impaired Quality of Life.


Resumo Objetivo: analisar a qualidade de vida e os fatores associados entre servidores de universidades públicas aposentados por invalidez. Método: estudo transversal, com amostra de servidores aposentados por invalidez de universidades públicas. Um questionário de caracterização e o World Health Organization Quality of Life - Disabilities foram aplicados por contato telefônico ou online no período de novembro de 2019 a setembro de 2020. Verificaram-se os fatores associados por regressão linear múltipla. Resultados: dos 80 aposentados por invalidez, 15% eram docentes e 85% da carreira técnica-administrativa. Quanto aos fatores associados à qualidade de vida, o uso de medicação contínua (βaj: -0,25; p=0,02) e os problemas do sistema nervoso (βaj: -0,21; p<0,05) associaram-se ao domínio Overall; o uso de medicação contínua (βaj: -0,23; p=0,04) ao domínio físico; o tabagismo (βaj: -0,21; p<0,05) e os transtornos mentais e comportamentais (βaj: -0,21; p<0,01) ao domínio psicológico; o tabagismo (βaj: -0,46; p<0,01), os problemas respiratórios (βaj: -0,21; p=0,03) e circulatórios (βaj: -0,21; p=0,03) ao domínio social; o tabagismo (βaj: -0,33; p<0,01) e os problemas do sistema nervoso (βaj: -0,22; p=0,04) ao domínio ambiental; os transtornos mentais e comportamentais ao módulo incapacidades (βaj: -0,29; p<0,01) e ao domínio discriminação (βaj: -0,21; p<0,05); o tabagismo (βaj: -0,32; p<0,01) e os problemas do sistema nervoso (βaj: -0,20; p<0,05) ao domínio inclusão. O domínio autonomia não apresentou associação. Conclusão: os aposentados estudados apresentaram uma qualidade de vida prejudicada.


Resumen Objetivo: analizar la calidad de vida y los factores asociados de empleados de universidades públicas jubilados por invalidez. Método: estudio transversal, con una muestra de trabajadores jubilados por invalidez de universidades públicas. Se aplicó un cuestionario de caracterización y el World Health Organization Quality of Life - Disabilities mediante contacto telefónico u online desde noviembre de 2019 hasta septiembre de 2020. Los factores asociados se verificaron mediante regresión lineal múltiple. Resultados: de los 80 jubilados por invalidez, el 15% era docente y el 85% era técnico-administrativo. En cuanto a los factores asociados a la calidad de vida, el uso continuo de medicamentos (βaj: -0,25; p=0,02) y los problemas del sistema nervioso (βaj: -0,21; p<0,05) se asociaron al dominio overall; el uso continuo de medicamentos (βaj: -0,23; p=0,04) el dominio físico; el tabaquismo (βaj: -0,21; p<0,05) y los trastornos mentales y conductuales (βaj: -0,21; p<0,01) al dominio psicológico; el tabaquismo (βaj: -0,46; p<0,01), los problemas respiratorios (βaj: -0,21; p=0,03) y circulatorios (βaj:-0,21;p=0,03) al dominio social; el tabaquismo (βaj: -0,33; p<0,01) y los problemas del sistema nervioso (βaj: -0,22; p=0,04) al dominio ambiental; los trastornos mentales y conductuales al módulo discapacidad (βaj: -0,29; p<0,01) y al dominio discriminación (βaj: -0,21; p<0,05); el tabaquismo (βaj: -0,32; p<0,01) y los problemas del sistema nervioso (βaj: -0,20; p<0,05) al dominio inclusión. El dominio autonomía no mostró asociación. Conclusión: la calidad de vida de los jubilados por invalidez que participaron del estudio estaba deteriorada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Quality of Life , Retirement , Tobacco Use Disorder , Smoking , Occupational Health , Insurance, Disability , Cross-Sectional Studies
10.
RFO UPF ; 28(1): 21-37, 20230808. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1509406

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: A periodontite é uma doença infecto-inflamatória que acomete os tecidos de inserção periodontal, e ser fumante representa um risco modificável significativo para todos os graus da doença. Ainda, indivíduos fumantes apresentam uma resposta inflamatória alterada quando comparados a não fumantes. Nesse contexto, o objetivo deste estudo foi reportar um relato de caso de tratamento periodontal de paciente fumante pesado. Relato de caso: O paciente DRS, sexo masculino, 22 anos, foi encaminhado à Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel) com a queixa principal de necessidade de "realização de uma limpeza dentária". Na anamnese, relatou fumar 20 cigarros ao dia, há 7 anos (7 maços-ano). Na consulta inicial, foi encontrado índice de placa visível (IPV) de 100% e índice de sangramento gengival (ISG) de 66,67%. Foi encontrado cálculo supragengival como fator retentivo de placa (FRP) em 46,30% dos sítios. Estabeleceu-se o diagnóstico de periodontite estágio III localizado grau C. Os exames periodontais foram realizados por um único pesquisador calibrado e optou-se pelo tratamento periodontal não cirúrgico. Ao exame de 12 meses, o paciente apresentou IPV de 23,45% e ISG de 22,83%. Houve ausência de FRP. De uma forma geral, foi possível constatar a diminuição significativa das bolsas periodontais, bem como o ganho significativo de inserção clínica periodontal. Considerações finais: Dessa forma, é possível concluir a efetividade da terapia periodontal não cirúrgica, aliada à manutenção periodontal e instruções de higiene para o tratamento de periodontite estágio III, grau C, em paciente fumante.(AU)


Objective: Periodontitis is an infect-inflammatory diseases that affects the periodontal attachment tissues, and being smoker represents a significant modifiable risk for all degrees of the disease. Moreover, smokers have an altered inflammatory response when compared to non-smokers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to report a case report of periodontal treatment of a heavy smoker. Case report: A patient DRS, male, 22 years old, was referred to the School of Dentistry of the Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel) with the main complaint of the need to "perform a dental cleaning". During the anamnesis, he reported smoking 20 cigarettes a day for 7 years (7 pack-years). In the initial appointment, a visible plaque index (VPI) of 100% and a gingival bleeding index (GBI) of 66.67% were found. Supragingival calculus was found as a plaque retentive factor (PRF) in 46.30% of the sites. The diagnosis of periodontitis stage III localized grade C was established. Periodontal examinations were performed by a single calibrated researcher and non-surgical periodontal treatment was chosen. At the 12-month appointment, the patient had an VPI of 23.45% and an GBI of 22.83%. There was absence of PRF. In general, it was possible to observe a significant decrease in periodontal pockets, as well as a significant gain in periodontal clinical attachment. Final considerations: Thus, it is possible to conclude the effectiveness of non-surgical periodontal therapy, combined with periodontal maintenance and hygiene instructions for the treatment of periodontitis stage III localized grade C in a smoker.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Periodontitis/etiology , Periodontitis/therapy , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Periodontal Pocket/therapy , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
11.
Medisan ; 27(4)ago. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1514567

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Hoy en día las enfermedades no transmisibles constituyen un grave problema que afecta el estado de salud de la población, con una tendencia ascendente preocupante. Objetivo: Identificar los factores predisponentes a las enfermedades no transmisibles en pacientes de un área de salud. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal de 286 individuos, escogidos a través de un muestreo aleatorio bietápico en el área de salud Josué País García del municipio de Santiago de Cuba, durante el 2021. Las variables analizadas fueron antecedentes patológicos personales, consumo de productos del tabaco y alcohol, hábitos dietéticos y evaluación nutricional. Se utilizaron como medidas de resumen las frecuencias absolutas, el porcentaje y la tasa de prevalencia para variables cualitativas; la media aritmética y el mínimo e intervalo de confianza para variables cuantitativas. Resultados: El mayor riesgo de presentar hipertensión arterial figuró en las féminas (35,6 %) y existió alta prevalencia de fumadores en hombres (30,5 %) y mujeres (27,7 %). Asimismo, predominaron la exposición al humo de tabaco (fumadores pasivos) y el consumo de alcohol en edades tempranas (25-34 años). De los encuestados, 33,3 % resultó estar sobrepeso u obeso. Conclusiones: Los factores predisponentes a las enfermedades no transmisibles pudieran estar asociados con estilos de vida no saludables como el consumo de productos del tabaco y el alcohol, los hábitos dietéticos inadecuados y el sobrepeso.


Introduction: Nowadays non-communicable diseases are a serious problem that affects the health of the population, with a worrying upward tendency. Objective: To identify the predisposing factors to non-communicable diseases in patients from a health area. Methods: An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study of 286 individuals, chosen by a two-stage random sampling in Josué País García health area from Santiago de Cuba municipality, was carried out during 2021. The analyzed variables were personal pathological history, consumption of tobacco and alcohol products, dietary habits and nutritional evaluation. The absolute frequencies, percentage and prevalence rate were used as summary measures for qualitative variables; the arithmetic mean and the minimum and interval of confidence were used for quantitative variables. Results: The highest risk of presenting hypertension was in females (35.6%) and there was a high prevalence of smokers in men (30.5%) and women (27.7%). Also, the exposure to tobacco smoke (passive smokers) and alcohol consumption at an early age (25-34 years) prevailed. Of those interviewed, 33.3% was overweight and obese. Conclusions: The predisposing factors to non-communicable diseases could be associated with the non healthy lifestyle as the consumption of tobacco and alcohol products, inadequate dietary habits and overweight.


Subject(s)
Tobacco Use Disorder , Alcoholism , Noncommunicable Diseases , Nutrition Assessment , Diet
12.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(3): 199-203, July-sept. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521141

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The pathophysiology of appendicitis likely stems from obstruction of the appendiceal orifice leading to an increase in intraluminal and intramural pressure, resulting in small vessel occlusion and lymphatic stasis. Organ supplied by an end artery, such as the appendix, are more prone to the deleterious effects of arterial occlusion. The continuous cigarette smoking might be associated with a greater risk for developing atherosclerosis. Objectives: The aim is to evaluate the effect of cigarette smoking on the incidence of complications of acute appendicitis. Methods: Patients suffered from symptoms and signs suggesting acute appendicitis were examined and investigated. a multiple items collecting data questionnaire including smoking status and exclusion of confounders were constructed. The complicated and non-complicated appendicitis were compared concerning their smoking status. Results: Seventy-two Patients were included in this study; the mean age of studied patients was 24.13 ± 9.1 years. The age of 57% of patients were below the mean age and considered as younger age group, while the remaining 43% of patients were equal or above the mean age which considered as older age group. Thirty-three percentage of patients had ≥ 36 hours prehospital delay and considered as delay group, while the remaining 67% of patients had < 36 hours prehospital delay which considered no delay group, males constitute 54% of studied patients. smokers constitute 29% while the remaining 71% of studied patients were nonsmokers, 61.9% of the smokers developed complications of appendicitis. Conclusion: Perforated acute appendicitis is higher among current tobacco smokers. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Appendicitis/complications , Tobacco Use Disorder , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Impr.) ; 44(1): 33-38, jan.-abr. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1427879

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A peri-implantite é uma condição patológica associada a placa que ocorre nos tecidos de suporte ao redor de implantes dentários. Se caracteriza pela presença de sinais clínicos proveniente de inflamação na mucosa periimplantar conhecido como mucosite e subsequente perda progressiva do osso de suporte denominado como periimplatite. Objetivo: Classificar os principais sinais e sintomas clínicos da doença periimplantar a fim de estabelecer um diagnóstico, apresentar quais fatores devem ser avaliados durante o planejamento e manutenções de implantes dentários, os fatores de risco locais e sistêmicos, o tratamento e a importância do implantodontista com o periodontista realizar planejamento correto visando um prognostico favorável. Metodologia: Revisão de literatura foi realizada no PubMed, buscando artigos dos anos de 2010 a 2021. Resultado: Os estudos mostraram que o acúmulo de placa bacteriana nos implantes resultará no desenvolvimento de mucosite e podendo posteriormente se estabelecer a peri-implantite. Uma história de doença periodontal, tabagismo e falta de terapia de suporte devem ser considerados como indicadores de risco para o desenvolvimento de peri-implantite. Conclusão: É de suma importância o trabalho simultâneo do implantodontista com o periodontista com o intuito de se obter um bom planejamento e consequentemente reduzir danos a curto e longo prazo nos tecidos periimplantares. O sucesso do tratamento de doenças periimplantares está na prevenção, envolvendo reforço de higiene oral e manutenções periódicas(AU)


Introduction: A peri-implantitis is a plaqueassociated pathological condition that occurs in the supporting tissues around dental implants. If indifferent to the presence of proven clinical signs of inflammation in the peri-implant mucosa known as mucosite and subsequent progressive loss of supporting bone termed as peri-implatite. Objective: To classify the main signs and clinical signs of peri-implant disease an objective to establish a diagnosis, present the factors to be adopted during the planning and maintenance of dental implants, the local and systemic risk factors, the treatment and the importance of the implantodontist with the periodontist carrying out correct planning, a favorable prognosis. Methodology: A literature review was performed in PubMed, looking for articles from 2010 to 2021. Results: Advanced studies show that the accumulation of bacterial plaque in implants will result in the development of mucositis and may subsequently establish peri-implantitis. A history of periodontal disease, smoking and lack of supportive therapy should be considered as risk indicators for the development of peri-implantitis. Conclusion: The simultaneous work of the implantodontist with the periodontist is of paramount importance in order to obtain a good planning and consequently reduce short and long-term damage to the peri-implant tissues. The successful treatment of peri-implant diseases lies in prevention, involving reinforcement of oral hygiene and periodic maintenance(AU)


Subject(s)
Dentists , Peri-Implantitis , Peri-Implantitis/diagnosis , Peri-Implantitis/therapy , Oral Hygiene , Periodontal Diseases , Tobacco Use Disorder , Dental Implants , Dental Plaque , Mucositis
14.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 36(1): e368, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512933

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: As calcificações de artérias coronárias (CAC) mostram-se como fator preditivo de doenças cardiovasculares (DCV). A tomografia computadorizada (TC) de tórax com protocolo de aquisição de baixa dose apresenta acurácia na identificação de CAC e propicia achados incidentais dessas calcificações, que são comumente negligenciados. Este estudo analisará a prevalência de achados incidentais de calcificação em artérias coronárias em indivíduos não cardiopatas submetidos à TC de tórax. Métodos: Estudo transversal consecutivo de caráter analítico e descritivo. Foram incluídos indivíduos de ambos os sexos que realizaram TC de tórax por encaminhamento, acima de 18 anos e não cardiopatas. A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio de prontuários e ficha de anamnese auto aplicada. As variáveis referentes às CAC e à extensão do comprometimento foram obtidas a partir da reavaliação das imagens de TC de tórax disponíveis no sistema da instituição. Os exames foram anonimizados e avaliados por dois médicos radiologistas experientes. Considerou-se como estatisticamente significativo p≤0,05. Resultados: Foram analisados 397 exames. Encontrou-se prevalência de calcificações em 176 (44%) dos casos. A existência dessas calcificações coronárias está relacionada à idade (p<0,001). As calcificações possuem relação com o sexo (p = 0,03) com maior razão de chance de desenvolvimento em homens (odds ratio [OR] = 1,55). O tabagismo (p<0,001), o sedentarismo (p<0,001), a hipertensão arterial sistêmica (p<0,001), o diabetes mellitus (p = 0,04) e as dislipidemias (p<0,001) mostraram associação positiva. Conclusão: A prevalência de achados incidentais de CAC foi de 44%; variam em maior número entre leve e grave; maior razão de chance no sexo masculino e aumento da prevalência com a idade. Portanto, a TC de tórax mostra-se um efetivo método para avaliar as CAC, e juntamente com a história clínica do paciente pode ser utilizada para medir os fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares e intervir no desfecho do quadro.(AU)


Introduction: Coronary artery calcifications (CAC) are shown to be a predictive factor of cardiovascular diseases. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest with a low-dose acquisition protocol is accurate in identifying CAC and provides incidental findings of these calcifications, which are commonly overlooked. This study will analyze the prevalence of incidental findings of calcification in coronary arteries in non-cardiac individuals undergoing chest CT. Methods: Consecutive cross-sectional study of an analytical and descriptive nature. Individuals of both genders who underwent chest CT by referral, over 18 years of age and without heart disease were included. Data collection was carried out using medical records and a self-applied anamnesis form. The variables referring to the CAC and the extension of the impairment were obtained from the reassessment of the chest CT images available in the institution's system. The exams were anonymized and evaluated by two experienced radiologists. P≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: 397 exams were analyzed. A prevalence of calcifications was found in 176 (44%) of the cases. The existence of these coronary calcifications is related to age (p<0.001). Calcifications are related to gender (p = 0.03) with a higher odds ratio of development in men (odds ratio [OR] = 1.55). Smoking (p<0.001), sedentary lifestyle (p<0.001), systemic arterial hypertension (p<0.001), Diabetes Mellitus (p = 0.04), and dyslipidemia (p<0.001) showed a positive association. Conclusion: The prevalence of incidental CAC findings was 44%; vary in greater numbers between mild and severe; higher odds ratio in males and increased prevalence with age. Therefore, chest CT proves to be an effective method to assess CAC, and together with the patient's clinical history, it can be used to measure risk factors for CVD and intervene in the outcome of the condition.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Incidental Findings , Vascular Calcification/physiopathology , Vascular Calcification/prevention & control , Vascular Calcification/diagnostic imaging , Tobacco Use Disorder/etiology , Chest Pain/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Hemoptysis/etiology , Hypertension/etiology
15.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 12(1): 352, abr. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1509732

ABSTRACT

El cáncer de cabeza y cuello comprende a todos aquellos tumores que se desarrollan en el tracto aerodigestivo superior, una de las características de éstos es su diversidad, que no es solo desde el punto de vista histológico y etiológico, sino que incluyen diversas formas de presentación, progresión y enfoques terapéuticos. Son de causa multifactorial, siendo el alcohol y el tabaco los principales factores de riesgo asociados; en los últimos años se ha relacionado a ciertos virus con potencial oncogénico con la génesis tumoral, entre ellos al Virus del Papiloma Humano, lo que ha permitido modificar el sistema de estadificación tumor primario-nodos linfáticos cancerosos-metástasis (TNM); presentándolo ahora en dos grandes grupos acorde a la Proteína supresora de tumores P16: P16+ y P16-,los cuales tienen características y manejo diferente. En vista de la heterogeneidad de la enfermedad, son diversos los tratamientos que se ha empleados para el manejo de la misma, entre ellos cirugía, radioterapia, quimioterapia e/o inmunoterapia; ésta última terapéutica, está dirigida hacia la estimulación del sistema inmune del paciente con la finalidad de generar la destrucción de las células tumorales, se realizan previo a una intervención quirúrgica para reducir el tamaño del tumor. Una forma destacable, es la del bloqueo de puntos de control inmunitarios, especialmente hacia proteínas de control inmune moduladoras de respuesta de células T, como los anti-PD-1 y los anti-CTLA-4. La inmunoterapia cada vez va tomando más protagonismo en oncología, en especial las formas de evasión de las reacciones inmunitarias por parte de las células cancerígenas(AU)


Head and neck cancer includes all those tumors that develop in the upper aerodigestive tract, one of the characteristics of these is their heterogeneity, which is not only from the histological and etiological, but also include various forms of presentation, progression and therapeutic approaches.They have a multifactorial cause, with alcohol and tobacco being the main associated risk factors, however, in recent year scertain viruses with oncogenic potential have been linked to tumor genesis, including HPV, which has made it possible tomodify the TNM staging system; now presenting it in two large groups, P16+ and P16-, which have different characteristics and management. In view of the heterogeneity of the disease, there are various treatments that have been used to manageit, including surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and/ orimmunotherapy which will be determined taking into account the location and tumor extension. The latter treatment, is aimedat stimulating the patient's immune system in order to generate the destruction of tumor cells, are performed prior to a surgical intervention to reduce the size of the tumor. A remarkable therapy is that of blocking immune checkpoints, especially anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA. Immunotherapy is becoming more and more prominent, however, there is still much to discover, so we believe that we should continue investigating the ways of evasion of immune reactions by cancer cells(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tobacco Use Disorder , Alcohol Drinking , Risk Factors , Head and Neck Neoplasms/etiology , Immunotherapy , T-Lymphocytes , Papillomaviridae/pathogenicity
16.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(1): 511-530, Jan-Abr. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1417859

ABSTRACT

No fim de 2019 iniciou-se uma das maiores crises da saúde pública global em Wuhan, China. Essa emergência foi o aparecimento do SARS-CoV-2 e da doença COVID-19, uma síndrome respiratória aguda de alta transmissibilidade. A declaração da pandemia pela OMS em março de 2020 fez com que o mundo tomasse diversas medidas para o combate e contenção da doença. Inicialmente o isolamento social e lockdown foram as principais iniciativas, já que não havia formas de tratamento ou prevenção da doença. Essas medidas restritivas geraram uma mudança de hábito da população que deflagrou sérios comprometimentos físicos e psicológicos. Uma das consequências foi o aumento do uso de substâncias de abuso e, consequentemente, do transtornos por uso de substâncias, dentre elas o tabaco. Durante a pandemia o consumo de cigarro aumentou de 10 a 30% no mundo, o tabagismo é a principal causa de morte evitável e fator de risco para diversas doenças. Conjuntamente ao álcool, a nicotina têm um poder aditivo superior a muitas drogas ilícitas. A combinação dos transtornos por uso de substâncias e a COVID-19 acabam por ter um efeito sinérgico, dessa forma, buscamos integrar aspectos neuroquímicos, cognitivos e comportamentais que levaram ao aumento do consumo e/ou recaída nicotina e a terapêutica utilizada.


One of the biggest global public health crisis began in Wuhan, China at the end of 2019. That emergency was the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and the disease COVID-19, a highly transmissible acute respiratory syndrome. The pandemic declaration by the WHO in March 2020 caused the world to take on several measures to combat and contain the virus. Initially, social isolation and lockdown were the main initiatives, as there were no forms of treatment or prevention of the disease. These restrictive measures generate a change in the habit of the population that triggered serious physical and psychological impairments. One of the consequences was the increase in the use of substances of abuse and, consequently, substance use disorder, including tobacco. During the pandemic, cigarette consumption increased from 10 to 30% worldwide, whereas smoking is the main cause of preventable death and a risk factor for several diseases. Along with alcohol, nicotine has a greater addictive power than illicit drugs. Substance use disorders and COVID-19 have a synergistic effect, in this way, we seek to integrate neurochemical, cognitive and behavioral aspects that led to increased consumption and/or relapse in nicotine consumption and the used therapy.


Una de las mayores crisis mundiales de salud pública comenzó en Wuhan (China) a finales de 2019. Esa emergencia fue la aparición del SARS-CoV-2 y la enfermedad COVID-19, un síndrome respiratorio agudo altamente transmisible. La declaración de pandemia por parte de la OMS en marzo de 2020 hizo que el mundo adoptara varias medidas para combatir y contener el virus. Inicialmente, el aislamiento social y el encierro fueron las principales iniciativas, ya que no existían formas de tratamiento o prevención de la enfermedad. Estas medidas restrictivas generaron un cambio en los hábitos de la población que desencadenó graves alteraciones físicas y psicológicas. Una de las consecuencias fue el aumento del consumo de sustancias de abuso y, en consecuencia, el trastorno por consumo de sustancias, incluido el tabaco. Durante la pandemia, el consumo de cigarrillos aumentó del 10 al 30% en todo el mundo, mientras que el tabaquismo es la principal causa de muerte evitable y un factor de riesgo de varias enfermedades. Junto con el alcohol, la nicotina tiene un mayor poder adictivo que las drogas ilícitas. Los trastornos por uso de sustancias y la COVID-19 tienen un efecto sinérgico, de esta manera, buscamos integrar los aspectos neuroquímicos, cognitivos y conductuales que llevaron al aumento del consumo y/o recaída en el consumo de nicotina y la terapia utilizada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tobacco Use Disorder/epidemiology , Pandemics/history , COVID-19/epidemiology , Anxiety , Recurrence , Epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Varenicline/therapeutic use , Psychological Distress
17.
REME rev. min. enferm ; 27: 1518, jan.-2023. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1518177

ABSTRACT

Introdução: o uso do tabaco em suas diferentes formas continua a ser uma das principais causas de morte evitáveis no Brasil. Com uma história de sucesso notável, o Brasil alcançou uma das maiores reduções significativas na prevalência do tabagismo desde 1990. No entanto, é preocupante que a taxa de declínio do consumo de tabaco tenha diminuído nos últimos anos, conforme sugerem as pesquisas. Objetivos: o presente estudo teve como objetivo comparar os resultados de três pesquisas domiciliares realizadas pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). Métodos: foi realizada a comparação da prevalência do uso de tabaco entre entrevistados com 18 anos ou mais, assim como foi avaliada a porcentagem de mudanças na prevalência entre 2008, 2013 e 2019, usando dados de três pesquisas: The Global Tobacco Adult Survey, do ano de 2008, e a Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Brasil, dos anos de 2013 e 2019. Além disso, analisamos a prevalência no Brasil e seus estados de acordo com idade, gênero, nível educacional e raça. Resultados: a prevalência do tabagismo ativo diminuiu 19% entre 2008 e 2013, passando de 18,2% (IC 95%: 17,7;18,7%), em 2008, para 14,7% (IC 95%: 14,2;15,2%), em 2013. No entanto, em 2019, a prevalência foi de 12,6% (IC 95%: 12,2;13,0%), revelando uma redução de 14,3%. O tabagismo foi maior entre a população com baixo nível de escolaridade, status de renda mais baixo e raça/cor da pele preta e parda. Conclusão: a prevalência do tabagismo diminuiu no Brasil nas últimas três décadas. No entanto, recentemente, houve uma redução na intensidade da queda, exigindo atenção e análise cuidadosa das estratégias de prevenção e abandono do tabagismo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Tobacco Use Disorder/epidemiology , Health Strategies , Smokers/statistics & numerical data , Health Policy , Brazil , Residence Characteristics , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Smoking Prevention
18.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e20883, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429966

ABSTRACT

Abstract Nicotine addiction leads to in a huge burden on public health and the economy worldwide. Resveratrol (3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene) is the most well-known polyphenolic stilbenoid. Resveratrol was shown to exhibit positive effects on numerous mechanisms that are important for drug and substance addiction. Thus, this study aimed to examine the effect of resveratrol on nicotine addiction. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatment with nicotine (0.5 mg/kg) significantly enhanced time spent in the nicotine-paired compartment. Resveratrol (50 and 75 mg/kg, i.p.) and varenicline (2 mg/kg, i.p.) co-administered with nicotine during the 3-day conditioning period effectively diminished the acquisition of nicotine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP). On the other hand, the administration of resveratrol (50 and 75 mg/kg, i.p.) and varenicline (2 mg/kg, i.p.) decreased the low dose (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) nicotine-induced reinstatement. The results suggest that resveratrol and varenicline inhibit the acquisition and reinstatement of nicotine's reward properties. Resveratrol displayed similar results in the CPP phases as obtained with the reference drug varenicline. In conclusion, resveratrol could be beneficial as an adjuvant pharmacotherapy for nicotine addiction; however, more investigation is needed to completely explain this property.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Tobacco Use Disorder/diagnosis , Resveratrol/adverse effects , Varenicline/adverse effects
19.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 47: e9, 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1424249

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo. Identificar las estrategias no farmacológicas para reducir y cesar el consumo de tabaco dirigidas a la comunidad estudiantil universitaria de pregrado. Métodos. Revisión sistemática clásica de literatura científica experimental publicada en los últimos 20 años en bases de datos y literatura gris. El algoritmo de búsqueda consistió en utilizar la máxima cantidad de terminología que describiera la pregunta de investigación y así disponer del mayor número de resultados en las diferentes bases de datos. Los cuadros de evidencias se construyeron con el instrumento FLC 3.0® y Excel 2021®. La herramienta GRADE permitió evaluar la calidad de evidencia científica. El riesgo de sesgos se estimó con base a las recomendaciones del Manual Cochrane de revisiones sistemáticas de intervenciones. Se suministrő un resumen narrativo de los estudios incluidos con alto grado de heterogeneidad establecida por estadística I2. Resultados. Se realizó la búsqueda en bases de datos y literatura gris y se obtuvieron 40 823 artículos. Luego de la aplicación de los criterios de inclusión y exclusión, se incluyeron 7 artículos: un estudio con impacto en casación, dos estudios sobre reducción y cuatro estudios con efectos tanto en la reducción como la cesación del consumo de tabaco. La calidad metodológica evaluada mediante la herramienta GRADE fue "buena". El riesgo de sesgos de forma global fue "bajo". La alta heterogeneidad clínica y metodológica de los estudios impidió su agrupación para la construcción del metaanálisis. Conclusión. Los datos extraídos de los siete artículos muestran la capacidad de las intervenciones no farmacológicas para reducir y cesar el consumo de tabaco en la población estudiantil universitaria, aunque la evidencia sea aún limitada. Se considera necesario realizar más estudios para elaborar recomendaciones fuertes para su implementación.


ABSTRACT Objective. Identify non-pharmacological strategies for reduction and cessation of tobacco use, aimed at the community of undergraduate university students. Methods. Classic systematic review of experimental scientific literature published in the last 20 years in databases and grey literature. The search algorithm consisted of using the maximum amount of terminology that described the research question, resulting in the largest number of results in the different databases. Evidence tables were constructed with the FLC 3.0 assessment tool and Excel 2021. Use of the GRADE tool enabled assessment of the quality of scientific evidence. Risk of bias was estimated in accordance with recommendations in the Cochrane Handbook of Systematic Reviews of Interventions. A narrative summary of the included studies was provided, given the high degree of heterogeneity established by I2 statistics. Results. A search of databases and grey literature obtained 40 823 articles. After the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, seven articles were included: one study with impact on cessation, two studies on reduction, and four studies with an impact on both the reduction and cessation of tobacco use. The methodological quality was "good" according to the GRADE tool. The overall risk of bias was 'low'. The high clinical and methodological heterogeneity of the studies prevented grouping for the construction of a meta-analysis. Conclusion. Data from the seven articles show that non-pharmacological interventions can result in reduction and cessation of tobacco use in the university student population, although the evidence is still limited. Further studies are necessary in order to develop strong recommendations for implementation.


RESUMO Objetivo. Identificar estratégias não farmacológicas para reduzir e suspender o consumo de tabaco dirigidas à comunidade de estudantes universitários de graduação. Métodos. Revisão sistemática clássica da literatura científica experimental publicada nos últimos 20 anos em bases de dados e da literatura cinzenta. O algoritmo de busca consistiu em usar a quantidade máxima de terminologia que descrevesse a pergunta da pesquisa e, assim, dispor do maior número de resultados nas diversas bases de dados. As tabelas de evidências foram construídas usando as ferramentas FLC 3.0® e Excel 2021®. A ferramenta GRADE permitiu avaliar a qualidade das evidências científicas. O risco de viés foi estimado com base nas recomendações do Manual Cochrane de Revisões Sistemáticas de Intervenções. Foi fornecido um resumo narrativo de estudos com alto grau de heterogeneidade estabelecida pela estatística I2. Resultados. Foram pesquisadas bases de dados e literatura cinzenta e foram obtidos 40 823 artigos. Após a aplicação dos critérios de inclusão e exclusão, foram incluídos sete artigos: um estudo com impacto na interrupção, dois estudos sobre a redução e quatro estudos com efeitos tanto na redução quanto na interrupção do consumo de tabaco. A qualidade metodológica segundo a avaliação com a ferramenta GRADE foi "boa". O risco geral de viés foi "baixo". A alta heterogeneidade clínica e metodológica dos estudos impediu o agrupamento para a construção de meta-análise. Conclusão. Os dados dos sete artigos mostram a capacidade de intervenções não farmacológicas para reduzir e suspender o uso do tabaco pela população estudantil universitária, embora as evidências ainda sejam limitadas. Considera-se necessário fazer mais estudos para formular recomendações sólidas para implementação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tobacco Use Disorder/therapy , Tobacco Use Cessation/methods , Students , Universities , Risk Assessment , Smoking Prevention
20.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 22: e239237, Jan.-Dec. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1399762

ABSTRACT

Aim: To estimate the prevalence and associated factors of self-reported depressive symptoms in undergraduate and graduate dental students. Methods: The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) was applied, and only the depression domain was verified. A structured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic, behavioral, and COVID-19 pandemic-related fear variables. Academic performance was assessed based on academic records, ranging from 0 (worst possible grade) to 10 (best possible grade). Respondents included 408 regularly enrolled dental students. Bi- and multivariate analyses were performed using Poisson regression with robust variance to verify the association between at least moderate depressive symptoms and independent variables. Results: The prevalence of at least moderate depression was 40.5% among undergraduate students and 26% among graduate students. The prevalence of fear and anxiety due to the COVID-19 pandemic was 96.1% among undergraduate students and 93.5% among graduate students. In the final multivariate analysis, being female (prevalence ratio [PR]:2.01; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]:1.36­2.96) was associated with a higher PR for depression. Conversely, no exposure to smoking (PR:0.54; 95%CI:0.36­0.82) and a final academic performance average ≥7.0 (PR:0.56; 95%CI:0.41­0.76) was associated with a lower PR for depression. Finally, among graduate students, a non-heterosexual orientation was associated with a higher PR for depression (PR:6.70; 95%CI:2.21­20.29). Conclusion: Higher rates of depression symptoms were observed in female undergraduates, students with lower academic performance and smoking exposure, and graduate dental students with a non-heterosexual orientation


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Students, Dental/psychology , Tobacco Use Disorder , Depression/epidemiology , Academic Performance/psychology , Sexual Behavior , Sex Factors , Prevalence , Risk Factors
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL