Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 135
Filter
1.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(1): 75-87, Jan-Abr. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362684

ABSTRACT

O cigarro eletrônico surgiu como uma tentativa para minimizar a dependência ao uso de tabaco, entretanto, engloba controvérsias e dúvidas acerca das reais implicações para o organismo humano. Diante disso, o presente estudo tem como objetivo realizar uma revisão da literatura a fim de relacionar o uso de cigarro eletrônico com suas consequências para os humanos. Os estudos analisados relatam experimentos in vitro e in vivo em camundongos, demonstrando menor concentração de poluentes e nocividades no cigarro eletrônico comparado ao convencional, porém, seu potencial efeito maléfico está relacionado à composição do e-líquido, à maneira do uso e à variedade de aromas presentes nos produtos. Além disso, foram verificadas lesões celulares, hiperreatividade das vias aéreas, liberação de citocinas ­ IL-8, IL-10 e TNF, redução da ação antimicrobiana de queratinócitos e potencial apoptose nas células alveolares. Foi observado também um aumento em até cinco vezes da concentração de carboxihemoglobina em comparação ao cigarro comum e um aumento na auto renovação de células de adenocarcinoma pulmonar de células não pequenas, devido à expressão de SOX2. Observa-se também que em casos de DPOC, o cigarro eletrônico não apresenta agravamentos na fisiologia respiratória, contrapondo outras ocorrências como asma, pneumonia, câncer de pulmão e doenças infecciosas que podem ser ocasionadas ou exacerbadas pelo seu uso. Contudo, pelo curto prazo de observação de seus efeitos, não é possível determinar com precisão a segurança dos cigarros eletrônicos, dessa forma, faz-se necessário que mais pesquisas longitudinais sejam desenvolvidas, auxiliando, assim, na construção de evidências sobre a segurança dos cigarros eletrônicos e na regulamentação futura do produto.


Electronic cigarettes emerged as an attempt to minimize tobacco dependence. However, its use is surrounded by controversies and doubts about the real implications for the human organism. Therefore, this study aims at performing a review of the most recent literature to corelate the use of e-cigarettes with their consequences for the human body. The analyzed studies relate in vitro and in vivo experiments on mice, demonstrating lower concentration of pollutants and harmfulness in the electronic cigarette than in conventional cigarettes. However, its potential harmful effect is related to the composition of the e-liquid, in its use and in the variety of aromas in the products. In addition, cellular lesions, airway hyperreactivity, release of IL-8, IL-10 and TNF cytokines could be observed, as well as reduced keratinocyte antimicrobial action and potential apoptosis in alveolar cells. An increase of up to five-fold the concentration of carboxyhemoglobin in comparison to ordinary cigarettes and an increase in self-renewal of non-small pulmonary adenocarcinoma cells due to the expression of SOX2 have also been related. It could also be observed that in COPD cases, e-cigarettes do not present worsening in respiratory physiology, which contrasts with other occurrences such as asthma, pneumonia, lung cancer, and infectious diseases that can be caused or exacerbated by its use. However, due to the short term of observation of the effects, the safety of e-cigarettes could not be accurately determined, thus, the need for further longitudinal research is necessary, which could be used to help build evidence about the safety of e-cigarettes and also to create future regulation of the product.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Rats , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems/instrumentation , Lung Diseases , Pneumonia/complications , Asthma/complications , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Smoking , Disease , Lung Injury , Tobacco Use , Vaping , Smokers , E-Cigarette Vapor/adverse effects , Lung Neoplasms
2.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 25(1): 43-51, jan-abr. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151409

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Usuários do sistema de saúde com doenças crônicas não transmissíveis devem estar em acompanhamento constante para evitar complicações em seu estado de saúde. Objetivo: Analisar os indicadores laboratoriais de saúde em usuários de uma Unidade Básica de Saúde com e sem o diagnóstico para a diabetes e hipertensão. Métodos: A amostra foi de 231 usuários de uma unidade básica de saúde da cidade de Santarém-PA, maiores de idade, que foram agrupados em pacientes com DM/HAS (DM/HAS; n=144), e sem o diagnóstico para DM/HAS (AUS; n=87). As coletas envolveram informações socioeconômicas, clínicas e laboratoriais. Os dados foram tratados com estatística descritiva e inferencial, adotando-se p<0.05. Resultados: Tanto no DM/HAS como no AUS predominou o sexo feminino, estado civil casado, com vínculo empregatício, cor de pele parda, com 4-7 anos de estudo, renda de 1-2 salários, não tabagistas, não etilista e faixa etária de 38-77 anos. A HAS foi a doença mais presente de forma geral, bem como por sexo. Identificou-se no DM/HAS valores menores para a taxa de filtração glomerular (TFG) e maiores valores para a glicemia, triglicerídeos, colesterol total, LDL-c e não HDL-c. Conclusão: De acordo com a proposta desenvolvida, destaca-se que os usuários com DM/HAS apresentam associação positiva para valores alterados de glicemia, colesterol total, não HDL-c, triglicerídeos, TFG e para a presença da síndrome metabólica e risco cardiovascular moderado/alto.


Introduction: Users of the health system with chronic non-communicable diseases must be constantly monitored to avoid complications in their health status. Objective: Analyze laboratory health indicators in users of a Basic Health Unit with and without a diagnosis for diabetes and hypertension. Methods: The sample consisted of 231 users of a basic health unit in the city of Santarém-PA, all of them of age, grouped into patients with DM/SAH (DM/SAH; n=144), and without the diagnosis for DM/SAH (ABS; n=87). The collections involved socioeconomic, clinical, and laboratory information. The data were treated with descriptive and inferential statistics, adopting p <0.05. Results: In both DM/SAH and ABS groups, there was a predominance of female individuals, married status, employed, brown skin color, with 4-7 years of study, income of 1-2 salaries, non-smokers, non-alcoholic drinkers, and aged between 38-77 years. SAH was the most common disease in general, as well as when analyzing by gender. Lower values for the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were identified in the DM/SAH and higher values for the glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-c, and non-HDL-c. Conclusion: According to the proposal of this paper, it is noteworthy that users with DM/SAH have a positive association for altered values of blood glucose, total cholesterol, non-HDL-c, triglycerides, GFR, and for the presence of metabolic syndrome and moderate/high cardiovascular risk.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Health Evaluation/statistics & numerical data , Health Centers , Health Status Indicators , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Triglycerides/blood , Blood Glucose , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cholesterol/blood , Chronic Disease/nursing , Metabolic Syndrome/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Hypertension/diagnosis , Cholesterol, HDL , Cholesterol, LDL/blood
3.
Florianópolis; Secretaria de Estado da Saúde; 1. ed. rev. e atual; 2021. 93 p. Tab, graf.
Monography in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-SC, CNS-BR | ID: biblio-1355058

ABSTRACT

O Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) tem papel fundamental no auxílio às pessoas que desejam parar de fumar. Para tanto, é muito importante que os profissionais atuantes na atenção básica e assistência à saúde estejam preparados para oferecer esse auxílio. Considerando esse contexto, a Diretoria de Vigilância Epidemiológica da Secretaria de Estado da Saúde de Santa Catarina (DIVE/SES/SC), por meio de sua Gerência de Análises Epidemiológicas e Doenças e Agravos Não Transmissíveis (GADNT) e a Escola de Saúde Pública de Santa Catarina (ESPSC) disponibilizam o curso "Abordagem e Tratamento do Tabagismo".


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tobacco Use Disorder/therapy , Smoking Prevention/methods , National Health Programs , Preventive Health Services , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Tobacco Use Disorder/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Smoking Cessation , Training Courses
4.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 31: 31415, 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354543

ABSTRACT

A forma extracutânea pulmonar da esporotricose, uma infecção causada por espécies geneticamente distintas de um fungo dimórfico do gênero Sporothrix, é rara, com poucos casos relatados na literatura. Trata-se de um caso de uma mulher de 55 anos, residente da região do Barreiro de Belo Horizonte/Minas Gerais, que buscou o serviço de infectologia de um hospital público de Belo Horizonte com história de emagrecimento, dispneia aos pequenos esforços, tosse crônica e calafrios vespertinos de três anos de evolução. Foi tratada para pneumonia bacteriana, em cinco ocasiões, sem melhora clínica. Apresentou tomografia computadorizada de tórax com cavitação residual e lesões escavadas pulmonares. A paciente foi internada com quadro de dispneia aos pequenos esforços, tosse e expectoração purulenta, sendo sua cultura de escarro positiva para Sporothrix spp. Foi instituído o tratamento padrão ouro para esporotricose pulmonar, inicialmente, com itraconazol, 200 mg, duas vezes ao dia, entretanto, após 10 meses, a melhora clínica e radiológica não foi satisfatória e optou-se pela internação a administração de anfotericina B complexo lipídico endovenosa 4 mg/kg/dia. Em menos de 1 mês a paciente apresentou piora do quadro e evoluiu a óbito, apesar de ter recebido 2g de dose acumulada de anfotericina


The pulmonary extracutaneous form of sporotrichosis, an infection caused by genetically distinct species of a dimorphic fungus of the genus Sporothrix, is rare, with few cases reported in the literature. This is a case of a 55-year-old woman, resident of the Barreiro region in Belo Horizonte/ Minas Gerais, who sought the infectious disease service of a public hospital in Belo Horizonte with a history of weight loss, dyspnea at small efforts, chronic cough and three-year-old vespertinus chills. She was treated for bacterial pneumonia on five occasions without clinical improvement. He presented computed tomography of the chest with residual cavitation and excavated pulmonary lesions. The patient was hospitalized with dyspnea on small efforts, cough and purulent sputum, and her sputum culture was positive for Sporothrix spp. The gold standard treatment for pulmonary sporotrichosis was instituted, initially with itraconazole, 200 mg twice a day, however, after 10 months, the clinical and radiological improvement was not satisfactory and the administration of intravenous amphotericin B lipid complex 4 mg/kg/day was chosen. In less than 1 month the patient presented worsening of the condition and died, despite receiving 2g of accumulated dose of amphotericin B lipid complex.


Subject(s)
Female , Middle Aged , Sporotrichosis , Immunocompetence , Lung Diseases, Fungal , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Immunosuppression/adverse effects
5.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 88(1): 27-32, ene.- jun. 2020. tab, map
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128540

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: Aproximadamente un sexto de la población mundial tiene el hábito de fumar para una prevalencia de 24%. La OMS considera que, de no cambiar las tendencias durante el siglo XXI, el tabaco será responsable de la muerte prematura de mil millones de personas. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia del consumo de tabaco y la medición de desigualdades socioeconómicas en la población Lenca, Municipio de Intibucá, Intibucá, Honduras, 2015. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal con análisis de asociación. Se aplicó formulario estructurado para recolectar datos generales, sociodemográficos y tabaquismo, previo consentimiento informado. Dependencia al tabaco fue evaluada con test Faguerström. Se prepararon bases de datos en Epi-info-7 y SPSS-18. Se calcularon razones de disparidad (OR). Resultados: De un total de 602 entrevistados,se identificaron 167 fumadores para una prevalencia de consumo de tabaco de 27.7%. El 76.6% (128) de fumadores tuvo dependencia baja a nicotina y 23.4% (39) dependencia moderada. La media de ingreso familiar mensual fue USD$193 en fumadores y USD$168 en no fumadores. El 40.1% (67) de fumadores gastó mensualmente en tabaco un mínimo de USD$95. No se encontró relación entre consumo de tabaco e ingreso familiar mensual (OR=0.87, IC95% 0.7-1.0) ni con analfabetismo (OR=1.20, IC95% 0.7-2.0). Discusión: No se observaron diferencias significativas entre consumo de tabaco y las variables socioeconómicas, se encontró una elevada prevalencia de consumo de tabaco en esta población en relación con otros estudios realizados en el país. Los resultados apoyan la necesidad de políticas enfocadas en prevención del tabaco en indígenas...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Ethnic Groups/classification , Tobacco Use , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Health Status Disparities
6.
Rev. colomb. cancerol ; 24(2): 88-91, abr.-jun. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144325

ABSTRACT

Resumen El carcinoma de célula pequeña (CPCP) o microcítico de pulmón es un subtipo de cáncer de pulmón que típicamente se ha asociado al tabaquismo y que se caracteriza por su agresividad y mal pronóstico a corto plazo. Como entidad, puede metastatizar en cualquier órgano, siendo las metástasis pancreáticas raras y la mayoría de las veces asintomáticas. Por ello, la presencia de una pancreatitis neoplásica, como en el caso presentado, es excepcional, y aún más cuando presenta refractariedad al tratamiento médico convencional y responde al tratamiento citotóxico sistémico. Por todo ello, se expone esta experiencia clínica y se debate la presencia de esta rara entidad y su manejo.


Abstract Small-cell lung carcinoma is a subtype of neoplasm that has been typically associated with smoking; it is characterized by its aggressiveness and poor prognosis in the short term. As an entity, it can metastasize in any organ, but pancreatic metastases are rare and most of the time asymptomatic. Therefore, the presence of neoplastic pancreatitis as in our case is exceptional; even more when it presents refractoriness to conventional medical treatment, responding instead to systemic cytotoxic treatment. Therefore, we expose our clinical experience and discuss the presence of this rare entity and its management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pancreatic Neoplasms/secondary , Pancreatitis/etiology , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Pancreatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Pancreatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Acute Disease , Cisplatin/therapeutic use , Etoposide/therapeutic use , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma/drug therapy , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma/diagnostic imaging , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Medisan ; 24(2)mar.-abr. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1098397

ABSTRACT

Se describe el caso clínico de un paciente de 51 años de edad con antecedente patológico personal de ser un fumador empedernido, el cual acudió al Cuerpo de Guardia del Hospital Provincial Docente Dr. Joaquín Castillo Duany de Santiago de Cuba por presentar disnea asociada a cifras elevadas de tensión arterial y livedo reticular en la cara anterior abdominal. Debido al cuadro clínico y a los resultados de los exámenes complementarios, fue trasladado a la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, donde posteriormente se le diagnosticó pancreatitis aguda grave, tras realizar una laparotomía exploratoria y hallar zonas isquémicas en las asas intestinales. El paciente mantuvo una evolución tórpida y falleció a causa de una disfunción múltiple de órganos.


The case report of a 51 years patient with personal pathological history of being a heavy smoker is described, who went to the emergency room of Dr. Joaquín Castillo Duany Teaching Provincial Hospital in Santiago de Cuba due to a dyspnea associated with high figures of blood pressure and livedo reticularis in the abdominal anterior face. Due to the clinical pattern and the results of the complementary tests, he was referred to the Intensive Cares Unit, where later on he was diagnosed serious acute pancreatitis, after an exploratory laparotomy where ischemic areas in the intestinal loops were found. The patient maintained a torpid clinical course and he died because of a multiple dysfunction of organs.


Subject(s)
Pancreatitis/diagnosis , Multiple Organ Failure , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Hypertension , Intensive Care Units
9.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 49(1): e280, ene.-mar. 2020. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126681

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El tabaquismo es una enfermedad adictiva crónica la cual constituye la causa de muerte prevenible más importante en los países desarrollados y la de mayor morbilidad y mortalidad antes que cualquier otra enfermedad crónica (hipertensión arterial, diabetes mellitus). Se considera una epidemia de carácter universal y es una gravosa carga para el individuo, la familia y la sociedad. Objetivo: Determinar el nivel de conocimientos sobre el hábito de fumar, relacionado con la cavidad bucal en adultos fumadores. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con 55 pacientes fumadores de ambos sexos. Se aplicó un cuestionario para realizar un diagnóstico de conocimientos sobre el daño que ocasiona el tabaquismo en la cavidad bucal. Resultados: El 76,33 por ciento de los sujetos presentaron un nivel de conocimiento insuficiente, el 92,72 por ciento conocían la relación con el cáncer bucal, el 72,72 por ciento los beneficios de abandonar el hábito y el 53,36 por ciento la relación con los dientes, sin embargo el 83,63 por ciento presentó un nivel de conocimiento insuficiente en relación con los tejidos periodontales. Conclusiones: El nivel de conocimientos en la población estudiada fue insuficiente(AU)


Introduction: Smoking is a chronic addictive disease which is the most important preventable cause of death in developed countries and the one with the highest morbidity and mortality before any other chronic disease (hypertension, diabetes mellitus). It is considered an epidemic of universal character and is a burden for the individual, the family and society. Objective: To determine the level of knowledge about smoking habit, related to the oral cavity in adult smokers. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with 55 smokers patients of both sexes. A questionnaire was applied to make a diagnosis of knowledge about the damage caused by smoking in the oral cavity. Results: 76.33 percent of the subjects presented an insufficient level of knowledge, 92.72 percent knew the relationship with oral cancer, 72.72 percent the benefits of quitting and 53.36 percent the relationship with teeth, however, 83.63 percent presented an insufficient level of knowledge in relation to periodontal tissues. Conclusions: The level of knowledge in the population studied was insufficient(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Mouth Neoplasms/diagnosis , Chronic Disease/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires , Knowledge , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
10.
Arch. Clin. Psychiatry (Impr.) ; 47(1): 19-24, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088743

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Sleep disorders are common in psychiatric diseases. Panic disorder (PD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are two major anxiety disorders that are associated with sleep disorders. Objective We hypothesized that poor sleep quality continues in PD and GAD during remission. Therefore, in this study we aimed to compare the sleep quality of patients with PD and GAD to that of healthy controls. Methods The study included patients with PD (n = 42) and GAD (n = 40) who had been in remission for at least 3 months and healthy control volunteers (n = 45). The patients were administered the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results The total PSQI scores of the GAD group were significantly increased in comparison to those of the PD (p = 0.009) and control (p < 0.001) groups. The rate of poor sleep quality in GAD during remission (77.5%) was greater than that of the PD (47.6%) and control (51.1%) groups (p = 0.011). Discussion GAD is a chronic and recurrent disease. In this study, it was found that the deterioration in sleep quality of patients with GAD may continue during remission. In the follow-up and treatment of patients, it is appropriate to question about sleep symptoms and to plan interventions according to these symptoms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Anxiety Disorders/complications , Panic Disorder/complications , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology , Anxiety Disorders/drug therapy , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Remission Induction , Case-Control Studies , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Panic Disorder/drug therapy , Panic Disorder/epidemiology , Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Disease-Free Survival , Serotonin and Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology
11.
Braz. dent. sci ; 23(1): 1-8, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1049727

ABSTRACT

Objective: Periodontal diseases are very common dental disease. Many risk factors may play significant role in the periodontal disease initiation and progression. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of khat chewing, smoking, age and gender on periodontal status among Yemeni adults. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 1231 patients attending the outpatient dental polyclinics of University of Science and Technology during the academic years 2017/2018. All completed sheets were collected throughout the year by the supervisors. Data cleaning, descriptive statistics, and inferential statistics were then performed. Results: Khat chewers were more frequent than non-chewers counterparts (60.7% vs. 39.3%). The prevalence of smoking was 25.5% (297 patients). Study results indicated that periodontitis is more associated with female gender and participants aged more than 35 years old. Results also showed that female and age older participants aged more than 35 years were significantly associated with gingival recession. Mean number of the teeth with gingival recession in male patients were higher than in females. Male gender and patients aged more than 35 years old were significantly associated with furcation involvement. Conclusion: The present study has shown females gender and age older than 35 seem to be risk factors of periodontal diseases. Males has more teeth affected by gingival recession and more furcation involvement (AU)


Objetivo: As doenças periodontais são patologias dentárias com alta prevalência. Diversos fatores de risco podem desempenhar papel significativo no início e progressão das doenças periodontais. Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar os efeitos da mastigação de khat, tabagismo, idade e gênero na condição periodontal de adultos iemenitas. Material e Métodos: Este estudo transversal foi realizado em 1231 pacientes atendidos nas policlínicas odontológicas ambulatoriais da Universidade de Ciência e Tecnologia durante os anos acadêmicos de 2017/2018 através de um questionário para coleta de dados préestabelecido. Todas os questionários preenchidos foram coletados ao longo do ano pelos supervisores. A apuração dos dados, estatística descritiva e estatística inferencial foram realizadas. Resultados: os mastigadores de Khat foram mais frequentes do que as não-mastigadores (60,7% vs. 39,3%). A prevalência de tabagismo foi de 25,5% (297 pacientes). Os resultados do estudo indicaram que a periodontite está mais associada ao gênero feminino e aos participantes com mais de 35 anos de idade. Os resultados também mostraram que participantes do gênero feminino e acima de 35 anos foram significativamente associadas à recessão gengival. O número médio de dentes com recessão gengival em pacientes do gênero masculino foi maior que no feminino. O gênero masculino e os pacientes com mais de 35 anos de idade foram significativamente associados ao envolvimento da furca. Conclusão: O presente estudo mostrou que o gênero feminino e a idade acima de 35 anos parecem ser fatores de risco para doenças periodontais. Pacientes do gênero masculino têm mais dentes afetados pela recessão gengival e mais envolvimento de furca.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Periodontal Diseases/epidemiology , Tobacco Use Disorder/epidemiology , Catha , Mastication , Periodontal Diseases/etiology , Periodontitis/etiology , Periodontitis/epidemiology , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Yemen/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Distribution , Furcation Defects/etiology , Furcation Defects/epidemiology , Age Distribution , Catha/adverse effects , Gingival Recession/etiology , Gingival Recession/epidemiology
12.
Dermatol. argent ; 26(1): 17-22, 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146358

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: La hidradenitis supurativa (HS) es una enfermedad inflamatoria crónica relacionada con el síndrome metabólico (SM), con un mayor riesgo de comorbilidades cardiovasculares; por lo tanto, se debe mantener un alto grado de sospecha clínica frente al hallazgo de alguno de sus componentes. Objetivo: Evaluar la prevalencia del SM en los pacientes con diagnóstico de HS en comparación con la población general. Diseño: Estudio retrospectivo descriptivo. Métodos: Se revisaron las historias clínicas y el archivo fotográfico de los pacientes con diagnóstico de HS que consultaron entre el 1/9/2017 y el 31/8/2019. Se analizaron las variables: sexo, edad, antecedentes familiares, tiempo de evolución, índice de masa corporal, obesidad abdominal, laboratorio (glucemia y perfil lipídico), presión arterial, tabaquismo, número y localización de las lesiones, gravedad clinicoecográfica, respuesta al tratamiento y evolución clínica. Resultados: Se evaluaron 30 pacientes con HS valorados en nuestro servicio en los últimos 2 años; 23 mujeres y 7 varones. Predominó el grupo etario de 31-40 años. De ellos, 19 pacientes (63,3%) cumplieron con los criterios necesarios para diagnosticar el SM, hallazgo que no se relacionó con el grado de severidad de la HS. Conclusiones: La prevalencia del SM en nuestros pacientes con HS fue del 63,3% con respecto al 27,5% de la población general. La importancia de este hallazgo radica en detectar de forma temprana y oportuna la presencia de este síndrome en los pacientes con HS para evitar el riesgo de comorbilidades cardiovasculares en el futuro. (AU)


Background: Suppurative hidradenitis (SH) is a chronic, inflammatory disease, closely related to metabolic syndrome (MS), with an increased risk of cardiovascular comorbidities; for that reason we should keep a high level of clinical suspicion when one of its components is found. Objective: To evaluate MS prevalence in patients with diagnosis of SH in comparison with general population. Design: Descriptive retrospective study. Methods: We reviewed clinical and photographical files of patients with diagnosis of suppurative hidradenitis who consulted from 1/9/2017 until 31/8/2019. Variables analyzed were: sex, age, familial history, time of evolution, body mass index, abdominal obesity, glycemia, lipid profile, blood pressure, smoking, number and location of lesions, clinicalechographic severity, response to treatment and clinical evolution. Results: Thirty patients with SH were evaluated, 23 females and 7 males. The age group between 31-40 years prevailed; of these, 19 patients (63.3%) meet necessary criteria for diagnosis of MS, this finding did not correlate to the severity degree of SH. Conclusions: The MS prevalence in our SH patients was 63.3%, compared to 27.5% in the general population. The importance of this finding lays on detecting in an early and opportune way, the presence of MS in patients with SH, and to avoid the risk of future cardiovascular comorbidities. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Hidradenitis Suppurativa/complications , Metabolic Syndrome/complications , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Body Mass Index , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Hidradenitis Suppurativa/diagnosis , Obesity, Abdominal/complications , Heart Disease Risk Factors
15.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 39(3): 94-97, sept. 2019. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048277

ABSTRACT

Las fístulas arteriovenosas durales medulares son malformaciones vasculares adquiridas que constituyen una causa muy infrecuente de mielopatía progresiva (5-10 casos por millón de habitantes por año). La resonancia magnética es el estudio por imágenes de elección para su diagnóstico. A continuación presentamos el caso de una paciente femenina de 89 años, que consultó a la guardia de nuestra institución por un cuadro de paraparesia moderada asociada a parestesias e incontinencia urinaria posterior a esfuerzo físico. Se le diagnosticó una fístula arteriovenosa dural medular como causante de su cuadro. (AU)


Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (SDAVF) are acquired spinal vascular malformations and a rare cause of progressive myelopathy (5-10 new cases per year and per 1 million inhabitants). Magnetic resonance imaging is the diagnosis modality of choice. We present a case of a 89-year-old female patient who consulted the emergency department of our institution because of paraparesis and lower extremities paresthesias associated with urinary incontinence post physical effort. With the final diagnosis of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula, as a cause of the clinical symptoms. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arteriovenous Fistula/diagnostic imaging , Dura Mater/abnormalities , Paresthesia , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Spinal Cord Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Urinary Incontinence , Arteriovenous Fistula/etiology , Arteriovenous Fistula/epidemiology , Low Back Pain/complications , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/complications , Paraparesis , Fecal Incontinence , Hypertension/complications , Hypesthesia , Erectile Dysfunction , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
16.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(3): 261-268, May-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002231

ABSTRACT

Smoking is the most important risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) and ischemic events; alcohol consumption, on the other hand, appears to have a protective role. Objective: Assess the association between smoking and alcohol consumption with the severity of coronary artery injuries in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods: Cross-sectional study, performed in Santa Catarina. Variables were evaluated using the Chi-squared T/Fisher's exact test, Kendall's correlation coefficient, Student's t test or Mann-Whitney U test. Values of p < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Between August 2016 to June 2017, 226 patients were evaluated with first episode of AMI. There was a difference in sex distribution, showing that 59.7% of men and 85.4% of women were not alcoholic (p < 0.001). There was a higher prevalence of non-hypertensive patients who consumed alcohol than hypertensive ones (40.7% vs. 24.4% and p = 0.010) and patients without diabetes who had drinking habits than those diabetic (36.4% vs. 12.0% and p = 0.001). There was also a higher prevalence of non-diabetic patients who smoked than diabetic ones (38.1% vs. 22.0% and p = 0.035). A weak and negative correlation was found between the number of cigarettes per day and the pack-year with the TIMI frame count (r = -0.174 and p = 0.041 and r = -0.192 and p = 0.027, respectively). The other associations did not show statistical significance. Conclusion: The study showed that the number of cigarettes consumed per day and the pack-year is related to a smaller TIMI frame count, i.e., to a better coronary flow, which may be related to the Smoker's Paradox. There was no correlation between the beverage type and quantity with the SYNTAX score, Ejection fraction and TIMI frame count


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Myocardial Infarction , Stroke Volume , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Sex Factors , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Statistical Analysis , Risk Factors , Diabetes Mellitus , Hospitals, Public
17.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(1): 116-124, Jan.-Mar. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002187

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Vocal fold polyps are one of themost frequent benign laryngeal lesions, impacting the quality of life of those affected by them, primarily the vocal production. Despite being a well-established therapy in conjunction with surgery, speech therapy alone may also be effective in treating these lesions. As such, otolaryngologists and speech therapists need updated bibliographic knowledge on the issue. Objective To describe the literature findings on vocal fold polyps that discuss prevalence, etiology, histology, physiopathology, vocal characteristics or treatment. Data Synthesis The present study is a review article based on a bibliographic search using platforms, databases and search engines, with no restrictions on means of publication, methodological quality or language. All the articles on vocal fold polyps pertaining to the object of study published in the past 15 years were included. Among the characteristics investigated, the most discussed were prevalence of men, smoking as an etiological cofactor, the possibility of histological differentiation from vocal nodules, the relationship with cover minor structural alterations, and the indication and effectiveness of different treatment options. Conclusion Despite the discrepancies found in the present literature review on vocal fold polyps, there has been a notable scientific progress in the otolaryngologic techniques and in the effectiveness of speech therapy as initial treatment, with direct and indirect techniques, corroborating the need for scientific investigation of the issue.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Polyps , Vocal Cords , Laryngeal Diseases , Polyps/diagnosis , Polyps/etiology , Polyps/physiopathology , Polyps/pathology , Polyps/therapy , Polyps/epidemiology , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Vocal Cords/pathology , Diagnosis, Differential
18.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 150 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007562

ABSTRACT

O Sistema Nervoso Central (SNC) humano é formado por cerca de 86,1 bilhões de neurônios entre o encéfalo e a medula espinhal. O desenvolvimento pré-natal humano (tempo da concepção ao nascimento) possui cerca de 38 semanas, e é dividido na fase embrionária que corresponde ao período das 8 semanas iniciais da gestação, seguido pela fase fetal. A fase embrionária é o período mais vulnerável à ocorrência de anormalidades congênitas. Por ser um órgão com grande período de desenvolvimento, o SNC está sujeito às alterações genéticas, epigenéticas e ambientais. Durante a fase de implantação do embrião, o DNA é mais vulnerável às influências externas, como à fumaça do cigarro, aumentando o risco de retardo do desenvolvimento fetal, o risco de morte súbita pós-natal e de anormalidades do sistema imune. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar os efeitos da exposição à fumaça do cigarro sobre o processo de neuroinflamação da prole de camundongos C57BL/6 expostos à fumaça do cigarro durante a gestação e desafiados ou não com LPS. Para tanto, camundongos C57BL/6 fêmeas prenhes foram expostas à fumaça do cigarro desde o plug vaginal até o nascimento da prole. No 3º dia de vida, os filhotes foram separados para três linhas de trabalho: 1) in vivo: os animais foram desafiados com LPS pelo período de 4h, seguidos de eutanasia e análises de PCR Array do SNC. 2) in vitro: os encéfalos dissecados foram utilizados para a preparação de cultura mista de glia e da cultura enriquecida com neurônio. Após a maturação celular, as células foram estimuladas com LPS 100 ng/mL e, após 24h, foram realizados ensaios de CBA, citometria de fluxo, PCR, dosagem de NO, avaliação de morte celular e metilação global. 3) Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental (EAE): após o desmame, os animais foram mantidos em suas caixas moradia por 8 semanas sem nenhum estímulo externo, e então foram imunizados com MOG35-55 para o desenvolvimento da EAE. Nos experimentos in vivo observamos o aumento da transcrição de genes relacionados ao processo inflamatório, como interleucinas e quimiocinas. Em relação aos experimentos in vitro observamos maior crescimento de células astrocitárias (astrogliose), e células da microglia com aumento de moléculas co-estimuladoras (CD80 e CD86) bem como da transcrição e concentração de citocinas pró-inflamatórias e produção de NO. Em cultura enriquecida de neurônio, foi observado aumento na porcentagem de células em apoptose no grupo exposto à fumaça do cigarro desafiados ou não com LPS. O bloqueio da atividade da microglia pela minociclina reverteu a apoptose e diminuiu a produção de NO minimizando a morte celular. Em relação aos experimentos de EAE, os animais expostos à fumaça do cigarro no período gestacional, quando imunizados na vida adulta apresentam aumento no grau da doença bem como maior persistência da mesma quando observado escore clínico, além de acompanhados de um grau maior de infiltrado celular e desmielinização. Desta forma podemos concluir que a exposição à fumaça do cigarro durante o período gestacional leva a uma programação fetal com aumento da resposta neuroinflamatória frente a um estimulo sistêmico, trazendo consequências na vida adulta


The human central nervous system (CNS) is made up of about 86.1 billion neurons between the brain and the spinal cord. The human prenatal development (time from conception to birth) is about 38 weeks, and is divided into the embryonic phase that corresponds to the period of the initial 8 weeks of gestation, followed by the fetal phase. The embryonic stage is the period most vulnerable to the occurrence of congenital abnormalities. Because it is an organ with a long period of development, the CNS is subject to genetic, epigenetic and environmental changes. During the embryo implantation phase, DNA is more vulnerable to external influences such as cigarette smoke, increasing the risk of delay on fetal development, risk of sudden postnatal death, and abnormalities of the immune system. In this context, the aim of this work is to evaluate the effects of exposure to cigarette smoke on the neuroinflammation process of offspring of C57BL/6 mice exposed to cigarette smoke during gestation and challenged or not with LPS. For this, pregnant female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to cigarette smoke from vaginal plug to offspring birth. On the 3rd day of life the offspring were separated into three lines of work: 1) in vivo: the animals were challenged with 1mg/Kg LPS and after 4h they followed to euthanasia; PCR analysis of the CNS was made in this period. 2) in vitro: dissected encephalons were used for the preparation of mixed culture of glia and the culture enriched with neuron. After cell maturation, the cells were stimulated with 100 ng/mL LPS and, after 24 hours, CBA, flow cytometry, PCR, NO assay, cell death and global methylation assays were performed. 3) Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE): After weaning, the animals were kept in their housing for 8 weeks without any external stimulus, and then were immunized with MOG35-55 for the development of EAE. In the in vivo experiments we observed increased transcription of genes related to the inflammatory process, such as interleukins and chemokines. In vitro experiments showed higher growth of astrocytes (astrogliosis) and microglia cells with increased stimulatory molecules (CD80 and CD86) as well as the transcription and concentration of proinflammatory cytokines and NO production. In the enriched neuron culture, an increase in the percentage of cells in apoptosis was observed in the group exposed to cigarette smoke challenged or not with LPS. Blocking microglial activity by minocycline reversed apoptosis and decreased NO production by minimizing cell death. The EAE experiments shows that the animals exposed to cigarette smoke in the gestational period, when immunized in adulthood, present an increase in the degree of the disease as well as a greater persistence of the disease; The higher as the clinical score higher is the degree of cellular infiltration and demyelination. In this way we can conclude that the exposure to cigarette smoke during the gestational period leads to a fetal programming with increased neuroinflammatory response to a systemic stimulus and that this is able to last until the adult stage


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental/complications , Prenatal Care/classification , Congenital Abnormalities , In Vitro Techniques , Central Nervous System
19.
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(3): e20180314, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012558

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Smoking is the leading cause of respiratory disease (RD). The harmful effects of smoking on the respiratory system begin in utero and influence immune responses throughout childhood and adult life. In comparison with "healthy" smokers, smokers with RD have peculiarities that can impede smoking cessation, such as a higher level of nicotine dependence; nicotine withdrawal; higher levels of exhaled carbon monoxide; low motivation and low self-efficacy; greater concern about weight gain; and a high prevalence of anxiety and depression. In addition, they require more intensive, prolonged treatment. It is always necessary to educate such individuals about the fact that quitting smoking is the only measure that will reduce the progression of RD and improve their quality of life, regardless of the duration and severity of the disease. Physicians should always offer smoking cessation treatment. Outpatient or inpatient smoking cessation treatment should be multidisciplinary, based on behavioral interventions and pharmacotherapy. It will thus be more effective and cost-effective, doubling the chances of success.


RESUMO O tabagismo é o maior responsável pelas doenças respiratórias (DR). Os efeitos nocivos do tabaco sobre o aparelho respiratório se iniciam ainda intraútero e influenciam as respostas imunológicas ao longo da infância e vida adulta. Os tabagistas com DR possuem peculiaridades que podem dificultar a cessação tabágica, tais como maior grau de dependência e de abstinência de nicotina; níveis mais elevados de monóxido de carbono exalado; motivação e autoeficácia baixas; maior preocupação com ganho ponderal; e elevada prevalência de ansiedade e depressão. Além disso, requerem tratamento mais intensivo e prolongado. É necessário esclarecer sempre o paciente sobre o fato de que parar de fumar será a única medida que irá reduzir a progressão das DR e melhorar sua qualidade de vida, independentemente do tempo e da gravidade da doença. Os médicos devem sempre oferecer o tratamento de cessação tabágica. O tratamento ambulatorial ou hospitalar deve ser multidisciplinar, baseado em intervenções comportamentais e farmacoterapia, sendo eficaz e custo-efetivo, dobrando as chances de sucesso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/therapy , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Use Disorder/therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/etiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/therapy , Risk Factors , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/etiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Lung Neoplasms/etiology , Lung Neoplasms/therapy
20.
J. vasc. bras ; 18: e20180084, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002489

ABSTRACT

O índice tornozelo-braquial (ITB) utiliza a razão entre a pressão arterial sistólica do tornozelo e do braço para diagnosticar de forma não invasiva a doença arterial periférica (DAP). A fotopletismografia (photoplethysmography, PPG) faz a medição e o registro das modificações de volume sanguíneo do corpo humano por meio de técnicas ópticas. Objetivos O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar o ITB com parâmetros de rigidez arterial e resistência periférica avaliados pela PPG em idosos e propor um modelo de predição para o ITB. Métodos Foi realizado um estudo transversal quantitativo. A amostra foi composta por idosos atendidos no ambulatório médico de especialidades da Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina (UNISUL). Foram verificados: idade, sexo, índice de massa corporal (IMC), presença de comorbidades, tabagismo e atividade física. Para comparação das variáveis obtidas com a PPG com o ITB, foi realizada regressão linear bivariada e multivariada, considerando erro α = 0,05. Resultados Foram avaliados 93 idosos, sendo 63,4% mulheres. Em 98,9% dos casos, o ITB apresentou-se dentro da normalidade. Na comparação do ITB e variáveis derivadas da PPG em relação à idade, foram demonstradas associações significativas. Contudo, não foram observadas associações significativas entre ITB e PPG. O modelo multivariado indicou que apenas idade, sexo e tabagismo foram associados ao ITB. Conclusões Como conclusão, o ITB e a PPG demonstraram associação com o envelhecimento arterial, tendo em vista sua correlação com a idade; contudo, o ITB foi relacionado apenas com idade, sexo e tabagismo. Mais estudos são necessários para avaliar o potencial uso da PPG como rastreio de doenças vasculares em rotinas ambulatórias


The ankle-brachial index (ABI) uses the ratio between systolic blood pressures at the ankle and the arm to diagnose peripheral arterial disease (PAD) noninvasively. Photoplethysmography (PPG) measures and records changes to the blood volume in the human body using optical techniques. Objectives The objective of this study was to compare ABI with arterial stiffness and peripheral resistance parameters assessed using PPG in elderly patients and to propose a model for prediction of ABI. Methods A cross-sectional, quantitative study was conducted. The sample comprised elderly patients seen at a medical specialties clinic at the Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina (UNISUL), Brazil. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities, smoking, and physical activity were recorded. The variables obtained using PPG and ABI were compared using bivariate and multivariate linear regression, with an α error of 0.05. Results A total of 93 elderly patients were assessed, 63.4% of whom were women. In 98.9% of cases, ABI was within normal limits. Comparison of ABI with variables acquired by PPG revealed significant associations with age. However, no significant associations were observed between ABI and PPG. The multivariate model indicated that only age, sex, and smoking were associated with ABI. Conclusions In conclusion, ABI and PPG exhibited associations with arterial aging, considering its correlation with age. However, ABI was only related to age, sex, and smoking. More studies are needed to evaluate the potential uses of PPG for screening for vascular diseases in ambulatory settings


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged , Risk Factors , Photoplethysmography/methods , Ankle Brachial Index/methods , Peripheral Arterial Disease/diagnosis , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Body Mass Index , Comorbidity , Sex Factors , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Data Collection , Age Factors , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Heart Rate , Hypertension , Motor Activity
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL