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East Afr. Med. J ; 100(10): 1-10, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1523863


Objective: This study aimed to establish the prevalence of risk factors (tobacco use, alcohol abuse, physical inactivity and unhealthy diet) of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) among secondary school students in a developing country. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study using the self-administered WHO STEP-wise questionnaire for chronic disease risk factor surveillance on adolescents attending secondary schools in Kenya. The study was carried out in the period between May and July 2018. Setting: Ten secondary schools were randomly selected in Uasin Gishu County, using stratified proportional sampling. Subjects: A total of 1,281 students assented to participate in the study. The mean age of the participants was 16.6 (SD±1.509) with the majority being female (55%, n=704) Results: The prevalence of alcohol abuse was 30.8%(n=394) with males having statistically significant higher rates than females (p < 0.05) and 6.8% of the participants were smokers. Of those that reported smoking, 60.9% were between 15-17 years of age. Adequate intake of three (3) servings of vegetables per day was seen in 13.5% of the respondents and 54.4% (n=697) of the total sample were found to be physically inactive. Conclusion: The prevalence of NCD risk factors among secondary school students in Uasin Gishu County is significant. As a result, health education and targeted interventions should be implemented in order to promote a healthy lifestyle which is important in preventing NCDs in future.

Humans , Male , Female , Communicable Diseases , Alcoholism , Tobacco Use
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 23: e20220286, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449152


Abstract Objectives: to evaluate the association between alcohol and tobacco consumption during pregnancy with maternal and child health conditions. Methods: cross-sectional study with a probabilistic sample of pregnant women living in Santa Catarina who conducted prenatal care and childbirth in the public national health service in 2019. A face-to-face survey questionnaire was applied to 3,580 pregnant women including maternal health issues during pregnancy and perinatal health of the newborn. Crude logistic regression analyzes were performed and adjusted for socio-demographic and maternal health conditions. Results: the prevalence of alcohol and tobacco consumption during pregnancy was 7.2% and 9.3%, respectively. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy increased the chance of maternal anemia by 45% (CI95%=1.09-1.91), increased the chance of gestational diabetes by 73% (CI95%=1.14-2.63) and reduced the chance of hypertension (OR=0.59; CI95%=0.37-0.94). Tobacco consumption doubled the chance of low birth weight (OR=2.16; CI95%=1.33-3.51). Conclusion: the consumption of alcoholic beverages during pregnancy increased the chance of maternal health complications, such as anemia and gestational diabetes, while tobacco increased the chance of low birth weight.

Resumo Objetivos: avaliar a associação entre o consumo de álcool e de tabaco durante a gravidez com condições de saúde maternas e da criança. Métodos: estudo transversal com amostra probabilística de gestantes residentes em Santa Catarina que realizaram o pré-natal e o parto na rede pública do estado em 2019. Foi aplicado questionário face-a-face com 3.580 gestantes incluindo questões de saúde maternas durante a gestação e saúde perinatal do recém-nascido. Foram realizadas análises de regressão logística brutas e ajustadas para condições sócio-demográficas e de saúde maternas. Resultados: as prevalências de consumo de bebidas alcoólicas e de tabaco durante a gestação foram de 7,2% e 9,3%, respectivamente. O consumo de álcool durante a gestação aumentou em 45% a chance de anemia materna (IC95%=1,09-1,91) e em 73% a de diabetes gestacional (IC95%=1,14-2,63) e reduziu a chance de hipertensão (OR=0,59; IC95%=0,37-0,94). O consumo de tabaco dobrou a chance de baixo peso gestacional ao nascer (OR=2,16; IC95%=1,33-3,51). Conclusão: o consumo de bebidas alcoólicas durante a gestação aumentou a chance de intercorrências de saúde maternas, como anemia e diabetes gestacional, enquanto o tabaco aumentou a chance de baixo peso ao nascer.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Prenatal Care , Unified Health System , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Pregnant Women , Tobacco Use/adverse effects , Brazil , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Diabetes, Gestational , Anemia
J. Public Health Africa (Online) ; 14(2): 1-6, 2023. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1418685


Background. Healthcare workers (HCWs) can play a significant role in tobacco prevention by delivering smoking cessation (SC) interventions to patients who smoke. Objective: To identify and explore the perceived barriers which prevent healthcare workers from delivering SC counselling to patients in Zambezi region, Namibia. Methods: A regional-based, concurrent mixed-methods study was conducted between March and October 2020 among HCWs of the 8 constituencies of Zambezi region, Namibia. In the study, 129 respondents, who had been residents of the selected constituencies for over 5 years and aged between 17 to 60 years, participated. Results: 129 respondents participated in the study. Majority of respondents were females (62.9% and 68.1%) compared to (37.1% and 31.9%) males. The mean age of respondents was 35.91 (SD=9.3) and 36.61 (SD=8.7) respectively and their ages ranged between 18 and 59 years. Key barriers were identified: (i) HCWs based barriers included lack of time to provide SC, inadequate training and insufficient knowledge on SC interventions; (ii) system-based barriers identified lack of SC guidelines and educational materials for patients, and specialists to refer patients; and (iii) patient/client-based barriers included lack of patient interest in SC information, patients not adhering to advise given on SC. Conclusions: This study showed that SC delivery in Zambezi region is inadequate. Barriers were identified regarding the delivery of SC intervention for the first time. Targeted SC interventions are required to combat these identified specific barriers. There is a crucial need to improve HCWs skills and knowledge in providing SC intervention.

Humans , Male , Female , Smoking , Tobacco Use , Prevalence , Smoking Cessation , Health Personnel , Methods
J. Health NPEPS ; 7(2): 1-13, jul - dez, 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1425076


Objetivo: identificar la relación entre el uso de las tecnologías de la información y comunicación (TIC ́s) y la ansiedad, el consumo de alcohol y tabaco en adolescentes de secundaria de Puebla, México.Método: estudio descriptivo correlacional, realizado con 301 adolescentes de una escuela pública en 2018. Se aplicó el Cuestionario de Detección de Nuevas Adicciones y Escala de Ansiedad de Hamilton. Para análisis estadístico, el coeficiente de KolmogorovSmirnov e Ude Mann Whitney, correlación de Spearman y regresión lineal múltiple. Resultados: el uso medio de las TIC ́s fue de 84,36 (DE = 15,1). Internet (M = 16.72, SD = 4.6) y teléfonos celulares (M = 15.52, SD = 5.0) fueron los más utilizados. El uso de las TIC ́s y la ansiedad fueron estadísticamente significativos (F=21.719, p=.001), donde internet y la televisión predijeron la ansiedad. Sobre el uso de TIC ́s y consumo de alcohol (F = 3.745, p =.001) indica que lo que predice esta condición es el uso de celulares. En el caso de las TIC ́s con el consumo de tabaco no hubo significación estadística. Conclusión: existe relación con el uso de las TIC ́s, la ansiedad y el consumo de alcohol en estudiantes de secundaria del estado de Puebla.

Objective: to identify the relationship between the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) and anxiety, alcohol and tobacco consumption in highschool adolescents from Puebla, Mexico. Method: descriptive correlational study, carried out with 301 adolescents from a public school in 2018. The New Addictions Detection Questionnaire and Hamilton Anxiety Scale were applied. For statistical analysis, the Kolmogorov Smirnov coefficient and Mann Whitney U, Spearman correlation and multiple linear regression. Results: the mean use of ICTs was 84.36 (SD = 15.1). Internet (M = 16.72, SD = 4.6) and cell phones (M = 15.52, SD = 5.0) were the most used. The useof ICTs and anxiety were statistically significant (F=21.719, p=.001), where the Internet and television predicted anxiety. About the use of ICTs and alcohol consumption (F = 3.745, p =.001) indicates that what this condition predicts is the use of cell phones. In the case of ICTs with tobacco use, there was no statistical significance. Conclusion: there is a relationship with the use of ICTs, anxiety and alcohol consumption in high school students in the state of Puebla.

Objetivo:identificar a relação entre o uso de tecnologias de informação e comunicação (TIC) e ansiedade, consumo de álcool e tabaco em adolescentes do ensino médio de Puebla, México. Método: estudo descritivo correlacional, realizado com 301 adolescentes de uma escola pública no ano de 2018. Foram aplicados o New Addictions Detection Questionnaire e a Hamilton Anxiety Scale. Para análise estatística, o coeficiente de Kolmogorov Smirnov e Mann Whitney U, correlação de Spearman e regressão linear múltipla. Resultados: o uso médio de TIC foi de 84.36 (DP= 15.1). A internet (M = 16.72, DP = 4.6) e o celular (M= 15.52, DP= 5.0) foram os mais utilizados. O uso de TIC e ansiedade foi estatisticamente significativo (F = 21.719, p =.001), onde a internet e a televisão predizem a ansiedade. Sobre o uso de TIC e consumo de álcool (F = 3.745, p =.001) indica que quem prediz essa condição é o uso de celulares. No caso das TIC com uso de tabaco, não houve significância estatística. Conclusão: existe uma relação com o uso de TIC, ansiedade e consumo de álcool em estudantes do ensino médio no estado de Puebla.

Anxiety , Information Technology , Tobacco Use , Underage Drinking
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 9(4): 1-8, Dec. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1519408


La cavidad oral está continuamente expuesta a carcinógenos inhalados e ingeridos (tabaco y alcohol principalmente), y por lo tanto es el sitio más común para el origen de neoplasias en la región de la cabeza y el cuello.Para esta investigación, se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo, de corte transversal, retrospectivo, de muestreo no probabilístico de casos consecutivos. Se incluyó a pacientes mayores de edad, con diagnóstico clínico y anatomopatológico de cáncer de cavidad oral.Así, se incluyó una serie de 17 casos de carcinoma escamocelular oral, 13 hombres (76 %) y 4 mujeres (24 %), donde la edad de los individuos osciló entre 32 y 73 años.El 65 % de los pacientes era fumador y el 71% refirió consumo de bebidas alcohólicas.La lengua fue la localización tumoral más frecuente, con el 71% de las personas que se encontraba en estadio IV, y con moderado grado de diferenciación histológica. Como conclusión, se determinó que la mayor parte de los pacientes de este estudio correspondían al sexo masculino de 50 a 70 años. Un alto porcentaje de los pacientes refería el hábito tabáquico, y mayor aún el consumo de alcohol. El subsitio más frecuentemente afectado es la lengua, en estadios avanzados y moderado grado de diferenciación.

INTRODUCTION: The oral cavity is continuously exposed to inhaled and ingested carcinogens (mainly tobacco and alcohol), and therefore it is the most common site for the origin of neoplasms in the head and neck region. METHODS: A descriptive, retrospective, observational study of non-probabilistic sampling of consecutive cases was carried out. Adult patients with a clinical and pathological diagnosis of oral cavity cancer were included. RESULTS: A series of 17 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma was included, 13 men (76%) and 4 women (24%). The age of the individuals ranged between 32 and 73 years.65% of the patients were smokers, and 71% reported consumption of alcoholic beverages.The tongue was the most frequent tumor location, 71% were in stage IV, and with a moderate degree of histological differentiation. CONCLUSION: Most of the patients in this study were males between 50 and 70 years of age. A high percentage of patients reported smoking, and an even higher percentage of alcohol consumption. The most frequently affected subsite is the tongue, in advanced stages and a moderate degree of differentiation.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Mouth Neoplasms/surgery , Mouth Neoplasms/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/surgery , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Mouth Neoplasms/etiology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Age Distribution , Tobacco Use/adverse effects
Rev. enferm. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 30(4): 96-102, Oct 3, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1436021


Introducción: los cambios de conductas saludables a las no saludables ponen en riesgo la salud, los universitarios son una población muy vulnerable para adoptar estilos de vida que puedan favorecer su calidad de vida. El consumo de alcohol y tabaco como conducta es un tema importante en esta etapa de formación profesional. Objetivo: determinar las conductas de estilo de vida relacionados con la salud como el consumo de cigarrillos, alcohol y drogas, hábitos alimentarios, forma física, control del estrés y seguridad que realizan los estudiantes de la Licenciatura en Enfermería de la Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco, México. Metodología: estudio de tipo cuantitativo, descriptivo, transversal en una muestra de 666 estudiantes de la Licenciatura en Enfermería seleccionados por muestreo no probabilístico. Resultados: predominó el género femenino con 83%, el 62.8% presenta un buen estilo de vida, seguido del 30.3% que tiene un excelente estilo de vida; el 79.1% corresponde a los estudiantes que no fuman y el 37.8% de los estudiantes tiene una buena alimentación. Los estudiantes calificaron su forma física como regular en el 41% de los casos, seguida de mala con el 34.5%. En cuanto a la práctica de control del estrés calificaron como buena con un 50.8% y excelente con 26.1%. Conclusión: los estudiantes de Enfermería tienen un nivel de estilo de vida bueno relacionado con la salud, los más practicados corresponden a las dimensiones de consumo de alcohol, hábitos alimentarios, control de estrés y seguridad. Es importante considerar la dimensión relacionada con la forma física (práctica de ejercicio físico), ya que se practica ocasionalmente, lo que demuestra que los estudiantes llevan un estilo de vida sedentario.

Introduction: Changes from healthy to unhealthy behaviors put health at risk, so university students are a very vulnerable population to adopt lifestyles that can favor their quality of life. The consumption of alcohol and tobacco as conduct is an important issue at this stage of professional training. Objective: To determine the lifestyle behaviors related to health such as the consumption of cigarettes, alcohol and drugs, eating habits, physical fitness, stress control and safety carried out by the students of the Bachelor of Nursing at the Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco, in Mexico. Methodology: Quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study in a sample of 666 Nursing undergraduate students selected by non-probabilistic sampling. Results: The female gender predominated with 83%, 62.8% have a good lifestyle, followed by 30.3% who have an excellent lifestyle; 79.1% corresponds to students who do not smoke and 37.8% of students have a good diet. The students rated their physical fitness as fair in 41% of the cases, followed by poor with 34.5%. Regarding the practice of stress control, they qualified as good with 50.8% and excellent with 26.1%. Conclusion: Nursing students have a good level of lifestyle related to health, the most practiced correspond to the dimensions of alcohol consumption, eating habits, stress control and safety. It is important to consider the dimension related to physical fitness (practice of physical exercise), since it is only practiced occasionally, which shows that students lead a sedentary lifestyle.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Students, Nursing/psychology , Healthy Lifestyle , Stress, Psychological/classification , Surveys and Questionnaires , Feeding Behavior/classification , Tobacco Use/adverse effects , Alcohol Drinking in College
Invest. educ. enferm ; 40(3): 29-50, 15 octubre de 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1401314


Objective.To assess the effectiveness of a brief intervention and motivational interviewing in reducing the use of different tobacco-related products in adults Methods. Forthis systematic review, PubMed, Web of Science, and PsychINFO databases were electronically searched for randomized controlled trials on the effect of a brief intervention and / or motivational interview on tobacco reduction among healthy adults published between January 1, 2011 to January 1, 2021. Data from eligible studies were extracted and analyzed. CONSORT guidelines were used to assess the quality of the studies by two reviewers for the included studies. The titles and abstracts of the search results were screened and reviewed by two independent reviewers for eligibility criteria per the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Cochrane review criteria were used to assess the risk of bias in included studies. Results. A total of 12 studies were included in the final data extraction of 1406 studies. The brief intervention and motivational interviewing showed varied effects on tobacco use reduction among adults at different follow-ups. Seven of the 12 studies (58.3%) reported a beneficial impact on reducing tobacco use. Pieces of evidence on biochemical estimation on tobacco reduction are limited compared to self-reports, and varied results on quitting and tobacco cessation with different follow-ups. Conclusion. The current evidence supports the effectiveness of a brief intervention and motivational interviewing to quit tobacco use. Still, it suggests using more biochemical markers as outcome measures to reach an intervention-specific decision. While more initiatives to train nurses in providing non-pharmacological nursing interventions, including brief interventions, are recommended to help people quit smoking.

Objetivo. Evaluar la eficacia de una intervención breve y de la entrevista motivacional para reducir el consumo de diferentes productos relacionados con el tabaco en adultos. Métodos. Para esta revisión sistemática, se buscaron en las bases de datos PubMed, Web of Science y PsychINFO ensayos controlados aleatorizados sobre el efecto de una intervención breve y/o una entrevista motivacional en la reducción del consumo de tabaco entre adultos sanos, que hubieran sido publicados entre el 1 de enero de 2011 y el 1 de enero de 2021. Los títulos y los resúmenes de los artículos incluidos fueron evaluados por dos revisores independientes para determinar los criterios de elegibilidad, se analizó la calidad de los estudios con la guía CONSORT y se utilizaron los criterios de Cochrane para evaluar el riesgo de sesgo.Resultados.Se incluyeron un total de 12 de los 1406 estudios que arrojó la búsqueda. La intervención breve y la entrevista motivacional mostraron efectos variados en la reducción del consumo de tabaco entre los adultos en diferentes seguimientos. Siete de los 12 estudios (58.3%) informaron de un impacto beneficioso en la reducción del consumo de tabaco. La utilización de indicadores bioquímicos de la reducción del consumo de tabaco fueron limitados en comparación con los autoinformes. Los resultados sobre el abandono y la cesación del tabaco fueron variados con diferentes seguimientos. Conclusión.La evidencia apoyó la efectividad de una intervención breve y de la entrevista motivacional para la cesación del consumo de tabaco. Sin embargo, se sugiere realizar más estudios con marcadores bioquímicos como medidas de resultado para llegar a una decisión específica de la intervención. Se recomienda formar a los enfermeros en la realización de intervenciones de enfermería no farmacológicas, incluidas las intervenciones breves, para ayudar a las personas a dejar de fumar.

Objetivo. Avaliar a eficácia de uma intervenção breve e entrevista motivacional na redução do uso de diferentes produtos relacionados ao tabaco em adultos. Métodos.Para esta revisão sistemática, se buscou nas bases de PubMed, Web of Science e PsychINFO ensaios controlados aleatórios sobre o efeito de uma breve intervenção e/ou entrevista motivacional na redução do uso de tabaco entre adultos saudáveis, publicados entre 1º de janeiro de 2011 e 1º de janeiro de 2021. Os títulos e resumos dos artigos incluídos foram avaliados por dois revisores independentes para critérios de elegibilidade, a qualidade do estudo foi avaliada usando a diretriz CONSORT e os critérios Cochrane foram usados para avaliar o risco de viés. Resultados. Um total de 12 dos 1.406 estudos retornados pela busca foram incluídos. Intervenção breve e entrevista motivacional mostraram efeitos mistos na redução do uso de tabaco entre adultos em diferentes acompanhamentos. Sete dos 12 estudos (58.3%) relataram um impacto benéfico na redução do uso de tabaco. O uso de indicadores bioquímicos de redução do uso de tabaco foi limitado em relação ao autorrelato. Os resultados sobre parar de fumar e parar de fumar foram variados com diferentes seguimentos. Conclusão. As evidências apoiaram a eficácia de uma intervenção breve e entrevista motivacional para a cessação do uso do tabaco. No entanto, mais estudos com marcadores bioquímicos como medidas de resultados são sugeridos para chegar a uma decisão de intervenção específica. Recomenda-se que os enfermeiros sejam treinados na execução de intervenções de enfermagem não farmacológicas, incluindo intervenções breves, para ajudar as pessoas a parar de fumar.

Adult , Tobacco Use Cessation , Motivational Interviewing , Tobacco Use
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 39(2): 193-200, abr.-jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395062


RESUMEN Objetivo. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar las tendencias ocurridas en diferentes indicadores de tabaquismo en adolescentes peruanos. Asimismo, se evaluó las tendencias en dichos indicadores de acuerdo a sexo y en aquellos sin antecedente de tabaquismo previo. Materiales y métodos. El presente estudio usa la Encuesta Mundial sobre Tabaquismo en Jóvenes (Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2007, 2014, 2019). Tabaquismo activo se definió según el consumo de tabaco en los últimos 30 días. Tabaquismo pasivo se definió en función a exposición a tabaco dentro y fuera del hogar, tanto global como en forma diaria. Los análisis consideraron el diseño muestral. Resultados. Un total de 17 047 registros (9869 en el 2007, 3424 en el 2014, y 3754 en el 2019) fueron analizados; edad media 14 años y 49,9% mujeres. El 26,6% reportó antecedente de tabaquismo previo; dicha prevalencia cayó de 45,2% (2007), a 25,3% (2014), y a 19,4% (2019, p de tendencias < 0,001), mientras que el tabaquismo activo cayó de 17,1% (2007) a 8,7% (2014) y a 5,7% (2019). La prevalencia global de tabaquismo pasivo en el hogar cayó de 24,7%, a 12,9% y a 10,4% (p de tendencias <0,001), mientras que la prevalencia global de tabaquismo pasivo fuera del hogar se redujo de 46,3%, a 39,4%, y a 36,3% (p < 0,001) en ese lapso. La caída en los indicadores de tabaquismo se vio principalmente en mujeres que en varones. Conclusión. Se evidencia una reducción sostenida en los indicadores de tabaquismo en adolescentes peruanos. El tabaquismo pasivo fuera del hogar continúa siendo frecuente requiriendo el fortalecimiento de las actuales políticas de control de tabaco.

ABSTRACT Objective. This study aimed to assess the trends of different smoking indicators among Peruvian adolescents. Additionally, we evaluated whether such trends were different by sex or among those without previous smoking history. Materials and methods. We analyzed the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2007, 2014, 2019). Active smoking was defined according to smoking in the last 30 days. Passive smoking was assessed based on exposure to tobacco inside and outside the household, both overall and daily. Analyses considered the sample design. Results. A total of 17,047 records (9,869 in 2007, 3,424 in 2014, and 3,754 in 2019) were analyzed; the mean age was 14 years, and 49.9% were women. Previous smoking history was reported in 26.6% of the records; such prevalence fell from 45.2% (2007), to 25.3% (2014), and to 19.4% (2019, p-value for trend < 0.001), whereas active smoking fell from 17.1% (2007) to 8.7% (2014) and to 5.7% (2019). The overall prevalence of passive smoking inside the household fell from 24.7% to 12.9% and 10.4% (p-value <0.001), whereas the overall prevalence of passive smoking outside the household dropped from 46.3% to 39.4% and 36.3% (p-value <0.001) during the same period. The reduction of the smoking indicators was observed mainly among women than in men. Conclusion. There is evidence of a sustained reduction in smoking indicators in Peruvian adolescents. Passive smoking outside the household continues to be common, calling for strengthening current tobacco control policies.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Tobacco Use Disorder , Smoking , Prevalence , Smoke-Free Environments , Tobacco Use , Smoking Prevention
MedUNAB ; 25(1): 86-86, 202205.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372317


Con la técnica de aerografía sobre madera, se crea la obra "Daltonismo Racional", composición planteada en orden cartesiano, iniciando en el plano izquierdo superior con el panel rojo de línea totalmente quebrada, en constante zigzag, seguido a la derecha por el panel verde con gráfico de cigarrillo humeante; luego, en el sector izquierdo debajo del panel rojo encontramos el panel verde con la botella de licor y, finalmente, en la zona derecha inferior hallamos el panel con el gráfico del monitor rojo y línea blanca horizontal. Respecto a sus dimensiones, corresponde a un políptico conformado por cuatro módulos cuadrados, de 36 cm x 36 cm x 7 cm de profundidad. Entre los módulos hay un espacio de 20 cm, lo cual permite la formación de una cruz, por los dos espacios cruzados perpendicularmente. La obra tiene un carácter contestatario, frente a la manera como se pretende financiar la salud pública, debido a que los impuestos generados por la venta y consumo de alcohol y cigarrillos, se destinan para la salud, lo que nos lleva a una paradoja: ¿es razonable pensar que a través del detrimento de la salud de las personas que consumen licores y cigarrillos, se intente solucionar los problemas de salud?, ¿no es acaso la prevención y el no consumo de estas sustancias, lo que nos permite cultivar un mejor estado de salud?

With the technique of airbrushing on wood, the work "Rational Daltonism" is created. This is laid out in Cartesian order, starting on the upper left plane with the red panel with a totally broken line, in constant zigzag, followed to the right by the green panel with a graphic of a smoking cigarette; then, in the left sector below the red panel we find the green panel with the liquor bottle and, finally, in the lower right area we find the panel with the red monitor graphic and horizontal white line. Regarding its dimensions, it corresponds to a polyptych made up of four square modules, 36 cm x 36 cm x 7 cm deep. Between the modules there is a space of 20 cm, which allows the formation of a cross, by the two spaces crossed perpendicularly. The work has an anti-establishment character, as opposed to the way in which public health is intended to be financed, because the taxes generated by the sale and consumption of alcohol and cigarettes are destined for health, which leads us to a paradox: Is it reasonable to think that there is an attempt to solve health problems through the health detriment of the people who consume liquor and cigarettes? Is not prevention and not consuming these substances what allows us to cultivate a better health condition?

Com a técnica de aerografia sobre madeira, é criada a obra Daltonismo Racional. Esta está disposta em ordem cartesiana, iniciando no plano superior esquerdo com o painel vermelho com uma linha totalmente quebrada, em constante ziguezague, seguido à direita pelo painel verde com o gráfico de um cigarro fumando; em seguida, no setor esquerdo abaixo do painel vermelho encontramos o painel verde com a garrafa de licor e, finalmente, na área inferior direita encontramos o painel com o gráfico do monitor vermelho e linha branca horizontal. Quanto às suas dimensões, corresponde a um políptico composto por quatro módulos quadrados, com 36 cm x 36 cm x 7 cm de profundidade. Entre os módulos existe um espaço de 20 cm, que permite a formação de uma cruz, pelos dois espaços cruzados perpendicularmente. La obra tiene un carácter contestatario, frente a la manera como se pretende financiar la salud pública, debido a que los impuestos generados por la venta y consumo de alcohol y cigarrillos, se destinan para la salud, lo que nos lleva a una paradoja: es razonable pensar que a través del detrimento de la salud de las personas que consumen licores y cigarrillos, se intente solucionar los problemas de salud?, no es acaso la prevención y el no consumo de estas sustancias, lo que nos permite cultivar un mejor Estado de saúde?

Color Vision Defects , Paint , Art , Alcohol Drinking , Tobacco Use
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(1): 75-87, Jan-Abr. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362684


O cigarro eletrônico surgiu como uma tentativa para minimizar a dependência ao uso de tabaco, entretanto, engloba controvérsias e dúvidas acerca das reais implicações para o organismo humano. Diante disso, o presente estudo tem como objetivo realizar uma revisão da literatura a fim de relacionar o uso de cigarro eletrônico com suas consequências para os humanos. Os estudos analisados relatam experimentos in vitro e in vivo em camundongos, demonstrando menor concentração de poluentes e nocividades no cigarro eletrônico comparado ao convencional, porém, seu potencial efeito maléfico está relacionado à composição do e-líquido, à maneira do uso e à variedade de aromas presentes nos produtos. Além disso, foram verificadas lesões celulares, hiperreatividade das vias aéreas, liberação de citocinas ­ IL-8, IL-10 e TNF, redução da ação antimicrobiana de queratinócitos e potencial apoptose nas células alveolares. Foi observado também um aumento em até cinco vezes da concentração de carboxihemoglobina em comparação ao cigarro comum e um aumento na auto renovação de células de adenocarcinoma pulmonar de células não pequenas, devido à expressão de SOX2. Observa-se também que em casos de DPOC, o cigarro eletrônico não apresenta agravamentos na fisiologia respiratória, contrapondo outras ocorrências como asma, pneumonia, câncer de pulmão e doenças infecciosas que podem ser ocasionadas ou exacerbadas pelo seu uso. Contudo, pelo curto prazo de observação de seus efeitos, não é possível determinar com precisão a segurança dos cigarros eletrônicos, dessa forma, faz-se necessário que mais pesquisas longitudinais sejam desenvolvidas, auxiliando, assim, na construção de evidências sobre a segurança dos cigarros eletrônicos e na regulamentação futura do produto.

Electronic cigarettes emerged as an attempt to minimize tobacco dependence. However, its use is surrounded by controversies and doubts about the real implications for the human organism. Therefore, this study aims at performing a review of the most recent literature to corelate the use of e-cigarettes with their consequences for the human body. The analyzed studies relate in vitro and in vivo experiments on mice, demonstrating lower concentration of pollutants and harmfulness in the electronic cigarette than in conventional cigarettes. However, its potential harmful effect is related to the composition of the e-liquid, in its use and in the variety of aromas in the products. In addition, cellular lesions, airway hyperreactivity, release of IL-8, IL-10 and TNF cytokines could be observed, as well as reduced keratinocyte antimicrobial action and potential apoptosis in alveolar cells. An increase of up to five-fold the concentration of carboxyhemoglobin in comparison to ordinary cigarettes and an increase in self-renewal of non-small pulmonary adenocarcinoma cells due to the expression of SOX2 have also been related. It could also be observed that in COPD cases, e-cigarettes do not present worsening in respiratory physiology, which contrasts with other occurrences such as asthma, pneumonia, lung cancer, and infectious diseases that can be caused or exacerbated by its use. However, due to the short term of observation of the effects, the safety of e-cigarettes could not be accurately determined, thus, the need for further longitudinal research is necessary, which could be used to help build evidence about the safety of e-cigarettes and also to create future regulation of the product.

Animals , Mice , Rats , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems/instrumentation , Lung Diseases , Pneumonia/complications , Asthma/complications , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Smoking , Disease , Lung Injury , Tobacco Use , Vaping , Smokers , E-Cigarette Vapor/adverse effects , Lung Neoplasms
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 15-15, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928833


Tobacco intersects with the COVID-19 pandemic not only in terms of health consequences, but also environmental change and planetary health. Tobacco use exacerbates inequalities, causes catastrophic environmental degradation and climate change and adds burdens to COVID-19-related mortality, which are major challenges to recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the pandemic has provided a chance to combat tobacco use and accelerate efforts to alleviate these challenges in response. The MPOWER measures introduced by the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) can play a crucial role in COVID-19 recovery to fight tobacco use and contribute to sustainable and equitable development. To accelerate recovery, it is critical to call for actions for governments and policy-makers to strengthen synergies and coordinate policy actions emphasising tobacco control and cessation across equity, public health, and climate actions as global authorities pledge to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and net zero emissions targets as part of the Climate Change Conference 2021 (COP26).

Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Nicotiana , Tobacco Products , Tobacco Use
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 681-685, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935443


Objective: To analyze the changes in tobacco use and exposure in primary school students in Shandong province in 2012 and 2019. Methods: A multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method was used in the survey. In 2012 and 2019, 5 861 and 4 021 students from 3 different cities of Shandong province were selected as the study population. The questionnaire was filled anonymously by the subjects. χ2 test was conducted to compare the difference of groups. Results: In 2012 and 2019, the rate of attempting smoking among pupils under this study in Shandong province were 6.0%and 6.3%, respectively, while the current smoking rate were 1.2%and 2.3%, respectively. The sex ratio of male and female students attempting to smoke was 2.56∶1 in 2012 and 1.31∶1 in 2019. The sex ratio of current smoking rate was 2.43∶1 and 2.00∶1, respectively in 2012 and in 2019. The rate of tobacco exposure in the public places was 50.5%and 41.4%, respectively. The rate of tobacco exposure in family was 49.7% and 46.4%, respectively. Two rates of tobacco exposure decreased, but the reduction in family (3.3%) was far less than that in public places (9.1%). In 2019, the rate of tobacco exposure in family was higher than that in public places. Conclusions: The tobacco exposure rate declined in senior pupils in Shandong province. However, the situation is still grim for the current smoking rate, growth trend of girls tobacco use, and tobacco exposure in family.

Female , Humans , Male , Cities , Environment , Prevalence , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Tobacco Use/epidemiology
Rev. Bras. Cancerol. (Online) ; 68(2)Abr.-Jun. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1373274


Introdução: As doenças tabaco-relacionadas são responsáveis por cinco milhões de óbitos a cada ano. Em 2020, estimou-se que o número de óbitos anuais aumentaria para dez milhões, dos quais 70% ocorreriam nos países em desenvolvimento. Objetivo: Estimar a prevalência do tabagismo e caracterizar o consumo de tabaco entre adolescentes de 12 e de 15 anos na cidade de Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, em 2019-2020. Método: Estudo epidemiológico quantitativo transversal, parte do projeto "Levantamento epidemiológico sobre condições de saúde bucal entre escolares de Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brasil", realizado em 2019-2020. A amostra estimada foi de 354 escolares de 12 anos e 355 de 15 anos, calculada entre 4.458 escolares de 12 anos e 4.524 de 15 anos, respectivamente. Os dados foram analisados descritivamente por meio de medidas de tendência central, variância e frequência. Resultados: Houve prevalência do uso de tabaco entre adolescentes alguma vez na vida de 8,6 %, sendo 4,6% relativos ao consumo do cigarro Paiol. Conclusão: A prevalência do consumo encontrada entre os adolescentes é preocupante por causa dos efeitos deletérios à saúde. Conhecer o perfil dos desses usuários pode contribuir para as políticas de saúde coletiva com o objetivo de reduzir o seu uso

Introduction: Tobacco-related diseases are responsible for five million deaths each year. By 2020, the estimate is that the number of annual deaths would increase to ten million, of which 70% would occur in developing countries. Objective: Estimate the prevalence of smoking and characterize tobacco use among adolescents aged 12 and 15 in the city of Montes Claros, Minas Gerais in 2019-2020. Method: Cross-sectional quantitative epidemiological study, part of the project "Epidemiological survey on oral health conditions among students in Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil", conducted in 2019-2020.The sample consisted of 354 12-year-old and 355 15-year-old adolescents from a population of 4,458 12-year-old and 4,524 15-year-old adolescents, respectively. The data were analyzed through descriptive analysis with measures of central tendency, variance and frequency. Results: There was prevalence of tobacco use in adolescents at some point in their lives of 8.6%, being 4,6% for cigarettes made with pressed tobacco leaves. Conclusion: The prevalence of the use among adolescents is worrying due to the harmful effects to health. Knowing the profile of these users may support health policies aimed to reduce its use

Introducción: Las enfermedades relacionadas con el tabaco son responsables de cinco millones de muertes cada año. Para 2020, la estimación es que el número de muertes anuales aumentaría a diez millones, de los cuales el 70% ocurriría en países en desarrollo. Objetivo: Estimar la prevalencia del tabaquismo y caracterizar el consumo de tabaco en adolescentes de 12 y 15 años de la ciudad de Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, en 2019-2020. Método: Estudio epidemiológico cuantitativo transversal, parte del proyecto "Encuesta epidemiológica sobre condiciones de salud bucal en escolares de Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brasil", realizado en 2019-2020. La muestra estimada estuvo conformada por 354 de 12 años y 355 de 15 años, calculada a partir de 4.458 de 12 años y 4.524 de 15 años, respectivamente. Los datos fueron analizados mediante análisis descriptivo que estimaron medidas de tendencia central, variabilidad y frecuencia. Resultados: Esta investigación observó una prevalencia del consumo de tabaco entre los adolescentes en algún momento de su vida del 8,6%, con predominio del 4,6% en el consumo de cigarrillos. Conclusión: La prevalencia de consumo encontrada es preocupante, debido a los efectos nocivos para la salud. Conocer el perfil de los consumidores adolescentes de productos del tabaco puede contribuir a las políticas de salud colectiva para reducir este uso

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Tobacco Use Disorder , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Tobacco Use , Adolescent
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2022. 134 f p. graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1419047


A presente tese trata-se de um estudo de prevalências e associações no âmbito da sexualidade e dos comportamentos sexuais. Foram utilizados os dados do novo módulo de atividade sexual incluído na Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS) em 2019 voltado para a população de 18 anos ou mais de idade (n=85.859). No primeiro artigo, foi traçado um panorama dos comportamentos sexuais de risco na população adulta relacionados ao não uso de preservativo na última relação sexual e à iniciação sexual precoce (antes dos 15 anos). Foram calculadas as prevalências, e respectivos intervalos de confiança (IC), dos desfechos segundo características socioeconômicas, demográficas e regionais da população. Observou-se que a iniciação sexual precoce é mais prevalente entre pessoas das gerações mais novas, com menores níveis de instrução e rendimento domiciliar. O não uso de preservativo foi mais prevalente entre mulheres, mais velhos e casados ou em coabitação. Foram observadas disparidades relevantes no não uso do preservativo entre os sexos no grupo dos que não coabitam com parceiro. No segundo artigo, avaliou-se a associação entre o consumo pesado de álcool e o uso inconsistente de preservativo entre pessoas de 18 a 59 anos solteiras, viúvas ou divorciadas que não coabitavam com parceiro (n=15.835). Foram estimadas razões de prevalências ajustadas (RPa) com modelos de regressão de Poisson estratificados por sexo e grupos de idade. Verificou-se que indivíduos de todas as faixas etárias e ambos os sexos com padrão de consumo pesado de álcool foram significativamente mais propensos ao uso inconsistente de preservativo que os demais. As estimativas obtidas não foram consideradas estatisticamente diferentes entre adultos jovens (RPa 1,32, IC 95%: 1,14-1,54) e de meia idade (RPa 1,31; IC 95%: 1,19-1,44 para pessoas de 25 a 39 e RPa 1,26; IC 95%: 1,13-1,40 para 40 a 59 anos). No terceiro e último artigo da presente tese, o uso de substâncias (álcool e tabaco) e a depressão foram analisados segundo a orientação sexual autoidentificada da população adulta. Foram estimadas as prevalências e razões de prevalência ajustadas por meio de modelos de regressão de Poisson estratificados por sexo para cada um dos desfechos analisados. Após controle por covariáveis, homens gays apresentaram maior prevalência de depressão, uso diário de tabaco e uso nocivo de álcool e tabaco (RPa entre 1,71 e 1,92) e homens bissexuais com maiores prevalências (quase três vezes) de depressão que homens heterossexuais. Mulheres lésbicas apresentaram maior prevalência de binge drinking, heavy drinking, uso diário de tabaco e uso nocivo de álcool e tabaco que mulheres heterossexuais (RPa entre 2,55 e 4,44). Entre as mulheres bissexuais os resultados foram significativos para todos os desfechos analisado (RPa variou entre 1,83 e 3,26). Sendo assim, essa tese fornece evidências relevantes para subsidiar ações em saúde pública que visem a redução de comportamentos sexuais de risco e das disparidades em saúde relacionadas a orientação sexual da população adulta brasileira.

This thesis is a study of prevalence and associations in the scope of sexuality and sexual behavior. Data are from the new module of sexual activity included in the National Health Survey (PNS, for its Portuguese acronym) in 2019, aimed at the population aged 18 and over (n=85,859). In the first article, a panorama of risky sexual behaviors in the adult population related to the non-use of condoms in the last sexual intercourse and early sexual initiation (before 15 years of age) was performed. Prevalence, and respective confidence intervals (CI), of the outcomes were calculated according to socioeconomic, demographic and regional characteristics of the population. It was observed that early sexual initiation is more prevalent among younger generations, with lower education levels and household income. Non-use of condoms was more prevalent among women, older people and married/cohabiting with a partner. Relevant disparities in non-use of condom between the sexes were observed in the non-cohabiting unmarried group. In the second article, the association between heavy alcohol consumption and inconsistent condom use was investigated among unmarried not cohabiting with a partner people aged 18 to 59 years (n=15,835). Adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) were estimated with Poisson regression models stratified by sex and age groups. It was observed that individuals from all age groups and both sexes who have heavy drinking pattern were significantly more likely to inconsistent condom use. The estimates were not considered statistically different between young (APR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.14-1.54) and middle-aged adults (APR 1.31; 95% CI: 1.19-1.44 for aged 25 to 39 and APR 1.26; 95% CI: 1.13-1.40 for aged 40 to 59 years). In the third and last article of this thesis, substance use (alcohol and tobacco) and depression were analyzed according to the self-identified sexual orientation of the adult population. Prevalence and adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated using Poisson regression models stratified by sex for each outcome. After controlling for covariates, gay men had a higher prevalence of depression, daily tobacco use and hazardous use of alcohol and tobacco (APR between 1.71 and 1.92) and bisexual men had a higher prevalence (almost three times) of depression than heterosexual men. Lesbian women had a higher prevalence of binge drinking, heavy drinking, daily tobacco use and hazardous use of alcohol and tobacco than heterosexual women (APR between 2.55 and 4.44). Among bisexual women, the results were significant for all outcomes analyzed (APR ranged between 1.83 and 3.26). Therefore, this thesis provides relevant evidence to support public health actions aimed at reducing risky sexual behavior and health disparities related to sexual orientation in the Brazilian adult population.

Humans , Male , Female , Risk-Taking , Sexual Behavior , Mental Health , Sexuality , Binge Drinking , Tobacco Use , Brazil , Depression
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 25: e220003, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360904


ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study was to describe trends in lung cancer (LC) mortality and trends in tobacco use. Methods: This is an ecological time-series study to determine mortality trends due to lung cancer resulting from tobacco consumption, based on secondary open-access sources, such as the National Surveys. Smoking prevalence, tobacco use trends, mortality rates, and percentage were determined by LC. The mortality trend from LC was calculated, and a linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of the General Law for Tobacco Control. Results: The prevalence of tobacco use decreased steadily between 1988 and 2015, particularly in men. Mortality rates and percentage decreased between 1998 and 2018. During this period, the mortality rate decreased from 6.3 to 5.4 per 100,000 population (−0.032/100,000 each year, p<0.001), with a net decrease of 0.9 per 100,000. We observe increases in mortality in women in the central and southeastern regions. Of 32 states, 18 showed a tendency to loss (p<0.005). The rate of change for men was −0.24, with a total reduction of 2.17 before the introduction of the laws and −0.32 after their introduction, a total reduction of 3.24 (p<0.005). Women showed no reduction. Conclusions: Mortality rates showed a limited decrease. Strategies need to be strengthened, mainly in the central and southeastern regions, and to focus on the control of tobacco use by women.

RESUMO: Objetivos: Descrever tendências na mortalidade por câncer de pulmão e no uso do tabaco. Métodos: Realizamos um estudo ecológico de séries temporais para determinar a tendência de mortalidade por câncer de pulmão de acordo com o consumo de tabaco, com base em fontes secundárias de acesso aberto, como as Pesquisas Nacionais. Prevalência de tabagismo, tendências de uso de tabaco, porcentagem e taxas de mortalidade foram determinadas pelo câncer de pulmão. A tendência de mortalidade por câncer de pulmão foi calculada e uma análise de regressão linear foi realizada para avaliar o impacto da lei geral para o controle do tabagismo. Resultados: A prevalência do uso de tabaco diminuiu continuamente entre 1988 e 2015, principalmente em homens. As taxas e percentuais de mortalidade diminuíram entre 1998 e 2018. Durante esse período, a taxa de mortalidade diminuiu de 6,3 para 5,4 por 100 mil habitantes (-0,032 por 100 mil a cada ano, p<0,001), com redução líquida de 0,9 por 100 mil. Observamos aumentos na mortalidade de mulheres nas regiões Centro e Sudeste. Dos 32 estados, 18 apresentaram tendência à perda (p<0,005). A taxa de mudança para os homens foi de -0,24, com redução total de 2,17 antes da introdução das leis e -0,32 após a sua introdução — redução total de 3,24 (p<0,005). As mulheres não apresentaram redução. Conclusões: As taxas de mortalidade mostraram redução limitada. Estratégias precisam ser fortalecidas, principalmente nas regiões Centro e Sudeste, e deve-se enfocar o controle do uso do tabaco pelas mulheres.

Humans , Male , Female , Nicotiana , Lung Neoplasms , Brazil , Mortality , Tobacco Use/epidemiology , Mexico/epidemiology
Salud(i)ciencia (Impresa) ; 25(3): 173-181, 2022. tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437047


The lifestyle is the result of a set of behavior patterns or sociocultural habits acquired over the years that determines the state of physical, mental and social health of people. The aim was to analyze the habit of consuming tobacco, alcohol and other illegal drugs in the acquired healthy lifestyle. Descriptive, epidemiological and cross-sectional study in 788 participants aged 22 to 77 years (49.5% men; 50.5% women) selected by non-probabilistic and intentional sampling. Subscale 4 Tobacco, alcohol and other drug consumption habits was used. of the Acquired Healthy Lifestyle Assessment Scale. The following classifications on consumption habits were made: a) tobacco (non-smoker, mild, moderate, high and very high risk), b) alcohol (no risk, prudent consumption, low, moderate and high risk), c) drugs (never, almost never, with some frequency, quite frequently and very frequently) and d) global (not at all healthy, unhealthy, tending towards health and healthy). The results showed that 27% of the participants need to improve their lifestyle by eliminating (or reducing) drug use, acquiring healthier habits. Regarding the differences according to sex, men, compared to women, presented a higher prevalence of unhealthy habits, especially alcohol. In relation to the differences according to the age group, the participants from 49 to 55 years old presented the highest prevalence of habits in the unhealthy or unhealthy levels, while the group from 56 to 72 years old showed the healthiest levels in relation to the habit of drug use.

El objetivo fue analizar el hábito de consumo de tabaco, alcohol y otras drogas ilegales en el estilo de vida saludable adquirido. Estudio descriptivo, epidemiológico y transversal en 788 participantes de 22 a 77 años de edad (49,5% varones; 50,5% mujeres) seleccionados mediante muestreo no probabilístico e intencional. Se empleó la sub-escala 4. Hábito de consumo de tabaco, alcohol y otras drogas de la Escala de Valoración del Estilo de Vida Saludable Adquirido. Se realizaron las siguientes clasificaciones sobre el hábito de consumo: a) tabaco (no fumador, leve, moderado, alto y muy alto riesgo), b) alcohol (ningún riesgo, consumo prudente, bajo, moderado y alto riesgo), c) drogas (nunca, casi nunca, con alguna frecuencia, con bastante frecuencia y con mucha frecuencia) y d) global (nada saludable, poco saludable, tendente hacia la salud y saludable). Los resultados mostraron que el 27% de los participantes necesita mejorar su estilo de vida eliminando (o reduciendo) el consumo de drogas, adquiriendo hábitos más saludables. Con respecto a las diferencias según sexo, los varones, en comparación con las mujeres, presentaron una mayor prevalencia de hábitos no saludables, sobre todo, de alcohol. En relación a las diferencias según el grupo de edad, los participantes de 49 a 55 años presentaron la mayor prevalencia de hábitos en los niveles poco o nada saludables, mientras que el grupo de 56 a 72 años mostró los niveles más saludables en relación al hábito de consumo de drogas.

Healthy Lifestyle , Spain , Alcohol Drinking , Tobacco Use , Substance Abuse, Oral
Estud. Psicol. (Campinas, Online) ; 39: e200193, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1384935


We aimed to evaluate concurrent use of alcohol and tobacco among hospitalized patients as well as to compare the use of both substances among people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome and those with other diagnoses. A cross-sectional study took place in a hospital in Minas Gerais (Brazil). Structured surveys were used to evaluate tobacco and alcohol use. Data analysis was conducted using descriptive statistics and chi-square test. We interviewed 972 patients, in which 20.3% were hazardous drinkers and 14.9% tobacco users. Almost half of the smokers (47.6%) were hazardous drinkers, while 15.5% of nonsmokers engaged in harmful consumption of alcohol (p < 0.001). Tobacco use was higher among people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus when compared with patients that did not have an Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome diagnosis (32.1% vs 14.4%, p = 0.009). Our findings showed the association of tobacco use and hazardous drinking among hospitalized patients in Brazil and a higher prevalence of tobacco use among patients living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus. These findings can be used to develop smoking cessation interventions that address the comorbidities associated with substance use.

O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a associação do uso de álcool e tabaco entre pacientes internados em um hospital geral e comparar o uso das duas substâncias entre pacientes que vivem com o Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida e outros diagnósticos. Realizou-se um estudo observacional em um hospital público para avaliação do uso de tais substâncias. Entre 972 pacientes, 20,3% fizeram uso prejudicial de álcool e 14,9% de tabaco. Quase metade dos tabagistas (47,6%) fizeram uso prejudicial do álcool, enquanto 15,5% dos não tabagistas relataram uso excessivo da substância (p < 0,001). A porcentagem de fumantes foi significativamente mais alta no grupo de pacientes que vivem com o Virus da Imunodeficiência Humana do que nos demais diagnósticos (32,1% vs 14,4%, p = 0,009). Percebe-se a associação do uso de tabaco e uso prejudicial de álcool entre pacientes hospitalizados e alta prevalência do uso de tabaco entre pacientes que vivem com o Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida. Esses dados podem direcionar o planejamento de intervenções para cessação do consumo de tabaco que consigam direcionar as comorbidades relacionadas ao uso da substância

HIV , Alcoholism , Tobacco Use , Smokers , Inpatients
Rev. Bras. Cancerol. (Online) ; 68(1)jan./fev./mar. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1371163


A relação entre raça (e etnicidade) e adoecimento no Brasil é bastante sólida e evidente. A cor da pele de um indivíduo influencia significativamente na sua vida, no seu adoecimento e morte. Como exemplo atual sobre o tema, cabe mencionar a relação entre a mortalidade da doença pelo coronavírus 2019 (do inglês, coronavirus disease 2019 - covid-19) e a raça, cuja população de pretos tem uma taxa de mortalidade mais alta do que os brancos

Humans , Male , Female , Nicotiana , Tobacco Use Disorder , Tobacco Use Disorder/ethnology , Ethnicity , Racism , Tobacco Use , Brazil
Odovtos (En línea) ; 23(3)dic. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1386553


ABSTRACT: Despite the reported effects of smokeless tobacco (ST) on the periodontium and high prevalence of ST use in rural populations and in males studies on this specific topic are limited. The purpose of this cross-sectional investigation was to measure lipid peroxidation (as an end product of oxidative stress) end product i.e. Malondialdehyde (MDA) in saliva of patients with gingivitis, chronic periodontitis and to assess the influence of smokeless tobacco on Salivary Malondialdehyde (S-MDA). Total 30 patients with gingivitis, 30 with chronic periodontitis and 30 Smokeless Tobacco Chewers with Chronic Periodontitis and 30 periodontally healthy subjects were included in the study. Plaque Index (PI), Gingival Index (GI), Probing Pocket Depth (PD), and Clinical Attachment Loss (CAL) were recorded followed by stimulated Saliva sample collection. Salivary MDA Levels were assessed by UV Spectrophotometry. There was a statistically significant increase in the salivary MDA levels in gingivitis, chronic periodontitis and in smokeless tobacco chewers with chronic periodontitis when compared with healthy group. Higher salivary MDA levels in gingivitis group, chronic periodontitis, and smokeless tobacco chewers with chronic periodontitis reflects increasedoxygen radical activity during periodontal inflammation.

RESUMEN: A pesar de los efectos reportados del tabaco sin humo (TS) sobre el periodonto y la alta prevalencia del uso de TS en poblaciones rurales y en hombres, los estudios sobre este tema específico son limitados. El propósito de esta investigación transversal fue medir el producto final de la peroxidación lipídica (como producto final del estrés oxidativo), es decir, malondialdehído (MDA) en la saliva de pacientes con gingivitis, periodontitis crónica y evaluar la influencia del tabaco sin humo en el malondialdehído salival (S-MDA). Se incluyeron en el estudio un total de 30 pacientes con gingivitis, 30 con periodontitis crónica y 30 masticadores de tabaco sin humo con periodontitis crónica y 30 sujetos periodontalmente sanos. Se registraron el índice de placa (PI), el índice gingival (GI), la profundidad de la bolsa de sondeo (PD) y la pérdida de adherencia clínica (CAL), seguidos de la recogida de muestras de saliva estimuladas. Los niveles de MDA en saliva se evaluaron mediante espectrofotometría UV. Hubo un aumento estadísticamente significativo en los niveles de MDA en saliva en gingivitis, periodontitis crónica y en masticadores de tabaco sin humo con periodontitis crónica en comparación con el grupo sano. Los niveles más altos de MDA en saliva en el grupo de gingivitis, periodontitis crónica y masticadores de tabaco sin humo con periodontitis crónica reflejan un aumento de la actividad de los radicales de oxígeno durante la inflamación periodontal.

Humans , Chronic Periodontitis/chemically induced , Tobacco Use , Lipid Peroxidation , Malondialdehyde/analysis