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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 625-633, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440306

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: One of the reasons for acute kidney damage is renal ischemia. Nevertheless, there are limited protective and therapeutic approaches for this problem. Diacerein is an anti-inflammatory drug characterized by numerous biological activities. We aimed to determine the ameliorative impact of diacerein on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R) condition, exploring the underlying mechanisms. Twenty-four male rats were allotted into four groups (n= 6): sham group; Diacerein (DIA) group; I/R group, in which a non-crushing clamp occluded the left renal pedicle for 45 min, and the right kidney was nephrectomized for 5 min before the reperfusion process; I/R + diacerein group, injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg diacerein/kg i.m 30 minutes prior to I/R operation. Ischemia/ reperfusion was found to affect renal function and induce histopathological alterations. The flow cytometry analysis demonstrated an elevated expression of innate and mature dendritic cells in I/R renal tissues. Moreover, upregulation in the expression of the inflammatory genes (TLR4, Myd88, and NLRP3), and overexpression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β), apoptotic (caspase-3) and pyroptotic (caspase-1) markers were observed in I/R-experienced animals. The aforementioned deteriorations were mitigated by pre-I/R diacerein treatment. Diacerein alleviated I/R-induced inflammation and apoptosis. Thus, it could be a promising protective agent against I/R.


La isquemia renal es una de los motivos del daño renal agudo. Sin embargo, los enfoques protectores y terapéuticos para este problema son limitados. La diacereína es un fármaco antiinflamatorio caracterizado por numerosas actividades biológicas. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar el impacto de mejora de la diacereína en la condición de lesión por isquemia/ reperfusión renal (I/R), explorando los mecanismos subyacentes. Veinticuatro ratas macho se distribuyeron en cuatro grupos (n= 6): grupo simulado; grupo de diacereína (DIA); grupo I/R, en el que una pinza no aplastante ocluyó el pedículo renal izquierdo durante 45 min, y el riñón derecho fue nefrectomizado durante 5 min antes del proceso de reperfusión; Grupo I/R + diacereína, inyectado por vía intraperitoneal con 50 mg de diacereína/kg i.m. 30 min antes de la operación I/R. Se encontró que la isquemia/ reperfusión afecta la función renal e induce alteraciones histopatológicas. El análisis de citometría de flujo demostró una expresión elevada de células dendríticas innatas y maduras en tejidos renales I/R. Además, se observó una regulación positiva en la expresión de los genes inflamatorios (TLR4, Myd88 y NLRP3) y una sobreexpresión de las citoquinas proinflamatorias (IL-1β), marcadores apoptóticos (caspasa-3) y piroptóticos (caspasa-1) en animales con experiencia en I/R. Los deterioros antes mencionados fueron mitigados por el tratamiento previo a la diacereína I/R. La diacereína alivió la inflamación y la apoptosis inducidas por I/R. Por lo tanto, podría ser un agente protector prometedor contra I/R.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Anthraquinones/administration & dosage , Kidney Diseases/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Dendritic Cells/drug effects , Reperfusion Injury/immunology , Signal Transduction , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Anthraquinones/immunology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Oxidative Stress , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Flow Cytometry , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Inflammation , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Kidney Diseases/immunology
2.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 194-204, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971652

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This study was conducted to explore the mechanism of intestinal inflammation and barrier repair in Crohn's disease (CD) regulated by moxibustion through bile acid (BA) enterohepatic circulation and intestinal farnesoid X receptor (FXR).@*METHODS@#Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group, CD model group, mild moxibustion group and herb-partitioned moxibustion group. CD model rats induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid were treated with mild moxibustion or herb-partitioned moxibustion at Tianshu (ST25) and Qihai (CV6). The changes in CD symptoms were rated according to the disease activity index score, the serum and colon tissues of rats were collected, and the pathological changes in colon tissues were observed via histopathology. Western blot, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence were used to evaluate the improvement of moxibustion on intestinal inflammation and mucosal barrier in CD by the BA-FXR pathway.@*RESULTS@#Mild moxibustion and herb-partitioned moxibustion improved the symptoms of CD, inhibited inflammation and repaired mucosal damage to the colon in CD rats. Meanwhile, moxibustion could improve the abnormal expression of BA in the colon, liver and serum, downregulate the expression of interferon-γ and upregulate the expression of FXR mRNA, and inhibit Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) mRNA. The IHC results showed that moxibustion could upregulate the expression of FXR and mucin2 and inhibit TLR4 expression. Western blot showed that moxibustion inhibited the protein expression of TLR4 and MyD88 and upregulated the expression of FXR. Immunofluorescence image analysis showed that moxibustion increased the colocalization sites and intensity of FXR with TLR4 or nuclear factor-κB p65. In particular, herb-partitioned moxibustion has more advantages in improving BA and upregulating FXR and TLR4 in the colon.@*CONCLUSION@#Mild moxibustion and herb-partitioned moxibustion can improve CD by regulating the enterohepatic circulation stability of BA, activating colonic FXR, regulating the TLR4/MyD88 pathway, inhibiting intestinal inflammation and repairing the intestinal mucosal barrier. Herb-partitioned moxibustion seems to have more advantages in regulating BA enterohepatic circulation and FXR activation. Please cite this article as: Shen JC, Qi Q, Han D, Lu Y, Huang R, Zhu Y, Zhang LS, Qin XD, Zhang F, Wu HG, Liu HR. Moxibustion improves experimental colitis in rats with Crohn's disease by regulating bile acid enterohepatic circulation and intestinal farnesoid X receptor. J Integr Med. 2023; 21(2): 194-204.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Crohn Disease/pathology , Moxibustion/methods , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism , Colitis , Inflammation , Enterohepatic Circulation , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
3.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 507-515, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986956

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the mechanism of Yifei Jianpi recipe for improving cigarette smoke- induced inflammatory injury and mucus hypersecretion in cultured human bronchial epithelial cells.@*METHODS@#Serum samples were collected from 40 SD rats treated with Yifei Jianpi recipe (n=20) or normal saline (n=20) by gavage. Cultured human bronchial epithelial 16HBE cells were stimulated with an aqueous cigarette smoke extract (CSE), followed by treatment with the collected serum at different dilutions. The optimal concentration and treatment time of CSE and the medicated serum for cell treatment were determined with CCK-8 assay. The expressions of TLR4, NF-κB, MUC5AC, MUC7, and muc8 at both the mRNA and protein levels in the treated cells were examined with RT- qPCR and Western blotting, and the effects of TLR4 gene silencing and overexpression on their expressions were assessed. The expressions of TNF-α, IL-1 β, IL-6 and IL-8 in the cells were detected using ELISA.@*RESULTS@#At the optimal concentration of 20%, treatment with the medicated serum for 24 h significantly lowered the mRNA and protein expressions of TLR4, NF- κB, MUC5AC, MUC7, and MUC8 in CSE- exposed 16HBE cells, and these effects were further enhanced by TLR4 silencing in the cells. In 16HBE cells with TLR4 overexpression, the expressions of TLR4, NF-κB, MUC5AC, MUC7, and MUC8 were significantly increased after CSE exposure and were lowered following treatment with the medicated serum (P < 0.05). The medicated serum also significantly lowered the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 in CSE-exposed 16HBE cells (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#In the 16HBE cell model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), treatment with Yifei Jianpi recipe-medicated serum improves inflammation and mucus hypersecretion possibly by reducing MUC secretion and inhibiting the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rats , Animals , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Interleukin-8/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Cigarette Smoking/adverse effects , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Signal Transduction , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Mucus/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
4.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 911-928, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982435

ABSTRACT

Increased intestinal barrier permeability, leaky gut, has been reported in patients with autism. However, its contribution to the development of autism has not been determined. We selected dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to disrupt and metformin to repair the intestinal barrier in BTBR T+tf/J autistic mice to test this hypothesis. DSS treatment resulted in a decreased affinity for social proximity; however, autistic behaviors in mice were improved after the administration of metformin. We found an increased affinity for social proximity/social memory and decreased repetitive and anxiety-related behaviors. The concentration of lipopolysaccharides in blood decreased after the administration of metformin. The expression levels of the key molecules in the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)-nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway and their downstream inflammatory cytokines in the cerebral cortex were both repressed. Thus, "leaky gut" could be a trigger for the development of autism via activation of the lipopolysaccharide-mediated TLR4-MyD88-NF-κB pathway.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , NF-kappa B , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Autistic Disorder/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology
5.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 880-888, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982145

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the inflammatory effects of Cinobufotalin on monocytes in resting state and macrophages in activated state and its molecular mechanism.@*METHODS@#THP-1 cells were stimulated with Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate to induce differentiation into macrophages. Lipopolysaccharides was added to activate macrophages in order to establish macrophage activation model. Cinobufotalin was added to the inflammatory cell model for 24 h as a treatment. CCK-8 was used to detect cell proliferation, Annexin V /PI double staining flow cytometry was used to detect cell apoptosis, flow cytometry was used to detect macrophage activation, and cytometric bead array was used to detect cytokines. Transcriptome sequencing was used to explore the gene expression profile regulated by Cinobufotalin. Changes in the significantly regulated molecules were verified by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot.@*RESULTS@#1∶25 concentration of Cinobufotalin significantly inhibited the proliferation of resting monocytes(P<0.01), and induced apoptosis(P<0.01), especially the activated macrophages(P<0.001, P<0.001). Cinobufotalin significantly inhibited the activation of macrophages, and significantly down-regulated the inflammatory cytokines(IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8) released by activated macrophages(P<0.001). Its mechanism was achieved by inhibiting TLR4/MYD88/P-IκBa signaling pathway.@*CONCLUSION@#Cinobufotalin can inhibit the inflammatory factors produced by the over-activation of macrophages through TLR4/MYD88/P-IκBa pathway, which is expected to be applied to the treatment and research of diseases related to the over-release of inflammatory factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/genetics , Macrophages/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , NF-kappa B
6.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 610-616, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981907

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effects of formononetin (FMN) on cognitive behavior and inflammation in aging rats with chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Methods SD rats aged about 70 weeks were divided into healthy control group, CUMS model group, CUMS combined with 10 mg/kg FMN group, CUMS combined with 20 mg/kg FMN group and CUMS combined with 1.8 mg/kg fluoxetine hydrochloride (Flu) group. Except for healthy control group, other groups were stimulated with CUMS and administered drugs for 28 days. Sugar water preference, forced swimming experiment and open field experiment were used to observe the emotional behavior of rats in each group. HE staining was used to observe the pathological injury degree of brain equine area. The contents of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were detected by the kit. The apoptosis was tested by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) in the brain tissue. The levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in peripheral blood were measured by ELISA. Western blot analysis was used to detect Bcl2, Bcl2 associated X protein (BAX), cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), and phosphorylated nuclear factor κB p65 (p-NF-κB p65) in brain tissues. Results Compared with CUMS model group, sugar water consumption, open field activity time, open field travel distance and swimming activity time significantly increased in the CUMS combined with 20 mg/kg FMN group and the CUMS combined with 1.8 mg/kg Flu group. The number of new outarm entry increased significantly, while the number of initial arm entry and other arm entry decreased significantly. The pathological damage of brain equine area was alleviated, and the contents of 5-HT and 5-HIAA were significantly increased. The ratio of BAX/Bcl2 and the expression of cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3 protein as well as the number of apoptotic cells were significantly decreased. The contents of TNF-α, iNOS and IL-6 were significantly decreased. The protein levels of TLR4, MyD88 and p-NF-κB p65 were significantly decreased. Conclusion FMN can inhibit the release of inflammatory factors by blocking NF-κB pathway and improve cognitive and behavioral ability of CUMS aged rats.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Horses , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Signal Transduction , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 9/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 , Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid/pharmacology , Serotonin/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Hippocampus/metabolism , Cognition
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3913-3921, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981524

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect and mechanism of Isodon terricolous-medicated serum on lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced hepatic stellate cell(HSC) activation. LPS-induced HSCs were divided into a blank control group, an LPS model group, a colchicine-medicated serum group, an LPS + blank serum group, an I. terricolous-medicated serum group, a Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4) blocker group, and a TLR4 blocker + I. terricolous-medicated serum group. HSC proliferation was detected by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium(MTT) assay. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was used to measure type Ⅰ collagen(COL Ⅰ), COL Ⅲ, transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1), α-smooth muscle actin(α-SMA), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1), cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinase-1(caspase-1), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1(MCP-1). Real-time PCR(RT-PCR) was used to detect mRNA expression of TLR4, IκBα, and NOD-like receptor thermal protein domain associated protein 3(NLRP3), nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB) p65, gasdermin D(GSDMD), and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD(ASC) in HSCs. Western blot(WB) was used to detect the protein levels of TLR4, p-IκBα, NF-κB p65, NLRP3, ASC, and GSDMD in HSCs. The results showed that I. terricolous-medicated serum could inhibit the proliferation activity of HSCs and inhibit the secretion of COL Ⅰ, COL Ⅲ, α-SMA, TGF-β1, caspase-1, MCP-1, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 in HSCs. Compared with the LPS model group, the I. terricolous-medicated serum group, the colchicine-medicated serum group, and the TLR4 blocker group showed down-regulated expression of p-IκBα, NLRP3, NF-κB p65, GSDMD, and ASC, and up-regulated expression of IκBα. Compared with the TLR4 blocker group, the TLR4 blocker + I. terricolous-medicated serum group showed decreased expression of TLR4, p-IκBα, NLRP3, NF-κB p65, GSDMD, and ASC, and increased expression of IκBα. In conclusion, I. terricolous-medicated serum down-regulates HSC activation by inhibiting the TLR4/NF-κB/NLRP3 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
NF-kappa B/metabolism , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , NF-KappaB Inhibitor alpha/metabolism , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Isodon , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Signal Transduction , Colchicine/pharmacology , Caspases
8.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 153-161, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922579

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate whether electroacupuncture (EA) alleviates cognitive impairment by suppressing the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) signaling pathway, which triggers immune-inflammatory responses in the hippocampus of rats with vascular dementia (VaD).@*METHODS@#The experiments were conducted in 3 parts and in total the Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 8 groups by a random number table, including sham, four-vessel occlusion (4-VO), 4-VO+EA, 4-VO+non-EA, sham+EA, 4-VO+lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 4-VO+LPS+EA, and 4-VO+TAK-242 groups. The VaD model was established by the 4-VO method. Seven days later, rats were treated with EA at 5 acupoints of Baihui (DV 20), Danzhong (RN 17), Geshu (BL 17), Qihai (RN 6) and Sanyinjiao (SP 6), once per day for 3 consecutive weeks. Lymphocyte subsets, lymphocyte transformation rates, and inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α) were measured to assess immune function and inflammation in VaD rats. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the ultrastructure of nerve cells in the hippocampus. The levels of TLR4, MyD88, IL-6, and TNF-α were detected after EA treatment. TLR4/MyD88 signaling and cognitive function were also assessed after intracerebroventricular injection of TLR4 antagonist TAK-242 or TLR4 agonist LPS with or without EA.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the 4-VO group, EA notably improved immune function of rats in the 4-VO+EA group, inhibited the protein and mRNA expressions of TLR4 and MyD88 in the hippocampus of rats, reduced the expressions of serum IL-6 and TNF-α (all P0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#EA attenuated cognitive impairment associated with immune inflammation by inhibition of the TLR4/MyD88 signaling pathway. Thus, EA may be a promising alternative therapy for the treatment of VaD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Dementia, Vascular/therapy , Electroacupuncture , Hippocampus/metabolism , Immunity , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2049-2055, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928144

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the mechanism of the Tibetan medicine Ershiwuwei Songshi Pills(ESP) against the liver injury induced by acetaminophen(APAP) in mice based on the kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1(Keap1)/nuclear transcription factor E2 related factor 2(Nrf2) and Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4)/nuclear factor-kappa B(NF-κB) p65 signaling pathways. Kunming mice were randomly divided into a blank control group, a model group, an N-acetyl-L-cysteine(NAC) group, and high-(400 mg·kg~(-1)), medium-(200 mg·kg~(-1)), and low-dose(100 mg·kg~(-1)) ESP groups. After 14 days of continuous administration, except for those in the control group, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with 200 mg·kg~(-1) APAP. After 12 h, the serum and liver tissues of mice were collected. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was performed on pathological sections of the liver, and the levels of aspartate aminotransferase(AST) and alanine aminotransferase(ALT) in the serum and the levels of glutathione(GSH), malondialdehyde(MDA), superoxide dismutase(SOD), catalase(CAT), myeloperoxidase(MPO), and total antioxidant capacity(T-AOC) in liver tissue homogenate were detected to observe and analyze the protective effect of ESP on APAP-induced liver injury in mice. The serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta(IL-1β), and interleukin-6(IL-6) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). The protein expression of Nrf2, Keap1, TLR4, and NF-κB p65 in the liver was determined by Western blot. Quantitative real-time was used to determine the mRNA expression of glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit(GCLC), glutamate-cysteine ligase regulatory subunit(GCLM), heme oxygenase-1(HO-1), and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1(NQO-1) in the liver to explore the mechanism of ESP in improving APAP-induced liver damage in mice. As revealed by results, compared with the model group, the ESP groups showed improved liver pathological damage, decreased ALT and AST levels in the serum and MDA and MPO content in the liver, increased GSH, SOD, CAT, and T-AOC in the liver, reduced TNF-α and IL-6 levels in the serum, down-regulated expression of Keap1 in the liver cytoplasm and NF-κB p65 in the liver nucleus, up-regulated expression of Nrf2 in the liver nucleus, insignificant change in TLR4 expression, and elevated relative mRNA expression levels of antioxidant genes GCLC, GCLM, HO-1, and NQO-1. ESP can reduce the oxidative damage and inflammation caused by APAP, and the mechanism may be related to the Keap1/Nrf2 signaling pathway and the signal transduction factors on the TLR4/NF-κB p65 pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase/pharmacology , Glutathione , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , Liver , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2516-2524, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928131

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the effect of butyl alcohol extract of Baitouweng Decoction(BAEB) on vulvovaginal candidiasis(VVC) in mice and to clarify the mechanism from Toll-like receptors(TLRs)/MyD88 and Dectin-1/Syk signal pathways and NLRP3 inflammasome. To be specific, female KM mice were randomized into control group(i.g., normal saline), model group, fluco-nazole group(i.g., 20 mg·kg~(-1)), and low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose BAEB groups(i.g., 20, 40, and 80 mg·kg~(-1), respectively). VVC was induced in mice except the control group. After the modeling, administration began and lasted 7 days. The ge-neral conditions and body weight of mice were recorded every day. On the 1 st, 3 rd, 7 th, and 14 th after vaginal infection by Candida albicans, the fungal load in the vaginal lavage fluid of the mice was measured with the plate method, and the morphology of C. albicans in vaginal lavage fluid was observed based on Gram staining. After the mice were killed, vaginal tissues were subjected to hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining and periodic acid-Schiff(PAS) staining for vaginal histopathological analysis. The content of cytokines in vaginal lavage fluid, such as interleukin(IL)-1β, IL-18, tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), IL-6, and S100 a8, was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA), and content of reactive oxygen species(ROS) in vaginal tissues by tissue ROS detection kit. The protein expression of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, Dectin-1, Syk, MyD88, TLR2, TLR4, and nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB) in vaginal tissues was detected by Western blot, and the levels and distribution of NLRP3, Dectin-1, Syk, MyD88, TLR2, and TLR4 in vaginal tissues were determined with the immunohistochemical method. The results show that BAEB can improve the general conditions of VVC mice, reduce the fungal load and C. albicans hyphae in vaginal secretion, decrease ROS content in vaginal tissues and content of cytokines in vaginal lavage fluid, and down-regulate the expression of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, Dectin-1, Syk, MyD88, TLR2, TLR4, and NF-κB in vaginal tissues. The above results indicate that BAEB exerts therapeutic effect on VVC mice by down-regulating the key proteins in the TLRs/MyD88 and Dectin-1/Syk signal pathways and NLRP3 inflammasome.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , 1-Butanol/therapeutic use , Candida albicans , Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal/drug therapy , Caspase 1/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Toll-Like Receptor 2/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1603-1610, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928090

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the mechanism of baicalin on lipopolysaccharide(LPS)/interferon γ(IFN-γ)-induced inflammatory microglia based on the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2(TREM2)/Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4)/nuclear factor kappaB(NF-κB) pathway. Specifically, LPS and IFN-γ were used to induce inflammation in mouse microglia BV2 cells. Then the normal group, model group, low-dose(5 μmol·L~(-1)) baicalin group, medium-dose(10 μmol·L~(-1)) baicalin group, high-dose(20 μmol·L~(-1)) baicalin group, and minocycline(10 μmol·L~(-1)) group were designed. Cell viability was detected by CCK-8 assay and cell morphology was observed under bright field. The expression of interleukin-1β(IL-1β), interleukin-4(IL-4), inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS), interleukin-6(IL-6), interleukin-10(IL-10), and arginase-1(Arg-1) mRNA was detected by real-time quantitative PCR, the protein expression of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), IL-1β, TREM2, TLR4, inhibitor kappaB-alpha(IκBα), p-IκBα, NF-κB p65 and p-NF-κB p65 by Western blot, and transfer of NF-κB p65 from cytoplasm to nucleus by cellular immunofluorescence. Compared with the normal group, most of the BV2 cells in the model group tended to demonstrate the pro-inflammatory M1 amoeba morphology, and the model group showed significant increase in the mRNA levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and iNOS, decrease in the mRNA levels of IL-4, IL-10, and Arg-1(P<0.01), rise of the protein expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, TLR4, p-IκBα, and p-NF-κB p65(P<0.01), reduction in TREM2 protein expression, and increase in the expression of NF-κB p65 in nucleus. Compared with the model group, baicalin groups and minocycline group showed the recovery of BV2 cell morphology, significant decrease in the mRNA levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and iNOS, increase in the mRNA levels of IL-4, IL-10, and Arg-1(P<0.01), reduction in the protein expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, TLR4, p-IκBα, and p-NF-κB p65(P<0.05), rise of TREM2 protein expression, and decrease in the expression of NF-κB p65 in nucleus. In summary, these results suggest that baicalin can regulate the imbalance between TREM2 and TLR4 of microglia and inhibit the activation of downstream NF-κB, thus promoting the polarization of microglia from pro-inflammatory phenotype to anti-inflammatory phenotype.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Flavonoids , Inflammation/genetics , Interferon-gamma , Lipopolysaccharides/adverse effects , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism
12.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 321-331, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929264

ABSTRACT

Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medik. (A. manihot) is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine with a variety of pharmacological properties. It was first recorded in Jiayou Materia Medica dating back to the Song dynasty to eliminate urinary tract irritation by clearing away heat and diuretic effect. However, its pharmacological action on urinary tract infections has not been investigated. The present study aims to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of A. manihot on a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cystitis. The results showed that A. manihot decreased white blood cell (WBC) count in urine sediments of the cystitis mice, alleviated bladder congestion, edema, as well as histopathological damage, reduced the expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β simultaneously. Moreover, A. manihot administration significantly downregulated the expression levels of TLR4, MYD88, IκBα, p-IκBα, NF-κB p65, and p-NF-κB p65 in LPS-induced cystitis mice. These findings demonstrated the protective effect of A. manihot against LPS-induced cystitis, which is attributed to its anti-inflammatory profile by suppressing TLR4/MYD88/NF-κB pathways. Our results suggest that A. manihot could be a potential candidate for cystitis treatment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Abelmoschus/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Cystitis , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism , NF-KappaB Inhibitor alpha/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism
13.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 707-716, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939803

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Neuropathic pain (NP) is a chronic pain caused by somatosensory neuropathy or disease, and genistein (Gen) might be a potential drug for the treatment of NP. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effect of Gen on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory injury of dorsal root ganglion neuron (DRGn) in rats and the possible molecular mechanism.@*METHODS@#The DRGn of 1-day-old juvenile rats were taken for isolation and culture. The DRGn in logarithmic growth phase were divided into a control group, a LPS group, a tubastatin hydrochloride (TSA)+LPS group, a Gen1+LPS group, a Gen2+LPS group, a Gen2+LPS+TSA group, a Gen2+pcDNA-histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6)+LPS group, and a Gen2+pcDNA3.1+LPS group. The LPS group was treated with 1 μg/mL LPS for 24 h; the TSA+LPS group, the Gen1+LPS group, the Gen2+LPS group were treated with 5 μmol/L TSA, 5 μmol/L Gen, 10 μmol/L Gen respectively for 0.5 h, and then added 1 μg/mL LPS for 24 h; the Gen2+TSA+LPS group was treated with 10 μmol/L Gen and 5 μmol/L TSA for 0.5 h and then added 1 μg/mL LPS for 24 h; the Gen2+pcDNA-HDAC6+LPS group and the Gen2+pcDNA3.1+LPS group received 100 nmol/L pcDNA-HDAC6 and pcDNA3.1 plasmids respectively, and 24 h after transfection, 10 μmol/L Gen was pretreated for 0.5 h, and then added 1 μg/mL LPS for 24 h. Real-time RT-PCR was used to detect the HDAC6 mRNA expression in DRGn; CCK-8 method was used to detect cell viability of DRGn; flow cytometry was used to detect cell apoptosis of DRGn; ELISA was used to detect the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in DRGn culture supernatant; Western blotting was used to detect the protein expression of HDAC6, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), and NF-κB p65 in DRGn.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the expression levels of HDAC6 mRNA and protein, the expression levels of TLR4 and MyD88 protein in DRGn of LPS group rats were significantly up-regulated, the ratio of p-NF-κB p65/NF-κB p65 was significantly increased, and the activity of DRGn was significantly decreased, the apoptosis rate was significantly increased, and the levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in the DRGn culture supernatant were significantly increased (all P<0.05). Compared with the LPS group, the expression levels of HDAC6 mRNA and protein, TLR4 and MyD88 protein expression levels in DRGn of the TSA+LPS group, the Gen1+LPS group, the Gen2+LPS group and the Gen2+TSA+LPS group were significantly down-regulated, the ratio of p-NF-κB p65/NF-κB p65 was significantly decreased, the activity of DRGn was significantly increased, the apoptosis rate was significantly decreased, and the levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in the DRGn culture supernatant were significantly decreased (all P<0.05), and the above changes were most obvious in the Gen2+TSA+LPS group. Compared with the Gen2+LPS group, the expression levels of HDAC6 mRNA and protein, TLR4 and MyD88 protein expression levels in DRGn of the Gen2+pcDNA-HDAC6+LPS group were significantly up-regulated, the ratio of p-NF-κB p65/NF-κB p65 was significantly increased, the activity of DRGn was significantly decreased, and the apoptosis rate was significantly increased, and the levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in the DRGn culture supernatant were significantly increased (all P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Gen can alleviate LPS-induced DRGn inflammatory injury in rats, which might be related to down-regulating the expression of HDAC6 and further inhibiting the activation of TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Ganglia, Spinal , Genistein/pharmacology , Histone Deacetylase 6/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , RNA, Messenger , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
14.
Clinics ; 76: e2484, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153996

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of miR-139-5p and the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway in acute lung injury in septic mice. METHOD: A total of 140 healthy male SPF C57BL/6 mice were divided into seven groups, i.e., Normal, Control, NC, miR-139-5p mimic, miR-139-5p inhibitor, TAK-242, and miR-139-5p inhibitor+TAK-242 groups. The levels of miR-139-5p, proteins related to the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway (TLR4, MyD88, and p-NF-κB p50), and MPO, SOD, GSH, and MDA in lung tissue were measured. The lung tissue wet-to-dry mass ratio (W/D), arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2), and carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2) were measured. RESULTS: A web-based bioinformatic tool predicted that MyD88 was a target of miR-139-5p, which was verified by a dual luciferase reporter assay. Compared with those in the Normal group, the levels of miR-139-5p, PaO2, SOD, and GSH were significantly lower, while those of TLR4, MyD88, p-NF-κB p50, W/D, PaCO2, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, MPO, and MDA were higher in all other groups. Moreover, compared with their levels in the Control group, these indicators exhibited contrasting results in the miR-139-5p mimic and TAK-242 groups, but were similar in the miR-139-5p inhibitor group. In the miR-139-5p inhibitor+TAK-242 group, acute lung injury, aggravated by miR-139-5p inhibitor, was partially rescued by TAK-242. CONCLUSION: miR-139-5p inhibits the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway to alleviate acute lung injury in septic mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Sepsis/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Acute Lung Injury/genetics , Signal Transduction , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/genetics , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL
15.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 772-783, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922760

ABSTRACT

Danshen-Chuanxiongqin Injection (DCI) is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of cerebral ischemic stroke in China. However, its underlying mechanisms remain completely understood. The current study was designed to explore the protective mechanisms of DCI against cerebral ischemic stroke through integrating whole-transcriptome sequencing coupled with network pharmacology analysis. First, using a mouse model of cerebral ischemic stroke by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO), we found that DCI (4.10 mL·kg


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain Ischemia/genetics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/genetics , Ischemic Stroke , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/genetics , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Stroke/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 2 , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism
16.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(11): e201901104, Nov. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054677

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (Ml/R) injury is a leading cause of damage in cardiac tissues, with high rates of mortality and disability. Biochanin A (BCA) is a main constituent of Trifolium pratense L. This study was intended to explore the effect of BCA on Ml/R injury and explore the potential mechanism. Methods: In vivo MI/R injury was established by transient coronary ligation in Sprague-Dawley rats. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining (TTC) was used to measure myocardial infarct size. ELISA assay was employed to evaluate the levels of myocardial enzyme and inflammatory cytokines. Western blot assay was conducted to detect related protein levels in myocardial tissues. Results: BCA significantly ameliorated myocardial infarction area, reduced the release of myocardial enzyme levels including aspartate transaminase (AST), creatine kinase (CK-MB) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH). It also decreased the production of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6 and TNF-α) in serum of Ml/R rats. Further mechanism studies demonstrated that BCA inhibited inflammatory reaction through blocking TLR4/NF-kB/NLRP3 signaling pathway. Conclusion: The present study is the first evidence demonstrating that BCA attenuated Ml/R injury through suppressing TLR4/NF-kB/NLRP3 signaling pathway-mediated anti-inflammation pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cardiotonic Agents/pharmacology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , NF-kappa B/drug effects , Genistein/pharmacology , Toll-Like Receptor 4/drug effects , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/drug effects , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Reference Values , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Cytokines/blood , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Creatine Kinase/blood , Lactate Dehydrogenases/blood , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology
17.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(6): e201900604, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019261

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose In view of the principal role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in mediating sterile inflammatory response contributing to osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis, we used lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a known TLR4 activator, to clarify whether modulation of TLR4 contributed to the protective actions of intra-articular administration of curcumin in a classical rat OA model surgically induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT). Methods The rats underwent ACLT and received 50μl of curcumin at the concentration of 1 mg mL-1 and 10 μg LPS by intra-articular injection once a week for 8 weeks. Morphological changes of the cartilage and synovial tissues were observed. Apoptotic chondrocytes were detected using TUNEL assay. The concentrations of IL-1β and TNF-ɑ in synovial fluid were determined using ELISA kits. The mRNA and protein expression levels of TLR4 and NF-κB p65 were detected by real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Results Intra-articular administration of curcumin significantly improved articular cartilage injury, suppressed synovial inflammation and down-regulated the overexpression of TLR4 and its downstream NF-κB caused by LPS-induced TLR4 activation in rat osteoarthritic knees. Conclusion The data suggested that the inhibition of TLR4 signal might be an important mechanism underlying a protective effect of local curcumin administration on OA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Osteoarthritis/prevention & control , Anterior Cruciate Ligament/surgery , Curcumin/pharmacology , Osteoarthritis/chemically induced , Osteoarthritis/metabolism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Lipopolysaccharides , Blotting, Western , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Anterior Cruciate Ligament/pathology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Lymphotoxin-alpha/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Toll-Like Receptor 4/drug effects , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Injections, Intra-Arterial
18.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 64(4): 361-367, Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-956455

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aims at investigating the expressions of TOLL-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9)/ tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) in pulmonary blood vessels with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and their relationships with pulmonary vascular remodelling (PVR). METHODS: 60 para-tumour tissues were divided into the COPD group and the control group (n=30); the inflammations, pulmonary artery wall area/total artery area (WA%), and wall thickness/vascular outer diameter (WT%) were compared. The expressions of TLR-4, MMP-9/TIMP-1, and PCNA in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells were detected, and their relationships with PVR were then analysed. RESULTS: The inflammations (1.6±0.8), WA% (44.0±6.4), and WT% (27.3±3.3) in the COPD group were higher than in the control group (0.3±0.5, 26.1±2.8, 15.6±1.8), and the expressions of TLR-4 (31.4±147) and MMP-9/TIMP-1 (2.2±2.6) were increased compared to the control group (4.7±4.5, 1.9±12). Correlation analysis: TLR-4 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 were positively correlated with the inflammations (r=0.18, P<0.01), WA% (r=0.68, P<0.01), and WT% (r=0.73, P<0.01), as well as positively correlated with the expression of PCNA (r=0.44, P<0.01); the upregulation of TLR-4 was positively correlated with the expressions of MMP-9 and TIMP-1. CONCLUSIONS: The upregulation of TLR-4 in the pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells of COPD patients could promote the inflammations and the MMP-9 expression, thus causing abnormal degradation of extracellular matrix, so it played an important role in the process of PVR.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: Este estudo tem como objetivo investigar as expressões de TOLL-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) e metaloproteinase 9 da matriz (MMP-9)/inibidor de tecido da metaloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) em vasos sanguíneos pulmonares com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC) e suas relações com o remodelamento vascular pulmonar (PVR). MÉTODOS: Sessenta tecidos paratumorais foram divididos em grupo COPD e o grupo controle (n = 30). Foram comparadas as inflamações, área da parede da artéria pulmonar/área da artéria total (WA%) e espessura da parede/diâmetro externo vascular (WT%). As expressões de TLR-4, MMP-9/TIMP-1 e PCNA em células de músculo liso vascular pulmonar foram detectadas, e suas relações com PVR foram então analisadas. RESULTADOS: As inflamações (1,6 ± 0,8), WA% (44,0 ± 6,4) e WT% (27,3 ± 3,3) no grupo COPD foram maiores que no grupo controle (0,3 ± 0,5; 26,1 ± 2,8; 15,6 ± 1,8). E as expressões de TLR-4 (31,4 ± 14,7) e MMP-9/TIMP-1 (2,2 ± 2,6) foram aumentadas em relação ao grupo controle (4,7 ± 4,5, 1,9 ± 1,2). Na análise de correlação, TLR-4 e MMP-9/TIMP-1 foram positivamente correlacionadas com as inflamações (r = 0,18; P <0,01), WA% (r = 0,68; P <0,01) e WT% (r = 0,73; P <0,01), bem como correlacionadas positivamente com a expressão de PCNA (r = 0,44; P <0,01). A elevação da TLR-4 foi correlacionada positivamente com as expressões de MMP-9 e TIMP-1. CONCLUSÕES: A regulação positiva do TLR-4 nas células do músculo liso arterial pulmonar de pacientes com DPOC poderia promover as inflamações e a expressão de MMP-9, causando assim uma degradação anormal da matriz extracelular, por isso desempenhou um papel importante no processo de PVR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Pulmonary Artery/metabolism , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Vascular Remodeling , Reference Values , Immunohistochemistry , Case-Control Studies , Vital Capacity/physiology , Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/metabolism , Hematoxylin , Lung/blood supply , Middle Aged
19.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(10): e7579, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951716

ABSTRACT

Glucocorticoid insensitivity is an important barrier to the treatment of several inflammatory diseases, including acute lung injury (ALI). Saquinavir (SQV) is an inhibitor of the human immunodeficiency virus protease, and the therapeutic effects of SQV in ALI accompanied with glucocorticoid insensitivity have not been previously investigated. In this study, the effects of SQV on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated injury in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs), human type I alveolar epithelial cells (AT I), and alveolar macrophages were determined. In addition, the effects of SQV on an LPS-induced ALI model with or without methylprednisolone (MPS) were studied. In LPS-stimulated HPMECs, SQV treatment resulted in a decrease of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), phospho-NF-κB (p-NF-κB), and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and an increase of VE-cadherin. Compared to MPS alone, MPS plus SQV attenuated the decrease of glucocorticoid receptor alpha (GRα) and IκBα in LPS-stimulated HPMECs. HMGB1, TLR4, and p-NF-κB expression were also lessened in LPS-stimulated alveolar macrophages with SQV treatment. In addition, SQV reduced the injury in human AT I with a decrease of HMGB1 and p-NF-κB, and with an increase of aquaporin 5 (AQP 5). SQV ameliorated the lung injury caused by LPS in rats with reductions in vascular permeability, myeloperoxidase activity (MPO) and histopathological scores, and with lowered HMGB1, TLR4, and p-NF-κB expression, but with enhanced VE-cadherin expression. By comparison, SQV plus MPS increased GRα and IκBα in lung tissues of rats with ALI. This study demonstrated that SQV prevented experimental ALI and improved glucocorticoid insensitivity by modulating the HMGB1/TLR4 pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Saquinavir/administration & dosage , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Antigens, CD/drug effects , Antigens, CD/metabolism , Cadherins/drug effects , Cadherins/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , HMGB1 Protein/drug effects , HMGB1 Protein/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Toll-Like Receptor 4/drug effects , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced
20.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 89-97, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-220498

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Asthma is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammation, and remodeling. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors have been reported to regulate inflammatory responses in many cells. In this study, we examined the effects of intranasal rosiglitazone on airway remodeling in a chronic asthma model. METHODS: We developed a mouse model of airway remodeling, including smooth muscle thickening, in which ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice were repeatedly exposed to intranasal OVA administration twice per week for 3 months. Mice were treated intranasally with rosiglitazone with or without an antagonist during OVA challenge. We determined airway inflammation and the degree of airway remodeling by smooth muscle actin area and collagen deposition. RESULTS: Mice chronically exposed to OVA developed sustained eosinophilic airway inflammation, compared with control mice. Additionally, the mice developed features of airway remodeling, including thickening of the peribronchial smooth muscle layer. Administration of rosiglitazone intranasally inhibited the eosinophilic inflammation significantly, and, importantly, airway smooth muscle remodeling in mice chronically exposed to OVA. Expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kappaB) was increased in the OVA group and decreased in the rosiglitazone group. Co-treatment with GW9660 (a rosiglitazone antagonist) and rosiglitazone increased the expression of TLR-4 and NF-kappaB. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that intranasal administration of rosiglitazone can prevent not only air way inf lammation but also air way remodeling associated with chronic allergen challenge. This beneficial effect is mediated by inhibition of TLR-4 and NF-kappaB pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Actins/metabolism , Administration, Inhalation , Airway Remodeling/drug effects , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/administration & dosage , Asthma/chemically induced , Chronic Disease , Collagen/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Lung/drug effects , Mice, Inbred BALB C , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Ovalbumin , PPAR gamma/agonists , Pneumonia/chemically induced , Pulmonary Eosinophilia/chemically induced , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Thiazolidinediones/administration & dosage , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism
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