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1.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 16(1): 31-43, Marzo 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1551189

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El cáncer de pulmón (CP) es una enfermedad con gran impacto a nivel mundial en el número de muertes y en costos en salud. La alta incidencia y mortalidad de esta enfermedad asociada al diagnóstico tardío, y la mejoría del pronóstico ante una detección temprana, determinan que sea una patología pasible de beneficiarse mediante detección temprana. La tomografía de baja dosis de radiación (TCBD) demostró ser un método que se pue- de realizar periódicamente a un grupo de personas con alto riesgo de desarrollar CP y así reducir la mortalidad por esta enfermedad. Sin embargo, este beneficio es tal cuan- do se encuentra desarrollado bajo un programa organizado y con participación multi- disciplinaria especializada en cáncer de pulmón. Métodos: Se plantea determinar lineamientos básicos para el desarrollo de la detección temprana de cáncer de pulmón en América Latina para que pueda ser realizada en forma uniforme, con el menor riesgo y el máximo beneficio esperado. Se analizaron las principales publicaciones referidas a este tema, contemplando la diversidad de atención y acceso de América Latina. Resultado: Se desarrollan requerimientos mínimos para la implementación de un pro- grama. Discusión: El número de programas en la región es escaso y depende más de esfuerzos individuales que de políticas generales de salud. Consideramos que estos lineamien- tos pueden servir de apoyo para el desarrollo de más programas en la región y de for- ma más homogénea.


Introduction: Lung cancer (LC) is a disease with a great impact worldwide in the number of deaths and health costs. The high incidence and mortality of this disease associated with late diagnosis and the improved prognosis with early detection determine that it is a pathology that can benefit from early detection. Low radiation dose tomography (LDCT) demonstrated a method that can be performed periodically to a group of people at high risk of developing CP and thus reduce mortality from this disease. However, this benefit is such when it is developed under an organized program with multidisciplinary participation specialized in lung cancer. Methods: It is proposed to determine basic guidelines for the development of early de- tection of lung cancer in Latin America so that it can be carried out uniformly, with the lowest risk and the maximum expected benefit. The main publications referring to this topic were analyzed, considering the diversity of care and access in Latin America. Result: Minimum requirements are developed for the implementation of a program. Discussion: The number of programs in the region is small and depends more on individual efforts than on general health policies. We consider that these guidelines can serve as support for the development of more programs in the region and in a more ho- mogeneous way.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Programs and Plans , Early Detection of Cancer , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Preventive Health Services/organization & administration , Tomography/methods , Incidence , Mortality , Education, Professional , Health Policy , Latin America
2.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 15(4): 291-296, Diciembre 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1518709

ABSTRACT

Los tumores de células germinales (TCGs) se forman a partir de células embrionarias y generalmente se presentan en pacientes de entre 11 y 30 años de edad. Los TCG pue-den presentarse como tumores extragonadales, siendo el mediastino anterior el sitio más común en el 50 a 70% de los casos. Presentamos a un paciente masculino de 21 años con un tumor sólido mediastinal de 17 x 15 cm que, de acuerdo a la tomografía de tórax (TC), ocupaba toda la cavidad torácica izquierda desplazando el corazón ha-cia la cavidad torácica derecha. El estudio patológico fue reportado por el patólogo co-mo un TCG.


Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are formed from embryonic cells and usually occur in patients between age 11 and 30 years. GCT can present as extra-gonadal tumors, with the an-terior mediastinum being the most common site in 50 to 70% of cases. We present a 21-year-old male patient with a solid mediastinal tumor of 17 x 15 cm that, according to the chest tomography (CT), it was occupying the entire left thoracic cavity moving the heart towards the right thoracic cavity. The pathological study was reported by the pathologist as a GCT tumor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Teratoma/diagnosis , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal/surgery , Mediastinal Neoplasms/surgery , Biopsy , Tomography , Biomarkers, Tumor
3.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 15(4): 279-284, Diciembre 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1518697

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El biliotórax es una condición infrecuente definida por la presencia de bilis en el espacio pleural. Actualmente, hay alrededor de 70 casos descritos en la litera-tura. Sigue siendo relativamente desconocido, por lo tanto, poco sospechado. Esta entidad suele ser el resultado de una lesión iatrogénica, a menudo secundaria a cirugías o traumatismos del tracto biliar, que conduce a la formación de una fístula pleurobiliar.


Introduction: Bilothorax is a rare condition defined by the presence of bile in the pleural space. Currently, there are around 70 cases described in the literature. It remains relatively unknown and, therefore, little suspected. This entity is usually the result of an iatrogenic injury, often secondary to surgery or trauma to the biliary tract, leading to the formation of a pleurobiliary fistula


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Pleural Effusion/complications , Bile , Empyema, Pleural/drug therapy , Liver Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Biliary Tract , Biopsy , Tomography , Pleural Cavity , Neoplasm Metastasis/diagnosis
4.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 27(4)dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1534867

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades de Marchiafava-Bignami y de Wernicke Korsakoff, se consideran complicaciones neuropsiquiátricas causadas por el consumo crónico de bebidas alcohólicas. Son encefalopatías poco frecuentes caracterizadas por una desmielinización y necrosis del cuerpo calloso, con la subsiguiente atrofia por daño en las partes bajas del cerebro (tálamo e hipotálamo). Se presenta un paciente masculino de 29 años, con antecedentes de alcoholismo, el cual acude a consulta de Oftalmología por presentar disminución de la visión del ojo derecho durante un año. Se le realizaron, tomografía simple y resonancia magnética con contraste endovenoso de cráneo, donde se observaron hallazgos radiológicos compatibles con el síndrome de Wernicke Korsakoff (ocasiona afectación de la memoria y el aprendizaje) con estigmas de Marchiafava-Bignami (enfermedad poco conocida). Es necesario el dominio de la epistemología de estas enfermedades, porque, a pesar del mal pronóstico en su forma aguda, se reportan casos con buena evolución, si se le realiza un diagnóstico y tratamiento oportunos.


Marchiafava-Bignami and Wernicke-Korsakoff diseases are considered neuropsychiatric complications caused by the chronic consumption of alcoholic beverages. They are rare encephalopathies characterized by demyelination and necrosis of the corpus callosum, with subsequent atrophy due to damage in the lower parts of the brain (thalamus and hypothalamus). We present a 29-year-old male patient with a history of alcoholism who went to the Ophthalmology consultation due to decreased vision in his right eye for a year. Simple tomography and magnetic resonance imaging with intravenous contrast of the skull were performed, observing radiological findings of Wernicke -Korsakoff syndrome (affect memory and learning) with Marchiafava-Bignami stigmata (little-known disease). Mastery of the epistemology of these diseases is necessary, because, despite the poor prognosis in its acute form, cases with good evolution are reported, if an opportune diagnosis and treatment is made.


Subject(s)
Wernicke Encephalopathy , Marchiafava-Bignami Disease , Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography
5.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1551254

ABSTRACT

Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 has rapid dissemination and high infectivity and can evolve into Severe Respiratory Distress Syndrome (SARS), which led to a high number of deaths and hospitalizations in the recent pandemic. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest has demonstrated an essential role in the initial evaluation and evolution of these patients. Methodology: This was a retrospective observational study at a single center, University Hospital in Northeastern Brazil, evaluating 97 patients hospitalized for COVID-19 with laboratory confirmation to evaluate and quantify the chest CT findings, comparing the findings with the severity of the case and relating them to the morbidities presented. The CT scans were performed by radiologists from the hospital and the data were evaluated by the university's statistics laboratory. Results: Among the main alterations, ground-glass opacities were present in more than 90% of the patients. The study observed that the magnitude of the pulmonary involvement of this finding had a relationship with the outcome of higher hospitalization. Conclusion: In this sense, the relevance of chest CT to suggest the diagnosis of Covid-19 and establish the prognosis of the disease is observed. However, further studies are still needed to confirm these finding (AU).


Introdução: O SARS-CoV-2 possui rápida disseminação e alta infectividade, podendo evoluir com Síndrome da Angústia Respiratória Grave (SARS), o que levou a um número elevado de mortes e internações na recente pandemia. A Tomografia Computadorizada (TC) de tórax demonstrou um papel essencial na avaliação inicial e evolução desses pacientes. Metodologia: Este foi um estudo observacional retrospectivo em centro único - Hospital Universitário no Nordeste do Brasil - avaliando 97 pacientes internados por COVID-19 com confirmação laboratorial, a fim de avaliar e quantificar os achados de TC de tórax, comparando os achados com a gravidade do caso e relacionando-os com as morbidades apresentadas. As TCs foram laudadas por radiologistas do próprio hospital. Após isso, os dados foram avaliados pelo laboratório de estatística da universidade para serem analisados e discutidos. Resultados: Dentre as principais alterações, o vidro fosco estava presente em mais de 90% dos pacientes. Foi observado que a magnitude do comprometimento pulmonar deste achado apresentou relação desfavorável com o desfecho da internação. Conclusão: Neste sentido, observa-se a relevância da TC de tórax para sugerir o diagnóstico de Covid-19 e estabelecer o prognóstico da doença. No entanto, ainda são necessários mais estudos para destrinchar estes achado (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia , Tomography , COVID-19/complications
6.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 43(2): 85-88, jun. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1510641

ABSTRACT

La hematuria en pediatría responde habitualmente a etiologías benignas. Una causa poco frecuente es el síndrome de cascanueces, que se define como la compresión de la vena renal izquierda entre la aorta y la arteria mesentérica superior, que deriva en una presión elevada en la vena renal izquierda con el desarrollo de venas colaterales y dilataciones varicosas. La prevalencia de este síndrome se desconoce. Cuando es sintomático ocasiona hematuria, proteinuria y dolor pélvico crónico. En la pubertad, el crecimiento rápido y el desarrollo de los cuerpos vertebrales pueden producir un estrechamiento del ángulo entre la aorta y la arteria mesentérica superior. Se describe el caso de una adolescente con diagnóstico de carcinoma mucoepitelial metastásico óseo múltiple que presenta hematuria anemizante. Se arribó al diagnóstico de síndrome de cascanueces y se discutieron las opciones de tratamiento. Finalmente, con el uso de realce del calzado para corrección de la escoliosis, se atenuó significativamente la hematuria. (AU)


In pediatrics, hematuria usually responds to benign etiologies. A rare cause is nutcracker syndrome, defined as compression of the left renal vein between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery, resulting in elevated pressure in the left renal vein with the development of collateral veins and varicose dilatation. The prevalence of this syndrome is unknown. When symptomatic, it causes hematuria, proteinuria, and chronic pelvic pain. At puberty, the rapid growth and development of the vertebral bodies can produce a narrowing of the angle between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery.We describe the case of a teenage girl diagnosed with multiple metastatic mucoepithelial carcinoma of bone who presented anemia-producing hematuria. The diagnosis of nutcracker syndrome was arrived at with consideration of the therapeutic options. Finally, with shoe enhancement for scoliosis correction, hematuria was significantly lessened. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Renal Nutcracker Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Hematuria/etiology , Orthotic Devices , Tomography , Cystoscopy , Renal Nutcracker Syndrome/surgery , Endovascular Aneurysm Repair , Hematuria/urine , Anemia/therapy
7.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 83(2): 158-165, jun. 2023. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515474

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El colesteatoma del conducto auditivo externo (CCAE) es una estructura quística revestida por epitelio escamoso estratificado queratinizado que tiene la capacidad de invadir y erosionar localmente al hueso temporal. Su incidencia es de 0,19 a 0,3/100.000 habitantes siendo 60 veces menos frecuente que el de oído medio. Objetivo: Describir las características epidemiológicas, clínicas, imagenológicas y tratamiento de los pacientes diagnosticados con CCAE en el Servicio de Otorrinolaringología Hospital del Salvador. Material y Método: Se presenta una serie de ocho casos clínicos recopilados durante el período 2017 y 2021. Se realizó revisión de fichas clínicas, biopsias y tomografías computadas de oídos (TC oídos). Se describen los hallazgos y tratamiento efectuado. Resultados: El promedio de edad fue de 65,6 años, correspondiente a 5 mujeres y 3 hombres con presencia de tabaquismo y diabetes en la mitad de los casos. Los síntomas y signos más frecuentes fueron otalgia e hipoacusia seguido de otorrea. 7 pacientes se presentaron con tímpano íntegro y el compromiso de la pared inferior del conducto se evidenció en 6 de 8 pacientes. La TC oídos mostró erosión ósea del conducto, con o sin compromiso de estructuras adyacentes, en todos los casos y el diagnóstico histológico fue efectuado en el 100% de los pacientes. Se privilegió el tratamiento conservador mediante curaciones óticas periódicas asociado a ácido salicílico al 3% y/o antibióticos tópicos en 6/8 pacientes. Conclusiones: El CCAE es una entidad poco frecuente sin signos ni síntomas patognomónicos por lo que el diagnóstico histológico junto con el estudio imagenológico es perentorio. El tratamiento conservador es una alternativa terapéutica válida que ofrece buenos resultados en pacientes con adecuada adherencia al tratamiento y posibilidad de seguimiento estricto.


Introduction: External ear canal cholesteatoma (EECC) is a cystic structure lined by keratinized stratified squamous epithelium that has the ability to locally invade and erode the temporal bone. Its incidence is 0.19 to 0.3 / 100,000 habitants, being 60 times less frequent than that of the middle ear. Aim: To describe the epidemiological, clinical, imaging and treatment characteristics of patients diagnosed with EECC in the Hospital del Salvador ENT department. Material and Methods: A series of eight clinical cases collected during the period 2017 and 2021 is presented. A review of clinical records, biopsies and computed tomography of the ear (ear CT) was carried out. The findings and treatment carried out are described. Results: The average age was 65.6 years corresponding to 5 women and 3 men with the presence of smoking and diabetes in half of the cases. The most frequent symptoms and signs were earache and hearing loss followed by otorrhea. 7 patients presented with an intact eardrum and compromise of the inferior wall of the canal was evidenced in 6 of 8 patients. Ears CT showed bone erosion of the canal with or without compromise of adjacent structures in all cases and the histological diagnosis was made in 100% of the patients. Conservative treatment with periodic ear dressings associated with 3% salicylic acid and / or topical antibiotics was favored in 6/8 patients. Conclusion: EECC is a rare entity without pathognomonic signs or symptoms, therefore the histological diagnosis together with the imaging study is peremptory. Conservative treatment is a valid therapeutic alternative that offers good results in patients with adequate adherence to treatment and the possibility of strict follow-up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cholesteatoma/diagnosis , Cholesteatoma/epidemiology , Ear Canal/diagnostic imaging , Tomography , Chile/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive
8.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 15(2): [140-149], jun2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437630

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la neumonía lipoidea exógena es una enfermedad pulmonar inflamatoria poco común, desencadenada por la inhalación o aspiración de material graso de origen animal, vegetal o mineral. El diagnóstico se establece a través de confirmación histo-patológica, por la presencia de macrófagos cargados de lípidos en muestras respirato-rias, asociado a las características clínicas específicas al momento de su presentación.Requiere de un alto nivel de sospecha y una adecuada anamnesis de los antecedentes exposicionales del paciente debido a que muchos casos son subdiagnosticados y trat-ados como neumonía adquirida en la comunidad, lo que retrasa su diagnóstico y mane-jo, sumado a la ausencia de guías disponibles para su tratamiento.Se han reportado pocos casos de sobreinfección por tuberculosis en pacientes con neu-monía lipoidea exógena crónica. Caso clínico: femenino 33 años, con antecedentes de exposición crónica a sustancias desinfectantes de características aceitosas sin protección de vía aérea, con cuadro de tos y dolor torácico. Conclusión: el diagnóstico temprano, asociado a tratamiento de soporte, general-mente conservador, favorece la mejoría clínica y radiológica, y de esta manera dis-minuye la morbimortalidad. (AU)


Introduction: exogenous lipoid pneumonia is a rare inflammatory lung disease, trigge-red by inhalation or aspiration of fatty material of animal, vegetable or mineral origin. The diagnosis is established through histological confirmation by the presence of lipid-laden macrophages in respiratory samples, associated with the specific clinical charac-teristics at the time of presentation. It requires a high level of suspicion and an adequate anamnesis of the patient's expo-sure history, since many cases are underdiagnosed and treated as community-acquired pneumonia, what delays its diagnosis and management, added to the absence of avai-lable guidelines for its treatment. Few cases of tuberculosis superinfection have been reported in patients with exoge-nous lipoid pneumonia.Clinical case: 33-year-old female, with a history of chronic exposure to oily disinfectant substances without airway protection, with symptoms of cough and chest pain.Conclusion: early diagnosis, associated with supportive treatment, generally conser-vative, favors clinical and radiological improvement, thus reducing morbidity and mor-tality. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Pneumonia, Lipid/diagnosis , Superinfection/diagnosis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Biopsy , Bronchoscopy , Tomography , Chronic Disease
9.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 22(1): 12-17, jun 22, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1442751

ABSTRACT

Introdução: em março de 2020, a pandemia do SARS-CoV-2 foi declarada pela OMS, contabilizando mais de seis milhões de mortes e 600 milhões de casos confirmados. São necessários estudos para compreender a persistência dos sintomas após a infecção aguda, que podem se correlacionar com a gravidade inicial da doença. Objetivo: avaliar e comparar as características clínicas, espirométricas e radiológicas dos pacientes acometidos pela síndrome pós-COVID, estratificados conforme gravidade da infecção aguda pelo SARS-CoV-2. Metodologia: trata-se de estudo de corte transversal, realizado a partir de consultas ambulatoriais em amostra de conveniência. O estudo incluiu 232 pacientes, atendidos de novembro de 2020 a outubro de 2021. Os pacientes foram divididos em 2 grupos: com COVID-19, sem internamento em unidade de terapia intensiva; e com internamento em unidade de terapia intensiva. Resultados: foram avaliados 232 pacientes acometidos pela COVID-19, sendo 69,4% do sexo feminino; idade média de 50 ± 12,8 anos. As comorbidades mais frequentes foram hipertensão arterial sistêmica (44,0%) e diabetes mellitus (21,1%). Dos pacientes estudados, 45,7% foram internados durante a fase aguda da doença, sendo que cinquenta (21,6%) foram alocados em unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI). Em relação à espirometria, o padrão de distúrbio restritivo foi verificado apenas nos pacientes internados em UTI. Na tomografia de tórax, o padrão de pneumonia em organização foi associado a pacientes que precisaram de internamento em unidade de terapia intensiva. Conclusão: este estudo evidencia que o distúrbio ventilatório restritivo e a presença de pneumonia em organização tiveram associação com quadros iniciais mais graves.


Introduction: in March 2020, the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic was declared by the WHO, accounting for more than six million deaths and 600 million confirmed cases. Studies are required to understand the persistence of symptoms after acute infection, which may correlate with the initial severity of the disease. Objective: to evaluate and compare the clinical, spirometric and radiological characteristics of patients affected by the post-COVID syndrome, stratified according to the severity of the acute infection by SARS-CoV-2. Methodology: this is a cross-sectional study, carried out from outpatient consultations in a convenience sample. The study included 232 patients, seen from November 2020 to October 2021. Patients were divided into 2 groups: with COVID-19, without admission to an intensive care unit; and with admission to the intensive care unit. Results: 232 patients affected by COVID-19 were evaluated, 69.4% of whom were female; average age of 50 ± 12.8 years. The most common comorbidities were systemic arterial hypertension (44.0%) and diabetes mellitus (21.1%). Of the patients studied, 45.7% were hospitalized during the acute phase of the disease, and fifty (21.6%) were allocated to an intensive care unit (ICU). Regarding spirometry, the pattern of restrictive disorder was verified only in patients admitted to the ICU. On chest tomography, the pattern of organizing pneumonia was associated with patients who required admission to the intensive care unit. Conclusion: this study shows that restrictive ventilatory disorder and the presence of organizing pneumonia were associated with more severe initial conditions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Pneumonia , Spirometry , Tomography , Cross-Sectional Studies
11.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1435329

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el SARS-CoV-2 causa daño multiorgánico, con predilección al epitelio respiratorio. Los estudios de imagen en tórax han sido determinantes en muchas patologías y, durante la reciente pandemia, no fue excepción. En el seguimiento con tomografía de tórax post COVID-19 en varias series, se ha observado persistencia de lesiones al egreso y a lo largo de varios meses. El objetivo del trabajo fue describir los hallazgos tomográficos en pacientes con seguimiento hasta un año post egreso hospitalario por COVID-19 moderado-grave. Material y métodos: estudio retrospectivo, observacional, de pacientes hospitalizados por COVID-19 moderado-grave de marzo 2020 a marzo 2022 en el hospital del ISSSTE, Chiapas-México; con prueba RT-PCR SARS-CoV-2 positiva, TC de hospitalización y de seguimiento posterior al egreso (0-4 meses; 4-8 meses; 8-12 meses). Se utilizó la terminología de la sociedad Fleischner. Además, se evaluó la extensión por lóbulo afectado (>75%, 75-50%, 50-25%, <25%). Resultados: Se estudiaron 27 pacientes, 74% hombres, edad promedio 56 años. El patrón tomográfico predominante al ingreso fue el mixto con 56% y extensión pulmonar >75%; vidrio despulido 30% y 11% consolidación. Al cuarto y octavo mes el patrón mixto fue el más frecuente, al doceavo mes persistía en el 33% de los pacientes y en el 30% de los casos la tomografía fue normal. Conforme pasaron los meses, la extensión del daño fue limitándose. Conclusión: el seguimiento con tomografía en COVID-19 moderado-grave es indiscutible. Permite identificar con precisión el patrón tomográfico en los diferentes momentos de la enfermedad, optimizar el tratamiento y disminuir las secuelas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Tomography , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Aftercare , Diagnosis , Mexico
12.
ABCS health sci ; 48: e023207, 14 fev. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1414627

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The pathological status of obesity can influence COVID-19 from its initial clinical presentation, therefore, the identification of clinical and laboratory parameters most affected in the presence of obesity can contribute to improving the treatment of the disease. OBJECTIVE: To identify the clinical, laboratory, and tomographic characteristics associated with obesity and BMI at t hospital admission in adult patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional observational study with a total of 315 participants with COVID-19 confirmed by rt-PCR. The participants were divided into non-Obese (n=203) and Obese (n=112). Physical examinations, laboratory tests, and computed tomography of the chest were performed during the first 2 days of hospitalization. RESULTS: Patients with obesity were younger, and they had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, higher frequency of alcoholism, fever, cough, and headache, higher ALT, LDH, and red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin, hematocrit, and percentage of lymphocytes. Also, they presented a lower value of leukocyte count and Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio (RNL). The parameters positively correlated with BMI were alcoholism, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fever, cough, sore throat, number of symptoms, ALT in men, LDH, magnesium, RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and percentage of lymphocytes. The parameters negatively correlated with the BMI were: age and RNL. CONCLUSION: Several parameters were associated with obesity at hospital admission, revealing better than expected results. However, these results should be interpreted with great caution, as there may be some influence of a phenomenon called the Obesity Paradox that can distort the severity and prognosis of the patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Patient Admission , Tomography , Biomarkers , Body Mass Index , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , COVID-19 , Obesity , Cross-Sectional Studies
13.
Rev. neuro-psiquiatr. (Impr.) ; 86(1): 62-67, ene. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1442085

ABSTRACT

Introducción : Los aneurismas intracraneales representan el 85% de casos de hemorragias subaracnoideas, dentro de las cuales las no traumáticas tienen una alta tasa de mortalidad (40-60%). En el manejo endovascular y microquirúrgico de esta enfermedad, el debate ha sido siempre intenso respecto a si el tratamiento temprano produce un beneficioso resultado funcional y reduce la morbi-mortalidad del paciente. Caso Clínico : Paciente mujer de 54 años, admitida con cefalea súbita y cuadro neurológico que cursó con rápido deterioro. La tomografía mostró hemorragia subaracnoidea por ruptura aneurísmica del complejo comunicante anterior; fue sometida a microcirugía dentro de las primeras 24 horas y transferida luego a UCI, sin complicaciones. Discusión : El tiempo de resolución, sea mediante clipaje microquirúrgico o tratamiento endovascular es tema de intensos debates. Las guías actuales señalan la necesidad del manejo más temprano posible de la patología. Conclusión : En nuestro caso, se obtuvo un buen resultado funcional debido a varios factores uno de ellos el ingreso precoz a cirugía. La actualización de las guías y nuevos estudios ayudarán a mejorar el conocimiento de la enfermedad y protocolos hospitalarios adecuados a la realidad clínica ayudarán a reducir su tiempo de resolución.


SUMMARY Introduction : Intracranial aneurysms account for 85% of all subarachnoid hemorrhages. Non-traumatic SAH has a high mortality rate (40-60%). Regarding the microsurgical and endovascular management for this pathology, there has been intense debate on whether early action is beneficial in terms of functional outcome and reduction of morbi-mortality. Clinical case : A 54-year-old woman admitted with a sudden, severe headache and a rapidly deteriorating neurological state at baseline, and with deterioration at the next hour. Tomography showed a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery; the patient underwent surgery within the first 24 hours, with subsequent ICU management without complications. Discussion : The resolution time of this condition, either by micosurgery or endovascular management is a matter of intense debate. International guidelines point out the need of an earliest possible treatment. Conclusion : In our case, a good functional result was obtained due to several factors, one of which was early admission to surgery. The updating of guidelines and new studies will help to better understand the pathophysiology of SAH, and the creation of hospital protocols adapted to clinical realities will assist to reduce the resolution time of this pathology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Case Reports , Intracranial Aneurysm , Aneurysm, Ruptured , Tomography , Mortality , Microsurgery
14.
Journal de la Faculté de Médecine d'Oran ; 6(2): 815-818, 2023. tables
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1415032

ABSTRACT

La tuberculose est une des maladies infectieuses les plus répandues dans le monde .Elle représente un problème de santé publique majeur dans les pays en voie de développe ment, y compris l'Algérie . À l'échelle mondiale et parmi tous les cas de tuberculose, l'OMS rapporte 14 % de tuberculose extra-pulmonaire (TEP) sans atteinte pulmonaire concomitante. Dans notre pays et durant ces dernières années, une recrudescence de la tuberculose extrapulmonaire a été observée. L'objectif de cet article était de présenter un cas atypique de tuberculose cérébrale dont le diagnostic a été tardif, posé par l'examen anatomopathologique avec une revue de la littérature. C'est le cas d'une jeune patiente hospitalisée dans le cadre de l'urgence pour un syn drome d'hypertension intracrânienne avec troubles neurologiques. La tomodensitomé trie cérébrale a objectivé de multiples localisations cérébrales avec une hydrocéphalie active. Le bilan d'extension était sans anomalie. La patiente avait bénéficié d'une inter vention chirurgicale, les suites opératoires ont été favorables. L'examen anatomo-pa thologique était en faveur d'une lésion inflammatoire spécifique granulomateuse faite de larges plages de nécrose caséeuse. La patiente a répondu au traitement antituber culeux. Le problème diagnosticque et les résultats seront discutés avec une revue de la littéra ture. La tuberculose cérébrale est une forme rare de la tuberculose extra-pulmonaire. Le tableau clinique ainsi que la neuro-imagerie (TDM, IRM) sont atypiques. Le diagnostic était postopératoire, reposant sur l'examen anatomopathologique. Le pronostic dépend de la précocité du diagnostic, du siège de la lésion et de la réponse au traitement antituberculeux.


Tuberculosis is one of the most widespread infectious diseases in the world. It constitutes a major public health problem, especially in developing countries, including Algeria. Globally and among all tuberculosis cases, WHO reports 14% extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPT) without concomitant pulmonary involvement. In our country and in recent years, an upsurge in extrapulmonary tuberculosis has been observed. The objective of this article was to present an atypical case of cerebral tuberculosis whose diagnosis was late, made by anatomopathological examination with a review of the literature. We report the case of a young patient hospitalized in emergency for an intracranial hypertension syndrome with neurological disorders. Cerebral computed tomography revealed multiple brain locations with active hydrocephalus. The extension assessment was without anomaly. The patient underwent a surgical intervention, the operative consequences were favorable. The pathological examination was in favor of a specific inflammatory granulomatous lesion made up of large areas of caseous necrosis. The patient was cured under anti-tuberculosis treatment. The diagnostic problem and the results will be discussed with a review of the literature. Cerebral tuberculosis is a rare form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. The clinic as well as the neuroimaging (CT, MRI) are atypical. The diagnosis is postoperative, based on the pathological examination. The prognosis depends on the early diagnosis, the site of the lesion and the response to anti-tuberculosis treatment.


Subject(s)
Surgical Procedures, Operative , Tuberculosis , Tomography , Intracranial Hypertension , Tuberculosis, Central Nervous System , Neurologic Manifestations , Therapeutics , Diagnosis
15.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 1249-1254, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008957

ABSTRACT

Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an emerging technology for real-time monitoring based on the impedance differences of different tissues and organs in the human body. It has been initially applied in clinical research as well as disease diagnosis and treatment. Lung perfusion refers to the blood flow perfusion function of lung tissue, and the occurrence and development of many diseases are closely related to lung perfusion. Therefore, real-time monitoring of lung perfusion is particularly important. The application and development of EIT further promote the monitoring of lung perfusion, and related research has made great progress. This article reviews the principles of EIT imaging, lung perfusion imaging methods, and their clinical applications in recent years, with the aim of providing assistance to clinical and scientific researchers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Electric Impedance , Lung/physiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Perfusion , Tomography/methods
16.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 718-724, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008892

ABSTRACT

Magneto-acoustic-electric tomography (MAET) boasts high resolution in ultrasound imaging and high contrast in electrical impedance imaging, making it of significant research value in the fields of early tumor diagnosis and bioelectrical monitoring. In this study, a method was proposed that combined high conductivity liquid metal and maximum length sequence (M sequence) coded excitation to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. It was shown that, under rotational scanning, the liquid metal significantly improved the signal-to-noise ratio of the inter-tissue magneto-acoustic-electric signal and enhanced the quality of the reconstructed image. The signal-to-noise ratio of the signal was increased by 5.6, 11.1, 21.7, and 45.7 times under the excitation of 7-, 15-, 31-, and 63-bit M sequence code, respectively. The total usage time of 31-bit M sequence coded excitation imaging was shortened by 75.6% compared with single-pulse excitation when the same signal-to-noise ratio was improved. In conclusion, the imaging method combining liquid metal and M-sequence coding excitation has positive significance for improving MAET image quality.


Subject(s)
Contrast Media , Electricity , Electric Conductivity , Acoustics , Tomography
17.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1444626

ABSTRACT

O trauma é responsável por significativos impactos na sociedade. De acordo com dados da Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS), mais de nove pessoas morrem por minuto, vítimas de trauma. Entre os principais tipos de trauma, o torácico representa na atualidade cerca de 25% dos mortos em politraumatizados, constituindo um problema complexo, tendo em vista os elevados índices de mortalidade e sequelas incapacitantes permanentes. Objetivo: Descrever o perfil epidemiológico dos pacientes atendidos em um hospital de urgências da região centro-oeste, vítimas de trauma torácico. Método: Estudo quantitativo, de caráter transversal e retrospectivo, realizado a partir de coleta de dados efetuada em prontuário eletrônico no período de março a maio de 2022. Resultados: Identificou-se 73 pacientes vítimas de trauma torácico, com maior acometimento de pessoas do sexo masculino, com idade entre 26 e 35 anos. Como causa mais frequente, se destacaram os acidentes motociclísticos, resultando principalmente em lesões do tipo hemopneumotórax. Conclusão: o perfil epidemiológico dos pacientes vítimas de trauma torácico foi representado com maior frequência pelo sexo masculino, com idade entre 26 a 35 anos, causados predominantemente por acidentes motociclísticos, resultando na maioria das vezes em lesões do tipo hemopneumotórax


Trauma is responsible for significant impacts on society. According to data from the World Health Organization (WHO), more than nine people die per minute victims of trauma. Among the main types of trauma, thoracic trauma currently represents about 25% of polytrauma deaths, constituting a complex problem, in view of the high rates of mortality and sequelae permanent disabling. Objective: To describe the epidemiological profile of patients treated at an emergency hospital in the Midwest region, victims of thoracic trauma. Method: Quantitative, cross-sectional and retrospective study carried out from data collection of electronic medical records in the period from March to May of 2022. Results: We identified 73 patients who were victims of chest trauma with higher affecting males aged between 26 and 35 years. As the most frequent cause motorcycle accidents stood out, resulting mainly in lesions of the hemopneumothorax type. Conclusion: the profile epidemiology of patients victims of thoracic trauma was represented with greater frequency by males, aged between 26 and 35 years, caused predominantly by motorcycle accidents, often resulting in hemopneumothorax lesions


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Thoracic Injuries/epidemiology , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Tomography , Emergency Service, Hospital
18.
Repert. med. cir ; 32(1): 77-80, 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1526587

ABSTRACT

77REPERT MED CIR. 2023;32(1):77-80Mario Alexander Melo MD*María Camila PiñerosbAna María TorresbFabián Parra F. MDcRafael Baracaldo A. MDda Patología. Grupo de Patología Oncológica, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Universidad El Bosque. Bogotá DC, Colombia. b Odontólogía, Patología Oral y Medios Diagnósticos, Universidad El Bosque, Bogotá DC, Colombia. c Radiología e Imágenes Diagnósticas, Fundación Universitaria Sanitas, Bogotá DC, Colombia. d Patología, Fundación Universitaria de Ciencias de la Salud. Bogotá DC, Colombia.Introducción: el ameloblastoma es un tumor epitelial benigno de origen odontogénico, de crecimiento progresivo, caracterizado por expansión ósea y tendencia a la recurrencia local si no se trata en forma adecuada. De acuerdo con las características clínicas y radiográficas se clasifica en ameloblastoma uniquístico, periférico/extraóseo y el metastásico. Presentación del caso: el presente manuscrito se quiere reseñar el caso clínico de un ameloblastoma metastásico, el cual es capaz de producir siembras a pesar de su apariencia histológica benigna. Discusión y conclusiones: las variadas formas clínicas y radiográficas hacen que el ameloblastoma metastásico requiera, desde su diagnóstico inicial, un estudio detallado ya que es importante entender el concepto de esta patología como lesión clínica que realiza metástasis a distancia, pero su comportamiento histológico es benigno


Introduction: ameloblastoma is a benign epithelial odontogenic tumor that progresses slowly and is characterized by bone expansion and tendency for local recurrence if not treated properly. According to the clinical and radiographic characteristics, it is classified as unicystic, peripheral/extraosseous and metastatic ameloblastoma. Case presentation: the present manuscript aims to review the clinical case of a metastatic ameloblastoma, which can metastasize in spite of a benign histological appearance. Discussion and conclusions: the various clinical and radiographic forms of metastatic ameloblastoma require, from its initial diagnosis, a detailed study, since it is important to understand the concept of this clinico-pathological entity as a lesion with distant metastases but benign histological features


Subject(s)
Humans , Neoplasm Metastasis , Tomography , Mandible
19.
Rev. colomb. cancerol ; 27(1): 126-139, 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1452593

ABSTRACT

Revisión narrativa sobre la tamización de cáncer de pulmón abarcando su evolución, sus beneficios, efectos adversos, las barreras a la implementación, cómo funcionan los programas de tamización y recomendaciones mirando al futuro de los programas de tamización.


A narrative review on lung cancer screening covering the evolution, benefits, adverse effects, and barriers to implementing lung cancer screening, how screening programs work, and different guideline recommendations looking beyond actual recommendations


Subject(s)
Humans , Tomography , Risk Factors
20.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-4, 01/jan./2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411396

ABSTRACT

The Canalis Sinuosus is a structure of the maxilla that allows the passage of the anterosuperior alveolar nerve and has a neurovascular activity. To visualize this structure, Conical Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) is best recommended. This article aimed to report a case of facial pain after the insertion of a dental implant due to compression of the Canalis Sinuosus. Thus, the implant was removed, followed by the insertion of a bone graft. After that, the facial pain stopped. In conclusion, the identification of anatomical structures in preoperative examinations is essential in surgical dental procedures.


O Canalis Sinuosus é uma estrutura da maxila, que permite a passagem do nervo alveolar anterosuperior e tem uma atividade neurovascular. Para visualizar essa estrutura, a Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico (TCFC) é melhor recomendada. Este artigo teve como objetivo relatar um caso de dor facial após a inserção de um implante dentário, devido à compressão do Canalis Sinuosus. Assim, o implante foi removido, seguido pela inserção de um enxerto ósseo. Depois disso, a dor facial foi interrompida. Em conclusão, a identificação de estruturas anatômicas em exames pré-operatórios é essencial em procedimentos odontológicos cirúrgicos.


Subject(s)
Dental Implants , Facial Pain , Tomography , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Maxilla
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