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1.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 24(2): 452-460, abr.-jun. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125006

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La neumoconiosis es una enfermedad, con características radiológicas similares a la silicosis, que afecta a los trabajadores dedicados al trasporte de carbón que se exponen durante los procesos de extracción y depósito de polvo de carbón en las centrales térmicas, la industria siderúrgica, la industria química e incluso en la venta y uso de equipos electrodomésticos. Se presenta un paciente de 65 años, con antecedentes de reiterados ingresos por neumonía extra hospitalaria, que presentaba falta de aire después de realizar cualquier esfuerzo físico. La tomografía de tórax confirmó que el paciente había sufrido una exposición prolongada al humo del carbón. Se diagnosticó la presencia de un fibroenfisema bulloso y adenopatías mediastinales. La prevención es la medida más eficaz para la lucha contra esta enfermedad. Se debe implementar el estricto cumplimiento de las medidas técnicas y la vigilancia constante de los niveles de polvo permitidos.


ABSTRACT Pneumoconiosis is a disease, with radiological characteristics similar to silicosis, which affects coal workers during coal dust deposition and extraction in thermal power plants, steel and chemical industry, and even in the sale and use of household appliances. We present a 65-year-old patient with a history of recurrent admissions for community-acquired pneumonia who had shortness of breath on exertion. Chest computed tomography confirmed that the patient had suffered a prolonged exposure to charcoal smoke. The presence of bullous fibroemphysema and mediastinal adenopathies was diagnosed. Prevention is the most effective measure to fight this disease. Strict compliance with technical measures and constant monitoring of permitted dust levels should be implemented.


Subject(s)
Pneumoconiosis/diagnosis , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
2.
Rev. argent. mastología ; 39(141): 34-46, mar. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104369

ABSTRACT

Objetivo El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar el valor adicional del spect/ct sobre el Centellograma de Cuerpo Entero (cce) y la spect en pacientes con cáncer de mama con mínimo dos estudios: tiempo inicial (i) y evolución (e). Material y método Se evaluaron retrospectivamente 208 lesiones en 186 pacientes. Se realizaron imágenes: cce, spect y spect/ct del esqueleto axial con 99mTcmdp y equipo híbrido Infinia Hawkeye 4 GE. Las lesiones se caracterizaron del siguiente modo: benigna (b); maligna (m); y equívocas: probablemente benigna (pb) y probablemente maligna (pm). Resultados spect/cti clasificó 197/208 lesiones (94,7%), specti 155/208 (74,5%) y ccei 130/208 (51%). Los tres métodos coincidieron inicialmente en 138 lesiones: 106 b (77%), 23 m (17%) y 9 equívocas (6%), y en la evolución en 155: 110 b (71%), 44 m (28%), 1 equívoca (1%). La sensibilidad, especificidad y exactitud inicial para diagnóstico de metástasis (incluyendo como malignas las lesiones probablemente malignas) fueron 92/70/51% (ccei), 100/78/75% (specti) y 100/97/95% (spect/cti). Diferencias de a pares: ccei vs specti y spect/cti para sensibilidad (p<0,05) y specti y ccei vs spect/cti especificidad y exactitud (p<0,001). Conclusiones El aporte de spect/ct incrementó la precisión y certeza diagnóstica para diferenciar las lesiones benignas, malignas y equívocas. Su utilización debería ser rutinaria en la detección de metástasis óseas en pacientes con carcinoma de mama


Objective To assess the additional value of spect/ct on whole-body scintigraphy (wbs) and spect in patients with breast cancer, with a minimum of two tests: start time (i) and assessment (e). Materials and method Retrospective assessment of 208 lesions in 186 patients. Images were taken by wbs, spect and spect/ct of the axial skeleton with 99mTc- mdp and hybrid equipment Infinia Hawkeye 4 GE. Characterization of the lesions: benign (b), malignant (m) and equivocal: likely to be benign or malignant. Results By using spect/cti, 197/208 lesions (94.7%), specti 155/208 (74.5%) and wbsi 130/208 (51%) were classified. The three methods initially coincided on 138 lesions: 106 b (77%), 23 m (17%) and 9 equivocal (6%); and on assessment on 155: 110 b (71%), 44 m (28%), 1 equivocal (1%). The initial sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for the diagnosis of metastases (including as malignant those lesions which were likely to be so) were as follows: 92/70/51% (wbsi), 100/78/75% (specti) and 100/97/95% (spect/cti). Differences by pairs: wbsi vs specti and spect/cti for sensitivity (p<0,05) and specti and wbsi vs spect/cti for specificity and accuracy (p<0,001). On assessment 99%. Conclusions The contribution of spect/ct has increased diagnostic accuracy and certainty to differentiate benign, malignant and equivocal lesions. It should be used routinely for the detection of bone metastases in patients with breast cancer


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon , Neoplasm Metastasis
3.
Rev. salud pública Parag ; 10(1): [P59-P65], mar. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1087931

ABSTRACT

nuclear permiten visualizar la estructura y función de un órgano, tejido, hueso o sistema dentro del cuerpo, entre ellos la glándula tiroidea, la cual puede presentar un nódulo tiroideo y este es importante diagnosticar por su potencial malignidad. Objetivo: Determinar las características funcionales de los nódulos tiroideos en 183 pacientes que asistieron al Servicio de Medicina Nuclear del Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud - UNA durante el período de noviembre del 2016 - noviembre del 2019. Metodología: Fue utilizada la gammacámara SPECT doble cabezal, siguiendo protocolo estandarizado, con administración de pertecnetato de sodio. Resultados: Se observó que la gran mayoría de los pacientes corresponden al sexo femenino 89%, así como que el 64% provienen de la capital y del departamento central; las patologías detectadas corresponden a bocio en 82%, 15% a nódulos (hipercaptantes, hipocaptantes y autónomos) y casos particulares de tiroiditis, tiroides ectópica y adenoma tóxico. La medicina nuclear está directamente involucrada tanto en el diagnóstico como en el tratamiento de la enfermedad tiroidea, por lo que se requiere una comprensión de la fisiopatología y el manejo de los trastornos de la tiroides, de manera a que las políticas de salud pública sean implementadas para el fortalecimiento de la lucha contra estas enfermedades. Conclusión: El trabajo de investigación realizado comprobó que un mayoritario porcentaje de participantes de sexo femenino (89%), con enfermedades tiroideas asistieron al IICS/UNA, y que la frecuencia de bocio entre la totalidad de pacientes que participaron de este estudio fué de 151/183 (82%), los pacientes provenían en su mayoría de hospitales de referencia del departamento Central y coinciden con la localización geográfica de los domicilios de los pacientes, quienes provenían principalmente del mismo departamento Central 118/183 (64%), no obstante también participaron del trabajo de investigación pacientes provenientes de otros departamentos del país. Palabras claves: Diagnóstico, medicina nuclear, tiroides, tecnología nuclear en salud, SPECT


Introduction: The images obtained by nuclear medicine allow to visualize the structure and function of an organ, tissue, bone or system inside the body, including the thyroid gland, which can present a thyroid nodule and this is important to diagnose for its potential malignancy. Objective: To determine the functional characteristics of the thyroid nodules were determined in 183 patients, who attended the Nuclear Medicine Service at the Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud during the period of November 2016 - November 2019. Methodology: It was used the dual head SPECT gamma camera following a standardized protocol with administration of sodium pertechnetate. Result: It was observed that most of the patients corresponded to the female sex 89 %, as well as that 64% came from the capital and the central department. The pathologies detected corresponded to goiter in 82%, 15% to nodules (hypercaptant, hypocaptant and autonoms) and particular cases of thyroiditis, ectopic thyroid and toxic adenoma. Nuclear medicine is directly involved both in the diagnosis and in the treatment of thyroid disease, therefore it requires an understanding of the pathophysiology and management of thyroid disorders in order that public health policies are implemented for strengthening the fight against these diseases. Conclusion: The research carried out showed that a majority percentage of female participants (89%), with thyroid diseases attended IICS / UNA, and the frequency of goiter among all patients who participated in this study was 151/183 ( 82%), the patients mostly they came the reference hospitals in the Central department and coincide with the geographic location of the patients' homes, who tested mainly from the same Central department 118/183 (64%), also participate in the research work patients from other departments of the country. Keywords: Diagnosis, nuclear medicine, thyroid, health technology, SPECT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon/methods , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Paraguay , Thyroid Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Thyroid Nodule/physiopathology , Thyroid Nodule/epidemiology , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution
4.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1291282

ABSTRACT

Se presenta el caso de un paciente con antecedente de adenocarcinoma de próstata y diagnóstico de ACV isquémico con transformación hemorrágica. La gammagrafía ósea con Tc-99m MDP complementada con SPECT e imágenes de fusión con TC cerebral simple, realizada a los 15 días, muestra hipercaptación en la región temporal izquierda, correspondiente al ACV en etapa subaguda.


We present the case of a patient with a history of prostate adenocarcinoma with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke with hemorrhagic transformation. Bone scintigraphy with Tc-99m MDP supplemented with SPECT and fusion images with simple cerebral CT, performed at 15 days, shows uptake in the left temporal region, corresponding to stroke in subacute stage


Apresentamos o caso de um paciente com história de adenocarcinoma de próstata com diagnóstico de acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico com transformação hemorrágica. A cintilografia óssea com Tc-99m MDP suplementada com SPECT e imagens de fusão com TC cerebral simple, realizadas aos 15 dias, mostra captação na região temporal esquerda, correspondente ao ACV na fase subaguda


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Technetium Tc 99m Medronate , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Radionuclide Imaging , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
5.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(6): 1092-1101, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055064

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Functional assessment to rule out myocardial ischemia using coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is extremely important and data on the Brazilian population are still limited. Objective: To assess the diagnostic performance of myocardial perfusion by CCTA in the detection of severe obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) compared with single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT). To analyze the importance of anatomical knowledge to understand the presence of myocardial perfusion defects on SPECT imaging that is not identified on computed tomography (CT) scan. Method: A total of 35 patients were evaluated by a simultaneous pharmacologic stress protocol. Fisher's exact test was used to compare proportions. The patients were grouped according to the presence or absence of significant CAD. The area under the ROC curve was used to identify the diagnostic performance of CCTA and SPECT in perfusion assessment. P < 0.05 values were considered statistically significant. Results: For detection of obstructive CAD, CT myocardial perfusion analysis yielded an area under the ROC curve of 0.84 [a 95% confidence interval (CI95%): 0.67-0.94, p < 0.001]. SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging, on the other hand, showed an AUC of 0.58 (95% CI 0.40 - 0.74, p < 0.001). In this study, false-positive results with SPECT are described. Conclusion: Myocardial perfusion analysis by CTA displays satisfactory results compared to SPECT in the detection of obstructive CAD. CCTA can rule out false-positive results of SPECT.


Resumo Fundamento: A avaliação funcional para descartar a isquemia miocárdica utilizando a angiotomografia computadorizada (angio-TC) de coronárias é de extrema importância e dados na população brasileira ainda são escassos. Objetivo: Avaliar o desempenho diagnóstico da perfusão miocárdica pela angio-TC de coronárias na detecção de doença arterial coronariana (DAC) obstrutiva significativa em comparação com a tomografia computadorizada por emissão de fóton único (SPECT; do inglês, single photon emission computerized tomography). Analisar a importância do conhecimento anatômico para entender a presença de defeito de perfusão miocárdica pela SPECT que não é identificado pela tomografia computadorizada (TC). Método: Trinta e cinco pacientes foram avaliados por um protocolo de estresse farmacológico simultâneo. O teste exato de Fisher foi utilizado para comparação entre as proporções. Os pacientes foram agrupados de acordo com a presença ou não de DAC significativa. A área sob a curva foi utilizada para identificar o desempenho diagnóstico da avaliação da perfusão pela angio-TC de coronárias e pela SPECT. Os valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados estatisticamente significativos. Resultados: Para detecção de DAC obstrutiva a avaliação da perfusão miocárdica pela TC teve uma área sob a curva de 0,84 [intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC95%): 0,67 a 0,94, p < 0,001]. Já o estudo da perfusão miocárdica pela SPECT foi de 0,58 (IC95%: 0,40 a 0,74, p < 0,001). Neste estudo, foram descritos falso-positivos pela SPECT. Conclusão: A avaliação da perfusão miocárdica pela angio-TC apresenta resultados satisfatórios em comparação com os da SPECT na detecção de DAC obstrutiva. A angio-TC de coronárias tem capacidade de afastar falso-positivos da SPECT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon/methods , Coronary Angiography/methods , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging/methods , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Cineangiography/methods , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/diagnostic imaging , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Computed Tomography Angiography
7.
Actual. osteol ; 15(1): 11-19, ene. abr. 2019. tab., ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048549

ABSTRACT

El hiperparatiroidismo persistente/recurrente representa un desafío en la localización del tejido paratiroideo hiperfuncionante. En esta subpoblación, los métodos convencionales ofrecen un menor rédito diagnóstico. La 18F-colina PET/TC podría ser una buena alternativa dada su mejor resolución espacial, capacidad de detectar glándulas ectópicas y la conjunción de la imagen molecular y anatómica. Sin embargo, la evidencia en este subgrupo de pacientes es escasa. Objetivo: evaluar la utilidad de la 18F-colina PET/TC como método de localización en el hiperparatiroidismo persistente o recurrente. Materiales y métodos: se analizaron los pacientes con 18F-colina PET/TC para hiperparatiroidismo entre diciembre de 2015 y enero de 2018 en un centro terciario de alto volumen. Se analizaron el número de lesiones, su localización, tamaño y el Standard Uptake Value máximo (SUV max) en las imágenes tempranas y tardías. Se compararon los resultados con los métodos convencionales. Resultados: 7 de 15 pacientes habían sido operados previamente (persistentes/recurrentes). La 18F-colina PET/TC detectó 6/7 casos (83,33%), la ecografía cervical 1/4 (25%) y el SPECT de paratiroides y la resonancia nuclear magnética 2/5 (40%). El SUV max obtenido fue variable, en la mitad de los casos a los 10 minutos y en los restantes a la hora; el tamaño promedio de las lesiones fue 8,61 mm (6-12 mm). Conclusiones: la 18F-colina PET/TC muestra una alta tasa de detección en los pacientes con hiperparatiroidismo persistente/recurrente. La combinación del comportamiento biológico del PET con los hallazgos morfológicos aportados por la TC con contraste endovenoso le ofrecería ventajas sobre otros estudios que podrían posicionarlo como método de primera línea en esta subpoblación. (AU)


Persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism represents a challenge regarding the localization of the hyper-functioning parathyroid tissue. In this subpopulation of hyperpharathyroid patients, conventional methods have a low diagnostic yield. The 18F-choline PET /CT could be a good alternative given its better spatial resolution, ability to detect ectopic glands, and the conjunction of the molecular and anatomical image. However, the evidence in this subgroup of patients is limited. Objective: to evaluate the utility of 18F-choline PET/ CT as a localization method in persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism. Materials and methods: patients with 18F-choline PET / CT for hyperparathyroidism between December 2015 and January 2018 in a high-volume tertiary center were included. The number of lesions, and their location, size, and maximum Standard Uptake Value (SUV) in the early and late images were analyzed. The results were compared to conventional methods. Results: 7 of 15 patients had been previously operated (persistent/recurrent). 18F-choline PET / CT detected 6/7 cases (83,33%), cervical ultrasound 1/4 (25%) and parathyroid SPECT and magnetic resonance 2/5 (40%). The maximum SUV was variable, one half at 10 minutes and the other half at 60 minutes; the average size of the lesions was 8.61 mm (6-12 mm). Conclusions: 18F-Choline PET / CT shows a high detection rate in patients with persistent / recurrent hyperparathyroidism. The combination of the biological behavior of PET with the morphological findings provided by CT with intravenous contrast would offer advantages over other studies that could position it as a first line method in this subpopulation. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary/diagnostic imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/statistics & numerical data , Recurrence , Vitamin D/blood , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/statistics & numerical data , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon/statistics & numerical data , Choline/analogs & derivatives , Ultrasonography/statistics & numerical data , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary/surgery , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary/complications , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary/etiology , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Methionine/analogs & derivatives
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719388

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to determine the association between the annual changes in dopamine transporter (DAT) availability as measured by 123I-ioflupane (123I-FP-CIT) single-photon-emission computed tomography and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) known to be risk factors in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: In total, 150 PD patients were included from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative database. Specific SNPs that are associated with PD were selected for genotyping. SNPs that were not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium or whose minor allele frequency was less than 0.05 were excluded. Twenty-three SNPs met the inclusion criteria for this study. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare annual percentage changes in DAT availability for three subgroups of SNP. RESULTS: None of the 23 SNPs exerted a statistically significant effect (p < 0.0022) on the decline of DAT availability in PD patients. However, we observed trends of association (p < 0.05) between three SNPs of two genes with the annual percentage change in DAT availability: 1) rs199347 on the putamen (p=0.0138), 2) rs356181 on the caudate nucleus (p=0.0105), and 3) rs3910105 on the caudate nucleus (p=0.0374). A post-hoc analysis revealed that DAT availability was reduced the most for 1) the putamen in the CC genotype of rs199347 (vs. CT, p=0.0199; vs. TT, p=0.0164), 2) the caudate nucleus in the TT genotype of rs356181 (vs. CC, p=0.0081), and 3) the caudate nucleus in the CC genotype of rs3910105 (vs. TT, p=0.0317). CONCLUSIONS: Significant trends in the associations between three SNPs and decline of DAT availability in PD patients have been discovered.


Subject(s)
Caudate Nucleus , Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins , Dopamine , Gene Frequency , Genotype , Humans , Parkinson Disease , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Putamen , Risk Factors , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
9.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 662-670, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760982

ABSTRACT

The neuroimaging has been applied in the study of pathophysiology in major depressive disorder (MDD). In this review article, several kinds of methodologies of neuroimaging would be discussed to summarize the promising biomarkers in MDD. For the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetoencephalography field, the literature review showed the potentially promising roles of frontal lobes, such as anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). In addition, the limbic regions, such as hippocampus and amygdala, might be the potentially promising biomarkers for MDD. The structures and functions of ACC, DLPFC, OFC, amygdala and hippocampus might be confirmed as the biomarkers for the prediction of antidepressant treatment responses and for the pathophysiology of MDD. The functions of cognitive control and emotion regulation of these regions might be crucial for the establishment of biomarkers. The near-infrared spectroscopy studies demonstrated that blood flow in the frontal lobe, such as the DLPFC and OFC, might be the biomarkers for the field of near-infrared spectroscopy. The electroencephalography also supported the promising role of frontal regions, such as the ACC, DLPFC and OFC in the biomarker exploration, especially for the sleep electroencephalogram to detect biomarkers in MDD. The positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in MDD demonstrated the promising biomarkers for the frontal and limbic regions, such as ACC, DLPFC and amygdala. However, additional findings in brainstem and midbrain were also found in PET and SPECT. The promising neuroimaging biomarkers of MDD seemed focused in the fronto-limbic regions.


Subject(s)
Amygdala , Biomarkers , Brain Stem , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major , Electroencephalography , Frontal Lobe , Gyrus Cinguli , Hippocampus , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetoencephalography , Mesencephalon , Neuroimaging , Positron-Emission Tomography , Prefrontal Cortex , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Tomography, Emission-Computed , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
10.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 602-611, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763786

ABSTRACT

Synaptic dopamine (DA) is mainly regulated by the presynaptic DA transporter (DAT). Single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) with the DAT radiotracer [¹²³I]FP-CIT assesses changes in synaptic DA availability when endogenous DA displaces [¹²³I]FP-CIT or competes for DAT. Here, we investigated the effects of haloperidol (HAL) and clozapine (CLZ) on [¹²³I]FP-CIT binding in the rat striatum and midbrain to assess the utility of [¹²³I]FP-CIT SPECT to quantify changes in synaptic DA availability. Rats underwent [¹²³I]FP-CIT SPECT after intraperitoneal administration of normal saline (vehicle), HAL (1 and 7 mg/kg), CLZ (10 and 54 mg/kg) and bupropion (BUP, a DAT blocker, 20 and 100 mg/kg). In the striatum and midbrain, percent differences in the nondisplaceable binding potential (BP(ND)) of [¹²³I]FP-CIT compared to the vehicle were calculated for the various drugs and doses. In another experiment, changes in endogenous striatal DA concentration were measured by in vivo microdialysis under the conditions used in the SPECT study. BUP dose-dependently occupied DAT at considerable levels. Compared to the vehicle, HAL decreased [¹²³I]FP-CIT BP(ND) in the striatum (−25.29% and −2.27% for 1 and 7 mg/kg, respectively) and to a greater degree in the midbrain (−58.74% and −49.64% for 1 and 7 mg/kg, respectively), whereas the CLZ-treated group showed a decrease in the midbrain (−38.60% and −40.38% for 10 and 54 mg/kg, respectively) but an increase in the striatum (18.85% and 38.64% for 10 and 54 mg/kg, respectively). Antipsychotic-induced changes in endogenous striatal DA concentrations varied across drugs and doses. The data demonstrate that [¹²³I]FP-CIT SPECT may be a useful preclinical technique for detecting increases in synaptic DA availability in the midbrain and striatum in response to HAL, with results comparable to those of in vivo microdialysis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bupropion , Clozapine , Dopamine , Haloperidol , Mesencephalon , Microdialysis , Rats , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763146

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to detect the lymphatic drainage pattern of internal mammary area and verify the concept of internal mammary sentinel lymph node (IM-SLN) in breast. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A small particle radiotracer ((99m)Tc-Dextran 40) was prepared and tested. (99m)Tc-Dextran 40 was injected into intraparenchyma at the sound breast by a modified radiotracer injection technique. Subsequently, dynamic single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), computed tomography (CT), and SPECT/CT combination images were performed to identify the radioactive lymph vessels and internal mammary lymph nodes (IMLNs). The direction of lymph drainage and the location of the IMLNs were identified in the SPECT/CT imaging. RESULTS: The radiochemical purity of (99m)Tc-Dextran 40 was > 95%. (99m)Tc-Dextran 40 could drainage into first, second, and third lymph node and the radioactive lymph node could be detected by the γ detector in the animal experiment. After (99m)Tc-Dextran 40 injecting into intraparenchyma, 50.0% cases (15/30) were identified the drainage lymphatic vessels and radioactive IMLNs by SPECT. The drainage lymphatic vessel was found from injection point to the first IMLN (IM-SLN) after 10.5±0.35 minutes radiotracer injection, and then (99m)Tc-Dextran 40 was accumulated into the IM-SLN. The combination imaging of SPECT/CT showed the second IMLN received the lymph drainage from the IM-SLN. The lymphatic drainage was step by step in the internal mammary area. CONCLUSION: The lymph was identified to drain from different regions of the breast to IM-SLN, and then outward from IM-SLN to other IMLN consecutively. It demonstrated the concept of the IM-SLN and provided more evidences for the application of internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy.


Subject(s)
Animal Experimentation , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Drainage , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Vessels , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy , Tomography, Emission-Computed , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759358

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was to evaluate changes of the mechanical loading pattern after anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction by analyzing uptake patterns using combined single-photon emission computerized tomography and conventional computerized tomography (SPECT/CT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: On SPECT/CT, high signal intensity of the articular surface which shows biological activity and mean increase of mechanical loading was compared with that of the tibiofemoral shaft as a comparative signal. The proportion of positive signals was evaluated in all compartments of the operated knee. Analysis was performed according to combined injury. RESULTS: A relatively high proportion of positive signals was detected in the posterior zone of the lateral tibial plateau (23.5%) and trochlear groove (23.5%) although increased signal intensity was detected in all compartments. There was no statistical difference depending on the presence of combined injury and between single-bundle and double-bundle ACL reconstruction. CONCLUSIONS: Following anatomic ACL reconstruction, higher signal intensity was detected, particularly in the posterior part of the lateral tibial plateau and trochlear groove. Close observation for further signal changes or osteoarthritic changes would be required even if there was no combined injury and anatomic reconstruction was performed.


Subject(s)
Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction , Anterior Cruciate Ligament , Knee , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786500

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare lung perfusion scan with single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) for the evaluation of lung function and to elucidate the most appropriate modality for the prediction of postoperative lung function in patients with lung cancer.METHODS: A total of 181 patients underwent Tc-99m macroaggregated albumin lung perfusion scan and SPECT/CT to examine the ratio of diseased lung and diseased lobe. Forty-one patients with lung cancer underwent both preoperative and postoperative pulmonary function tests within 1 month to predict postoperative pulmonary function. Predicted postoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 s (ppoFEV₁) was calculated by the % radioactivity of lung perfusion scan and SPECT, and the % volume of the residual lung, assessed on CT.RESULTS: The ratios of diseased lung as seen on lung perfusion scan and SPECT showed significant correlation, but neither modality correlated with CT. The ratios of the diseased lung and diseased lobe based on CT were higher than the ratios based on either perfusion scan or SPECT, because CT overestimated the function of the diseased area. The lobar ratio of both upper lobes was lower based on the perfusion scan than on SPECT but was higher for both lower lobes. Actual postoperative FEV₁ showed significant correlation with ppoFEV₁ based on lung perfusion SPECT and perfusion scan.CONCLUSIONS: We suggest SPECT/CT as the primary modality of choice for the assessment of the ratio of diseased lung area. Both perfusion scan and SPECT/CT can be used for the prediction of postoperative lung function.


Subject(s)
Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Lung Volume Measurements , Lung , Perfusion , Radioactivity , Respiratory Function Tests , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786499

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The treatment efficiency of ⁹⁰Y and providing reliable estimates of activity are evaluated by SPECT imaging of bremsstrahlung radiation released during beta therapy. In this technique, the resulting spectrum from ⁹⁰Y is very complex and continuous, which creates difficulties on the imaging protocol. Moreover, collimator geometry has an impressive effect on the spatial resolution, system sensitivity, image contrast, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), which should be optimized.METHODS: We evaluated the effect of energy window width, reconstruction algorithms, and different geometries of a medium-energy (ME) parallel-hole collimator on the image contrast and SNR of ⁹⁰Y SPECT images. The Siemens E.Cam gamma camera equipped with a ME collimator and a digital Jaszczak phantom were simulated by SIMIND Monte Carlo program to generate the ⁹⁰Y bremsstrahlung SPECT images.RESULTS: Our results showed that optimal image quality can be acquired by the reconstruction algorithm of OS-EM in the energy window width of 60 to 400 keV for ⁹⁰Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging. Furthermore, the optimal values of the hole diameter and hole length of a ME collimator were obtained 0.235 and 4.4 cm, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: The acquired optimal ME collimator and energy window along with using a suitable reconstruction algorithm lead to improved contrast and SNR of ⁹⁰Y bremsstrahlung images of hot spheres of the digital Jaszczak phantom. This can improve the accuracy and precision of the ⁹⁰Y activity distribution estimation after radioembolization in targeted radionuclide therapy.


Subject(s)
Gamma Cameras , Signal-To-Noise Ratio , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786488

ABSTRACT

The authors present two cases in which the ruptured popliteal (Baker's) cysts remained undetected and were diagnosed only during an isotope investigation. The aim was to describe a specific imaging sign, the “arch sign”, that is indicative of ruptured Baker's cysts. In both cases, the whole-body imaging was performed 2 hours after injection of 706.7 MBq of Tc-99m-MDP. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging was performed to localize an accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical. An analysis of literature was performed to connect these cases with previously reported data and to detect the pathognomonic radio image sign of ruptured popliteal cysts. The arch-shaped distribution of the radiopharmaceutical below the knee joints was seen already on the whole-body bone scan image in both cases. An anterior view of SPECT MIP images showed the arched accumulation of the Tc-99m-MDP bone tracer along the postero-medial aspect of the right calf secondary to synovial fluid leak from a ruptured Baker's cyst. The similar arthroscintigrams were published since 1971 without recognizing this sign as pathognomonic. Tc-99m-MDP bone scanning is sensitive for a Baker's cyst with synovial effusion, and distribution of a radiopharmaceutical in the medial posterior calf in a shape of an arch, the arch sign, may serve as an indicator of a ruptured popliteal cyst.


Subject(s)
Knee Joint , Popliteal Cyst , Synovial Fluid , Tomography, Emission-Computed , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786474

ABSTRACT

Single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) is an already established nuclear imaging modality. Co-registration of functional information (SPECT) with anatomical images (CT) paved the way to the wider application of SPECT. Recent advancements in quantitative SPECT/CT have made it possible to incorporate quantitative parameters, such as standardized uptake value (SUV) or %injected dose (%ID), in gamma camera imaging. This is indeed a paradigm shift in gamma camera imaging from qualitative to quantitative evaluation. In fact, such quantitative approaches of nuclear imaging have only been accomplished for positron emission tomography (PET) technology. Attenuation correction, scatter correction, and resolution recovery are the three main features that enabled quantitative SPECT/CT. Further technical improvements are being achieved for partial-volume correction, motion correction, and dead-time correction. The reported clinical applications for quantitative SPECT/CT are mainly related to Tc-99m-labeled radiopharmaceuticals: Tc-99m diphosphonate for bone/joint diseases, Tc-99m pertechnetate for thyroid function, and Tc-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid for measurement of glomerular filtration rate. Dosimetry before trans-arterial radio-embolization is also a promising application for Tc-99m macro-aggregated albumin. In this review, clinical applications of Tc-99m quantitative SPECT/CT will be discussed.


Subject(s)
Evaluation Studies as Topic , Gamma Cameras , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Positron-Emission Tomography , Radionuclide Imaging , Radiopharmaceuticals , Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m , Thyroid Gland , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786473

ABSTRACT

Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) is an active area of drug development as a highly specific and highly potent therapeutic modality that can be applied to many types of late-stage cancers. In order to properly evaluate its safety and efficacy, understanding biokinetics of alpha-emitting radiopharmaceuticals is essential. Quantitative imaging of alpha-emitting radiopharmaceuticals is often possible via imaging of gammas and positrons produced during complex decay chains of these radionuclides. Analysis of the complex decay chains for alpha-emitting radionuclides (Tb-149, At-211, Bi-212 (decayed from Pb-212), Bi-213, Ra-223, Ac- 225, and Th-227) with relevance to imageable signals is attempted in this mini-review article. Gamma camera imaging, single-photon emission computed tomography, positron emission tomography, bremsstrahlung radiation imaging, Cerenkov luminescence imaging, and Compton cameras are briefly discussed as modalities for imaging alpha-emitting radiopharmaceuticals.


Subject(s)
Electrons , Luminescence , Positron-Emission Tomography , Radioisotopes , Radionuclide Imaging , Radiopharmaceuticals , Tomography, Emission-Computed , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786471

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Molecular imaging such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can provide the crucial pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic information of a drug non-invasively at an early stage of clinical drug development. Nevertheless, not much has been known how molecular imaging has been actually used in drug development studies.METHODS: We searched PubMed using such keywords as molecular imaging, PET, SPECT, drug development, and new drug, or any combination of those to select papers in English, published from January 1, 1990, to December 31, 2015. The information about the publication year, therapeutic area of a drug candidate, drug development phase, and imaging modality and utility of imaging were extracted.RESULTS: Of 10,264 papers initially screened, 208 papers met the eligibility criteria. The more recent the publication year, the bigger the number of papers, particularly since 2010. The two major therapeutic areas using molecular imaging to develop drugs were oncology (47.6%) and the central nervous system (CNS, 36.5%), in which efficacy (63.5%) and proof-of-concept through either receptor occupancy (RO) or other than RO (29.7%), respectively, were the primary utility of molecular imaging. PET was used 4.7 times more frequently than SPECT. Molecular imaging was most frequently used in phase I clinical trials (40.8%), whereas it was employed rarely in phase 0 or exploratory IND studies (1.4%).CONCLUSIONS: The present study confirmed the trend that molecular imaging has been more actively employed in recent clinical drug development studies although its adoption was rather slow and rare in phase 0 studies.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System , Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic , Molecular Imaging , Positron-Emission Tomography , Publications , Tomography, Emission-Computed , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
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