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Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 136-142, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969755


Objective: To evaluate the protective effect of jailed balloon technique on side branch (SB) ostium using three-dimensional optical coherence tomography(OCT). Methods: This is a retrospective study. Consecutive coronary disease patients with coronary artery bifurcation lesions who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and completed pre-and post-procedural OCT examinations at the Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital from September 2019 to March 2022 were enrolled. Patients were divided into the jailed balloon technique group and the unprotected group according to the options applied for the SB. The SB ostium area difference was calculated from OCT images (SB ostium area difference=post-PCI SB ostium area-pre-PCI SB ostium area). The SB ostium area differences were compared between the two groups and compared further in the subgroup of true bifurcation lesions and non-true bifurcation lesions. In the jailed balloon group, the SB ostium area difference was compared between the active jailed balloon technique and the conventional jailed balloon technique, between the jailed balloon>2.0 mm diameter and the jailed balloon≤2.0 mm diameter, and between the higher balloon pressure (>4 atm, 1 atm=101.325 kPa) and the lower balloon pressure (≤4 atm). Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to explore the correlation between the technical parameters of the jailed balloon technique and the SB protection effect. Results: A total of 176 patients with 236 bifurcation lesions were enrolled, aged (60.7±9.3) years, and there were 128 male patients (72.7%). There were 67 patients in the jailed balloon technique group with 71 bifurcation lesions and 123 patients in the unprotected group with 165 bifurcation lesions. Fourteen patients had 2 to 3 lesions, which were treated in different ways, so they appeared in the unprotected group and the jailed balloon technique group at the same time. The area difference in SB ostium was greater in the jailed balloon group than in the unprotected group (0.07 (-0.43, 1.05)mm2 vs.-0.33 (-0.83, 0.26)mm2, P<0.001), and the results were consistent in the true bifurcation lesion subgroup (0.29 (-0.35, 0.96)mm2 vs.-0.26 (-0.64, 0.29)mm2, P=0.004), while the difference between the two groups in the non-true bifurcation lesion subgroup was not statistically significant (P=0.136). In the jailed balloon technique group, the SB ostium area difference was greater in patients treated with the active jailed balloon technique than in those treated with the conventional jailed balloon technique ((0.43±1.36)mm2 vs. (-0.22±0.52)mm2, P=0.013). The difference in SB ostium area was greater in those using>2.0 mm diameter jailed balloons than in those using≤2.0 mm diameter jailed balloons (0.25 (-0.51, 1.31) mm2 vs.-0.01 (-0.45, 0.63) mm2, P=0.020), while SB ostium area difference was similar between those endowed with higher balloon pressure (>4 atm) compared to those with lower balloon pressure (≤4 atm) (P=0.731). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that there was a positive correlation between jailed balloon diameter and SB ostium area difference (r=0.344, P=0.019). Conclusions: The jailed balloon technique significantly protects SB ostium, especially in patients with true bifurcation lesions. The active jailed balloon technique and larger diameter balloons may provide more protection to the SB.

Humans , Male , Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary/methods , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Stents , Coronary Artery Disease/therapy , Coronary Vessels/pathology , Coronary Angiography
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(2): 261-265, feb. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389634


Atherosclerosis is the main cause of late saphenous vein graft (SVG) failure. Intracoronary images using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in addition to angiography allow a detailed analysis of the lesion beyond the degree of stenosis. We report a 67 years old diabetic male who underwent coronary surgery in 2009, consulting for an acute coronary syndrome. Angiography showed two different lesions on one aortocoronary venous grafts. OCT demonstrates atherosclerosis in different stages identifying the culprit lesion. Stent placement were successfully carried out.

Humans , Male , Aged , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Atherosclerosis , Saphenous Vein/pathology , Saphenous Vein/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Coronary Angiography/methods
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(2): 180-191, Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364366


ABSTRACT Structural imaging of the brain is the most widely used diagnostic tool for investigating neurodegenerative diseases. More advanced structural imaging techniques have been applied to early or prodromic phases, but they are expensive and not widely available. Therefore, it is highly desirable to search for noninvasive, easily accessible, low-cost clinical biomarkers suitable for large-scale population screening, in order to focus on making diagnoses at the earliest stages of the disease. In this scenario, imaging studies focusing on the structures of the retina have increasingly been used for evaluating neurodegenerative diseases. The retina shares embryological, histological, biochemical, microvascular and neurotransmitter similarities with the cerebral cortex, thus making it a uniquely promising biomarker for neurodegenerative diseases. Optical coherence tomography is a modern noninvasive imaging technique that provides high-resolution two-dimensional cross-sectional images and quantitative reproducible three-dimensional volumetric measurements of the optic nerve head and retina. This technology is widely used in ophthalmology practice for diagnosing and following up several eye diseases, such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. Its clinical impact on neurodegenerative diseases has raised enormous interest over recent years, as several clinical studies have demonstrated that these diseases give rise to reduced thickness of the inner retinal nerve fiber layer, mainly composed of retinal ganglion cells and their axons. In this review, we aimed to address the clinical utility of optical coherence tomography for diagnosing and evaluating different neurodegenerative diseases, to show the potential of this noninvasive and easily accessible method.

RESUMO A avaliação estrutural do cérebro, feita por meio dos exames de neuroimagem, é a forma mais utilizada de ferramenta diagnóstica e de acompanhamento das doenças neurodegenerativas. Técnicas de imagem mais sofisticadas podem ser necessárias especialmente nas fases mais precoces, antes mesmo do surgimento de quaisquer sintomas, porém costumam ser caras e pouco acessíveis. Sendo assim, é de fundamental importância a busca de biomarcadores não invasivos, de fácil acesso e baixo custo, que possam ser utilizados para rastreio populacional e diagnóstico mais precoce. Nesse cenário, o número de estudos com ênfase em técnicas de imagem para avaliação estrutural da retina em pacientes com doenças neurodegenerativas tem aumentado nos últimos anos. A retina apresenta similaridade embriológica, histológica, bioquímica, microvascular e neurotransmissora com o córtex cerebral, tornando-se assim um biomarcador único e promissor nas doenças neurodegenerativas. A tomografia de coerência óptica é uma moderna técnica de imagem não invasiva que gera imagens seccionais bidimensionais de alta resolução e medidas volumétricas tridimensionais reprodutivas do disco óptico e da mácula. Essa tecnologia é amplamente utilizada na prática oftalmológica para o diagnóstico e o seguimento de diversas doenças oculares, como glaucoma, retinopatia diabética e degeneração macular relacionada à idade. A redução da espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina e das camadas de células ganglionares em pacientes com doenças neurodegenerativas foi demonstrada em diversos estudos clínicos nos últimos anos. Nesta revisão, abordamos as principais aplicações clínicas da tomografia de coerência óptica nas doenças neurodegenerativas e discutimos o seu papel como potencial biomarcador nessas afecções.

Humans , Neurodegenerative Diseases/pathology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Retina/pathology , Retina/diagnostic imaging
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0103, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407672


ABSTRACT Optical coherence tomography is often used for detection of glaucoma as well as to monitor progression. This paper reviews the most common types of artifacts on the optical coherence tomography report that may be confused with glaucomatous damage. We mainly focus on anatomy-related artifacts in which the retinal layer segmentation and thickness measurements are correct. In such cases, the probability maps (also known as deviation maps) show abnormal (red and yellow) regions, which may mislead the clinician to assume disease is present. This is due to the anatomic variability of the individual, and the normative database must be taken into account.

RESUMO A tomografia de coerência óptica é frequentemente usada para detectar glaucoma, bem como para monitorar a progressão. Este artigo analisa os tipos mais comuns de artefatos no relatório de tomografia de coerência óptica que podem ser confundidos com danos glaucomatosos. Nós nos concentramos principalmente nos artefatos relacionados à anatomia em que a segmentação da camada da retina e as medidas de espessura estão corretas. Nesses casos, os mapas de probabilidade (também conhecidos como mapas de desvio) mostram regiões anormais (vermelho e amarelo), o que pode induzir o clínico em erro ao supor que a doença está presente. Isto se deve à variabilidade anatômica do indivíduo, e o banco de dados normativo deve ser levado em conta.

Humans , Glaucoma/diagnostic imaging , Artifacts , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Posture , Retina/diagnostic imaging , Torsion Abnormality , Head Movements , Diagnostic Errors , Eye Movements , Fovea Centralis , Nerve Fibers/pathology
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0069, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407675


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate structural and visual field (VF) changes after ≥1 year of a single acute primary angle closure (APAC) attack using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and standard automated perimetry (SAP). Methods: Patients with a single unilateral APAC crisis at least 1 year ago were included consecutively from 2013 to 2016. Contralateral eye was used as control. All patients underwent ophthalmic examination, RNFL imaging by SD-OCT, and SAP using Octopus 1-2-3. Results: 54 eyes (27 patients) were enrolled. Male-to-female ratio was 1:2. Mean time for the SD-OCT and SAP assessment after the crisis was 5.0±5.1 (1.0-23.5) years, and IOP was 52.5±9.8 mmHg. In APAC eyes, the thicknesses of all quadrants of peripapillary RNFL (36.3%; P<0.001) and some macular sections (from 2.1% to 4.7%; P<0.01) were reduced compared to contralateral eyes. Additionally, in APAC eyes, the mean defect on VF was negatively and statistically correlated with the reduction of all quadrants of peripapillary RNFL thickness. Conclusion: A single episode of APAC was associated with peripapillary RNFL and macular thickness and with VF defects after ≥1 year of the crisis in the affected eye. Statistically meaningful correlations were found between structural and functional damage.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar alterações estruturais e do campo visual 1 ano ou mais após uma crise única de fechamento angular primário agudo utilizando tomografia de coerência óptica de domínio espectral e perimetria automatizada padronizada. Métodos: Pacientes que apresentaram crise unilateral única de fechamento angular primário agudo há pelo menos 1 ano foram consecutivamente incluídos entre 2013 e 2016. Os olhos contralaterais foram utilizados como controles. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a exame oftalmológico, avaliação das camadas de fibras nervosas da retina utilizando tomografia de coerência óptica de domínio espectral e perimetria automatizada padronizada com o Octopus 1-2-3. Resultados: Foram incluídos 54 olhos (27 pacientes) com razão homem:mulher de 1:2. O tempo médio após a crise foi de 5,0±5,1 anos (1,0 a 23,5) e a pressão intraocular na crise foi 52,5±9,8mmHg. Nos olhos com fechamento angular primário agudo, todas as espessuras das camadas de fibras nervosas da retina peripapilares (36,3%; p<0,001) e de algumas seções maculares (de 2,1 a 4,7%; p<0,01) estavam reduzidas em comparação aos olhos contralaterais. Além do mais, nos olhos submetidos a fechamento angular primário agudo, o mean defect do campo visual foi estatisticamente e negativamente correlacionado com a redução da espessura de todos os quadrantes peripapilares da camada de fibras nervosas da retina. Conclusão: Um único episódio de fechamento angular primário agudo foi associado com redução na espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina peripapilar e da espessura macular e com defeitos de campo visual 1 ano ou mais após a crise no olho afetado. Correlações estatisticamente significativas foram identificadas entre danos estruturais e funcionais.

Humans , Male , Female , Optic Disk/pathology , Glaucoma, Angle-Closure/diagnostic imaging , Optic Nerve Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Nerve Fibers/pathology , Visual Fields , Glaucoma, Angle-Closure/complications , Optic Nerve Diseases/etiology , Acute Disease , Iridectomy , Visual Field Tests , Intraocular Pressure , Macula Lutea
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(4)dic. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1409017


El edema macular es el engrosamiento anormal de la mácula asociado con la acumulación de líquido en el espacio extracelular de la retina neurosensorial. En algunos casos también se ha observado edema intracelular que comprende las células de Muller. Una de estas causas es el edema macular poscirugía de catarata. Presentamos un caso masculino de 57 años de edad de la raza negra con antecedentes de haber sido operado de catarata en ambos ojos. El ojo izquierdo carecía de visión a causa de un rechazo al trasplante corneal penetrante que le fue realizado. El ojo derecho presentaba edema macular con subluxación de la lente intraocular. Le realizamos biomicroscopia de segmento anterior y posterior, tomografía de coherencia óptica, agudeza visual con corrección y presión intraocular. Se constató edema macular con membrana epirretinal y subluxación de la lente intraocular. Decidimos fijar la lente a la esclera utilizando la técnica de Yamane, ya que se trataba de una lente de 3 piezas de acrílico con háptica de fluoruro de polivinildeno configuración en C (CT Lucia 602 de Zeiss), ideal para esta técnica. Colocamos una dosis de Ozurdex en el ojo derecho para tratar el edema macular, después de ver que los colirios tópicos antinflamatorios no fueron efectivos en este caso, y tuvimos una mejoría del edema por aproximadamente 3 meses. En el edema macular posquirúrgico no solo es necesario tratar la inflamación, sino también la causa que la ha producido(AU)

Macular edema is the abnormal thickening of the macula associated to fluid accumulation in the extracellular space of the neurosensory retina. Some cases also present intracellular edema with involvement of Müller cells. One of these causes is macular edema after cataract surgery. A case is presented of a male 57-year-old patient of black skin color with a history of cataract surgery in both eyes. The left eye had no vision, due to rejection to the penetrating corneal transplantation performed. The right eye presented macular edema with intraocular lens subluxation. Examination included biomicroscopy of the anterior and posterior segments, optical coherence tomography, visual acuity with correction and intraocular pressure. A diagnosis was confirmed of macular edema with epiretinal membrane and intraocular lens subluxation. It was decided to fix the lens to the sclera using the Yamane technique, since it was a three-piece lens with a C-shaped polyvinylidene fluoride haptic (CT Lucia 602 from Zeiss), ideal for this technique. An Ozurdex dose was administered in the right eye to treat the macular edema, since topical anti-inflammatory eyedrops were not effective in this case, and improvement of the edema was achieved for about three months. In postoperative macular edema, it is not only necessary to treat the inflammation, but also its cause(AU)

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Vitrectomy/methods , Macular Edema/etiology , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Lenses, Intraocular/adverse effects , Ophthalmic Solutions/therapeutic use , Intraocular Pressure
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(3): e1025, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1352025


Objetivo: Determinar los hallazgos por eco-Doppler orbitario en pacientes con glaucoma primario de ángulo abierto según factores de riesgo aterosclerótico. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo y transversal en 300 órbitas de 150 pacientes con diagnóstico de glaucoma primario de ángulo abierto. A todos los casos se les realizó tonometría de contorno dinámico y tomografía de coherencia óptica. Se identificaron mediante interrogatorio y por el laboratorio clínico los factores de riesgo aterosclerótico: hipertensión arterial, tabaquismo, diabetes mellitus tipo 2, dislipidemia, obesidad y consumo excesivo de alcohol. Se les realizó ultrasonido orbitario y Doppler carotídeo, y solo en caso de resultar normales se procedió a evaluar mediante eco-Doppler las arterias oftálmica, central de la retina y ciliares posteriores temporales. Resultados: La edad media de los sujetos estudiados fue de 62,3 años. El 55,3 por ciento correspondió al sexo femenino y el 47,3 por ciento al color blanco de la piel. El número de factores de riesgo mostró una correlación lineal moderada, positiva y significativa con el índice de resistencia, mientras que con las velocidades dicha correlación resultó ser negativa. Todos los factores de riesgo expresaron efectos dañinos sobre la hemodinámica del flujo ocular, la presión intraocular y el grosor de las capas de fibras neurorretinianas temporales. Tras ajustar para la edad, esta negativa influencia continuó siendo relevante en la mayoría de los casos. Conclusiones: Los aspectos vasculares del glaucoma deben integrarse a la práctica clínica de esta afección, lo que ayudará a que el enfoque sea más completo, y redundará en un mejor pronóstico de la enfermedad(AU)

Objective: Determine the orbital echo-Doppler findings in patients with primary open angle glaucoma according to atherosclerotic risk factors. Methods: A cross-sectional observational descriptive study was conducted of 300 orbits of 150 patients diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma. All the cases underwent dynamic contour tonometry and optical coherence tomography. Interrogation and clinical laboratory testing led to identification of the following atherosclerotic risk factors: arterial hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus type 2, dyslipidemia, obesity and excessive alcohol consumption. Orbital and carotid Doppler ultrasounds were performed, and only if they were normal they would be followed by echo-Doppler evaluation of the ophthalmic, central retinal and posterior temporal ciliary arteries. Results: Mean age of the study subjects was 62.3 years. 55.3 percent were female and 47.3 percent had white skin. The number of risk factors showed a moderate, positive and significant linear correlation with the resistive index, and a negative correlation with the velocities. All the risk factors expressed harmful effects on ocular flow hemodynamics, intraocular pressure and the thickness of temporal neuroretinal fibers. After adjusting for age, this negative influence continued to be relevant in most cases. Conclusions: The vascular aspects of glaucoma should be incorporated into the clinical management of this condition. This will make the approach more thorough and help achieve a better diagnosis(AU)

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Ultrasonography, Doppler/methods , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Studies as Topic , Intraocular Pressure
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(2): e969, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341458


El ojo humano es un instrumento óptico simple, pero extremadamente robusto. Los sistemas de imágenes para el diagnóstico y evaluación del segmento anterior del ojo constituyen una herramienta fundamental para el oftalmólogo. Hasta hace poco, el uso de estas técnicas proporcionaba fundamentalmente información cualitativa sobre ciertas enfermedades; sin embargo, el desarrollo de nuevas técnicas de cuantificación abre una nueva Era de evaluación y tratamiento basado en imagen. La tomografía de coherencia óptica de segmento anterior se ha convertido en una herramienta crucial en la Oftalmología. El MS-39 es un topógrafo que usa el dominio espectral y la topografía con disco de Plácido para obtener mediciones del segmento anterior del ojo. Brinda información sobre paquimetría, elevación, curvatura y poder dióptrico de ambas caras de la córnea. Además, permite realizar mapas epiteliales y biometría del cristalino. La alta repetibilidad de esta tecnología justifica su uso en la práctica clínica. De ahí la motivación para realizar una búsqueda de diversos artículos publicados, con el objetivo de describir las características y la utilidad del MS-39 para el estudio del segmento anterior del ojo. Se utilizó la plataforma Infomed, específicamente la Biblioteca Virtual de Salud, con todos sus buscadores(AU)

The human eye is a simple but extremely robust optical tool. Imaging systems for the diagnosis and evaluation of the anterior segment of the eye are a fundamental tool for ophthalmologists. Until recently, use of these techniques mainly provided qualitative information about certain diseases; however, the current development of quantification techniques has paved the way for a new era in image-based evaluation and treatment. Optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment has gained crucial importance in ophthalmology. MS-39 is a topograph that uses the spectral domain and Placido disc topography to obtain measurements of the anterior segment of the eye. This tool provides information about the pachymetry, elevation, curvature and dioptric power of both sides of the cornea. It also permits the development of epithelial maps and crystalline lens biometry. The great repeatability of this technology justifies its use in clinical practice. Hence the motivation to conduct a search for a variety of published papers, with the purpose of describing the characteristics and usefulness of the MS-39 for the study of the anterior segment of the eye. Use was made of the Infomed platform, particularly the Virtual Health Library with all its search engines(AU)

Humans , Topography/methods , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Corneal Pachymetry/methods , Anterior Eye Segment/diagnostic imaging , Review Literature as Topic , Databases, Bibliographic
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(2): 96-99, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280112


ABSTRACT Purpose: to compare the Subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness (RNFL) of amblyopic and normal fellow eyes. Design: Prospective, cross-sectional, observational case series. Methods: Forty patients age 12 to 41 years (mean 23.73 ± 6.42) with unilateral amblyopia were studied. Among them, 11(28.2%) patients had amblyopia secondary to strabismus and 29(71.8 %) had anisometropic amblyopia. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the peripapillary RNFL thickness of amblyopic and fellow eyes was performed. RNFL thickness measurements were taken from the superior, inferior, nasal and temporal quadrants in the peripapillary region. Also, subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) was measured using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Results: Mean global RNFL thickness of the amblyopic and fellow eyes was 104.48 microns and 102.83 microns, respectively. The difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (p>0.05%). The thicknesses of the superior, inferior, nasal and temporal quadrants of the retinal nerve fiber layer between the amblyopic and normal fellow eyes showed no statistically significant difference (p>0.05%). However, the SFCT of amblyopic eye was 11 or more microns thicker than the fellow eye and this was statistically significant different (p<0.05%). Conclusions: This study demonstrated SFCT in amblyopic eyes was significantly thicker than the normal fellow eyes. The amblyopic process may involve the choroid, but not the prepapillary NFL.

RESUMO Objetivo: comparar a espessura da coroide subfoveal (CSF) e da camada de fibra nervosa retinal (CFNR) de olhos amblíopes e normais. Design: série de casos prospectivos, transversais e observacionais. Métodos: Quarenta pacientes com idade entre 12 e 41 anos (média 23,73 ± 6,42) com ambliopia unilateral foram estudados. Entre eles, 11 (28,2%) pacientes apresentavam ambliopia secundária a estrabismo e 29 (71,8%) apresentavam ambliopia anisometrópica. Foi realizada tomografia de coerência óptica (TCO) da espessura da CFNR peripapilar do olho amblíope e do outro olho. As medidas de espessura da CFNR foram realizadas nos quadrantes superior, inferior, nasal e temporal na região peripapilar. Além disso, a espessura da coroide subfoveal (CSF) foi medida através de tomografia de coerência óptica de domínio espectral (TCO-DE). Resultados: A espessura média global da CFNR do olho amblíope e do outro olho foi de 104,48 mícrons e 102,83 mícrons, respectivamente. A diferença entre os dois grupos não foi estatisticamente significativa (p > 0,05%). As espessuras dos quadrantes superior, inferior, nasal e temporal da camada de fibras nervosas da retina entre o olho amblíope e o normal não apresentaram diferença estatisticamente significativa (p > 0,05%). No entanto, a CSF do olho amblíope foi 11 mícrons mais espessa (ou mais) do que a do outro olho - essa diferença foi estatisticamente significativa (p < 0,05%). Conclusões: Este estudo demonstrou que a CSF dos olhos amblíopes foi significativamente mais espessa do que a dos olhos normais. O processo amblíope pode envolver a coroide, mas ele não envolve a CFNR peripapilar.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Amblyopia/complications , Amblyopia/diagnostic imaging , Choroid/diagnostic imaging , Nerve Fibers/pathology , Optic Disk/pathology , Optic Nerve/pathology , Organ Size , Retinal Ganglion Cells/pathology , Visual Acuity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Choroid/pathology , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Fovea Centralis/pathology
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(2): 166-173, mar.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279097


Resumen Introducción: Distintos protocolos de angiotomografía de coherencia óptica evalúan la mácula. Objetivo: R2) entre las densidades vascular y de perfusión de dos protocolos de angiotomografía de coherencia óptica, para determinar si sus mediciones podían intercambiarse. Método: Estudio observacional, comparativo, prospectivo, transversal entre dos protocolos de angiotomografía de coherencia óptica (AngioPlex, Zeiss) en sujetos sanos. Se identificó la R2 entre las densidades vascular y de perfusión central, interna y completa (protocolo de 3 x 3 mm), y central, interna, externa y completa (protocolo de 6 x 6 mm). Resultados: 78 ojos, mediana de edad 23 años. Hubo R2 altas entre las densidades interna y completa del protocolo de 3 x 3 mm (0.96), externa y completa del de 6 x 6 mm (0.96), y centrales vasculares y de perfusión (≥ 0.96); la R2 entre las densidades centrales vascular y de perfusión de distintos protocolos fue ≤ 0.71. Conclusiones: Las densidades vasculares y de perfusión tienen R2 alta dentro de un protocolo, pero no entre protocolos, porque estos miden preferentemente zonas distintas, lo cual limita intercambiar mediciones.

Abstract Introduction: Different optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) scanning protocols evaluate the macula. Objective: To compare the determination coefficients (R2) between vessel and perfusion densities of two OCTA scanning protocols, to learn whether their metrics could be interchanged. Method: Non-experimental, comparative, prospective, observational, cross-sectional study, between two OCTA scanning protocols (Angioplex, Zeiss) in healthy subjects. We found the R2 between central, inner, and full densities (3 x 3 mm protocol), and between central, inner, outer and full densities (6 x 6 mm protocol), both for vessel and perfusion densities. Results: 78 eyes, median age 23 years. There were high R2 between inner and full densities in the 3 x 3 mm protocol (0.96), between outer and full densities in the 6 x 6 mm protocol (0.96) and between central vessel and perfusion densities (≥0.96); R2 between central vessel and perfusion densities of different protocols (≤0.71). Conclusions: Vessel and perfusion densities have high determination coefficients within a scanning protocol, but not between protocols, because each preferentially measures different macular areas. The metrics of different protocols should not be interchanged for follow-up.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Angiography/methods , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Macula Lutea/blood supply , Regional Blood Flow/physiology , Blood Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Visual Acuity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Healthy Volunteers , Macula Lutea/diagnostic imaging
Rev. cuba. med ; 60(1): e1627,
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156550


La epidemia de la enfermedad por coronavirus del año 2019 (COVID-19) comenzó en Wuhan, en la provincia de Hubei, China, y en poco tiempo se extendió a otros continentes.1 El primer médico en alertar sobre esta nueva enfermedad en China fue Li Wenliang, especialista en oftalmología que enfermó y falleció a causa de la enfermedad.2 La transmisión de mayor rapidez se reporta por vía respiratoria, aunque existen estudios que describen la existencia de transmisibilidad del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave 2 (SARS-CoV-2 por sus siglas en inglés) mediante la lágrima y la conjuntiva de los pacientes infectados por COVID-19.3 La primera evidencia sobre esta vía de contagio se relata desde el 22 de enero, cuando Guangfa Wang, miembro del panel nacional de expertos en neumonía, informó que fue infectado por el SARS-CoV-2 durante la inspección en Wuhan. Llevaba una máscara N95 pero no usaba equipamiento para proteger sus ojos. Varios días antes del inicio de la neumonía, Wang se quejó de enrojecimiento ocular.4 Varios autores plantean que particularmente el conducto lagrimal funciona como un canal para recoger y transportar el fluido lagrimal desde la superficie ocular hasta el meato nasal inferior. Esto es conveniente para el drenaje del virus desde los tejidos del tracto ocular hasta el tracto respiratorio. Otra teoría propuesta para la afección oftalmológica es la diseminación del virus por vía hematógena a la glándula lagrimal.4,5 Algunos protocolos presentaron casos de aislamiento de cultivos en uno de cada tres pacientes, procedentes de muestras lagrimales, sin precisarse el mecanismo exacto al momento de cómo es que su diseminación culmina a ese nivel. Algunas de las propiedades de afinidad del el SARS-CoV-2 se debe a la alta adherencia de las células diana de la enzima convertidora de angiotensinógeno II (ACE2). De este modo, participan a nivel sistémico en los diferentes ejes, como el sistema renina-angiotensina-aldosterona, para así ejercer su virulencia.3 Sobre su cuadro clínico se describe como característica la presencia de conjuntivitis viral inespecífica. Además se reportan alteraciones atípicas como anosmia, hiposmia y disgeusia. Estas últimas corresponden al cuadro del protocolo inicial del interrogatorio por parte de la Sociedad de Oftalmología de México, España e Italia.3 Lu Chen, Meizhou Liu y otros6 del Hospital Chinchen, en China, reportaron en marzo de 2020 manera específica las manifestaciones oculares en relación con el SARS-CoV-2. Se trata de un paciente positivo mediante la prueba de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con transcriptasa inversa (RT-PCR), con conjuntivitis folicular viral bilateral, con 19 días de evolución, donde se destaca la aparición de manifestaciones oculares como: ojo rojo, sensación de cuerpo extraño, epífora y visión borrosa, todo esto de manera bilateral. A la exploración por biomicroscopia se pueden definir hallazgos como: inyección conjuntival moderada; secreciones acuosas; nodulaciones foliculares conjuntivales en párpado inferior sin presentarse hemorragia; y manifestaciones en córnea, segmento anterior o posterior.3 Científicos brasileños han descrito en The Lancet algunas alteraciones en la retina de pacientes de COVID-19 utilizando la Tomografía de Coherencia Óptica (OCT), y han encontrado microhemorragias y lesiones a nivel de la capa de células ganglionares y de la plexiforme interna.1,2 La presencia de COVID-19 ha determinado la posible progresión de enfermedades tales como: el glaucoma crónico, la retinopatía diabética, la degeneración macular asociada a la edad, enfermedades corneales e inflamatorias, entre otras.5 Se ha descrito la presencia del SARS-CoV-2 en las lágrimas de pacientes con COVID-19.3 Algunos estudios confirman que los pacientes con síntomas oculares tenían más probabilidades de tener recuentos más altos de glóbulos blancos y neutrófilos y mayores niveles de procalcitonina, proteína C reactiva y lactato deshidrogenasa que los pacientes sin síntomas oculares, lo cual evidencia mayor gravedad del cuadro.4 En el Tratamiento de la COVID-19 se han estudiado determinados fármacos que pudieran producir alteraciones oftalmológicas.1 La cloroquina y la hidroxicloroquina, con efecto antiviral, causarían toxicidad ocular con altas dosis y tratamientos prolongados la expresión de dicha toxicidad se manifiesta por la aparición de depósitos corneales, catarata subcapsular posterior, disfunción del cuerpo ciliar y retinopatía. Por otra parte se ha confirmado que el Lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra) tiene entre sus efectos adversos sistémicos la hepatopatía, que puede provocar un tinte ictérico conjuntival.5 Consideramos que, al tratarse de un virus con tan fácil diseminación, el contagio por vía ocular es una posibilidad real e inminente, por ello se precisan de manera intencionada las medidas de protección ocular, sobre todo para el personal de salud. Dentro de ellos el personal que brinda atención oftalmológica es especialmente vulnerable por su proximidad a las vías respiratorias y ojos de pacientes. Los sistemas de salud deberán garantizar recursos de desinfección y control necesarios para evitar la propagación de la enfermedad(AU)

Chloroquine/toxicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Eye Diseases/complications , Lopinavir/toxicity , Hydroxychloroquine/toxicity
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(1): 67-70, jan.-fev. 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251316


RESUMO O laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) é o método cirúrgico refrativo mais realizado no mundo com excelentes resultados, porém tal método não é isento de riscos. A ectasia pós LASIK é uma complicação grave e se caracteriza por um aumento progressivo da curvatura e afinamento da córnea, resultando em astigmatismo irregular e diminuição da acuidade visual. Sua incidência na literatura atual é de aproximadamente 0,033%. O principal tratamento dessa complicação é o implante de anel intra-estromal com cross-linking. Neste artigo descrevemos um caso de uma mulher de 45 anos submetida a sucessivas tentativas de tratamento de ectasia pós LASIK, com implante de anel intra-estromal bilateral, sem sucesso em um dos olhos. Foi feito o uso do excimer laser topoguiado através do photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) sem o cross-linking, que optamos por não realizar pela estabilidade há anos, pelo risco alto de haze e pela ablação apenas na lamela (que era espessa).A paciente obteve melhorasignificativa da visão e da qualidade de vida. Mantemos o acompanhamento a cada seis meses desde então com a tomografia da córnea.

ABSTRACT The laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is the most widely used refractory surgical method in the world with excellent results, but this method is not without risks. Post-LASIK ectasia is a serious complication and is characterized by a progressive increase in curvature and thinning of the cornea, resulting in irregular astigmatism and decreasing visual acuity. Its incidence in the current literature is approximately 0.033%. The main treatment for this complication is the implantation of an intra-stromal ring with crosslinking. In this article, we describe a case of a 45-year-old woman who underwent successive attempts to treat post-LASIK ectasia, with bilateral intra-stromal ring implantation, with no success in the eyes. Excimer laser was used, made through photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) without cross-linking and the patient obtained significant improvement in vision and in quality of life.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Photorefractive Keratectomy/methods , Keratomileusis, Laser In Situ/adverse effects , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Dilatation, Pathologic/etiology
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(1): 59-62, jan.-fev. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251326


ABSTRACT X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS) is a vitreoretinal degeneration caused by mutations in the RS1 gene, generally characterized by bilateral maculopathy and peripheral retinoschisis leading to progressive visual loss during the first 2 decades of life and complications like retinal detachment and vitreous hemorrhage. Herein, we present late ophthalmology findings in a XLRS patient.

RESUMO A retinosquise juvenil ligada ao cromossomo X (XLRS) é uma degeneração vitreorretiniana causada por mutações no gene RS1, geralmente caracterizada por maculopatia bilateral e retinosquise periférica, levando à perda visual progressiva durante as primeiras 2 décadas de vida e complicações como descolamento de retina e hemorragia vítrea. Apresentamos aqui achados oftalmológicos tardios em um paciente com XLRS.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retinoschisis/diagnostic imaging , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(3): e0009, 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280121


RESUMO Este trabalho visou evidenciar a importância da detecção precoce da coroidite interna punctata e destacar sua fisiopatologia inflamatória e possíveis diagnósticos diferenciais dentro das white dot syndromes. O destaque foi dado principalmente à coroidite multifocal e à panuveíte, ao se demonstrar sua epidemiologia peculiar em mulheres jovens, caracterizar sua apresentação clínica típica na fundoscopia e explorar as vantagens e as desvantagens de realizar os exames complementares que fazem parte da análise multimodal útil para o diagnóstico (especialmente a angiografia fluoresceínica, a tomografia de coerência óptica e a indocianina verde). Descreve-se o caso de uma mulher de 28 anos diagnosticada com coroidite interna punctata com membrana neovascular coroidal em olho direito. O tratamento foi realizado com injeção intravítrea de aflibercepte e corticoterapia sistêmica 1mg/kg ao dia. Este relato é importante por permitir debater o manejo da coroidite interna punctata durante a gestação e a decisão de realizar o tratamento mediante uma diversidade de opções terapêuticas.

ABSTRACT This work aimed to demonstrate the importance of early detection of punctate inner choroidopathy, highlighting the pathophysiology of inflammation and the differential diagnoses among white dot syndromes. Special attention was given to multifocal choroiditis and panuveitis, by demonstrating the peculiar epidemiology in young women, characterizing the typical clinical presentation in ophthalmoscopy, and exploring the advantages and disadvantages of performing the complementary examinations, which are part of the multimodal analysis useful for diagnosis (particularly fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, and indocyanine green). We report the case of a 28-year-old female, diagnosed as punctate inner choroidopathy with choroidal [N.T. no título aparece subretinal = subrretiniana] neovascular membrane in the right eye. She was treated with intravitreal injection of aflibercept and systemic corticosteroid 1 mg/kg/day. This case report is important for addressing the management of punctate inner choroidopathy during pregnancy, and the decision to carry out treatment considering diverse therapeutic options.

Humans , Female , Adult , Choroiditis/complications , Choroiditis/diagnosis , Choroiditis/physiopathology , Choroidal Neovascularization/etiology , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Intravitreal Injections/methods , Fluorescein Angiography/methods , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(6): 403-405, nov.-dez. 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156169


Resumo Retinopatia externa oculta zonal aguda (AZOOR) foi descrita pela primeira vez por Gass em 1993 como uma síndrome com perda rápida de uma ou mais zonas extensas dos segmentos externos da retina. Paciente masculino, 35 anos, portador de doença de Crohn, queixando-se de dor ocular eventual e nictalopia em olho direito desde infância. Em uso regular de azatioprina e mesalazina. melhor acuidade visual 20/20 AO. À fundoscopia, lesões hiperpigmentadas em arcada temporal inferior de olho direito, em treliça, acompanhando vasculatura local. Após exclusão de diagnósticos diferenciais chegou-se ao diagnóstico de Azoor. Azoor é uma síndrome idiopática caracterizada por um quadro agudo início de fotopsia, escotoma ou ambos e é tipicamente associado a uma perda persistente de função visual que envolve uma ou mais zonas da retina externa. Apesar dos sintomas clássicos de fotopsia, o paciente em questão teve uma apresentação clínica atípica. Descrevemos um caso ocorrido em indivíduo do sexo masculino em região periférica apresentando afinamento coroidiano e com doença autoimune associada. Dessa forma, acreditamos que é necessária maior investigação para verificar a etiologia da alteração coroideana e da associação com a doença específica.

Abstract Acute zonal occult external retinopathy (AZOOR) was first described by Gass in 1993 as a syndrome with rapid loss of one or more large areas of the external retinal segments. Male, 35 years, with Crohn's disease complaining of occasional eye pain and right eye nictalopia since childhood. In regular use of azathioprine and mesalazine. better visual acuity 20/20 OU. At fundoscopy, hyperpigmented lesions in the right temporal arcade of the right eye, in trellis, accompanying local vasculature. After exclusion of differential diagnoses, Azoor's diagnosis was reached. Azoor is an idiopathic syndrome characterized by an acute onset of photopsy, scotoma or both and is typically associated with a persistent loss of visual function involving one or more areas of the external retina. Despite classic photopsy symptoms, the patient in question had an atypical clinical presentation. We describe a case of a peripheral male with choroidal thinning and associated autoimmune disease. Thus, we believe that further investigation is necessary to verify the etiology of choroidal alteration and its association with the specific disease.

Humans , Male , Adult , Retinal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Angiography/methods , Crohn Disease/diagnosis , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(6): 517-525, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153088


ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate vascular density in super­ficial and deep capillary plexuses of the retina, measured using optical coherence tomography angiography in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion. Affected eyes were compared with the contralateral eye of the same patient and both were compared with normal eyes. Methods: A cross-sectional study including 16 previously untreated patients with branch retinal vein occlusion. Patients with poor quality examinations, bilateral disease, high refractive error, or any other retinal or choroidal disease were excluded. A total of 31 patients without eye disease were also selected as a comparison group. All participants underwent five optical coherence tomography angiographies, and only those with at least two good quality examinations were selected. The Kruskal-Wallis, Wilcoxon signed-rank, and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Vascular density was lower in affected eyes compared with contralateral eyes: whole density (p=0.020 for capillary plexuses superficial; p=0.049 for deep capillary plexuses) and parafoveal density (p=0.020 for capillary plexuses superficial; p=0.011 for deep capillary plexuses). Vascular density was also lower in affected eyes compared with normal eyes: whole density (p<0.001 for capillary plexuses superficial and deep) and parafoveal density (p<0.001 for capillary plexuses superficial and deep). Whole density (p=0.001 for capillary plexuses superficial and deep) and parafoveal density (p=0.001 for capillary plexuses superficial; p<0.001 for deep capillary plexuses) were both lower in the contralateral eyes compared with normal eyes. Following adjustment for arterial hypertension, this difference was no longer observed. Conclusions: Vascular density in capillary plexuses and deep capillary plexuses was lower in the eyes affected by branch retinal vein occlusion. Furthermore, the lower vascular density noted in the contralateral eyes indicates that changes most likely occurred in these eyes prior to the appearance of any clinically detectable alterations, reflecting the early signs of hypertensive retinopathy.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a densidade vascular do plexo capilar superficial e profundo da retina, usando angiografia por tomografia de coerência óptica em pacientes com oclusão de ramo da veia central da retina, comparando o olho afetado com o contralateral do mesmo paciente e ambos com olhos normais. Métodos: Estudo transversal. Incluídos dezesseis pacientes com oclusão de ramo da veia central da retina sem tratamento prévio. Pacientes com exames de baixa qualidade, altas ametropias, outras patologias de retina ou coróide foram excluídos. Para comparação, trinta e um pacientes sem doença ocular foram selecionados. Todos foram submetidos a cinco exames angiografia por tomografia de coerência óptica, apenas aqueles com pelo menos dois exames de boa qualidade permaneceram no estudo. Os testes Kruskal-Wallis, Wilcoxon, e Mann-Whitney foram utilizados. Resultados: Densidades vasculares mais baixas do plexo capilar superficial e plexo capilar profundo foram observadas quando olhos com oclusão de ramo da veia central da retina foram comparados com os contralaterais: densidade total (p=0,02 para plexo capilar superficial, p=0,049 para plexo capilar profundo), densidade parafoveal (p=0,02 para plexo capilar superficial, p=0,011 para plexo capilar profundo). Comparando olhos acometidos com olhos normais, também foram observadas densidades vasculares mais baixas de plexo capilar superficial e plexo capilar profundo: densidade total (ambos com p<0,001) e densidade parafoveal (ambos com p<0,001). Quando os olhos contralaterais foram comparados aos normais, tanto a densidade total do plexo capilar superficial e plexo capilar profundo (ambos com p=0,001) quanto a densidade parafoveal (plexo capilar superficial com p=0,001, plexo capilar profundo com p<0,001) foram menores. Ao se realizar uma subanálise, minimizando o fator hipertensão arterial, esta diferença não se manteve. Conclusões: Densidades vasculares mais baixas do plexo capilar superficial e do plexo capilar profundo foram observadas em olhos com oclusão de ramo da veia central da retina. Além disso, a presença de densidades vasculares mais baixas nos olhos contralaterais mostra que já existem altera­ções nesses olhos antes das alterações clínicas, devido a al­terações inicias da retinopatia hipertensiva.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Retinal Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/administration & dosage , Retinal Vein Occlusion/diagnosis , Capillaries/diagnostic imaging , Fluorescein Angiography/methods , Visual Acuity , Choroid/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Retinal Vein Occlusion/physiopathology , Retinal Vein Occlusion/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Fundus Oculi , Microcirculation/drug effects
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 33(4): e972, oct.-dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156578


El glaucoma es una neuropatía óptica caracterizada por la pérdida de células ganglionares de la retina y sus axones. Constituye la primera causa de ceguera irreversible a nivel mundial; por lo tanto, la detección oportuna y el monitoreo continuo es de vital importancia. El grosor de la capa de la fibra nerviosa retiniana circumpapilar, medido mediante tomografía de coherencia óptica, es la principal estrategia de evaluación estructural utilizada en el diagnóstico del glaucoma. Sin embargo, considerando que la mácula es el área retiniana relacionada con la visión central y contiene el 50 por ciento de las células ganglionares de la retina, medir el grosor macular parece ser una buena opción para detectar precozmente la muerte de estas células. En esta revisión exponemos los antecedentes, la justificación anatómica, los protocolos y los principales artefactos de la tomografía de coherencia óptica macular en la atención del glaucoma. Además, ofrecemos un enfoque actualizado sobre cómo usar estas exploraciones en la práctica clínica(AU)

Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy characterized by the loss of retinal ganglion cells and their axons. It is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide, hence the crucial importance of its timely detection and continuous monitoring. Optical coherence tomography measurement of circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness is the main structural evaluation strategy to diagnose glaucoma. However, in view that the macula is the retinal area related to central vision and contains 50 percent of the retinal ganglion cells, measuring macular thickness seems to be a good option for early detection of the death of these cells. The present review discusses the antecedents, anatomical justification, protocols and main artifacts of macular optical coherence tomography as related to the care of glaucoma. An updated approach is also provided to the way these explorations may be used in clinical practice(AU)

Humans , Retinal Ganglion Cells/pathology , Glaucoma/diagnosis , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 33(4): e1002, oct.-dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156580


Se realizó una búsqueda sobre la evaluación cualitativa de la ampolla de filtración. La ampolla conjuntival es la parte visible de la cirugía filtrante, y su morfología es un indicador de factores que pueden determinar el resultado hipotensor de la cirugía y las posibles complicaciones posoperatorias. Se han desarrollado diversos estudios que relacionan la evaluación clínica de su morfología y el control de la presión intraocular, y se han establecido varios sistemas de puntuación, entre ellas: Wuerzburg Bleb Classification Score, Moorfields Bleb Grading System, Indiana Bleb Appearance Grading Scale y métodos de imagen para evaluar el segmento anterior (biomicroscopia ultrasónica, Tomografía retinal de Heidenberg y tomografía de coherencia óptica). Estos métodos proporcionan una herramienta útil para el seguimiento de la cirugía filtrante y su documentación(AU)

A review was conducted on the qualitative evaluation of the filtering bleb. The conjunctival bleb is the visible part of filtration surgery, and its morphology is an indicator of factors which may determine the hypotensive result of surgery and the possible postoperative complications. Various studies have been conducted which relate the clinical evaluation of its morphology and intraocular pressure control. Several grading systems have thus been established: Wuerzburg Bleb Classification Score, Moorfields Bleb Grading System, Indiana Bleb Appearance Grading Scale and imaging methods to evaluate the anterior segment (ultrasound biomicroscopy, Heidenberg retinal tomography and optical coherence tomography). These methods are a useful tool for the follow-up of filtration surgery and its documentation(AU)

Humans , Glaucoma/surgery , Filtering Surgery/adverse effects , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Evaluation Studies as Topic
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 33(4): e984, oct.-dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156583


RESUMEN El glaucoma es una neuropatía óptica caracterizada por la pérdida de células ganglionares de la retina y sus axones. Se presentan dos casos clínicos, ambos miopes con sospecha de glaucoma, con el objetivo de valorar la importancia del análisis de las células ganglionares en el diagnóstico de estos pacientes. La evaluación de los cambios estructurales glaucomatosos en los ojos miopes es difícil, por las considerables variaciones morfológicas en la cabeza del nervio óptico y otras estructuras del segmento posterior del ojo. La tomografía de coherencia óptica permite el análisis cuantitativo in vivo del disco óptico, la capa de fibras nerviosas de la retina y el área macular; pero interpretar los hallazgos en ojos miopes, y especialmente en altos miopes, puede ser un verdadero desafío. Estudios recientes han demostrado que las mediciones maculares tienen ventajas sobre el análisis de la capa de fibras nerviosas de la retina para determinar si los defectos del grosor de la retina se relacionan con el glaucoma o con la miopía. Sin embargo, se deben considerar varios estudios en el intento de emitir un diagnóstico de certeza(AU)

ABSTRACT Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy characterized by the loss of retinal ganglion cells and their axons. Two cases are presented, both myopic and with suspected glaucoma, with the purpose of assessing the role of ganglion cell analysis in their diagnosis. Evaluation of structural glaucomatous changes in myopic eyes is a difficult task, due to the considerable morphological variations occurring in the optic nerve head and other structures from the posterior segment of the eye. Optical coherence tomography allows in vivo quantitative analysis of the optic disc, the retinal nerve fiber layer, and the macular area, but interpreting the findings in myopic eyes, particularly in highly myopic eyes, may be a real challenge. Recent studies have shown that macular measurements have advantages over retinal nerve fiber layer analysis to determine whether the retinal thickness defects are related to glaucoma or to myopia. However, several studies should be considered in the attempt to reach an accurate diagnosis(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Retinal Ganglion Cells/pathology , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Myopia/etiology , Evaluation Studies as Topic
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(5): 336-339, set.-out. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137986


Abstract Sclerochoroidal calcifications (SC) are a rare and benign ocular condition characterized by yellow-white irregular subretinal lesions usually found in the supero-temporal arcade of the midperipheral fundus in middle-aged elderly men. We present a clinical case of a 79- year-old patient who during a fundus examination presented raised whitish nodules in the supero-temporal arcade in the right eye. After performing optical coherence tomography, ultrasound, ocular computed tomography and laboratory analysis, she was diagnosed with idiopathic sclerochoroidal calcifications The pathogenesis of sclerochoroidal calcifications remains unclear but systemic conditions should be discarded. It is important to distinguish sclerochoroidal calcifications from other conditions such as tumors.

Resumo Calcificações esclerocoroidais (SC) são uma condição ocular rara e benigna caracterizada por lesões sub-retinianas irregulares amarelo-brancas, geralmente encontradas na arcada superotemporal do fundo médio-periférico em homens idosos de meia-idade. Apresentamos um caso clínico de uma paciente de 79 anos que durante exame de fundo apresentou nódulos esbranquiçados elevados na arcada superotemporal do olho direito. Após realizar tomografia de coerência óptica, ultra-sonografia, tomografia computadorizada ocular e análise laboratorial, ela foi diagnosticada com calcificações esclerocoroidais idiopáticas A patogênese das calcificações esclerocoroidais permanece incerta, mas as condições sistêmicas devem ser descartadas. É importante distinguir calcificações esclerocoroidais de outras condições, como tumores.

Humans , Female , Aged , Calcinosis/diagnostic imaging , Scleral Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Choroid Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Ultrasonography/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Diagnosis, Differential , Metabolic Diseases