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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935774


Objective: To provide scientific evidence for early lung cancer screening, to analyze the incidence of pulmonary nodules among petroleum company staffs in Sichuan-Chongqing Area. Methods: In January 2021 , 6002 petroleum company staffs in Sichuan-Chongqing Area which scanned by low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT) of chest in medical examination center in 2020 were retrospectively collected as objects. Their imaging and clinical data were collected. χ(2) test was used to analyze the differences in the detection rates of lung nodules and suspected lung cancer nodules among workers in petroleum company staffs of different genders, ages and types of work. Results: Among the 6002 objects, 3853 (64.2%) were male and 2149 (35.8%) were female, with an average age of (47.25±12.13) years old. A total of 431 cases (7.2%) of pulmonary nodules and 57 cases (0.9%) of suspected lung cancer nodules were detected. 45 cases were followed up with surgical treatment, and 41 cases (91.1%) of lung cancer were diagnosed by postoperative pathology. There were significant differences in the detection rates of pulmonary nodules and suspected lung cancer nodules between different age groups (χ(2)=51.23, 18.81 , P<0.001). The detection rates of pulmonary nodules in the age groups 51-60 years old and ≥61 years old were higher than those in the age groups≤40 years old and 41-50 years old (P<0.05). The detection rate of suspected lung cancer nodules in the age group≥ 61 years old was higher than those in the age groups≤40 years old, 41-50 years old and 51-60 years old (P< 0.05) . And the detection rate of suspected lung cancer pulmonary nodules in oil workers was higher than that of ordinary workers (P<0.05) . Among female objects, the detection rate of pulmonary nodules in oil workers was higher than that in ordinary workers (χ(2)=8.09, P=0.004) . The detection rate of pulmonary nodules in oil workers aged ≥61 years old was higher than ordinary workers (χ(2)=37.94, P<0.001) . Among male objects, the detection rate of suspected lung cancer pulmonary nodules in oil workers was higher than that in ordinary workers (χ(2)=8.42, P=0.004) . The detection rates of suspected lung cancer pulmonary nodules in oil workers aged 51-60 years old and ≥61 years old groups were higher than those of ordinary workers (χ(2)=4.70, 8.74; P=0.030, 0.003) . Conclusion: LDCT is suitable for early lung cancer screening for petroleum company staffs. During the clinical screening process, LDCT should be used as a routine physical examination item for petroleum workers older than 51 years old.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Mass Screening/methods , Multiple Pulmonary Nodules/diagnostic imaging , Petroleum , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, Spiral Computed
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941013


OBJECTIVE@#To build a helical CT projection data restoration model at random low-dose levels.@*METHODS@#We used a noise estimation module to achieve noise estimation and obtained a low-dose projection noise variance map, which was used to guide projection data recovery by the projection data restoration module. A filtering back-projection algorithm (FBP) was finally used to reconstruct the images. The 3D wavelet group residual dense network (3DWGRDN) was adopted to build the network architecture of the noise estimation and projection data restoration module using asymmetric loss and total variational regularization. For validation of the model, 1/10 and 1/15 of normal dose helical CT images were restored using the proposed model and 3 other restoration models (IRLNet, REDCNN and MWResNet), and the results were visually and quantitatively compared.@*RESULTS@#Quantitative comparisons of the restored images showed that the proposed helical CT projection data restoration model increased the structural similarity index by 5.79% to 17.46% compared with the other restoration algorithms (P < 0.05). The image quality scores of the proposed method rated by clinical radiologists ranged from 7.19% to 17.38%, significantly higher than the other restoration algorithms (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The proposed method can effectively suppress noises and reduce artifacts in the projection data at different low-dose levels while preserving the integrity of the edges and fine details of the reconstructed CT images.

Algorithms , Artifacts , Tomography, Spiral Computed , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
Actual. osteol ; 18(3): 192-196, 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1509484


La displasia ósea esclerosante es una afectación en el desarrollo intrínseco del esqueleto, por alteración en la formación y modelado del hueso, que lleva a una excesiva acumulación ósea con un aumento de la densidad (esclero-sis). Existen varios tipos y todos ellos son de origen genético. Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 37 años que llega a la consulta sin diagnóstico previo, por dolor en miembros inferiores de larga evolución con reagudizaciones, asociado a deformidad e impotencia funcional, que cedía parcialmente con analgésicos comunes. (AU)

Bone sclerosing dysplasia is an affectation of the intrinsic development of the skeleton by an alteration in bone formation and modeling. It causes excessive bone accumulation with an increase in density (sclerosis). There are several types of bone sclerosing dysplasia. They are of genetic origin. We report here a 37 year-old patient without a previous diagnosis of sclerosing bone dysplasia who was seen in the clinic for pain in the lower limbs associated with bone deformity with only partial response to analgesics. (AU)

Humans , Female , Adult , Bone Diseases, Developmental/diagnostic imaging , Melorheostosis/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Radiography , Tomography, Spiral Computed , Pain Management , Hip/pathology , Leg/pathology
Medisan ; 25(3)2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1287298


Introducción: El método clínico por sí solo no es definitivo para diagnosticar una enfermedad cerebrovascular, por lo que es importante el uso de medios de diagnóstico imagenológicos como la tomografía axial computarizada, que permite investigar los aspectos morfológicos y funcionales del cerebro. Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas y tomográficas de pacientes con infarto cerebral. Métodos: Se efectuó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 269 pacientes con infarto cerebral, atendidos en el Hospital Provincial Docente Clinicoquirúrgico Saturnino Lora Torres de Santiago de Cuba, desde enero hasta diciembre de 2019. Resultados: Predominaron el sexo masculino (54,6 %), el grupo etario de 70-79 años, las afectaciones motoras (76,5 %), la alteración de la conciencia (51,3 %) y el trastorno del lenguaje (50,5 %). En 38 pacientes los resultados de la tomografía fueron negativos antes de las 24 horas de evolución y 64,0 % se consideraron mejorados con secuelas. Conclusiones: La tomografía antes de las 24 horas demuestra una baja positividad y los hallazgos evolucionan con el tiempo, aunque es posible reconocer varios signos precoces de ictus agudo en menos de 4-6 horas.

Introduction: The clinical method by itself is not definitive to diagnose a cerebrovascular disease, reason why the use of imaging diagnostic means, as the computerized axial tomography is important, as it allows to investigate the morphological and functional aspects of the brain. Objective: To describe the clinical and tomographic characteristics of patients with complete stroke. Methods: A descriptive and cross-sectional study of 269 patients with complete stroke, assisted in Saturnino Lora Torres Teaching Clinical Surgical Provincial Hospital was carried out in Santiago de Cuba, from January to December, 2019. Results: There was a prevalence of the male sex (54.6 %), 70-79 age group, motor disorders (76.5 %), alteration of the conscience (51.3 %) and language disorder (50.5 %). In 38 patients the results of the tomography were negative before the 24 hours of clinical course and 64.0 % were better with aftereffects of the disease. Conclusions: Tomography before the 24 hours demonstrates a low positivity and findings have a favorable clinical course as time goes by, although it is possible to recognize several early signs of acute ictus in less than 4-6 hours.

Brain Diseases , Cerebral Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Spiral Computed
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942455


Objective: In order to assess ET more comprehensively, sonotubometry (STM)combined with CT images were applied to investigate the opening features of eustachian tube (ET) in normal subjects. STM was also used as a monitor training ET opening maneuver and optimizing CT scan parameters. Methods: Following ET opening training monitored by STM, STM data of ET opening duration and maximum sound pressure from 13 healthy volunteers (10 males and 3 females, 22 to 26 years old) were acquired using maneuvers of swallowing and Valsalva in standing and supine positions. Two trials of CT scan, setting A (slice thickness 6.0 mm, manually simulated to 0.6 mm, reconstruction thickness 0.6 mm) for normal and Valsalva scans and setting B(slice thickness 0.4 mm,reconstruction thickness 0.4 mm)for Valsalva scan, were conducted in each subject. The bone area and cartilage area of ET were measured respectively in reconstructed CT images. Statistical software SPSS 19.0 was employed in data analysis. Results: The duration of ET opening and maximum sound pressure by Valsalva were longer and stronger than those by swallowing in both positions. For Valsalva maneuver, standing position resulted in longer ET opening duration compared to supine position (P<0.05). Under setting A, ET cartilage area was measured larger by Valsalva scan than by normal scan (P<0.05). By Valsalva scan, setting A captured larger ET cartilage area compared to setting B (P<0.05). CT setting B resulted in longer scan time in comparison to setting A (P<0.05). Conclusions: Techniques of STM in supine position plus CT scan under setting A can be combined by Valsalva passive ET opening. Not only the invisible ET lumen through routine CT scan can be illustrated, but also relevant ET open-close process is shown, therefore, this study provides the technique for ET research of function and structure.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Deglutition , Eustachian Tube/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Spiral Computed , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Valsalva Maneuver
Rev. cuba. med ; 60(supl.1): e1367, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408951


El síndrome de Mounier-Kuhn o traqueobroncomegalia constituye una rara entidad clínica y radiológica caracterizada por una dilatación de la tráquea y los bronquios principales. Puede asociarse con estructuras saculares en las membranas intercartilaginosas (diverticulosis traqueal), bronquiectasias e infecciones respiratorias a repetición. Las formas de presentación clínica son variables. Tiene una prevalencia entre el 1-4,5 por ciento de la población y se presenta, mayoritariamente, en hombres con un amplio rango etario que oscila entre los 20 y 50 años de edad. Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 77 años con cuadros de infecciones respiratorias bajas a repetición desde la juventud. Luego de realizarle estudios de imagen y broncoscopia, se llegó al diagnóstico de síndrome de Mounier-Kunh. Recibió tratamiento antibiótico inmediatamente y su evolución fue de manera satisfactoria(AU)

Mounier-Kuhn syndrome or tracheobroncomegaly is a rare clinical and radiological entity characterized by dilatation of the trachea and the main bronchi. It can be associated with saccular structures in the intercartilaginous membranes (tracheal diverticulosis), bronchiectasis, and recurrent respiratory infections. The forms of clinical presentation vary. It has a prevalence between 1-4.5 percent of the population and it occurs mainly in men, widely ranging ages between 20 and 50 years of age. We report the case of a 77-year-old male patient with recurrent lower respiratory infections since his youth. After performing imaging studies and bronchoscopy, he could be diagnosed with Mounier-Kunh syndrome. He immediately underwent antibiotic treatment and his evolution was satisfactory(AU)

Humans , Male , Aged , Cephalexin/therapeutic use , Tracheobronchomegaly/epidemiology , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Tomography, Spiral Computed/methods , Tracheobronchomegaly/drug therapy
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(1): 74-80, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1091899


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE This study aims to investigate the application value of magnetic resonance (MR) hydrography of the inner ear in cochlear implantation. METHODS 146 patients were enrolled. MR hydrography and spiral CT examinations for the intracranial auditory canal were performed before surgery, and all imaging results were statistically analyzed in order to explore the application value of MR hydrography of the inner ear in cochlear implantation. RESULTS 146 patients (292 ears) were examined. Among these patients, 13 were diagnosed with abnormal vestibular aqueducts (20 ears) by MR hydrography, while five were diagnosed with this disease by CT; 15 patients were diagnosed with inner ear malformation (19 ears) by MR hydrography, while 11 were diagnosed by CT (four were misdiagnosed); five patients were diagnosed with internal acoustic canal stenosis (eight ears) by MR hydrography, while two were diagnosed by CT (three were misdiagnosed); and four patients were diagnosed with cochlear fibrosis (five ears) by MR hydrography, while four were diagnosed by CT (four ears). The correct rate of diagnosis was 77.40% (113/146) based on CT, while the rate was 93.84% (137/146) based on MR hydrography. CONCLUSIONS MR hydrography imaging technique can be applied to the preoperative evaluation of cochlear implantation, providing accurate and reliable anatomic information on the inner membranous labyrinth and nerves in the internal acoustic canal and an accurate basis for the diagnosis of cochlear fibrosis and nerve development. This has a guiding significance for the selection of treatment schemes.

RESUMO OBJETIVO Este estudo visa investigar o valor da aplicação da hidrografia por ressonância magnética (RM) do ouvido interno no implante coclear. MÉTODOS Cento e quarenta e seis pacientes foram inscritos. Os exames da hidrografia por RM e do CT espiral para o canal auditivo intracraniano foram executados antes da cirurgia, e todos os resultados da imagem foram analisados estatisticamente, a fim de explorar o valor da aplicação da hidrografia por RM do ouvido interno no implante coclear. RESULTADOS Centro e quarenta e seis pacientes (292 ouvidos) foram examinados. Dentre esses pacientes, 13 foram diagnosticados com aquedutos vestibulares anormais (20 ouvidos) pela hidrografia por RM, enquanto cinco pacientes foram diagnosticados com esta doença pelo CT; 15 pacientes foram diagnosticados com malformação do ouvido interno (19 ouvidos) pela hidrografia por RM, enquanto 11 pacientes foram diagnosticados por CT (quatro foram diagnosticados erroneamente); cinco pacientes foram diagnosticados com estenose de canal acústico interno (oito ouvidos) pela hidrografia por RM, enquanto dois pacientes foram diagnosticados por CT (três foram diagnosticados erroneamente); e quatro pacientes foram diagnosticados com fibrose coclear (cinco ouvidos) pela hidrografia por RM, enquanto quatro foram diagnosticados por CT (quatro ouvidos). A taxa correta de diagnóstico foi de 77,40% (113/146) com base no CT, enquanto a taxa foi de 93,84% (137/146) com base na hidrografia por RM. CONCLUSÕES A técnica de imagem da hidrografia por RM pode ser aplicada à avaliação pré-operatória do implante coclear, que pode fornecer informações anatômicas precisas e confiáveis sobre o labirinto membranoso interno e os nervos no canal acústico interno, além de uma base exata para o diagnóstico da fibrose coclear e do desenvolvimento do nervo. Isso tem um significado orientador para a seleção de esquemas de tratamento.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Cochlear Implantation/methods , Ear, Inner/diagnostic imaging , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Tomography, Spiral Computed/methods , Preoperative Period , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/surgery , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/diagnostic imaging , Ear, Inner/surgery , Labyrinth Diseases/surgery , Labyrinth Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged
Braz. dent. sci ; 23(2): 1-8, 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1095886


Objective: This work aims to use new spectroscopic and radiographic methods to study the dental hard tissue erosion and abfraction, as these lesions are actually quite difficult to be diagnosed in clinical practice. Material and Methods: This in vivo study was conducted on 60 patients with early erosion and 60 patients with abfraction at the cervical area by means of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and multilayer spiral computed tomography (MSCT). Results: In comparative dental hard tissues studies LIF spectra from intact and affected areas, it was noted multidirectional fluorescence intensity dependence between areas affected by abfraction and intact areas. MSCT technique allowed assessing the degree of damaged areas, especially at deeper stages. Conclusion: Although LIF and MSCT methods presented limitations, it was shown their effectiveness in the diagnosis of abfraction and erosion by detecting changes in the morphological structure as well as in the chemical and mineral composition of affected dental hard tissues. So LIF and MSCT methods can be successfully used in order to develop new medical devices which will provide most accurate clinical diagnose of different stages of dental erosion and abfraction.(AU)

Objetivo: Este trabalho tem como objetivo utilizar novos métodos espectroscópicos e radiográficos para estudar a erosão e a abração do tecido duro dentário, pois essas lesões são realmente bastante difíceis de serem diagnosticadas na prática clínica. Material e Métodos: Este estudo in vivo foi realizado em 120 pacientes com erosão e abração precoces na área cervical por meio de fluorescência induzida por laser (LIF) e tomografia computadorizada em espiral multicamada (MSCT). Resultados: Em estudos comparativos espectros de LIF, de tecidos duros dentais intactos e afetados, observouse dependência da intensidade da fluorescência multidirecional entre as áreas afetadas pela abração e as áreas intactas. A técnica MSCT permitiu avaliar o grau de áreas danificadas, principalmente em estágios mais profundos. Conclusão: Embora os métodos LIF e MSCT tenham apresentado limitações, foi demonstrada sua eficácia no diagnóstico de abração e erosão, detectando alterações na estrutura morfológica e na composição química e mineral dos tecidos duros afetados. Portanto, os métodos LIF e MSCT podem ser utilizados com sucesso, a fim de desenvolver novos dispositivos médicos que fornecerão um diagnóstico clínico mais preciso de diferentes estágios de erosão e abração dentária.(AU)

Humans , Spectrometry, Fluorescence , Tooth Erosion , Tooth Demineralization , Tomography, Spiral Computed
São Paulo; s.n; 20200000. 71 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1119590


Entre os principais exames de imagem para se avaliar a articulação temporomandibular (ATM) destaca-se a ressonância magnética (RM) e a tomografia computadorizada espiral (TC). Por meio destes exames pode-se observar estruturas ósseas e tecidos moles para detectar alterações patológicas na ATM. A RM e a TC podem apresentar certas limitações na resolução espacial e a variação de contraste das estruturas anatômicas da ATM, assim como também a presença de artefatos podem implicar em problemas na qualidade da imagem e uma análise imprecisa. Atualmente, na Radiologia, se utiliza diferentes tipos de filtros de realce oferecidos pelos softwares de imagem beneficiando o diagnóstico. Neste estudo avaliamos a utilização de dois tipos de filtros (filtro Sharpen 3x3 ou F1 e filtro Sharpen 5x5 ou F2) pertencentes ao software Osirix MD para a observação de três alterações patológicas na cabeça da mandíbula: aplainamento, erosão e osteófito. Foram analisadas 77 ATMs em RM e TC. A avaliação da repetibilidade e reprodutibilidade dos examinadores foi realizada através de GEE (Genelarized Estimating Equations), e a comparação entre os filtros e entre as técnicas foi realizada através do teste Qui-Quadrado. Os resultados mostraram que a aplicação dos filtros melhoraram a qualidade de imagem na RM (F2>F1>SF), mas na TC só a aplicação do F1 melhorou a qualidade da imagem (F1>SF>F2).

Temporomandibular Joint , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Tomography, Spiral Computed
Rev. ADM ; 76(6): 336-342, nov.-dic. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087527


Los tumores de las glándulas salivales constituyen alrededor de 5% de las neoplasias de cabeza y cuello. El adenoma pleomorfo es el tumor benigno más frecuente de las glándulas salivales, representa aproximadamente 60% de todas las neoplasias salivales, está compuesto fundamentalmente por una proliferación de células mioepiteliales y por un amplio espectro de componentes de tejido epitelial y mesenquimal, rodeado por una nítida cápsula fibrosa. Alrededor de 80% de los adenomas pleomorfos aparecen en la parótida, 10% en la glándula submandibular y 10% en las glándulas salivales menores de la cavidad oral. La edad media de presentación es a los 46 años, pero la edad oscila entre la tercera y la quinta década de la vida. No obstante, ha sido encontrado en individuos de todas las edades, presentando una ligera predilección por el sexo femenino. Respecto a su sitio de origen, el adenoma pleomorfo es asintomático, de crecimiento lento y consistencia firme. La tomografía axial computarizada (TAC) y la resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN) son de gran utilidad para evaluar la extensión de la lesión, así como el compromiso de estructuras importantes. La biopsia por aspiración con aguja fina (BAAF) es un método útil para el diagnóstico de este tipo de neoplasias. El tratamiento de este tipo de lesiones consiste en la remoción quirúrgica de la tumoración junto con la glándula afectada. Menos de 1% de los casos de adenomas pleomorfos sufren transformación maligna, especialmente los que han presentado múltiples recidivas (AU)

The tumors of the salivary glands constitute about 5% of the neoplasms of the head and neck. The pleomorphic adenoma is the most frequent benign tumor of the salivary glands, represents approximately 60% of all salivary neoplasms, is composed mainly of a proliferation of myoepithelial cells and a wide spectrum of components of epithelial and mesenchymal tissue, surrounded by a sharp fibrous capsule. About 80% of pleomorphic adenomas appear in the parotid, 10% in the submandibular gland and 10% in the minor salivary glands of the oral cavity. The average age of presentation is 46 years, but age ranges between the third and fifth decade of life. However, it has been found in individuals of all ages, presenting a slight female predilection. Regarding its site of origin, the pleomorphic adenoma is asymptomatic, slow growing and firm consistency. Computed tomography (CT) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are very useful to evaluate the extent of the injury as well as the commitment of important structures. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is a useful method for the diagnosis of this type of neoplasm. The treatment of this type of injuries consists in the surgical removal of the tumor together with the affected gland. Less than 1% of cases of pleomorphic adenomas suffer malignant transformation, especially those that have presented multiple recurrences (AU)

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Submandibular Gland/pathology , Adenoma, Pleomorphic , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Histological Techniques , Adenoma, Pleomorphic/diagnostic imaging , Oral Surgical Procedures , Tomography, Spiral Computed , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Age and Sex Distribution
Rev. méd. Maule ; 34(2): 23-29, dic. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1371241


BACKGROUND: Atrial myxomas are very infrequent primary bening cardiac neoplasms, being considered a rare but highly fatal cause of cerebral embolism. Objectives: We describe the case of an ischemic stroke (CVA) with hemorrhagic conversion secondary to atrila myxoma as an embolic source, and its subsequent early surgical resolution. CLINICAL CASE: A 63-year-old male has a clinical episode compatible with ischemic stroke, receiving thrombolytics treatment with subsequent hemorrhagic conversion. Embolic source study show a mass compatible with cardiac myxoma in the left atrium, performing surgical resection via transeptal approach at 12 days of evolution, with repair of the interatrial defect with autologous pericardium patch. DISCUSSION: Atrial myxoma is a silent pathology and little diagnosed at its early stage, associated with events of systemic repercussion of high mortality and uncertain prognosis. Hemorrhagic cerebrovascular events constitute contraindication for anticoagulation prior to 21 days of evolution. In this case, due to the high embolic risk of myxoma, the inactivy of the bleeding was demonstrated by performing the surgery successfully on the twelfth day of evolution.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Stroke/etiology , Heart Neoplasms/complications , Myxoma/complications , Echocardiography, Doppler , Intracranial Embolism/etiology , Tomography, Spiral Computed/methods , Heart Atria
Rev. méd. Maule ; 34(1): 22-27, ago. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1371511


INTRODUCTION: Prostatic carcinoma is a tumor that occurs mainly in men older than 50 years. More than 95% correspond to adenocarcinomas and their degree of tumor differentiation is related to metastasis and death. Becausemetastasis to cervical lymphatics is infrequent and with worse survival, a clinical case will be presented. Clinical case: A 62-year-old man, in whom late prostate cancer was later, investigated after multiple imaging studies, biopsies and immunohistochemistry. Discussion: The diagnosis of prostatic carcinoma can be precociously investigated by a simple Rectal Touch coupled with specific Prostate Antigen (PSA), performed in primary care, especially in men with ages close to the fifth decade of life.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Adenocarcinoma/secondary , Edema , Biopsy , Tomography, Spiral Computed , Lymphatic Metastasis , Neck
Rev. medica electron ; 41(2): 555-563, mar.-abr. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1004288


RESUMEN Los quistes epidermoides constituyen el 1 % de los tumores intracraneales y el 7 % de los del ángulo pontocerebeloso. Los colesteatomas son lesiones benignas que se originan de restos de tejidos epitelial ectodérmicos que quedan en el sistema nervioso central, al cerrarse el tubo neural entre la tercera y quinta semana de gestación. Se trata de un paciente remitido de la Consulta de Neurooftalmología con crisis de cefalea y toma de los pares craneales III, IV, V, rama oftálmica desde hace 2 semanas. Se le realizaron estudios imagenológicos donde se constató un tumor hipodenso en región silviana frontotemporal izquierdo. Se interpretó como un quiste arcnoideo. Se le aplicó un bordaje pterional transilviano con apoyo neuroendoscópico y para sorpresa del equipo quirúrgico se abordó un tumor perlado solido identificado macroscópicamente como un colesteatoma silviano. Se resecó la totalidad del tumor cerebral.

ABSTRACT Epidermal inclusion cysts constitute 1% of the intracranial tumors and 7% of the cerebellopontine angle ones.Cholesteatoma are benign lesions originated from the remains of ectodermic epithelial tissues remaining in the central nervous system when the neural tube closes between the third and fifth week of pregnancy. The case deals with a patient remitted from the Neurophthalmologic Consultation with migraine crisis and lesion on the III, IV, V cranial nerves, ophthalmologic branch, for two weeks. Image studies were carried out, showing a hypo dense tumor in the left silvian frontotemporal region. It was taken as an arachnoid cyst. A pterional trans-silvian approach with neuroendoscopic support was applied, and the surgical team was surprised when they found a solid pearly tumor that was macroscopically identified as a silvian cholesteatoma. The cerebral tumor was totally resected.

Humans , Male , Aged , Cholesteatoma/surgery , Cholesteatoma/diagnosis , Neurosurgical Procedures , Craniotomy/methods , Neuroendoscopy , Epidermal Cyst/surgery , Epidermal Cyst/diagnosis , Blepharoptosis/diagnosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Exotropia/diagnosis , Tomography, Spiral Computed
Rev. medica electron ; 41(2): 368-381, mar.-abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1004274


RESUMEN Introducción: el traumatismo encefalocraneano es una causa frecuente de mortalidad y morbilidad. Según datos epidemiológicos aporta la mayor cantidad de fallecidos en menores de 45 años a nivel mundial. Objetivo: caracterizar el trauma craneoencefálico desde el punto de vista clínico-quirúrgico, neuroimagenológico y por neuromonitorización en los pacientes investigados. Materiales y métodos: estudio observacional, descriptivo, transversal, en el Servicio de Neurocirugía del Hospital Provincial Clínico Quirúrgico Docente José Ramón López Tabrane y Comandante Faustino Pérez Hernández, de Matanzas, durante el periodo comprendido entre enero del 2016 a enero del 2018. Resultados: predominó el sexo masculino con el 71,7% de los casos, la mayor prevalencia estuvo en edades inferiores a 48 años con el 80,1 %. La mayor cantidad presentaba un traumatismo encefalocraneano leve con el 56% de los casos seguido del traumatismo encefalocraneano moderado y severo con el 29% y 15% de los casos respectivamente. Predominaron las fracturas lineales (45,8%), seguido de las contusiones sin efecto de masa y los hematomas subdurales con el 24,2% y 23,3%. La mayoría de los pacientes presentó una escala de Marshall II con el 40,8%. Las cifras de presión intracraneal entre de 20-40 mmHg se presentó con mayor frecuencia (44,4 %). Conclusiones: la mitad de los pacientes neuromonitorizados presentaron una saturación del golfo de la vena yugular dentro de parámetros normales con el 50%. La operación más practicada fue la evacuación de hematomas subdurales con el 29,4%.

ABSTRACT Introduction: the encephalocranial trauma (ECT) is a frequent cause of mortality and morbidity. According to epidemiological data, it causes the highest number of deaths in people aged less than 45 years worldwide. Objective: to characterize the encephalocranial trauma from the clinical-surgical, neuroimaging and neuromonitoring point of view in the studied patients. Materials and methods: observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study carried out in the Neurosurgery Service of the Provincial Teaching Surgical Clinical Hospitals "Jose Ramon Lopez Tabrane" and "Comandante Faustino Perez Hernandez", of Matanzas, during the period from January 2016 to January 2018. Results: male sex predominated with 71.7% of the cases; the highest prevalence was in ages below 48 years with 80.1%. Most of them presented a mild encephalocranial trauma with 56% of the cases followed by moderate and severe encephalocranial trauma with 29% and 15% of the cases respectively. Linear fractures predominated (45.8%), followed by contusions without mass effect and subdural hematomas with 24.2% and 23.3%. Most of patients presented a Marshall II scale with 40.8%. The intracranial pressure between 20-40 mmHg occurred more frequently (44.4%). Conclusions: half of the neuromonitored patients presented jugular vein gulf saturation within normal parameters with 50%. The most practiced operation was the evacuation of subdural hematomas with 29.4%.

Humans , Neurosurgical Procedures , Tomography, Spiral Computed , Craniocerebral Trauma/surgery , Craniocerebral Trauma/classification , Craniocerebral Trauma/mortality , Craniocerebral Trauma/epidemiology , Craniocerebral Trauma/diagnostic imaging , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Study , Craniocerebral Trauma/diagnosis
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941844


OBJECTIVE@#To quantitatively analyze image quality of two sets of phantom (CatPhan504 and Cheese) Megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) images acquired by Helical Tomotherapy with three scanning modes (Fine, Normal and Coarse), and to explore and validate a semi-automatic quality assurance procedure for MVCT images of Helical Tomotherapy.@*METHODS@#On Helical Tomotherapy, CatPan504 and Cheese phantoms were scanned with three pitch levels (Fine, Normal, Coarse: 4 mm, 8 mm, 12 mm/circle) respectively. Pylinac, Matlab and Eclipse were used to calculate and compare spatial resolution, noise level and low contrast resolution of images obtained under three scanning modes respectively. The spatial resolution can be evaluated by the blurring of line-pair CT value in the images of CatPhan504's CTP528 module. The noise level can be evaluated by the integral non-uniformity in the images of Cheese's uniformity module. the low contrast resolution can be evaluated by contrast-to-noise ratio of both phantoms' plug-in module, or visibility of the region of interest (Supra-Slice) in the images of CatPhan504's CTP515 module.@*RESULTS@#Analyses on CatPhan504's line pair module(CTP528 module) showed that the first three line pairs(the gap size are 0.500 cm, 0.250 cm and 0.167 cm respectively) could be clearly observed but blurring began to occur from the fourth line pair(the gap size is 0.125 cm) under Coarse mode. Meanwhile, the first four line pairs were all observable under the Normal and Fine modes. Integral non-integrity index(the value negatively correlated with the noise level) were 0.155 7, 0.136 8 and 0.122 9 for Coarse, Normal and Fine modes respectively. None of the Supra-Slice in CatPhan504's CTP515 module could be observed under three imaging modes. Low contrast contrast-to-noise ratio of Cheese phantom was similar under three modes and the insert visibility exhibited nearly linear growth with the increasing difference between CT average value of the insert material and background.@*CONCLUSION@#Superiority and inferiority of three image modes in terms of the three image quality index was not consistent. Evaluation results above could provide reference for more rational decision on scanning modes selection of helical tomotherapy, which was based on image visualization demands in clinical practice. The proposed method could also provide guidance for similar image quality assessment and periodic quality assurance.

Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Phantoms, Imaging , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated , Tomography, Spiral Computed , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765659


OBJECTIVE: Fatty liver is associated with insulin resistance-related diseases, such as dyslipidemia, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of dyslipidemia with fatty liver and assess the differences in these associations according to the degree of hepatic steatosis. METHODS: A total of 2,462 subjects (1,679 men and 783 women) who underwent a comprehensive health check-up (including abdominal computed tomography) from January 2010 to December 2013 were enrolled at Samsung Changwon Hospital Healthcare Center. The liver attenuation index (LAI), defined as the difference between mean hepatic and splenic attenuation, was used to assess the degree of hepatic steatosis. An LAI below 5 Hounsfield units was defined as fatty liver. RESULTS: We found that 32.2% of the study subjects had fatty liver. Serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG), and fasting blood glucose concentrations and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c percentage) were significant greater in the fatty liver group compared with the non-fatty liver group, while serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly lower in the fatty liver group. Subjects with fatty liver had 1.7-fold greater risk of dyslipidemia than those without fatty liver after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and HbA1c. When individuals with fatty liver were analyzed by tertiles of LAI values, LDL-C, TG, fasting glucose, BMI, and HbA1c concentrations increased while HDL-C decreased with decreasing LAI tertiles. Compared with LAI tertile 3, the risk for dyslipidemia significantly increased with adjusted odds ratios of 1.42, and 1.81 in tertiles 2 and 1, respectively. CONCLUSION: Fatty liver was significantly associated with dyslipidemia and this association varied according to the degree of hepatic steatosis.

Humans , Male , Blood Glucose , Body Mass Index , Cholesterol , Delivery of Health Care , Dyslipidemias , Fasting , Fatty Liver , Glucose , Glycated Hemoglobin , Insulin , Korea , Lipoproteins , Liver , Obesity , Odds Ratio , Tomography, Spiral Computed , Triglycerides
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-813022


To analyze the incidence and imaging characteristics of pulmonary nodules in a unit staff.
 Methods: Low-dose spiral CT (LDCT) scan were performed in 1 372 staffs ≥45 years old in a certain unit during the physical examination. The clinical and imaging data were collected to analyze the detection rate, imaging characteristics, and postoperative pathological conditions of pulmonary nodules.
 Results: The total detection rate for pulmonary nodules was 30.39% (417/1 372). The detected nodules were mainly single (227 cases), solid (343 cases), 0.05). Compared with the Lung-RADS category 3 nodules, the proportions of nodules in subsolid state, with irregular shape, lobulation sign, and vascular penetration in the Lung-RADS category 4 were increased (all P<0.05). Among them, 11 patients received surgical therapy, including 10 women. Postoperative pathology confirmed lung adenocarcinoma in 9 patients (2.16%), including 8 women, all non-smokers.
 Conclusion: The nodules in subsolid state with vascular penetration, irregular shape and lobulation sign tend to be malignant. Lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral CT in female non-smokers should be emphasized.

Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Early Detection of Cancer , Lung Neoplasms , Diagnostic Imaging , Tomography, Spiral Computed , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Medisan ; 22(9)nov.-dic. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-976169


Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal de 61 pacientes con diagnóstico confirmado de cáncer de pulmón, atendidos en el Servicio de Radiología del Hospital General Docente Dr Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso de Santiago de Cuba durante 2015, con vistas a caracterizarles según variables de interés. Los resultados se organizaron en distribuciones de frecuencias y se confeccionaron tablas de una y dos entradas para establecer algunas relaciones entre variables. En la serie predominaron el sexo masculino (55,7 por ciento), el grupo etario de 60-69 años (39,3 por ciento), el antecedente de bronquitis crónica en ambos sexos (75,4 por ciento), la tos como síntoma principal (63,9 por ciento), la localización periférica (78,7 por ciento) y el adenocarcinoma como tipo histológico (57,4 por ciento), entre otros. Al momento del diagnóstico el mayor número de afectados se encontraba en etapas avanzadas de la enfermedad, por lo que se recomienda implementar estudios a todos aquellos con riesgo de padecerla.

An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study of 61 patients with confirmed diagnosis of lung cancer, assisted in the Radiology Service of Dr Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso Teaching General Hospital in Santiago de Cuba was carried out during 2015, with the aim of characterizing them according to variables of interest. The results were organized in distributions of frequencies and charts of one and two entrances were made to establish some relationships among variables. In the series, the male sex (55.7 percent), the age group 60-69 years (39.3 percent), history of chronic bronchitis in both sexes (75.4 percent), cough as main symptom (63.9 percent), outlying localization (78.7 percent) and the adenocarcinoma as histological type (57.4 percent) prevailed, among others. At the moment of the diagnosis the greatest number affected patients was in advanced stages of the disease, so that it is recommended to implement studies to all those with risk of suffering it.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Lung Neoplasms/physiopathology , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Spiral Computed/methods , Lung Neoplasms