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1.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(4): 1-7, dic. 2021. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348227

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study is to determine the impact of adenotonsillectomy on the quality of life of postoperative patients. The study is observational, cross-sectional, and retrospective. The files of all postoperative adenotonsillectomy patients in Otorhinolaryngology Service, Hospital de Clínicas, San Lorenzo Paraguay. The Obstructive sleep apnea ­ 18 questionnaire (OSA 18) was applied, asking patients about symptoms before and after surgery. An effective sample of 143 postoperative patients was obtained. The average age was 6.05 ± 2.08 years, 55.10% (81) were male and 44.89% (66) were female, 65.30% (96) were from urban areas and 34.69% (51) from the rural areas. The t test was performed for means of two paired samples, comparing the results of the Obstructive sleep apnea ­ 18 questionnaire surveys before and after surgery which presented a significant difference (p <0.05) with a tendency to improve the quality of life after surgery. It has been shown that there is a significant difference, a considerable improvement in the quality of life of patients after adenotonsillectomy


El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el impacto de la adenoamigdalectomía en la calidad de vida de los pacientes postoperados. Se diseñó un estudio observacional, transversal y retrospectivo. Se revisaron los expedientes de todos los pacientes postoperados de adenoamigdalectomía en el servicio de otorrinolaringología del Hospital de Clínicas de san Lorenzo, Paraguay, se aplicó el cuestionario de apnea obstructiva del sueño ­ 18 (AOS 18), en el que se preguntaba a los pacientes sobre los síntomas antes y después de la cirugía. Se obtuvo una muestra efectiva de 143 pacientes postoperatorios. La edad media fue de 6,05 ± 2,08 años, el 55,10% (81) eran hombres y el 44,89% (66) eran mujeres, el 65,30% (96) eran de zonas urbanas y el 34,69% (51) de zonas rurales. Se realizó la prueba t para medias de dos muestras pareadas, comparando los resultados de la encuesta del cuestionario de apnea obstructiva del sueño - 18 antes y después de la cirugía que presentó una diferencia significativa (p <0,05) con tendencia a mejorar la calidad de vida después de la cirugía. El estudio muestra una mejora considerable en la calidad de vida de los pacientes tras la adenoamigdalectomía.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Quality of Life , Tonsillectomy/methods , Paraguay , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(3): S67-S76, Junio 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1248259

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de apneas e hipoapneas obstructivas del sueño se asocia con una disminución de la calidad de vida, bajo rendimiento escolar y, hasta en el 40% de los niños, trastornos de conducta como hiperactividad, enuresis, ansiedad y depresión. Varios estudios demostraron que la adenoamigdalectomía es efectiva para mejorar o resolver los trastornos respiratorios del sueño. Si bien esta cirugía tiene resultados beneficiosos, no está exenta de riesgos. El dolor y el sangrado posoperatorio son las dos causas principales de morbilidad. Otras complicaciones de la cirugía son las náuseas y los vómitos posoperatorios, el retraso en la alimentación, la deshidratación, la otalgia referida, los cambios en la voz y, raras veces, la muerte.En este artículo se realizan recomendaciones sobre el cuidado posoperatorio de los niños con adenoamigdalectomía


Obstructive sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome is associated with decreased quality of life, poor school performance and, in up to 40% of children, behavioral problems such as hyperactivity, enuresis, anxiety and depression. Several studies have shown that adenoamygdalectomy is effective in improving or resolving sleep-disordered breathing. While this surgery has beneficial results, it is not without risks. Postoperative pain and bleeding are the two main causes of morbidity. Other complications of surgery include postoperative nausea and vomiting, delayed feeding, dehydration, referred earache, voice changes, and, rarely, death. Recommendations on postoperative care for children undergoing adenoamygdalectomy are mentioned in this article.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Tonsillectomy , Adenoidectomy , Postoperative Complications , Respiration Disorders , Adenoids/surgery , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive
3.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1179835

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: documentar de forma sistemática o padrão de desenvolvimento pôndero-estatural de pacientes submetidos à adenoamigdalectomia. Métodos: coleta de dados secundários dos prontuários de pacientes atendidos no ambulatório de Otorrinolaringologia Pediátrica, antes e depois da cirurgia de adenoamigdalectomia. Resultados: de forma individual, os pacientes apresentaram elevação no escore Z e percentis das variáveis ao peso e a altura no período entre as análises. Especificamente em relação ao peso, a média antes do procedimento e quatro meses depois do procedimento foi, respectivamente, de 29,1 kg e 32,8 kg; no que diz respeito à altura, a média foi de 1,22 m e 1,25 m, respectivamente. Ao aplicar o Teste T de Student foi possível notar significância estatística para ambas as variáveis em estudo. Aspecto não percebido ao avaliar os indivíduos reunidos em grupos etários (pré-escolares, escolares e adolescentes). Conclusões: as crianças submetidas à adenoamigdalectomia apresentaram ganho pôndero-estatural após a cirurgia. A atuação cirúrgica diante do diagnóstico da hipertrofia e da hiperplasia das amígdalas e tonsila faríngea deve ser precoce, desde que haja indicação formal, a fim de evitar a manutenção do atraso no crescimento nesses pacientes.


Aims: to systematically document weight and height development in children after adenotonsillectomy. Methods: analysis of secondary data from the Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology clinic patient's medical records before and after adenotonsillectomy. Results: regarding weight, the average before the procedure and four months and the average after the procedure were, respectively, 29.1 kg and 32.8 kg; as regards height, the averages were 1.22 m and 1.25 m, respectively. By applying the Teste T de Student it was possible to notice statistical significance for both variables under study. Conclusions: children exhibited statistically significant weight and height gain after surgery. Surgical treatment should be performed early after the diagnosis of pharyngeal tonsil and tonsils hypertrophy and hyperplasia provided in case of a formal indication in order to avoid the maintenance growth retardation in these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Failure to Thrive , Tonsillectomy
4.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(4): 427-433, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132621

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Tonsillectomy is one of the most common surgeries in the head and neck worldwide. This operation is carried out by different methods, the most frequent of which are the cold dissection and bipolar electrocautery techniques. Objective This study was conducted to assess and compare postoperative morbidity between cold dissection and bipolar electrocautery. Methods This prospective randomized clinical trial was performed on 534 patients who underwent tonsillectomy in Vali-e-Asr Hospital of Birjand, east of Iran from October, 2013 to October, 2015. The patients were systematically selected for cold dissection technique or bipolar electrocautery technique groups. Time of surgery, amount of intraoperative blood loss, postoperative hemorrhage, the intensity of local pain 4 and 24 hours after operation and nausea and/or vomiting were recorded and compared in the two groups to decide which technique is better. The data were analyzed in SPSS software (ver-22). The p-value less than 0.5 was considered significant. Results In this study, 51.7% of the cold dissection technique patients and 50.6% of the bipolar electrocautery technique participants were male. Compared to the cold dissection technique, the average intraoperative blood loss was significantly lower (p < 0.001) in the bipolar electrocautery technique group, while the intensity of local pain 4 and 24 hours after the operation was significantly higher (p < 0.001). Other variables showed no significant differences between the two groups. Conclusion Based on the findings of the present investigation, the bipolar electrocautery technique is suggested for tonsillectomy in children, while the cold dissection technique is preferred for adult patients.


Resumo Introdução A tonsilectomia é uma das cirurgias mais comuns de cabeça e pescoço em todo o mundo. Essa cirurgia é feita por diferentes métodos, os mais frequentes são a dissecção a frio e por eletrocauterização bipolar. Objetivo Este estudo foi feito para avaliar e comparar a morbidade pós-operatória na dissecção a frio e eletrocauterização bipolar. Método Este ensaio clínico prospectivo e randomizado foi feito em 534 pacientes submetidos a tonsilectomia no Vali-e-Asr Hospital de Birjand, no leste do Irã, de outubro de 2013 a outubro de 2015. Os pacientes foram selecionados de forma sistemática para o grupo submetido à técnica de dissecção a frio ou para o grupo com uso da técnica de eletrocauterização bipolar. Para a avaliação acerca da melhor técnica, os seguintes parâmetros foram registrados e comparados entre os dois grupos: tempo de cirurgia, quantidade de perda sanguínea intraoperatória, hemorragia pós-operatória, intensidade da dor local 4 e 24 horas após a cirurgia e ocorrência de náuseas e/ou vômitos. Os dados foram analisados no software SPSS (versão 22). O valor de p inferior a 0,5 foi considerado significante. Resultados Neste estudo, 51,7% dos participantes do grupo técnica de dissecção a frio e 50,6% do grupo técnica de eletrocauterização bipolar eram do sexo masculino. No grupo operado pela técnica de eletrocauterização bipolar a média de perda sanguínea intraoperatória foi significantemente menor (p < 0,001) em comparação à técnica de dissecção a frio, enquanto a intensidade da dor local 4 e 24 horas após a cirurgia foi significativamente maior (p < 0,001). As outras variáveis não apresentaram diferenças significantes entre os dois grupos. Conclusão Com base nos achados da presente investigação, para a tonsilectomia em crianças sugere-se o uso da técnica de eletrocauterização bipolar, enquanto a técnica de dissecção a frio é recomendada para pacientes adultos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Tonsillectomy , Pain, Postoperative , Prospective Studies , Postoperative Hemorrhage , Electrocoagulation , Iran
5.
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 36(1): 32-37, jul.2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1119378

ABSTRACT

La amigdalectomía es uno de los procedimientos quirúrgicos más frecuentes en la actualidad especialmente en edad pediátrica. Con el objetivo de determinar las complicaciones en amigdalectomía con electrodisección y técnica clásica en pacientes pediátricos que ingresaron al Servicio Desconcentrado Hospital Pediátrico Dr. Agustín Zubillaga en el año 2017, se realizó un estudio de recolección retrospectiva de datos seleccionando 119 historias clínicas, obteniendo que 73,95% de los casos fueron intervenidos por técnica de electrodisección y 26,05% por técnica clásica. Las principales indicaciones para cirugía fueron amigdalitis a repetición e hipertrofia amigdalina. Para ambas técnicas, el tiempo quirúrgico promedio fue entre 21-40 minutos (44,32% y 48,39%, respectivamente) y la estancia hospitalaria menor de un día en 54,55% y 61,29% de los casos, respectivamente. La principal complicación intraoperatoria reportada fue la hemorragia (29,03% para la técnica clásica y 15,91% para la técnica de electrodisección). Entre las complicaciones postoperatorias, el dolor (63,64%) y la fiebre (60,23%) prevaleció en pacientes operados con electrodisección mientras que en los pacientes con técnica clásica la más frecuente fue la fiebre (61,29%). Con estos resultados, se demuestra que ambas técnicas tienen similar tiempo quirúrgico y estancia hospitalaria, pero difieren en en tipo de complicaciones(AU)


Tonsillectomy is one of the most frequent surgical procedures in our times especially in pediatric age. In order to determine the complications of electrodissection and classical tonsillectomy in pediatric patients who were admitted at the Servicio Desconcentrado Hospital Pediátrico Dr. Agustín Zubillaga in 2017, a review of 119 medical charts was performed. The results show that 73.95% of the cases had electrodissection tonsillectomy and 26.05% had classical tonsillectomy. The main indications for surgery were recurrent tonsillitis (electrodissection: 86.09% and classical: 80.65%) and tonsillar hypertrophy (electrodissection: 60.23% and classical: 35.48%). For both techniques, the mean surgical time was between 21-40 minutes (44.32% and 48.39%, respectively) and the hospital stay was less than one day (54.55% and 61.29%, each). The main intraoperative complication reported was hemorrhage (29.03% for classical versus 15.91% for electrodissection). Among the postoperative complications, pain (63.64%) and fever (60.23%) prevailed in patients with electrodissection tonsillectomy while fever was most frequent in patients with classical tonsillectomy (61.29%). These results show that both techniques have similar surgical time and hospital stay but differ in type of complications(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Postoperative Complications , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Tonsillectomy , Tonsillitis/surgery , Deglutition Disorders , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting , Hemorrhage
6.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 80(2): 172-177, jun. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115832

ABSTRACT

En este artículo se presenta un paciente que en contexto de un cuadro amigdalino agudo bilateral con un absceso periamigdalino unilateral concomitante presenta sangrado espontáneo proveniente de la amígdala abscedada. Los signos y síntomas observados en este paciente, así como los estudios complementarios son compatibles con la entidad clínica definida como amigdalitis hemorrágica espontánea, una complicación altamente infrecuente de la amigdalitis aguda y/o crónica en nuestra época, la que solía tener una gran tasa de mortalidad y gravedad en la era preantibiótica. A continuación, se reúnen y analizan los antecedentes descritos en la literatura referidos a este cuadro, al igual que su estudio complementario requerido para definir conducta, la cual es fundamentalmente de resorte quirúrgico.


In this article we report a patient who, in the context of a bilateral acute tonsillar condition with a concomitant unilateral peritonsillar abscess presents spontaneous bleeding from the abscessed tonsil. The clinical features observed in our patient, as well as the complementary studies are all compatible with the clinical entity known as spontaneous tonsil hemorrhage, a highly rare complication of acute and/or chronic tonsillitis in our time, which used to have major severity and mortality rate in the pre-antibiotic era. Following next, we gather and analyze the information described in literature referred to this affliction, as well as the complementary tests required to define its fundamentally surgical management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Tonsillitis/complications , Hemorrhage/etiology , Tonsillectomy , Tonsillitis/surgery , Tonsillitis/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Abscess
8.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 24(1): 62-67, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090549

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Posttonsillectomy pain results in significant morbidity to the patients. There is a disagreement in the literature regarding the use of local anesthetics during tonsillectomy. The aim of this placebo-controlled, double-blind study is to evaluate the effect of peritonsillar administration of local anesthetics. Objective To evaluate the role of intraoperative use of analgesics in tonsillar fossa and postoperative evaluation with visual analogue scale (VAS) scores in achieving pain relief after tonsillectomy procedure Methods In this study, 180 patients were randomized to 1 of the 6 groups: bupivacaine infiltration, lidocaine infiltration, normal saline infiltration, bupivacaine packing, lidocaine packing, and normal saline packing. Pain caused by speaking, swallowing, and on rest was assessed using VAS at 4, 8, 12, 16 hours, and at discharge. Results Significant analgesia was obtained in patients who received bupivacaine infiltration and packing compared with placebo (p < 0.05). The majority of the study subjects had no postoperative complications, and patients receiving bupivacaine infiltration required less additional analgesics in the first 24 hours after surgery. Conclusion We advocate the use of bupivacaine infiltration or packing immediately following the procedure to achieve adequate postoperative analgesia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Tonsillectomy , Analgesia , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Intraoperative Care , Pain, Postoperative/diagnosis , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pakistan , Placebos/administration & dosage , Postoperative Complications , Pain Measurement/methods , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Bupivacaine/therapeutic use , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Injections, Intravenous , Lidocaine/administration & dosage , Lidocaine/therapeutic use
9.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(1): 23-29, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089369

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Obstrutive sleep apnea syndrome is characterized by repeated episodes of upper airway obstruction, associated with intermittent hypoxia and hypercapnia, and the main risk factor in childhood is adenotonsillar hypertrophy. The lymphocytes in these structures are responsible for local and systemic immune responses. Objective Verify the levels of the inflammatory markers, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, TNF-α, CRP and α1-GP, in the tonsils of children with and without obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Methods This cross-sectional prospective study included 34 children with complains of snoring, difficulty breathing during sleep or recurrent tonsillitis. Patients underwent to a complete otorhinolaryngological examination, nasal endoscopy and polysomnography and were divided into two groups with 17 children each: obstructive sleep apnea syndrome group and control group. All underwent an adenotonsillectomy. Cytokines were measured in the collected tonsils (ELISA and Multiplex methods). Results Statistically significant increasing were observed between IL-8 and IL-10 cytokines of patients with obstructive sleep apnea when compared to the control group; also between c-reactive protein and α1-GP of the tonsils cortical region in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome when compared with the medullary region. There were no statistically significant differences for the remaining inflammatory mediators. Conclusion After the analysis of the levels of pro and anti-inflammatory markers (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, Il-15, TNF-α, CRP, α1-GP) in the tonsils, we observed higher levels of markers IL-8 and IL-10 in pediatric patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.


Resumo Introdução A síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono é caracterizada por episódios repetidos de obstrução das vias aéreas superiores, associados a hipóxia intermitente e hipercapnia, e o principal fator de risco na infância é a hipertrofia adenotonsilar. Os linfócitos nessas estruturas são responsáveis por respostas imunes locais e sistêmicas. Objetivo Dosar os marcadores inflamatórios, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, TNF-α, PCR e α1-GP, nas tonsilas de crianças com e sem síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono. Método Estudamos prospectivamente 34 crianças que se queixavam de ronco, dificuldade para respirar durante o sono ou tonsilites recorrentes. Os pacientes foram submetidos a exame otorrinolaringológico completo, endoscopia nasal e polissonografia e foram divididos em dois grupos com 17 crianças cada: síndrome de apneia obstrutiva do sono e controle. Todos foram submetidos à adenotonsilectomia. As citocinas foram medidas nas tonsilas coletadas (métodos ELISA e Multiplex). Resultados Com diferenças estatisticamente significantes, observou-se aumento das citocinas IL-8 e IL-10 em pacientes com apneia obstrutiva do sono em comparação ao grupo controle, assim como aumento dos níveis de proteína C reativa e de α1-GP na região cortical das tonsilas de crianças portadoras de síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono em comparação com a região medular. Não houve diferenças estatisticamente significantes para o restante dos mediadores inflamatórios. Conclusão Após a análise dos níveis de marcadores pró e anti-inflamatórios (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, Il-15, TNF-α, PCR, α1-GP) nas tonsilas, observamos níveis mais altos de marcadores IL-8 e IL-10 em pacientes pediátricos com síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Palatine Tonsil/immunology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/immunology , Palatine Tonsil/pathology , Tonsillectomy , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Orosomucoid/analysis , Biomarkers , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Cytokines/immunology , Interleukins/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Inflammation/immunology
10.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 37(4): 516-519, Oct.-Dec. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041365

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To discuss aspects of pre and post-operative otorhinolaryngology surgery in patients with glycogen storage disease type 1b. Case description: Description of three clinical cases with probable glycogen storage disease type 1b who underwent otorhinolaryngology surgery, showing the importance of multidisciplinary interaction to avoid episodes of hypoglycemia. Comments: Patients with glycogen storage disease type 1b present recurrent infections, including the otorhinolaryngology affections. When there is an indication for surgical treatment, the caloric intake should be carefully followed in order to prevent hypoglycemia. The way to ensure this is to perform the pre and postoperative period in the hospital ward. In the postoperative period, it is important to make a slow transition between the intravenous and oral routes and not suspend the infusion of glucose during the surgical procedure. The cases illustrate the need for the interaction of the otorhinolaryngologic surgeon with the anesthesiologist, the pediatrician and the gastro-pediatrician in the management of these patients, avoiding hypoglycemic episodes.


RESUMO Objetivo: Discutir aspectos de pré e pós-operatório de cirurgia otorrinolaringológica em pacientes com glicogenose tipo 1b. Descrição do caso: Descrição de três casos clínicos com provável glicogenose tipo 1b, que se submeteram à cirurgia otorrinolaringológica, mostrando a importância da interação multidisciplinar para evitar os episódios de hipoglicemia. Comentários: Pacientes com glicogenose tipo 1b apresentam infecções de repetição, incluindo as otorrinolaringológicas. Quando há indicação de tratamento cirúrgico, deve-se observar a garantia de aporte calórico para evitar hipoglicemia. A maneira de fazer isso é efetuar o pré e pós-operatório em enfermaria, tomando-se o cuidado, no pós-operatório, de realizar uma transição lenta entre a via endovenosa e a via oral e de não suspender a infusão de glicose durante o procedimento cirúrgico. Os casos ilustram a necessidade da interação do otorrinolaringologista com o anestesista, o pediatra e o gastropediatra na condução desses pacientes para que não desenvolvam hipoglicemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Tonsillectomy , Middle Ear Ventilation , Adenoidectomy , Glycogen Storage Disease Type I/surgery , Perioperative Care/methods
11.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(4): 403-407, Out.-Dez. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1024212

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Tonsillectomy is one of the most common otolaryngology procedures performed worldwide. It is also one of the first procedures learnt by residents during their training period. Although tonsillectomy is viewed relatively as a low-risk procedure, it can be potentially harmful because of the chance of posttonsillectomy hemorrhage. Objective: The objective of the present study is to analyze the effects of peroperative factors and experience of the surgeon on the incidence and pattern of posttonsillectomy reactionary hemorrhage. Methods: A retrospective review of medical charts was performed from 2014 to 2017 in a tertiary care hospital. A total of 1,284 patients who underwent tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy were included in the study. The parameters assessed were experience of the surgeon, operating time, intraoperative blood loss, difference in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse rate. Results: A total of 23 (1.79%) out of the 1,284 patients had reactionary hemorrhage. Out of those 23, 16 (69.5%) patients had been operated on by trainees, while 7 (30.5%) had been operated on by consultants (p = 0.033, odds ratio [OR] = 0.04). Operating time, intraoperative blood loss, difference in MAP and pulse rate were significantly higher in the reactionary hemorrhage group, and showed a positive association with risk of hemorrhage (p < 0.05; OR >1). Re-exploration to control the bleeding was required in 10 (76.9%) out of the 23 cases. Conclusion: The experience of the surgeon experience and peroperative factors have an association with posttonsillectomy hemorrhage. Close surveillance and monitoring of the aforementioned peroperative factors will help in the identification of patients at risk of hemorrhage (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Tonsillectomy/adverse effects , Postoperative Hemorrhage/etiology , Pulse , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Blood Loss, Surgical , Postoperative Hemorrhage/therapy , Operative Time , Arterial Pressure , Hospitals, University , Intraoperative Period
12.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(4): 415-421, Out.-Dez. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1024301

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Upper airway obstruction at multiple sites, including the velum, the oropharynx, the tongue base, the lingual tonsils, or the supraglottis, has been resulting in residual obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) after tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (TA). The role of combined lingual tonsillectomy and tongue base volume reduction for treatment of OSA has not been studied in nonsyndromic children with residual OSA after TA. Objective: To evaluate the outcomes of tongue base volume reduction and lingual tonsillectomy in children with residual OSA after TA. Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted to obtain information on history and physical examination, past medical history, findings of drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE), of polysomnography (PSG), and surgical management. Pre- and postoperative PSGs were evaluated to assess the resolution of OSA and to determine the improvement in the obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (oAHI) before and after the surgery. Results: A total of 10 children (5 male, 5 female, age range: 10­17 years old, mean age: 14.5 ± 2.6 years old) underwent tongue base reduction and lingual tonsillectomy. Drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) revealed airway obstruction due to posterior displacement of the tongue and to the hypertrophy of the lingual tonsils. All of the patients reported subjective improvement in the OSA symptoms. All of the patients had improvement in the oAHI. The postoperative oAHI was lower than the preoperative oAHI ( p < 0.002). The postoperative apnea-hypopnea index during rapid eye movement sleep (REM-AHI) was lower than the preoperative REM-AHI ( p = 0.004). Obstructive sleep apnea was resolved in children with normal weight. Overweight and obese children had residual OSA. Nonsyndromic children had resolution of OSA or mild OSA after the surgery. Conclusions: Tongue base reduction and lingual tonsillectomy resulted in subjective and objective improvement of OSA in children with airway obstruction due to posterior displacement of the tongue and to hypertrophy of the lingual tonsils (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Tonsillectomy , Adenoidectomy , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/surgery , Tongue/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Electronic Health Records
13.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(5): 469-476, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057463

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: Emergence agitation is a negative behavior commonly recorded after pediatric tonsillectomy. We investigated the efficacy of preoperative premedication with oral transmucosal buccal dexmedetomidine on the incidence and severity of emergence agitation in preschool children undergoing tonsillectomy under sevoflurane anesthesia. Methods: Ninety patients aged (3-6 years), ASA I‒II were enrolled into three groups (n = 30) to receive oral transmucosal dexmedetomidine 0.5 µg.kg-1 (Group DEX I), 1 µg.kg-1 (Group DEX II) or saline placebo (Group C). Our primary endpoint was the Watcha agitation score at emergence in PACU. Secondary outcomes were preoperative sedation score, intraoperative hemodynamics, postoperative Objective Pain Scale (OPS) and adverse effects. Results: The patients' demographics, preoperative sedation scores and extubation time showed no difference between groups. Significant differences between groups in incidence and frequency distribution of each grade of Watcha score were evident at 5 minutes (p= 0.007), 10 minutes (p= 0.034), 30 minutes (p= 0.022), 45 minutes (p= 0.034) and 60 minutes (p= 0.026), postoperatively with significant differences between DEX I and II groups. DEX groups showed lower OPS scores at 5 minutes (p= 0.011), 10 minutes (p= 0.037) and 30 minutes (p= 0.044) after arrival at PACU, with no difference between DEX I and II groups. Patients in DEX II group exhibited lower intraoperative mean heart rate at 15 min (p= 0.020), and lower mean arterial pressure at 30 minutes, (p= 0.040), 45 minutes (p= 0.002) and 60 minutes (p= 0.006) with no significant differences between groups in other time points. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the clinical advantage and the simple technique of oral transmucosal DEX premedication for emergence agitation in preschool children undergoing tonsillectomy under sevoflurane anesthesia compared with saline placebo. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov trial registry: NCT02720705.


Resumo Objetivos: A agitação ao despertar da anestesia é um comportamento negativo comumente registrado após amigdalectomia pediátrica. Avaliamos a eficácia da pré-medicação com dexmedetomidina via transmucosa oral no pré-operatório sobre a incidência e gravidade da agitação ao despertar em crianças pré-escolares submetidas à amigdalectomia sob anestesia com sevoflurano. Métodos: Noventa pacientes entre três e seis anos e estado físico ASA I-II foram incluídos em três grupos (n = 30) para receber 0,5 µg.kg-1 ou 1 µg.kg-1 de dexmedetomidina via transmucosa oral (Grupo DEX I e Grupo DEX II, respectivamente) ou solução salina (Grupo C). O desfecho primário foi o escore de agitação ao despertar medido com a escala de Watcha na SRPA. Os desfechos secundários foram escore de sedação pré-operatória, hemodinâmica intraoperatória, escore OPS (Objective Pain Scale) e efeitos adversos no pós-operatório. Resultados: A demografia dos pacientes, os escores de sedação pré-operatória e o tempo de extubação não apresentaram diferença entre os grupos. Diferenças significativas entre os grupos na distribuição da incidência e frequência de cada grau do escore de Watcha foram evidentes aos 5 minutos (p = 0,007), 10 minutos (p = 0,034), 30 minutos (p = 0,022), 45 minutos (p = 0,034) e 60 minutos (p = 0,026) no pós-operatório, com diferenças significativas entre os grupos DEX I e II. Os grupos DEX apresentaram escores OPS mais baixos aos 5 minutos (p = 0,011), 10 minutos (p = 0,037) e 30 minutos (p = 0,044) após a chegada à SRPA, sem diferença entre os grupos DEX I e II. Os pacientes do grupo DEX II apresentaram menor frequência cardíaca média aos 15 minutos de intraoperatório (p = 0,020) e menor pressão arterial média aos 30 minutos, (p = 0,040), 45 minutos (p = 0,002) e 60 minutos (p = 0,006), sem diferenças significativas entre os grupos em outros momentos. Conclusão: Este estudo demonstra a vantagem clínica e a técnica simples da pré-medicação com DEX por via transmucosa oral para agitação ao despertar em crianças pré-escolares submetidas à amigdalectomia sob anestesia com sevoflurano, comparado à solução salina. Registro do estudo: Clinical Trials.gov trial registry: NCT02720705.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Tonsillectomy , Dexmedetomidine/administration & dosage , Emergence Delirium/prevention & control , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Administration, Buccal , Single-Blind Method , Mouth Mucosa
14.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(4): 350-357, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041999

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives The administration of ketamine as nebulized inhalation is relatively new and studies on nebulized ketamine are scarce. We aimed to investigate the analgesic efficacy of nebulized ketamine (1 and 2 mg.kg-1) administered 30 min before general anesthesia in children undergoing elective tonsillectomy in comparison with intravenous ketamine (0.5 mg.kg-1) and saline placebo. Methods One hundred children aged (7-12) years were randomly allocated in four groups (n = 25) receive; Saline Placebo (Group C), Intravenous Ketamine 0.5 mg.kg-1 (Group K-IV), Nebulized Ketamine 1 mg.kg-1 (Group K-N1) or 2 mg.kg-1 (Group K-N2). The primary endpoint was the total consumption of rescue analgesics in the first 24 h postoperative. Results The mean time to first request for rescue analgesics was prolonged in K-N1 (400.9 ± 60.5 min, 95% CI 375.9-425.87) and K-N2 (455.5 ± 44.6 min, 95% CI 437.1-473.9) groups compared with Group K-IV (318.5 ± 86.1 min, 95% CI 282.9-354.1) and Group C (68.3 ± 21.9 min, 95% CI 59.5-77.1; p < 0.001), with a significant difference between K-N1 and K-N2 Groups (p < 0.001). The total consumption of IV paracetamol in the first 24 h postoperative was reduced in Group K-IV (672.6 ± 272.8 mg, 95% CI 559.9-785.2), Group K-N1 (715.6 ± 103.2 mg, 95% CI 590.4-840.8) and Group K-N2 (696.6 ± 133.3 mg, 95% CI 558.8-834.4) compared with Control Group (1153.8 ± 312.4 mg, 95% CI 1024.8-1282.8; p < 0.001). With no difference between intravenous and Nebulized Ketamine Groups (p = 0.312). Patients in intravenous and Nebulized Ketamine Groups showed lower postoperative VRS scores compared with Group C (p < 0.001), no differences between K-IV, K-N1 or K-N2 group and without significant adverse effects. Conclusion Preemptive nebulized ketamine was effective for post-tonsillectomy pain relief. It can be considered as an effective alternative route to IV ketamine.


Resumo Objetivos A administração de cetamina por via inalatória através de nebulizador é relativamente nova e os estudos sobre este assunto são escassos. Nosso objetivo foi investigar a eficácia analgésica da cetamina nebulizada (1 e 2 mg.kg-1) administrada 30 minutos antes da anestesia geral em crianças submetidas à amigdalectomia eletiva, em comparação com cetamina intravenosa (0,5 mg.kg-1) e placebo (soro fisiológico). Métodos Cem crianças entre 7-12 anos foram randomicamente alocadas em quatro grupos (n = 25) e receberam: soro fisiológico para controle (Grupo C); 0,5 mg.kg-1 de cetamina intravenosa (Grupo C-IV); 1 mg.kg-1 de cetamina nebulizada (Grupo C-N1); 2 mg.kg-1 de cetamina nebulizada (Grupo C-N2). O desfecho primário foi o consumo total de analgésicos de resgate nas primeiras 24 horas de pós-operatório. Resultados O tempo médio para a primeira solicitação de analgésicos de resgate foi prolongado nos grupos C-N1 (400,9 ± 60,5 min, IC 95% 375,9-425,87) e C-N2 (455,5 ± 44,6 min, IC 95% 437,1-473,9) em comparação com o Grupo C-IV (318,5 ± 86,1 min, IC 95% 282,9-354,1) e o Grupo C (68,3 ± 21,9 min, IC 95% 59,5-77,1; p < 0,001), com uma diferença significativa entre os grupos C-N1 e C-N2 (p < 0,001). O consumo total de paracetamol IV nas primeiras 24 horas de pós-operatório foi reduzido no Grupo C-IV (672,6 ± 272,8 mg, IC 95% 559,9-785,2), Grupo C-N1 (715,6 ± 103,2 mg, IC 95% 590,4-840,8) e Grupo C-N2 (696,6 ± 133,3 mg, IC 95% 558,8-834,4) em comparação com o Grupo C (1153,8 ± 312,4 mg, IC 95% 1024,8-1282,8; p < 0,001). Não houve diferença entre os grupos de cetamina intravenosa e nebulizada (p = 0,312). Os pacientes dos grupos de cetamina intravenosa e nebulizada apresentaram escores VRS pós-operatórios menores, em comparação com o Grupo C (p < 0,001), sem diferenças entre os grupos C-IV, C-N1 ou C-N2 e sem efeitos adversos significativos. Conclusão A administração preventiva de cetamina nebulizada foi eficaz no alívio da dor pós-amigdalectomia. Cetamina nebulizada pode ser considerada como uma via alternativa eficaz à cetamina IV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Tonsillectomy/methods , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Ketamine/administration & dosage , Administration, Inhalation , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Double-Blind Method , Administration, Intravenous , Anesthesia, General/methods , Acetaminophen/administration & dosage
15.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 79(2): 151-158, jun. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014431

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El trastorno respiratorio del sueño (TRS) afecta al 2% a 3% de la población pediátrica, siendo la hiperplasia adenoamigdalina (HAA) su principal causa. Se ha observado un aumento en los niveles de leucotrienos excretados en orina (LTU) en estos pacientes, los cuales se correlacionarían con la severidad de la enfermedad. Objetivo: Determinar el nivel de LTU en niños con TRS e HAA antes y después de adenoamigdalectomía (AA), y en controles sanos. Correlacionar los niveles de LTU con los síntomas de TRS. Material y método: Estudio prospectivo. Se incluyeron pacientes con TRS e HAA (n =12) y controles sanos (n =12). Se determinó la concentración de LTU en ambos grupos de forma basal y un mes después de cirugía en el grupo con TRS. Resultados: No hubo diferencias en los niveles de LTU antes y después de AA. Tampoco existieron diferencias entre el grupo control y grupo TRS previo a la cirugía. No se encontró asociación entre LTU y la severidad de síntomas respiratorios. Conclusión: Los LTU no se encuentran elevados en pacientes con TRS e HAA, no disminuyen luego de AA y no se correlacionan con la severidad de los síntomas. La medición de LTU no sería una herramienta útil en la evaluación de pacientes con TRS. Nuevos estudios son necesarios para evaluar el rol de los leucotrienos en esta enfermedad.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Sleep disorder breathing (SDB) affects 2%-3% of the pediatric population, being adenotonsillar hyperplasia (ATH) its main cause. An increase in the levels of urinary leukotrienes (ULT) has been measured in these patients, which could be correlated with the severity of the disease. Aim: To determine the level of ULT in children with SDB and ATH before and after adenotonsillectomy, and healthy controls. To correlate the levels of ULT with symptoms of SDB. Material and method: prospective study. SDB and ATH patients (n =12) and healthy controls (n =12) were included. The concentration of ULT in both groups was determined, before surgery and after a month of surgery. Results: There were no differences in the levels of ULT before and after tonsillectomy in the studied group. There were also no differences between the control group and the SDB group. No association was observed between the level of ULT and the severity of respiratory symptoms. Conclusions: ULT are not elevated in patients with SDB and ATH and they do not decrease after adenotonsillectomy. ULT are not correlated with the severity of the symptoms of SDB. The measurement of ULT would not be a useful tool in the evaluation of patients with SDB. New studies are needed to assess the role of the role of leukotrienes in this disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/urine , Leukotrienes/urine , Sleep-Wake Transition Disorders/urine , Postoperative Period , Quality of Life , Respiration Disorders/surgery , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/etiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/surgery , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Palatine Tonsil/pathology , Tonsillectomy , Prospective Studies , Hyperplasia/complications
16.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(1): 78-82, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984056

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The role of tonsillectomy in the periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis syndrome, is controversial. Although some studies reported high success rates with tonsillectomy, further investigations are needed with larger numbers of patients. Objective: To seek the long-term outcomes of tonsillectomy in periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis syndrome. Methods: Case series; multi-center study. The study comprised 23 patients with periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis syndrome who underwent surgery (tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy) between January 2009 and November 2014. Results: 21 (91%) of 23 patients had complete resolution immediately after surgery. One patient had an attack 24 h after surgery, but has had no further attacks. One patient had three attacks with various intervals, and complete remission was observed after 3 months. Conclusions: Tonsillectomy is a good option for the treatment of periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis syndrome.


Resumo Introdução: O papel da tonsilectomia na síndrome da febre periódica, estomatite aftosa, faringite e adenite é controverso. Embora alguns estudos tenham relatado altas taxas de sucesso com a tonsilectomia, são necessárias mais pesquisas com um número maior de pacientes. Objetivo: Avaliar os resultados em longo prazo da tonsilectomia na síndrome de febre periódica, estomatite aftosa, faringite e adenite. Método: Série de casos; estudo multicêntrico. O estudo avaliou 23 pacientes com síndrome de febre periódica, estomatite aftosa, faringite e adenite submetidos a cirurgia (tonsilectomia com ou sem adenoidectomia) entre janeiro de 2009 e novembro de 2014. Resultados: Dos 23 pacientes, 21 (91%) apresentaram resolução completa imediatamente após a cirurgia. Um paciente apresentou um episódio 24 horas após a cirurgia, mas sem recorrência posterior. Um paciente teve três episódios com vários intervalos e a remissão completa foi observada após 3 meses. Conclusões: A tonsilectomia é uma boa opção para o tratamento da síndrome de febre periódica, estomatite aftosa, faringite e adenite.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Stomatitis, Aphthous/surgery , Tonsillectomy/methods , Pharyngitis/surgery , Fever/surgery , Lymphadenitis/surgery , Syndrome , Adenoidectomy/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome
17.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(1): 8-14, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001504

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Bacterial tonsillitis is an upper respiratory tract infection that occurs primarily in children and adolescents. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent pathogens in the etiology of tonsillitis and its relevance is due to its antimicrobial resistance and persistence in the internal tissues of the tonsils. Tonsillectomy is indicated in cases of recurrent tonsillitis after several failures of antibiotic therapy. Material and methods: In this study we evaluated 123 surgically removed tonsils from patients who had history of recurrent tonsillitis. The tonsils were submitted to microbiological analysis for detection of S. aureus. The isolates were identified by PCR for femA gene. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was determined by disk diffusion tests. All isolates were submitted to PCR to detect mecA and Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) genes. The genetic similarity among all isolates was determined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Results: Sixty-one S. aureus isolates were obtained from 50 patients (40.7%) with mean age of 11.7 years. The isolates showed high level resistance to penicillin (83.6%), 9.8% had inducible MLSb phenotype, and 18.0% were considered multidrug resistant (MDR). mecA gene was detected in two isolates and the gene coding for PVL was identified in one isolate. The genetic similarity analysis showed high diversity among the isolates. More than one genetically different isolate was identified from the same patient, and identical isolates were obtained from different patients. Conclusions: MDR isolates colonizing tonsils even without infection, demonstrate persistence of the bacterium and possibility of antimicrobial resistance dissemination and recurrence of infection. A specific clone in patients colonized by S. aureus was not demonstrated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Tonsillitis/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Tonsillectomy/methods , Tonsillitis/surgery , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/drug effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
18.
Kosin Medical Journal ; : 78-82, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760458

ABSTRACT

A 56-year-old female presented with clinical features of acute tonsillitis with subsequent cervical lymphadenitis. After taking empirical antibiotics for 1 week, the acute infection symptoms and signs were resolved. However, an asymmetric enlargement of the left palatine tonsil with ipsilateral neck swelling remained. Subsequent tonsillectomy and lymph node excisional biopsy were performed due to the possibility of malignancy. The patient was eventually diagnosed as malignant lymphoma according to pathological confirmation. We demonstrate the diagnostic challenges in such a rare case and emphasize the importance of differentiating malignant lymphoma from an atypically presenting acute infectious disease.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Biopsy , Communicable Diseases , Female , Humans , Lymph Node Excision , Lymphadenitis , Lymphoma , Middle Aged , Neck , Palatine Tonsil , Tonsillectomy , Tonsillitis
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760150

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Partial intracapsular tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (PITA) has become a well-recognized technique for tonsillectomy in children. Several studies have reported that PITA shows better postoperative morbidity compared to the conventional technique. However, there is still concern about the regrowth of remnant tonsil tissues. The authors evaluated the postoperative results of PITA, combined extracapsular and intracapsular tonsillectomy, and conventional tonsillectomy. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: The authors studied 97 children (male: 62, female: 35) aged 2 to 13 years old, who underwent tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (PITA, combined extracapsular and intracapsular tonsillectomy, and conventional tonsillectomy). The degree of adenotonsillar hypertrophy, apnea-hypopnea index and lowest oxygen saturation was confirmed for all subjects. Operation time, quality of life, scale for postoperative pain, frequency of postoperative bleeding, and recurrence with tonsillar regrowth were compared after surgery performed by different surgical procedures. RESULTS: Regardless of the surgical technique, all the cases presented significant improvement in the quality of life before and after surgery. On the day of surgery and four days after surgery, PITA showed superior results in terms of postoperative pain level compared to the conventional technique. There were no statistically significant results with respect to the operation time and postoperative bleeding. Six months after the surgery, the recurrence of sleep apnea due to the regrowth of remaining tonsil was not obvious. CONCLUSION: Tonsillectomy technique preserving tonsillar capsule may show better results on early postoperative pain. It can be a good alternative to the conventional technique in surgical treatment for pediatric obstructive sleep apnea in terms of early postoperative pain control.


Subject(s)
Adenoidectomy , Child , Female , Hemorrhage , Humans , Hypertrophy , Methods , Oxygen , Pain, Postoperative , Palatine Tonsil , Pediatrics , Quality of Life , Recurrence , Sleep Apnea Syndromes , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Tonsillectomy
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760130

ABSTRACT

Palatine tonsillectomy is a very common procedure and it is relatively safe and has few complications. However, some severe, although rare, complications that can lead a patient to life-threatening status can occur following palatine tonsillectomy. Subcutaneous or mediastinal emphysema is one of the severe complications. We report a case of subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum after palatine tonsillectomy in a healthy 18-year-old man. After conservative management, subcutaneous emphysema was subsided without other complications.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Emphysema , Humans , Mediastinal Emphysema , Subcutaneous Emphysema , Tonsillectomy
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