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Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e211202, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1254523


Aim: To evaluate the prevalence and predisposing factors for hypomineralization of second molars in children in primary dentition. Methods: A questionnaire was applied to parents to analyze predisposing factors and to assist in the diagnosis of hypomineralization in children between 2 and 6 years old, followed by an intraoral examination based on indices of non-fluorotic enamel defects in the primary dentition, according to the "Modified Index DDE" to determine demarcated opacity and HSPM presence / severity index to assess hypomineralization. Children from public and private schools were dived into two groups: if they presented HSPM-Group 1 (G1) and if they did not have HSPM-Control group (CG). Results: The most frequent predisposing factors associated with the child were Illness in the first year of life (X2= 6.49; p=0.01) and antibiotic use in the first year of life (X2= 41.82; p= 0.01). The factors associated with the mother were hypertension (X2= 9.36; p=0.01), infections during pregnancy (X2=14.80; p=0.01) and alcohol consumption during pregnancy (X2=97.33; p=0.01). There was a prevalence of 3.9% of HSPM in 14 children, with statistical difference regarding gender (X2 = 4.57; p <0.05), with boys presenting a higher frequency. In G1 hypomineralization was of the type with demarcated opacity, with more prevalent characteristics the yellowish spot, with moderate post-eruptive fracture and acceptable atypical restorations. All lesions were located in the labial region with 1/3 of extension. Conclusion: The prevalence of HSPM in children between 2 and 6 years old was 3.9%, with a predominance in males, with tooth 65 being the most affected. There was an association between HSPM and infection in the first year of life, as well as the use of antibiotics and sensitivity in the teeth affected by the lesion. There was an association between HSPM and hypertension, infection and mothers' alcohol use during pregnancy

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Tooth Demineralization , Dental Enamel , Dental Enamel Hypoplasia/epidemiology , Amelogenesis
Braz. dent. j ; 32(4): 62-73, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1345511


Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro effect of a single application of experimental nanocomposite solutions on the prevention of dental caries around orthodontic brackets. The specimens were exposed to mesoporous silica (MS) nanocomposites containing fluoride by association with titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) or sodium fluoride (NaF). Nanocomposites also could contain calcium and groups were described as MSCaTiF4, MSTiF4, MSCaNaF, MSNaF, and controls (TiF4, and NaF). Specimens were subjected to the formation of a multispecies biofilm to generate a cariogenic challenge. After 24h, both pH and total soluble fluoride concentration of the culture medium were assessed. Mineral loss was evaluated by percentage of surface mineral loss (%SML), mineral volume variation (ΔZ) of inner enamel and polarized light microscopy (PL). Linear (Ra) and volumetric (Sa) surface roughness and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) were used to assess enamel topography. Statistical analyses were conducted considering p<0.05. MSNaF had the highest value of culture medium pH after cariogenic challenge, similarly to MSTiF4. All nanocomposite solutions released less fluoride than their controls NaF and TiF4 (p<0.05). All nanocomposite solutions presented lower %SML compared to their respective control groups (p<0.05). Lower Ra, Sa and ΔZ were observed for experimental groups compared to TiF4 (p<0.05). The results were confirmed by PL and SEM analysis. The experimental nanocomposite solutions contributed for lower enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets.

RESUMO Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito in vitro de uma única aplicação de soluções experimentais de nanocompósitos na prevenção de cárie dentária em braquetes ortodônticos. Os espécimes foram expostos a nanocompósitos de sílica mesoporosa (MS) contendo fluoreto por associação com tetrafluoreto de titânio (TiF4) ou fluoreto de sódio (NaF). Os nanocompósitos também podem conter cálcio e os grupos foram descritos como MSCaTiF4, MSTiF4, MSCaNaF, MSNaF e controles (TiF4 e NaF). Os espécimes foram submetidos à formação de um biofilme multiespécie para gerar um desafio cariogênico. Após 24h, o pH e a concentração de flúor solúvel total do meio de cultura foram avaliados. A perda mineral foi avaliada pela porcentagem de perda mineral superficial (% SML), variação do volume mineral (ΔZ) do esmalte interno e microscopia de luz polarizada (PL). A rugosidade superficial linear (Ra) e volumétrica (Sa) e a microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) foram utilizadas para avaliar a topografia do esmalte. As análises estatísticas foram realizadas considerando p <0,05. MSNaF apresentou o maior valor de pH do meio de cultura após o desafio cariogênico, semelhante ao MSTiF4. Todas as soluções de nanocompósitos liberaram menos flúor do que seus controles NaF e TiF4 (p <0,05). Todas as soluções de nanocompósitos apresentaram% SML menor em comparação com seus respectivos grupos de controle (p <0,05). Ra, Sa e ΔZ menores foram observados para os grupos experimentais em comparação ao TiF4 (p <0,05). Os resultados foram confirmados por análises PL e SEM. As soluções experimentais de nanocompósitos contribuíram para a menor desmineralização do esmalte ao redor dos braquetes ortodônticos.

Humans , Tooth Demineralization , Orthodontic Brackets , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Nanocomposites , Sodium Fluoride , Titanium , Cariostatic Agents , Dental Enamel , Fluorides
Rev. Cient. CRO-RJ (Online) ; 6(1): 62-66, abr. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1354547


Introduction: Dental fluorosis manifests clinically as white to brown spots on the enamel teeth that were exposed to excessive fluoride during the formation process. Esthetic treatments were described in the literature to reduce or eliminate the fluorotic stains on the enamel surface. Objective: The aim of this study is to present an alternative treatment for fluorosis-stained teeth. Case report: This case report describes the clinical performance of a treatment of a 12-year-old male patient whose teeth presented moderate fluorosis. This treatment is based on tooth demineralization and remineralization. The material has an acid phase made by hydrochloric acid with tricarboxylic acid, and an alkaline phase made by Calcium Hydroxide. Results: This pain less and fast treatment presented good results. The treatment eliminated the spots during the follow-up and preserved most of the dental structure, improving the appearance of the patient's teeth. Conclusion: The appearance of the treated enamel showed a surface almost completely free of fluorotic stains, demonstrating the satisfactory results of this treatment.

Introdução: A fluorose dentária manifesta-se clinicamente como manchas brancas a marrons no esmalte de dentes expostos ao excesso de flúor durante o processo de formação. Tratamentos estéticos foram descritos na literatura para reduzir ou eliminar as manchas fluoróticas na superfície do esmalte. Objetivo: Apresentar uma alternativa de tratamento para dentes manchados por fluorose dentária. Relato do caso: Este relato de caso descreve o desempenho clínico do tratamento para dentes com fluorose moderada em um paciente de 12 anos. Esse tratamento foi baseado numa técnica de desmineralização e remineralização do dente. O material possui uma fase ácida composta por ácido clorídrico com ácido tricarboxílico, e uma fase alcalina composta por Hidróxido de Cálcio. Resultados: Observou-se que esse tratamento, sem dor e rápido, apresentou resultados satisfatórios, pois eliminou as manchas durante o acompanhamento. Além disso, preservou ao máximo a estrutura dentária, beneficiando o paciente com uma melhor aparência dos seus dentes. Conclusão: O aspecto do esmalte tratado mostrou uma superfície quase sem manchas fluoróticas, demonstrando resultados satisfatórios deste tratamento.

Fluorosis, Dental , Tooth Remineralization , Calcium Hydroxide , Dental Care , Tooth Demineralization , Dental Enamel , Hydrochloric Acid
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1346673


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the systemic factors associated with Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) etiology. Material and Methods: A total of 731 8-year-old schoolchildren enrolled in the public school system in Curitiba, Brazil, was randomly selected. The MIH diagnosis was performed by calibrated examiners (Kappa >0.80) according to the European Academy of Pediatric Dentistry criteria (2003). The systemic factors were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire and applied to the children's mothers, addressing the medical history from pregnancy to the first three years of children's life. Associations were analyzed by Poisson regression analysis with robust variance (p<0.05). Results: The systemic factors in the prenatal and perinatal periods were not associated with MIH (p>0.05). The children who used medications during the first years of life had a significantly higher prevalence of MIH (PRc = 2.18 CI = 95% 1.06-4.48; p=0.033). Conclusion: The use of medications during the first three years of children's life is associated with a higher prevalence of MIH.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Tooth Abnormalities/etiology , Epidemiology , Tooth Demineralization , Dental Enamel Hypoplasia/etiology , Molar/abnormalities , Surveys and Questionnaires , Regression Analysis
Rev. odontol. UNESP (Online) ; 50: e20210038, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1352133


Introduction Fluoride is considered a key element in the remineralization process of tooth enamel. Objective To evaluate the influence of a topical solution of sodium fluoride (NaF) on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets and white spot lesions formation. Material and method Sixty bovine teeth were divided into three groups (n=20). Group 1 (Control): shear bond strength; Group 2: shear bond strength after pH cycling; Group 3: shear bond strength after pH cycling and treatment with 0.04% NaF solution. Groups 2 and 3 underwent pH cycling with demineralizing (6hs) and remineralizing (17hs) solutions at pH of 4.3 and 7.0 respectively for 15 days. The specimens were submitted to the shear bond strength and the Adhesive Remnant Index was verified (ARI). The specimens of each group (n=3) were qualitatively analyzed by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Kruskal-Wallis test assessed the shear bond strength and Fisher's exact test evaluated ARI, with significance level of 5%. Result There was no significant difference among the three groups in shear bond strength (p=0.2679). Significant difference was found in ARI (p=0.0199). The frequency of ARI 1 was 55% in group 1, 90% in group 2, and 80% in group 3. SEM showed difference between the enamel and bonding. Group 2 showed structural change of the enamel surface, adjacent to the bond area; and group 3 showed enamel with characteristics similar to those of group 1. Conclusion It was concluded that there was no NaF influence on the bracket shear bond strength and even in low concentrations it prevented the development of areas of demineralization of white spot lesions.

Introdução O flúor é considerado um elemento chave no processo de remineralização do esmalte dentário. Objetivo Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a influência da solução tópica de fluoreto de sódio (NaF) na resistência ao cisalhamento da colagem de barquetes ortodônticos durante a formação de lesões de manchas brancas. Material e método Sessenta dentes bovinos foram divididos em três grupos (n=20). Grupo 1 (Controle) - Cisalhamento imediato; Grupo 2 - Cisalhamento após ciclagem de pH; Grupo 3 - Cisalhamento após ciclagem de pH e tratamento com solução de 0,4% de NaF (Ortho Gard, Colgate-Palmolive®). Os Grupos 2 e 3 sofreram ciclagem de pH com soluções de desmineralização e remineralização em pH de 4,3 e 7,0 respectivamente, com ciclos de desmineralização (6 horas) e remineralização (17 horas), durante 15 dias. Os corpos de prova foram submetidos ao teste de resistência de união ao cisalhamento e remanescente adesivo (IRA). Espécimes de cada grupo (n=3) foram analisados qualitativamente por microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV). O teste de Kruskal-Wallis foi utilizado para avaliar a resistência ao cisalhamento e o teste exato de Fisher para avaliação do IRA, adotando nível de significância de 5%. Resultado Os resultados não encontraram diferença significativa entre os três grupos quanto à força de cisalhamento (p=0,2679). Diferença significativa foi encontrada no IRA (p = 0,0199). A frequência de IRA 1 foi de 55% no grupo 1, 90% no grupo 2 e 80% no grupo 3. A análise em MEV mostrou diferença entre o esmalte e a área de colagem submetida ao cisalhamento. Grupo 2 apresentou alteração estrutural na superfície do esmalte adjacente à área de colagem, e o Grupo 3 apresentou esmalte com característica semelhante ao do Grupo 1 na área que foi submetida à ciclagem de pH e NaF. Conclusão Concluiu-se que não houve influência do flúor na resistência ao cisalhamento de braquetes. O uso de soluções fluoretadas, ainda que em baixa concentração, preveniu o aparecimento de áreas desmineralizadas e lesões de manchas brancas.

Animals , Sodium Fluoride , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Tooth Demineralization , Orthodontic Brackets , Dental Caries , Shear Strength , Orthodontics , Dental Bonding , Dental Enamel
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e030, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1153618


Abstract The present study evaluated the ability of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species associated with streptococci to increase insoluble extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production and initial caries lesion progression. Bovine enamel blocks (n = 190; 4 mm x 4 mm) were prepared, selected according to initial surface hardness (SH), and divided into two groups: a) double combinations: S. mutans with Bifidobacterium or Lactobacillus, and b) triple combinations: S. mutans and S. sobrinus with Bifidobacterium or Lactobacillus species. The blocks were exposed to the bacterial associations for 7 days. Subsequently, quantity of EPS from biofilms and caries lesion depth were determined by means of colorimetric and cross-sectional enamel hardness (ΔKHN) analysis. The data were submitted to one-way analysis of variance, followed by the Bonferroni test (p < 0.05). S. mutans with B. animalis or B. dentium produced a higher quantity of EPS; S. mutans + B. animalis led to the highest ∆KHN. S. mutans + S. sobrinus + B. longum induced greater EPS and ∆KHN values. In conclusion, associations of B. animalis and B. longum with streptococci promoted EPS production and caries lesion progression.

Animals , Cattle , Tooth Demineralization , Dental Caries , Streptococcus mutans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Biofilms , Dental Enamel
São Paulo; s.n; 2021. 122 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1369266


Odontopediatras tem relatado com mais frequência a presença de Hipomineralização de Segundos Molares Decíduos (HSMD) em pacientes infantis, no entanto muito pouco se sabe sobre a prevalência de Hipomineralização de Esmalte do tipo Opacidade Demarcada em dentes decíduos (HEOD) e fatores etiológicos. Os objetivos deste estudo foram: i) relatar a prevalência, gravidade e distribuição de HDD; ii) relatar a prevalência de HMSD iii) investigar os fatores etiológicos associados ao HDD; iv) avaliar a associação de HMSD com a presença de HMI (Hipomineralização Molar Incisivo); e como objetivo complementar v) avaliar o desempenho de dentistas do serviço público de Diadema/SP no diagnóstico de HSMD/HMI. A amostra foi composta por 2102 crianças de 3 a 10 anos de idade, de ambos os sexos, moradoras do Município de Diadema que participaram das consultas de retorno odontológico de manutenção em saúde bucal em uma das 20 UBS do município. Foram realizados exames clínicos intrabucais por quadrantes em consultórios odontológicos utilizando o índice de Ghanin et al., 2017 e os dados foram coletados por dentistas calibrados para todos os dentes decíduos e permanentes. Antes do exame clínico da criança, a mãe respondia um questionário socioeconômico e com perguntas a respeito de possíveis fatores associados a presença de hipomineralização que podem ocorrer nos períodos pré, peri e pós-natal. Todos os 68 dentistas que trabalhavam nas UBSs de Diadema participaram do treinamento e calibração para diagnóstico de HEOD em dentes decíduos e permanentes e seus desempenhos foram avaliados. Para a análise estatística, foi realizada análise descritiva, análise bivariada, regressão logística de Poisson com análises uni e multivariadas e Cohens Kappa. A prevalência de HDD foi 18,5%. A maioria das faces foram acometidas por defeitos leves como opacidades demarcadas branco/creme com extensão até 1/3 da superfície. A HEOD pode acometer qualquer dente decíduo, mas possui maior prevalência em segundos molares e caninos decíduos. A prevalência de HSMD foi 17%. Os fatores etiológicos analisados não apontaram associação com a presença do defeito, no entanto o aleitamento materno exclusivo por 6 meses está associado a menor probabilidade de desenvolver HDD (p=0,04). Foi encontrando também que a criança que apresenta HSMD tem 5 vezes mais probabilidade de apresentar HMI (OR=4,92; p=0,000; IC 95%- 3,8 6,4). O processo de calibração em três fases foi positivo na melhora dos valores de Kappa. Para o critério clínico os valores passaram de 0,76 ± 0,19 para 0,93 ± 0,07, para o critério erupção os valores foram de 0,89 ± 0,14 para 0,98 ± 0,08 e no critério extensão os valores foram de 0,59 ± 0,15 para 0,75 ± 0,14. Com base nos resultados obtidos 30 dentistas foram selecionados para realizarem a coleta de dados do estudo epidemiológico. Conclui-se que a prevalência de HDD e HMSD é relevante e pode acometer qualquer dente decíduo, principalmente molares e caninos. A amamentação exclusiva com leite materno até o sexto mês de vida do bebê deve ser recomendada. A criança com HSMD tem 5 vezes mais chance de apresentar HMI, sendo necessário um maior número de estudos longitudinais para determinar causa. O processo de treinamento e calibração para o diagnóstico em três fases teve impacto muito positivo no desenvolvimento da precisão do diagnóstico e na melhoria dos valores de Kappa.

Prevalence , Tooth Demineralization , Molar
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1346681


ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the knowledge and clinical experience of dentists regarding MIH in Kerman/Iran. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a census sampling method was used, and all dentists registered in Kerman medical council were asked to participate in the study. A validated and reliable researcher administered questionnaire was used to determine participants' demographic characteristics, knowledge, and clinical experience. The association between knowledge score and demographic variables was determined using an independent t-test and ANOVA. The level of significance was set as 0.05. Results: Overall, 400 specialized and general dentists in Kerman completed the questionnaire. The mean knowledge score of dentists was 6.6±1.9 of 11. Female dentists' knowledge was higher than male dentists (p<0.05). General dentists had a higher level of knowledge regarding MIH compared to specialists (p<0.05). Overall, 79.5 % had been faced with MIH during their practice years. After confronting MIH teeth, 48.8% of dentists referred patients to specialists for treatment. Providing aesthetics was considered the most difficult part of treatment (43.2%). Resin composite was the most favorable dental material for treating MIH (60.9%). Conclusion: Although most dentists in Kerman had encountered MIH defects during their clinical practice, they did not have enough knowledge of the defect and required education on all aspects of MIH diagnosis and management. Younger dental practitioners, general dentists and females presented higher knowledge of MIH.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Tooth Demineralization , Dental Enamel Hypoplasia/pathology , Dentists , Iran , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Analysis of Variance , Data Interpretation, Statistical
São José dos Campos; s.n; 2021. 76 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1362534


O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial protetor contra a desmineralização e o efeito remineralizante de dentifrícios experimentais contendo diferentes concentrações de partículas de vidro ionomérico pré-reagido (S-PRG - surface prereacted glass ionomer cement). Adicionalmente, o potencial antimicrobiano foi avaliado. Foram preparados 168 espécimes cilíndricos (4mm - diâmetro; 2mm - altura) de esmalte bovino hígido e polido para avaliação do potencial protetor (n=84) e remineralizante (n=84). Estes foram estratificados nos seguintes grupos de tratamento (n=12), de acordo com a concentração das partículas bioativas (S-PGR) incorporadas nos dentifrícios: 0%; 1%; 5%; 20% e 30%. Um dentifrício contendo NaF (1450 µg F/mL) foi utilizado como controle positivo e a água ultrapurificada foi utilizada como controle negativo. Os tratamentos com as suspensões de dentifrícios (1:3 com saliva artificial) foram realizados 2x/dia ­ 5 min/8 dias, intercalados com a ciclagem des/remineralizante. Para avaliação do potencial protetor dos tratamentos contra a desmineralização, os espécimes foram imersos em solução desmineralizante por 4 h e em solução remineralizante por 20 h. Para a avaliação do potencial remineralizante dos dentifrícios, os espécimes foram submetidos à formação de lesão de mancha branca artificial em solução desmineralizante por 20 h e então foram submetidos aos mesmos tratamentos e ciclagem des/re (2 h em solução des e 22 h em solução re). Após a ciclagem, os espécimes foram analisados quanto a dureza superficial, subsuperficial. Adicionalmente, o pH da suspensão de dentifrício preparada em água destilada foi determinado. A avaliação do efeito dos dentifrícios sobre a adesão bacteriana e crescimento do biofilme foi realizada por meio de testes em uma cepa padrão de S. mutans (UA159) e em uma cepa clínica de S mutans. Para cada cepa, 35 espécimes de esmalte bovino polido (6mm - diâmetro; 2mm - altura) foram distribuídos aleatoriamente nos mesmos grupos de tratamento (n=5), porém para a avaliação do efeito antimicrobiano, um dentifrício contendo 1450 µg F/mL + triclosan foi utilizado como controle positivo. Os espécimes foram tratados com as suspensões (5 min) e então inseridos em uma placa contendo sacarose, saliva artificial e uma suspensão S. mutans (padrão e clínica) para permitir a formação do biofilme. Então, foi realizada a contagem de unidades formadoras de colônias por mL (UFC/mL) após 48 h. O efeito antimicrobiano sobre um biofilme recém-formado e maduro também foi avaliado. Para isso, 35 blocos de esmalte bovino foram distribuídos aleatoriamente nos sete grupos citados anteriormente (n=5). Os espécimes foram inseridos em uma placa contendo sacarose, saliva artificial e uma suspensão S. mutans para permitir a adesão bacteriana. Após 4 h e 24 h da formação inicial do biofilme, os espécimes foram tratados com um dos dentifrícios contendo diferentes concentrações de S-PRG e controles e retornaram ao meio de cultura. Após 48 h, a contagem de UFC/mL foi realizada. Análises estatísticas independentes foram realizadas entre os grupos para cada estudo. Os dados foram analisados com ANOVA e teste de Tukey (5%). Os dentifrícios contendo S-PRG apresentaram potencial protetor contra a desmineralização e o dentifrício com 30% S-PRG foi o mais eficaz, diferindo do controle positivo (p<0,05). Para a remineralização, dentifrícios contendo S-PRG diferiram do controle negativo (p<0,05), mas não diferiram entre si e não foram superiores ao dentifrício contendo NaF. Uma diminuição significativa na adesão de microrganismos foi observada para todos os grupos tratados com os dentifrícios contendo S-PRG e para a cepa UA159 os dentifrícios com 20 e 30%S-PRG apresentaram efeito superior ao dentifrício contendo NaF+Triclosan (p<0,05). Efeito antimicrobiano sobre o biofilme recém-formado (4 h) também foi observado para os grupos tratados com dentifrícios contendo S-PRG, mas não foi observado efeito superior ao dentifrício contendo NaF+Triclosan (p>0,05). Para o biofilme maduro, efeito antimicrobiano dos dentifrícios contendo S-PRG foi observado apenas para a cepa clínica (p<0.05), sendo inferior ao exercido pelo controle positivo. Concluiu-se que os dentifrícios contendo S-PRG apresentam capacidade de proteger o esmalte contra a desmineralização, bem como capacidade remineralizante, além de serem capazes de impedir a adesão bacteriana e atuar sobre o crescimento do biofilme cariogênico.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective, remineralizing, and antimicrobial potential of experimental toothpastes containing different concentrations of pre-reacted glass ionomer particles (S-PRG). Cylindrical specimens (n=84, 4mm- diameter, 2mm-height) of sound and polished bovine enamel were prepared to evaluate the protective and remineralizing potential of the toothpastes. These were stratified into the following treatment groups (n=12), according to the concentration of bioactive particles (S-PGR) incorporated to the toothpastes: 0%; 1%; 5%; 20%; and 30%. A toothpaste containing 1450 µg F/mL was used as a positive control and distilled water as a negative control. Treatments with toothpastes' slurries (1:3 with artificial saliva) were performed 2x/day - 5 min / 8 days, interposed with de/remineralization cycling. To evaluate the protective potential of the toothpastes, specimens were immersed in demineralizing solution for 4 h and in a remineralizing solution for 20 h. To evaluate the remineralizing potential of toothpastes, the specimens were submitted to the formation of white spot lesion in demineralizing solution for 20 h and then submitted to the same treatments de- and remineralizing pH-cycling (2 h in de- and 22 h in remineralizing solution). Specimens were analysed for surface and cross-sectional hardness. Additionally, the pH of the slurries prepared in deionized water was assessed. The effect of toothpastes over microorganisms adhesion and their antimicrobial potential over a newly formed and mature biofilms were also evaluated. To evaluate the effect of toothpastes on microorganisms adhesion and biofilm development, two different studies were performed using a S mutans strain (UA159) and a S mutans clinical strain. 35 specimens of polished bovine enamel (6mm- diameter, 2mm-height) were randomly distributed in the same treatment groups (n=5). The specimens were treated with the suspensions and then inserted into a plate containing sucrose, artificial saliva and a standard suspension of S. mutans to allow microorganisms adhesion and then colony forming units per ml (CFU/mL) counting was performed after 48 h. The antimicrobial effect on a newly formed and mature biofilms was also evaluated. For this, 35 blocks of bovine enamel were randomly distributed into the seven previously mentioned groups (n=5). The specimens were inserted into a plate containing sucrose, artificial saliva and a standard suspension of S. mutans to allow biofilm formation. After 4 h and 24 h of the initial formation of the biofilm, the specimens were treated with one of the toothpastes containing different concentrations of S-PRG and were return to the culture medium. After 48 h the CFU/mL counting were performed. Independent statistical analyses were performed for each study. Data were analysed with ANOVA and Tukey test (5%). The S-PRG containing toothpastes presented protective potential and the 30% S-PRG was the most effective, differing from the positive control (p<0.05). For remineralization, toothpastes containing S-PRG differed from the negative control and 0% S-PRG (p<0.05), but did not differ from each other and were not superior to toothpaste containing NaF (p>0.05). A significant decrease in the adhesion of microorganisms was observed for all groups treated with the S-PRG containing toothpastes and for the UA159 strain the 20 and 30% S-PRG toothpastes had a superior effect than the NaF+Triclosan (p<0.05). Antimicrobial effect on the newly formed biofilm (4 h) was also observed for the groups treated with S-PRG, but no greater effect was observed than that of NaF+Triclosan (p>0.05). For mature biofilm, antimicrobial effect of S-PRG toothpastes was observed only for the clinical strain (p<0.05), and were inferior than NaF+Triclosan toothpaste. It could be concluded that, toothpastes containing S-PRG presented higher efficacy in protecting enamel against demineralization and in promoting remineralization, as well as inhibiting the cariogenic biofilm developmen

Animals , Cattle , Tooth Remineralization , Materials Testing , Tooth Demineralization , Dental Plaque , Dentifrices , Saliva, Artificial , Toothpastes , Analysis of Variance , Dental Caries , Dental Enamel
J. appl. oral sci ; 29: e20210120, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340104


Abstract Objective Our study aims to synthesize, characterize, and determine the effects of a ChNPs suspension on human enamel after cariogenic challenge via pH-cycling. Methodology ChNPs were synthesized by ion gelation and characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Dynamic Light Scattering. Forty enamel blocks were divided into four groups (n=10/group): (i) ChNPs suspension; (ii) chitosan solution; (iii) 0.05% sodium fluoride (NaF) solution; and (iv) distilled water. Specimens were exposed to cariogenic challenge by cycling in demineralization solution (3 h) and then remineralized (21h) for 7 days. Before each demineralization cycle, the corresponding solutions were passively applied for 90 s. After 7 days, specimens were examined for surface roughness (Ra) and Knoop hardness (KHN) before and after the cariogenic challenge; % KHN change (variation between initial and final hardness), and surface topography by an optical profilometer. The data were analyzed by repeated-measures ANOVA, One-way ANOVA, and Tukey tests (α=0.05). Results TEM images showed small spherical particles with diameter and zeta potential values of 79.3 nm and +47.9 mV, respectively. After the challenge, all groups showed an increase in Ra and a decrease in KHN values. Optical profilometry indicated that ChNPs- and NaF-treated specimens showed uneven roughness interspersed with smooth areas and the lowest %KHN values. Conclusion The ChNPs suspension was successfully synthesized and minimized human enamel demineralization after a cariogenic challenge, showing an interesting potential for use as an oral formulation for caries prevention.

Humans , Tooth Demineralization/prevention & control , Chitosan , Nanoparticles , Sodium Fluoride , Cariostatic Agents , Dental Enamel , Hardness
Braz. dent. j ; 31(2): 157-163, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132281


Abstract This study assessed the effectiveness of models for developing subsurface caries lesions in vitro and verified mineral changes by transverse microradiography (TMR). Enamel blocks from permanent (n=5) and deciduous teeth (n=5) were submitted to lesion induction by immersion in demineralizing solutions during 96 h, followed by pH cycles of demineralization (de) and remineralization (re) for 10 days. Two de-/re solutions were tested. Demineralizing solution "A" was composed by 2.2 mM CaCl2, 2.2 mM KH2PO4, 0.05 M acetic acid, with pH 4.4 adjusted by 1 M KOH. Demineralizing solution "B" was composed by 2.2 mM CaCl2, 2.2 mM NaH2PO4, 0.05 M acetic acid and 0.25 ppmF, with pH 4.5 adjusted by 1M KOH. Solution "A" produced cavitated lesions in permanent teeth, whereas solution "B" led to subsurface lesions in deciduous teeth. Solution "B" was then tested in enamel blocks from permanent teeth (n=5) and subsurface lesions were obtained, so that solution "B" was employed for both substrates, and the blocks were treated with slurries of a fluoride dentifrice (1450 ppm F, as NaF, n=5) or a fluoride-free dentifrice (n=5). Solution "B" produced subsurface lesions in permanent and primary teeth of an average (±SD) depth of 88.4µm (±14.3) and 89.3µm (±15.8), respectively. TMR analysis demonstrated that lesions treated with fluoride-free dentifrice had significantly greater mineral loss. This study concluded that solution "B" developed subsurface lesions after pH cycling, and that mineral changes were successfully assessed by TMR.

Resumo Este estudo avaliou a efetividade de modelos para o desenvolvimento de lesões de cárie subsuperficiais in vitro e verificou alterações minerais por microradiografia transversal (TMR). Blocos de esmalte de dentes permanentes (n = 5) e decíduos (n = 5) foram submetidos à indução de lesão por imersão em soluções desmineralizadoras durante 96h, seguido de ciclos de pH de desmineralização e remineralização por 10 dias. Duas soluções des-/re foram testadas. A solução desmineralizadora "A" foi composta por 2,2 mM de CaCl2, 2,2 mM de KH2PO4, 0,05 M de ácido acético, com pH de 4,4 ajustado por 1 M de KOH. A solução desmineralizadora "B" foi composta por 2,2 mM de CaCl2, 2,2 mM de NaH2PO4, 0,05 M de ácido acético e 0,25 ppmF, com pH de 4,5 ajustado por 1 M de KOH. A solução "A" produziu lesões cavitadas em dentes permanentes, enquanto a solução "B" apresentou lesões subsuperficiais em dentes decíduos. Portanto, a solução "B" foi posteriormente usada em blocos de esmalte de dentes permanentes (n = 5) e lesões subsuperficiais foram obtidas. Portanto, a solução "B" foi empregada para ambos os substratos, sendo metade deles tratada com dentifrício fluoretado e a outra metade com dentifrício livre de flúor. A solução "B" produziu lesões subsuperficiais de cárie com profundidade de 88.4µm (14.3) em dentes permanentes e com 89.3 µm (15.8) em dentes decíduos e TMR demonstrou que lesões tratadas com dentifrício sem flúor tiveram maior perda mineral. Este estudo concluiu que a solução "B" desenvolveu lesões subsuperficiais após o ciclo de pH e as alterações minerais foram avaliadas com sucesso por TMR.

Humans , Tooth Demineralization , Dental Caries , Dentifrices , Tooth Remineralization , Cariostatic Agents , Dental Enamel , Fluorides , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Rev. bras. odontol ; 77(1): 1-5, jan. 2020. ilus; tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102924


Objetivo: Avaliar a efetividade do dentifrício de alta concentração de F na diminuição do processo de desmineralização do esmalte. Material e Métodos: Foram confeccionadas trinta amostras de esmalte bovino, as quais foram lixadas, polidas e obtida a microdureza (Knoop) inicial. As amostras foram distribuídas aleatoriamente em três grupos (G): DP - dentifrício sem F (placebo), DC - dentifrício convencional (1450 ppmF) e DAC - dentifrício de alta concentração (5000 ppmF). Para avaliar o processo dinâmico de desmineralização, cada grupo foi submetido a uma ciclagem de pH com solução desmineralizante e solução remineralizante. As amostras foram imersas durante 6 e 18h nas respectivamente soluções, durante cinco dias, a 37oC. O dentifrício correspondente a cada grupo foi diluído (1:3) e as amostras foram tratadas por 1 minuto, duas vezes ao dia. Após a ciclagem, foi realizada a análise da microdureza final e aplicado ANOVA e Tukey (p<0,05). Resultados: Os resultados mostraram que a microdureza final do DAC (247,4?39,4) comparada ao DC (211,9?53,5) mostrou diferença estatística (p?0,05). Conclusão: De acordo com os resultados, pode-se sugerir que o dentifrício de alta concentração de Flúor apresenta resultados superiores na inibição do processo de desmineralização do esmalte quando comparado ao dentifrício convencional

Introduction: The possibility of intervening in the dissolution of enamel, significantly reducing the loss of minerals, and of reversing the progress of demineralization makes fluoride an essential aid to oral health. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of high-fluoride dentifrice in decreasing the process of enamel demineralization. Material and Methods: Thirty samples of bovine enamel were confectioned, sanded, polished and tested for determining their initial Knoop hardness. The samples were randomly divided into 3 groups: PD ­ Placebo Dentifrice (dentifrice without fluoride), CD ­ Conventional Dentifrice (1,450 ppmF), and HFD ­ High-Fluoride Dentifrice (5,000 ppmF). To evaluate the dynamic process of demineralization, each group was subjected to pH cycling with demineralizing and remineralizing solutions. The samples were immersed for 6 and 18 hours respectively in those solutions for 5 days at 98.6ºF. The dentifrice corresponding to each group was diluted (1:3) and the samples were treated for 1 minute, twice a day. After cycling, a final microhardness analysis was performed, using ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05). Results: The results showed that the hardness of the final HFD (247.4 ± 39.4 *) compared to CD (211.9 ± 53.5) showed no statistical difference (p ? .05). Conclusion: According to the results, it can be suggested that the high concentration of fluoride in dentifrice exhibited superior results in inhibition of enamel demineralization process than conventional dentifrice.

Tooth Demineralization , Dental Enamel , Dentifrices , Fluorine/administration & dosage
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(3): 442-447, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1114919


Dietary supplements are being consumed with an increasingly high frequency among sports practitioners, whether at professional and/or amateur level. The supplements contain some nutritional properties in their composition, so they can dissolute the hydroxyapatite crystals of the enamel and favor the process of dental corrosion. The objective was to measure the corrosive power of protein-based supplementation (Whey Protein), under conditions that resemble the use of the supplement by the athletes, increasing the ecological validity of the study. The teeth of the test group (TG) were placed in contact with the Whey protein solution and then exposed to artificial saliva. And the teeth of the control group (CG) were exposed only to artificial saliva. The analysis occurred in natural healthy molar teeth, so that each tooth of the TG was immersed in 50 mL of supplement for 1.5 minutes and then placed in contact with the artificial saliva for 30 seconds. The same procedure was performed 5 times a day for 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days. Each group, in its time (TG0 to TG180), underwent analysis of superficial roughness with the aid of optical profilometer (Talysurf CCI®, 3D model). The control group (CG) did not change its superficial roughness. Half of the teeth of the test group (TG) suffered loss of enamel surface. The values, in micrometers, of surface loss of the TG samples were 1.21; 2.1; 2.0; 1.04; 0.97; 0.8; 0.53; 1.14; 1.9; 2.0; 1.66; 1.80. The dietary supplement (Whey protein®) may be a potential cause of the dental corrosion process, considering the demineralization of hydroxyapatite that occurs along with the surface enamel loss.

Los suplementos dietéticos se consumen con una frecuencia cada vez más alta entre los practicantes de deportes, sea a nivel profesional y / o aficionado. Los suplementos contienen algunas propiedades nutricionales en su composición, por lo que pueden disolver los cristales de hidroxiapatita del esmalte y favorecer el proceso de corrosión dental. El objetivo fue medir el poder corrosivo de la suplementación a base de proteínas (proteína de suero), en condiciones que se asemejan al uso del suplemento por parte de los atletas, aumentando la validez ecológica del estudio. Los dientes del grupo de prueba (TG) se pusieron en contacto con la solución de proteína de suero y luego se expusieron a saliva artificial. Y los dientes del grupo de control (CG) estuvieron expuestos solo a saliva artificial. El análisis se realizó en dientes molares sanos naturales, cada diente del TG se sumergió en 50 ml de suplemento durante 1,5 minutos y luego se puso en contacto con la saliva artificial durante 30 segundos. El mismo procedimiento se realizó 5 veces al día durante 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 y 180 días. Cada grupo, en su momento (TG0 a TG180), se sometió a un análisis de rugosidad superficial con la ayuda de un perfilómetro óptico (Talysurf CCI®, modelo 3D). El grupo de control (CG) no cambió su rugosidad superficial. La mitad de los dientes del grupo de prueba (TG) sufrieron pérdida de la superficie del esmalte. Los valores, en micrómetros, de pérdida de superficie de las muestras de TG fueron 1.21; 2.1; 2,0; 1.04; 0,97; 0.8; 0,53; 1.14; 1.9; 2,0; 1,66; 1.80. El suplemento dietético (Whey protein®) puede ser una causa potencial del proceso de corrosión dental, considerando la desmineralización de la hidroxiapatita que ocurre junto con la pérdida de esmalte superficial.

Humans , Sports , Dietary Proteins/adverse effects , Tooth Demineralization/chemically induced , Dietary Supplements/adverse effects , Saliva/chemistry , In Vitro Techniques , Pilot Projects , Control Groups , Durapatite , Corrosion , Dental Etching , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Braz. dent. sci ; 23(2): 1-8, 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1095886


Objective: This work aims to use new spectroscopic and radiographic methods to study the dental hard tissue erosion and abfraction, as these lesions are actually quite difficult to be diagnosed in clinical practice. Material and Methods: This in vivo study was conducted on 60 patients with early erosion and 60 patients with abfraction at the cervical area by means of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and multilayer spiral computed tomography (MSCT). Results: In comparative dental hard tissues studies LIF spectra from intact and affected areas, it was noted multidirectional fluorescence intensity dependence between areas affected by abfraction and intact areas. MSCT technique allowed assessing the degree of damaged areas, especially at deeper stages. Conclusion: Although LIF and MSCT methods presented limitations, it was shown their effectiveness in the diagnosis of abfraction and erosion by detecting changes in the morphological structure as well as in the chemical and mineral composition of affected dental hard tissues. So LIF and MSCT methods can be successfully used in order to develop new medical devices which will provide most accurate clinical diagnose of different stages of dental erosion and abfraction.(AU)

Objetivo: Este trabalho tem como objetivo utilizar novos métodos espectroscópicos e radiográficos para estudar a erosão e a abração do tecido duro dentário, pois essas lesões são realmente bastante difíceis de serem diagnosticadas na prática clínica. Material e Métodos: Este estudo in vivo foi realizado em 120 pacientes com erosão e abração precoces na área cervical por meio de fluorescência induzida por laser (LIF) e tomografia computadorizada em espiral multicamada (MSCT). Resultados: Em estudos comparativos espectros de LIF, de tecidos duros dentais intactos e afetados, observouse dependência da intensidade da fluorescência multidirecional entre as áreas afetadas pela abração e as áreas intactas. A técnica MSCT permitiu avaliar o grau de áreas danificadas, principalmente em estágios mais profundos. Conclusão: Embora os métodos LIF e MSCT tenham apresentado limitações, foi demonstrada sua eficácia no diagnóstico de abração e erosão, detectando alterações na estrutura morfológica e na composição química e mineral dos tecidos duros afetados. Portanto, os métodos LIF e MSCT podem ser utilizados com sucesso, a fim de desenvolver novos dispositivos médicos que fornecerão um diagnóstico clínico mais preciso de diferentes estágios de erosão e abração dentária.(AU)

Humans , Spectrometry, Fluorescence , Tooth Erosion , Tooth Demineralization , Tomography, Spiral Computed
Braz. dent. sci ; 23(3): 1-7, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1117355


Aim: To determine the prevalence, predisposing factors of white spots on enamel and the effectiveness of treatment using the microabrasion technique. Method: A study was developed in children between the ages of 6 and 12 of both genders, enrolled in municipal public schools. Epidemiological questionnaire was applied to the participants and parents or guardians to investigate the predisposing factors of the lesions on permanent teeth during the mixed dentition. Oral examination of the children was carried out, and for those children in whom white spot lesions were found, dental treatment was provided by the microabrasion technique in the incisors and/ or first permanent molars to prevent the evolution to a caries lesion with cavitation, since the enamel structure was damaged. Results: The majority of the sample had from 1% to 24% of the enamel affected by the white spots. The possible predisposing factors of white spots were systemic infections, trauma or caries with pulp involvement in a deciduous tooth. The treatment was effective in 16 children and for the remaining two the restorative treatment was performed. Conclusion: The prevalence of white spot lesions found in enamel was 3.95%, with a higher prevalence in females. Regarding predisposing factors, most children had some infectious diseases and frequently took antibiotics and anti inflammatory drugs. The permanent right upper central incisor was the most affected. The treatment proved to be effective in most children possibly because the lesion is located more superficially in the enamel (AU)

Objetivo: Determinar a prevalência, os fatores predisponentes de manchas brancas no esmalte dentário e a eficácia do tratamento pela técnica de microabrasão. Método: Foi desenvolvido um estudo em crianças na faixa etária dos 6 aos 12 anos de ambos os gêneros, matriculados em 3 escolas públicas municipais. Questionário epidemiológico foi aplicado aos participantes e aos pais ou responsáveis para investigar os fatores predisponentes das lesões em dentes permanentes durante a dentição mista. Realizou-se o exame bucal das crianças e nas que foram constatadas lesões de mancha branca foi proporcionado o tratamento odontológico pela técnica de microabrasão, nos incisivos e/ou primeiros molares permanentes, impedindo a evolução para uma lesão de cárie com cavitação, uma vez que a estrutura do esmalte estava danificada. Resultados: A maioria da amostra apresentou de 1% a 24% do esmalte atingido pelas manchas brancas. Os possíveis fatores etiológicos das manchas brancas foram infecções sistêmicas, trauma ou cárie com envolvimento pulpar em dente decíduo. O tratamento foi eficaz em 16 crianças e em duas restantes foi realizado o tratamento restaurador. Conclusão: A prevalência de lesões de manchas brancas encontradas em esmalte foi 3.95% com maior predominância no gênero feminino. Com relação aos fatores predisponentes, a maioria das crianças tiveram algumas doenças infecciosas e fizeram uso de antibióticos e anti-inflamatórios. O incisivo central superior direito permanente foi o mais acometido. O tratamento mostrou-se eficaz na maioria das crianças, possivelmente devido à localização da lesão ser superficial no esmalte (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Tooth Demineralization , Enamel Microabrasion , Dental Enamel , Dental Enamel Hypoplasia
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190501, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1090766


Abstract The acquired pellicle formation is the first step in dental biofilm formation. It distinguishes dental biofilms from other biofilm types. Objective To explore the influence of salivary pellicle formation before biofilm formation on enamel demineralization. Methodology Saliva collection was approved by Indiana University IRB. Three donors provided wax-stimulated saliva as the microcosm bacterial inoculum source. Acquired pellicle was formed on bovine enamel samples. Two groups (0.5% and 1% sucrose-supplemented growth media) with three subgroups (surface conditioning using filtered/pasteurized saliva; filtered saliva; and deionized water (DIW)) were included (n=9/subgroup). Biofilm was then allowed to grow for 48 h using Brain Heart Infusion media supplemented with 5 g/l yeast extract, 1 mM CaCl2.2H2O, 5% vitamin K and hemin (v/v), and sucrose. Enamel samples were analyzed for Vickers surface microhardness change (VHNchange), and transverse microradiography measuring lesion depth (L) and mineral loss (∆Z). Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA. Results The two-way interaction of sucrose concentration × surface conditioning was not significant for VHNchange (p=0.872), ∆Z (p=0.662) or L (p=0.436). Surface conditioning affected VHNchange (p=0.0079), while sucrose concentration impacted ∆Z (p<0.0001) and L (p<0.0001). Surface conditioning with filtered/pasteurized saliva resulted in the lowest VHNchange values for both sucrose concentrations. The differences between filtered/pasteurized subgroups and the two other surface conditionings were significant (filtered saliva p=0.006; DIW p=0.0075). Growing the biofilm in 1% sucrose resulted in lesions with higher ∆Z and L values when compared with 0.5% sucrose. The differences in ∆Z and L between sucrose concentration subgroups was significant, regardless of surface conditioning (both p<0.0001). Conclusion Within the study limitations, surface conditioning using human saliva does not influence biofilm-mediated enamel caries lesion formation as measured by transverse microradiography, while differences were observed using surface microhardness, indicating a complex interaction between pellicle proteins and biofilm-mediated demineralization of the enamel surface.

Animals , Cattle , Saliva/chemistry , Sucrose/chemistry , Tooth Demineralization/microbiology , Biofilms/growth & development , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Reference Values , Saliva/microbiology , Sucrose/analysis , Surface Properties , Microradiography/methods , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Dental Pellicle/microbiology , Pasteurization , Hardness
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 24(6): 48-55, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056016


ABSTRACT Objective: To assess in situ the effect of fluoride associated with nano-hydroxyapatite for the prevention of demineralization of the enamel adjacent to orthodontic brackets. Material and Methods: Eight volunteers wore palatal devices prepared with 6 bovine enamel blocks (5x5x2 mm) with bonded brackets. The volunteers used the devices in two different moments of 14 days each. During the first 14 days, a product containing fluoride + nano-hydroxyapatite was applied twice (experimental group, GNH, n = 48), and for the other 14 days no prevention product was applied (control group, CG, n = 48). In both groups, along the experiment, the blocks were dripped with 20% sucrose eight times daily. After the experiment, all the specimens were sectioned and examined for lesion depth analysis (µm) under polarized light microscopy, and for enamel longitudinal microhardness (measured under the bracket, at 30 µm and at 130 µm from the margin), at seven different depths (10, 20, 30, 50, 70, 90, and 110 µm). Results: Under polarized light, group GNH presented significantly less demineralization depth ( X ¯= 15.01 µm, SD = 33.65) in relation to CG ( X ¯= 76.43 µm, SD = 83.75). Enamel longitudinal microhardness demonstrated significantly higher microhardness for group GNH when compared to CG. Conclusion: Fluoride + nano-hydroxyapatite can be an alternative preventive procedure for demineralization of the enamel adjacent to orthodontic brackets.

RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar in situ o efeito da nano-hidroxiapatita associada ao fluoreto na prevenção da desmineralização do esmalte adjacente aos braquetes ortodônticos. Material e Métodos: oito voluntários utilizaram aparelhos palatinos preparados com seis blocos de esmalte bovino (5 x 5 x 2 mm) com braquetes colados unidos por um fio de NiTi 0,016" preso por ligaduras elásticas. Os voluntários utilizaram os dispositivos em dois tempos distintos de 14 dias. Durante os primeiros 14 dias, um produto contendo flúor + nano-hidroxiapatita foi aplicado duas vezes (grupo experimental, GNH, n = 48), e nos outros 14 dias não foi aplicado qualquer produto de prevenção (grupo controle, GC, n = 48). Em ambos os grupos, ao longo do experimento, os blocos foram gotejados com sacarose a 20%, 8 vezes ao dia. Após o experimento, todos os espécimes foram seccionados e examinados para análise de profundidade de lesão (µm), sob microscopia de luz polarizada, e para microdureza longitudinal do esmalte do braquete (a 30µm e a 130µm da margem), a 7 profundidades diferentes (10, 20, 30, 50, 70, 90 e 110µm) Resultados: sob luz polarizada, o grupo GNH apresentou significativamente menor profundidade de desmineralização ( X ¯= 15,01µm, D.P. = 33,65) em relação ao GC ( X ¯= 76,43µm, D.P. = 83,75) A microdureza longitudinal do esmalte demonstrou valor significativamente maior para o grupo GNH, quando comparado ao GC. Conclusão: a nano-hidroxiapatita associada ao fluoreto pode ser um procedimento alternativo para a prevenção da desmineralização do esmalte adjacente aos braquetes ortodônticos.

Humans , Animals , Tooth Demineralization , Orthodontic Brackets , Cattle , Durapatite , Dental Enamel , Fluorides
Actual. osteol ; 15(3): 205-213, Sept-Dic. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104336


The dental caries is a progressive destruction of the teeth tissue due to the disbalance in the normal molecule interactions between the enamel and the bio!lm, which alters the demineralization-remineralization process. Milk fermentation produces caseinphosphopeptides with proved remineralizing capacity of the enamel. The presence of these peptides in fermented milk with ke!r grains has been described. The purpose of this work was to evaluate in vitro the capacity of milk ke!r to prevent the demineralization of dental enamel. Bovine incisors (n=68, 17 per group) were treated for 72 h with different solutions: I: artificial saliva at pH 7.2 , II: demineralizing solution at pH 4.5, III: supernatant of kefir fermented milk at pH 4.5, IV: milk supernatant at pH 4.5. The effects of treatments were evaluated by the change in the weight of the specimens, calcium concentration in the solution and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the enamel. Kefir milk supernatant prevented the demineralization process, that was evidenced by a change in weight and calcium concentration that were not different from group I, although the pH was 4.5. In contrast, group IV showed a decrease in weight and an increase in calcium concentration, compared with group I (one way ANOVA, p<0.05). Images of SEM agree with the values of weight and calcium concentration. These results indicate that kefir milk supernatant has a protective effect on enamel demineralization in vitro. (AU)

La caries dental es una patología debido a un desequilibrio en las interacciones moleculares normales entre el esmalte y la biopelícula, que altera el proceso de desmineralización remineralización. La fermentación de la leche produce fosfopéptidos de caseína con probada capacidad remineralizante del esmalte, y se ha descripto la presencia de estos péptidos en la leche fermentada con granos de kéfir. El propósito de este trabajo fue evaluar in vitro la capacidad del kéfir de leche para prevenir la desmineralización del esmalte dental. Sesenta y ocho incisivos bovinos (17 por grupo) fueron tratados durante 72 h con diferentes soluciones: I: saliva artificial, pH 7.2, II: solución desmineralizante, pH 4.5, III: sobrenadante de leche fermentada con kefir, pH 4.5, IV: sobrenadante de leche, pH 4.5. El proceso de desmineralización se evaluó mediante el cambio en el peso de las muestras, la concentración de calcio en la solución y microscopía electrónica de barrido (SEM) del esmalte. El sobrenadante de leche fermentada con kéfir impidió el proceso de desmineralización, que se evidenció por un cambio en el peso y la concentración de calcio que no discreparon del grupo I, a pesar de haber tenido un pH de 4.5. En contraste, el grupo IV mostró una disminución en el peso y un aumento en la concentración de calcio, en comparación con el grupo I (ANOVA a un criterio, p<0.05). Las imágenes SEM concuerdan con los cambios en el peso y la concentración de calcio en los grupos estudiados. Los datos obtenidos demuestran que el sobrenadante de la leche tratada con kéfir tiene un efecto protector sobre la desmineralización del esmalte in vitro, inducida por el pH ácido. (AU)

Animals , Cattle , Tooth Demineralization/prevention & control , Kefir/microbiology , Saliva, Artificial/administration & dosage , Tooth Remineralization/methods , In Vitro Techniques , Cattle , Caseins/therapeutic use , Calcium/analysis , Tooth Demineralization/pathology , Tooth Demineralization/therapy , Biofilms , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Dental Enamel/cytology , Dental Enamel/physiopathology , Milk/microbiology , Formaldehyde/administration & dosage
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 8(3): 210-219, jul. 31, 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145338


Objective: To assess the six-month clinical outcome of restorations of non-carious cervical lesions (NCCL) with two composite resins: Bulk-Fill and nanohybrid resin. Materials and methods: Fifty-one patients, with three NCCLs each, were randomly allocated into three restoration groups: Tetric-N-Ceram Bulk-Fill (TB); Filtek Bulk-Fill (FB); y Filtek Z350XT (Z350). Adhesive techniques and restorative procedures were performed according to the manufacturers' instructions for the different materials. A 4mm increment was applied in TB and FB, and increments of ≤2mm depth were applied in Z350. Restorations were assessed by two calibrated examiners at baseline and at six months according to the FDI World Dental Federation guidelines (1: excellent, 2: acceptable, 3: sufficient, 4: unsatisfactory, 5: unacceptable) in Marginal Staining (MS), Fracture-Retention (FR), Marginal Adaptation (MA), Postoperative Sensitivity (S) and Caries (C). Wilcoxon test was used for the comparison between baseline and 6 months, and Kruskal-Wallis for the comparison of the three groups at six months (95% significance). Results: Forty-six patients with a total of 138 restorations attended a check-up at six months and were evaluated with excellent clinical outcome. In MS, 91.2% for Z350 and 97.8% for FB and TB; in FR, 97.8% for Z350 and 100% for FB and TB; in MA, 95.6% for Z350, 97.8% for FB and 100% for TN; in S, 95.6% for all three groups; and 100% for C. No statistically significant differences were found between the three groups nor in the comparison between the baseline and 6 months (p>0.05) Conclusion: No significant differences are observed between the three groups of resins in the parameters of MS, MA, S, FR and C regarding clinical outcome at six months.

Objetivo: Evaluar el comportamiento clínico a 6 meses en restauraciones de lesiones cervicales no cariosas (LCNC) con dos resinas compuestas Bulk-Fill y una resina nanohíbrida. Materiales y métodos: En 51 pacientes se restauraron 3 LCNC distribuidas aleatoriamente en 3 grupos, TB: Tetric-N-Ceram Bulk-Fill, FB: Filtek Bulk-Fill y Z350: Filtek Z350XT. Las técnicas adhesivas y procedimientos restauradores fueron realizados según las instrucciones de los fabricantes para los diferentes materiales. En TB y FB se aplicó un incremento de 4mm y en Z350 se aplicó incrementos ≤2mm de profundidad. Dos operadores calibrados evaluaron las restauraciones al baseline y 6 meses mediante los criterios clínicos FDI (1: excelente, 2: aceptable, 3: suficiente, 4: insatisfactorio, 5: inaceptable) en Tinción Marginal (TM), Fractura-Retención (FR), Adaptación Marginal (AM), Sensibilidad Postoperatoria (S) y Caries (C). Se utilizó Wilcoxon para la comparación entre baseline ­ 6 meses y Kruskal-Wallis para la comparación de los 3 grupos a 6 meses (significancia de 95%). Resultados: A los 6 meses asistieron 46 pacientes con un total de 138 restauraciones siendo evaluados con comportamiento clínico excelente; en TM 91,2% para Z350 y 97,8% para FB y TB; en FR, Z350 presentó 97,8% y en FB y TB el 100%; en AM, 95,6% para Z350, 97,8% para FB y 100% para TN; en S presentó 95,6% para los tres grupos; en C se presentó el 100%. No hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los 3 grupos y en la comparación de baseline - 6 meses (p>0.05). Conclusión: No existen diferencias significativas en el comportamiento clínico a 6 meses entre los 3 grupos de resinas en los parámetros TM, AM, S, FR Y C.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Tooth Demineralization/therapy , Composite Resins/chemistry , Dental Restoration, Permanent/methods , Chile , Double-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome , Tooth Cervix , Resin Cements/chemistry , Dental Materials
Rev. cient. odontol ; 7(1): 148-156, ene.-jun. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LIPECS, LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1006099


La hipomineralización del incisivo molar (HIM) es un defecto cualitativo del esmalte dental que afecta a los primeros molares permanentes y, a menudo, en asociación con los incisivos permanentes. Con respecto a su etiología, algunos factores pueden estar asociados a su desarrollo, tales como complicaciones prenatales, perinatales y posnatales, y actualmente se considera la predisposición genética. El control genético del desarrollo dental representa una serie compleja de eventos y las mutaciones ocasionales en los genes que codifican las proteínas del esmalte pueden causar alteraciones que afectan las vías moleculares, es por ello que la amelogénesis está bajo un control genético estricto. Actualmente, existe poca evidencia sobre la influencia de las variaciones genéticas en los genes que codifican las proteínas de la matriz del esmalte en la aparición de defectos del esmalte del desarrollo. Por lo tanto, el propósito de esta revisión de la literatura es dar a conocer una revisión actualizada sobre los factores genéticos asociados a la aparición de hipomineralización incisivo-molar. (AU)

Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a qualitative defect of the tooth enamel that affects the first permanent molars, often in association with the permanent incisors. Some factors may be associated with the etiology of MIH, including prenatal, perinatal and postnatal complications and genetic predisposition. Genetic control of dental development involves a complex series of events, and occasional mutations in the genes that encode enamel proteins can cause alterations that affect molecular pathways, which is why amelogenesis is under strict genetic control. Currently, there is little evidence of the influence of genetic variations in the genes encoding enamel matrix proteins on the appearance of developmental enamel defects. Therefore, the purpose of this literature review is to provide an updated review on the genetic factors associated with the appearance of MIH. (AU)

Humans , Tooth, Deciduous , Tooth Demineralization/genetics , Dentition, Permanent , Dental Enamel