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1.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190163, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1090782

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective This in vitro study evaluated the effect of commercial whitening dentifrices on erosive tooth wear (ETW) of bovine enamel samples, in comparison with commercial regular dentifrices. Methodology Sixty bovine crowns were embedded in acrylic resin, polished and then had their baseline profile determined. They were randomly assigned to 5 groups (n=12/group), according to the type of commercial dentifrice to be tested: GI - Crest Anti-cavity Regular; GII - Crest 3D White; GIII - Colgate Total 12 Clean Mint; GIV - Colgate Optic White; GV - Placebo (negative control, fluoride-free dentifrice). The samples were submitted to daily erosive and abrasive challenges for 3 days. The erosive challenges were performed 3 times a day by immersing the specimens in 0.1% citric acid solution (pH 2.5) for 90 s. Each day after the first and last erosive challenges, the specimens were subjected to the abrasive challenge for 15 s, using a toothbrushing machine (Biopdi, São Carlos, SP, Brazil), soft toothbrushes and slurry (1:3 g/ml) of the tested toothpastes (1.5 N). The specimens were kept in artificial saliva between the challenges. The final profile was obtained and the ETW (µm) was calculated. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests (p<0.05). Results All dentifrices tested significantly reduced the enamel wear in comparison with the Placebo, except GIII. The median (95% CI) ETW was 1.35 (1.25-1.46)bc for GI, 1.17 (1.01-1.34)cd for GII, 1.36 (1.28-1.45)ab for GIII, 1.08 (1.04-1.14)d for GIV and 2.28 (2.18-2.39)a for GV. Conclusion When dentifrices from the same manufacturer were compared, the whitening dentifrices led to similar or less wear than the regular ones.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Tooth Erosion/chemically induced , Toothpastes/adverse effects , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Tooth Bleaching Agents/adverse effects , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Toothbrushing/adverse effects , Toothpastes/chemistry , Materials Testing , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Tooth Bleaching Agents/chemistry
2.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20200493, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1134787

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different toothpastes on the surface wear of enamel, dentin, composite resin (CR), and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC), and to perform a topographic analysis of the surfaces, based on representative images generated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) after erosion-abrasion cycles. Methodology One hundred and forty bovine incisors were collected and divided into two groups: 72 enamel and 72 dentin blocks (4×4 mm). Half of the specimens were restored with CR (Filtek Z350 XT) and the other half with RMGIC (Fuji II LC). Then, samples were submitted to a demineralization cycle (5 days, 4×2 min/day, 1% citric acid, pH 3.2) and exposed to three different toothpastes (2×15 s/day): without fluoride (WF, n=12), sodium fluoride-based (NaF, n=12), and stannous fluoride-based (SnF2, n=12). Surface wear, as well as restoration interfaces wear, were investigated by profilometry of the dental substrates and restorative materials. All representative surfaces underwent AFM analysis. Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's tests (α=0.05). Results NaF-based toothpaste caused the greater dentin surface wear (p<0.05). Toothpastes affected only enamel-restoration interfaces. AFM analysis showed precipitate formation in dentinal tubules caused by the use of fluoride toothpastes. Conclusions NaF-based toothpastes had no protective effect on enamel adjacent to CR and RMGIC against erosion-abrasion challenges, nor on dentin adjacent to RMGIC material. SnF2-based toothpastes caused more damage to interfaces between enamel and RMGIC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Tooth Erosion/chemically induced , Tooth Erosion/prevention & control , Toothpastes , Composite Resins , Glass Ionomer Cements , Dental Enamel , Dentin
3.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 17(3): 386-391, nov 19, 2018. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248136

ABSTRACT

Introdução: o tratamento com bochechos de dexametasona elixir é bastante descrito na literatura para casos de lesões erosivas e ulceradas em mucosa bucal. Excipientes acrescentados aos medicamentos os tornam mais palatáveis e estáveis, embora possam resultar em efeitos adversos que comprometem a saúde bucal. Objetivo: este estudo propôs-se a avaliar, in vitro, o pH, a acidez total titulável (ATT) e o teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST) de diferentes marcas de dexametasona elixir disponíveis no mercado da cidade de Salvador, correlacionando-os ao potencial erosivo e cariogênico do medicamento para os dentes. Metodologia: seis marcas (A, B, C, D, E e F) de laboratórios distintos foram incluídas neste estudo. O valor do pH foi aferido utilizando-se pHmetro e agitador magnético; a ATT foi determinada adicionando-se hidróxido de sódio (NaOH) 0,1 N e a aferição do SST foi através de refratômetro. Os dados foram expressos em valores médios e desvios padrão. Resultados: o pH de todas as marcas investigadas apresentou medidas abaixo de 5,5, logo, todas apresentaram potencial erosivo. Na avaliação da ATT, maior volume de NaOH 0,1N foi necessário pela marca D para alcançar pH 5,5 e 7,0. Dentre as marcas investigadas, a marca B foi a que apresentou maior teor de SST em sua composição. Conclusão: soluções para uso local de dexametasona elixir possuem potencial erosivo e alto teor de SST, tornando-se, então, importante a orientação de instrução de higiene oral dos pacientes que possuem maior risco de desenvolver alterações dentárias.


Introduction: treatment with mouthwash dexamethasone elixir is sufficiently described in the literature for cases of erosive and ulcerated lesions in oral mucosa. Excipients added to drugs make them more palatable and stable, however, may result in adverse effects that compromise the health of the oral cavity. Aim: this study sets out to evaluate in vitro pH, titratable total acidity (TTA) and the total soluble solids content (TSS) of different brands of dexamethasone elixir available on the market of Salvador city, correlating them to the potential of cariogenic and erosive medicine for the dental units. Methodology: six distinct laboratories brands (A, B, C, D, E and F) were included in this study. The pH value was assessed using a pH meter and magnetic stirrer, the TTA was determined by adding sodium hydroxide (NaOH) 0.1 N and measurement of TSS was made with refractometer. The data were expressed as average and standard deviations. Results: the pH of all brands investigated presented measures below 5.5, so, all presented erosive potential. In TTA, greater volume of NaOH 0, 1N was required by D brand to achieve pH 5.5 and 7.0. Among the brands investigated, brand B was the one that presented the highest content of TSS in its composition. Conclusion: solutions for local use of dexamethasone elixir have erosive potential and high content of TSS, becoming so important the guidance of oral hygiene instruction of patients who have higher risk of developing dental changes


Subject(s)
Tooth Erosion/chemically induced , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Cariogenic Agents/analysis , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , Acidity/analysis , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
4.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 17(3): 315-321, nov 19, 2018. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247693

ABSTRACT

Introdução: a candidíase é uma infecção fúngica oportunista, causada pela proliferação e disseminação de espécies de Candida, que pode acometer a cavidade oral. Dentre os antifúngicos mais utilizados e de uso tópico, a nistatina é considerada o medicamento de primeira escolha. Objetivo: avaliar as propriedades físico-químicas de diferentes marcas de nistatina disponíveis no mercado, incluindo o pH, a acidez total titulável (ATT) e a determinação de sólidos solúveis totais (SST). Metodologia: trata-se de um estudo experimental in vitro, constituído por uma amostra de oito diferentes marcas de nistatina em suspensão oral de uso tópico. Foi analisado o potencial erosivo e cariogênico dessas soluções mediante a determinação de pH, ATT e SST (°Brix). Resultados: no tocante ao pH, verificou-se que a média obtida foi de 6,05 (± 0,66). Dois dos medicamentos analisados (marcas A e H) apresentaram pH abaixo do crítico para a dissolução do esmalte dental. Quanto à ATT das soluções, os valores variaram de 1,9 a 14,53 mL para atingir o pH neutro, indicando que as marcas B, C e E podem levar mais tempo para ser neutralizadas em razão da quantidade de solução necessária. A análise do °Brix revelou que a marca H apresentou o maior teor de açúcares em sua composição (44,9%). Conclusão: a formulação de nistatina da marca H apresentou pH endógeno mais crítico e percentual de sólidos solúveis totais elevado, sendo, portanto, a medicação com maior fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de cárie e erosão dentária, devendo ser consideradas as doses e frequências de uso, bem como os hábitos de higiene oral do paciente


Introduction: candidiasis is an opportunistic fungal infection caused by the proliferation and spread of Candida species that can affect the oral cavity. Among the most commonly used topical antifungal agents, nystatin is considered the first choice drug. Methodology: to evaluate the physical and chemical properties of different brands of nystatin available in the market, including pH, titratable acidity and determination of total soluble solids. Results: Regarding pH, it was verified that the mean obtained was 6.05 (± 0.66). Two of the analyzed drugs (A and H) presented pH below that considered critical for the dissolution of dental enamel. As for the titratable total acidity of the solutions, values ranged from 1.9 to 14.53 mL to reach neutral pH, indicating that the B, C and E marks may take longer to neutralize because of the amount of solution required. The analysis of ° Brix revealed that the H mark had the highest sugar content in its composition (44.9%). Conclusion: Nystatin brand H presented the worst indices in terms of endogenous pH and total sugar percentage, being therefore the medication with the highest risk factor for the development of caries and dental erosion.


Subject(s)
Tooth Erosion/chemically induced , Candidiasis, Oral/drug therapy , Cariogenic Agents/analysis , Nystatin/adverse effects , Antifungal Agents/adverse effects
5.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 6(1): 12-15, Jan. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-907699

ABSTRACT

Objective: to assess the erosive effect of energy drinks (ED) alone and mixed with alcohol on the human enamel surface in vitro. Methods: Twenty non-erupted human third molars were vertically sectioned in half. Specimens were exposed to 5mL of ED plus 5mL of artificial saliva or 5mL of ED plus 5mL of artificial saliva plus 5mL of alcohol (Pisco). Exposure times were set at 30min and 60min. Erosive assessments were made using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The ED analyzed were Mr. Big, Kem Extreme, Red Bull, and Monster Energy. ED pH measurements were performed at 25°C and titration was done with NaOH 0.1mol/L. Results: The pH ranges were: ED alone 2.55 to 3.46, ED mixed with artificial saliva 2.60 to 3.55, ED mixed with Pisco 2.82 to 3.70, and ED mixed with both 2.92 to 3.86. The pH of Pisco was 6.13, and Pisco mixed with artificial saliva had a pH of 6.23. Titration showed a pH range from 3.5 to 5.7. SEM-EDS analysis showed that Mr. Big and Monster led to clear demineralization at 30 min and remineralization at 60m in. Pisco slightly decreased the erosive effect of these ED. Kem Xtreme and Red Bull led to no demineralization in the first hour. Conclusion: According to the pH, acidity and EDS analysis, the ED of the present study likely caused enamel erosion in human teeth surface dependent on exposure time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alcoholic Beverages/adverse effects , Dental Enamel , Energy Drinks/adverse effects , Tooth Erosion/chemically induced , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , In Vitro Techniques
6.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 31: e40, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839529

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the effect of final irrigation protocols on microhardness reduction and erosion of root canal dentin. Sixty root canals from mandibular incisors were instrumented and randomly divided into six groups (n = 10) according to the irrigant used: QMiX, 17% EDTA, 10% citric acid (CA), 1% peracetic acid (PA), 2.5% NaOCl (solution control), and distilled water (negative control). The chelating solutions were used to irrigate the canal followed by 2.5% NaOCl as a final flush. After the irrigation protocols, all specimens were rinsed with 10 mL of distilled water to remove any residue of the chemical solutions. Before and after the final irrigation protocols, dentin microhardness was measured with a Knoop indenter. Three indentations were made at 100 µm and 500 µm from the root canal lumen. Afterwards, the specimens were prepared for scanning electron microscopic analysis and the amount of dentin erosion was examined. Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to analyze the results with a significance level set at 5%. At 100 µm, all protocols significantly reduced dentin microhardness (p < .05), while at 500 µm, this effect was detected only in the EDTA and QMiX groups (p < .05). CA was the irrigant that caused more extensive erosion in dentinal tubules, followed by PA and EDTA. QMiX opened dentinal tubules, but did not cause dentin erosion. Results suggest that QMiX and 17% EDTA reduced dentin microhardness at a greater depth. Additionally, QMiX did not cause dentin erosion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Pulp Cavity/drug effects , Dentin/drug effects , Root Canal Irrigants , Tooth Erosion/chemically induced , Biguanides , Citric Acid/pharmacology , Dentin/ultrastructure , Edetic Acid/pharmacology , Hardness Tests , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Peracetic Acid/pharmacology , Polymers , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Root Canal Therapy/methods , Smear Layer , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Surface Properties/drug effects
7.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 16(1): 43-50, jan.-dez. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-911081

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate in vitro the effect of erosive challenge and continuous immersion in cola drink on surface microhardness of orthodontic composites. Material and Methods: Forty samples of three composites (Transbond XT, Quick Cure and Ortho Cem) were prepared (4 x 2 mm) and distributed into 4 groups (n=10): erosive challenge, artificial saliva immersion (control 1), continuous cola immersion and artificial saliva immersion (control 2). Erosive challenge was performed 4 times per day (5 min) in cola drink for 2 h in artificial saliva for 7 days. Samples of continuous cola immersion group were soaked in cola drink for 5 weeks and the beverage was renewed every two days. Control samples were immersed in artificial saliva for 7 days (control 1) and 5 weeks (control 2). Vickers microhardness (VHN) measurements were performed before and after erosive challenge and continuous immersion. Data were evaluated by paired Student's T-test, ANOVA one-way and Tukey tests (α = 0.05). Results: After 7 days of erosive challenge, there was no statistical difference between VHN values before and after erosive challenge and artificial saliva immersion. However, after 5 weeks of cola drink and artificial saliva immersion, significant reduction in VHN values was observed for all composites when compared to baseline values, and specimens immersed in cola drink showed lower VHN compared to those immersed in saliva, regardless of composite composition. Conclusion: After 7 days of erosive challenge, there was no alteration in superficial VHN of orthodontic composites. However, after 5 weeks of immersion in cola drink, significant reduction of VHN values was observed for all composites.


Subject(s)
Composite Resins , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Orthodontic Appliances , Tooth Erosion/chemically induced , Analysis of Variance , Brazil , Hardness Tests/methods
8.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 16(1): 51-58, jan.-dez. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-911082

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the ability of different periods of salivary exposure and two different removable appliances to rehardening initial erosive lesions. Material and Methods: This randomized, single blind in situ study was conducted with 2 crossover phases. The factors under study were: period of salivary exposure (15 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour and 2 hours) and type of oral appliance (maxillary or mandibular). Two hundred enamel blocks were selected by initial surface hardness (SHi). Enamel blocks were demineralized in vitro (0.05M citric acid; pH2.5 for 15 seconds), surface hardness (SHd) was remeasured and 160 blocks were selected and randomized among groups. Thus, there were 2 blocks per period of salivary exposure in each type of oral appliance for each one of the 10 volunteers. In each phase, one of the removable appliances was tested. The response variable was percentage of surface hardness recovery (%SHR=[(SHf-SHd)/SHi)]x100). Two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test were applied adopting 5% of significance. Results: No difference was found among oral appliances on enamel rehardening (p>0.01). Salivary exposure of 2 hours promoted similar enamel rehardening when compared to 1 hour (p>0.05), which showed similar rehardening to 30 min. All mentioned period of salivary exposure promoted superior rehardening than 15 min (p>0.01). Conclusion: The salivary time exposure between erosive attacks might be 2 hours to achieve a feasible maximum rehardening. In addition, both maxillary and the mandibular appliance have presented a similar rehardening ability.


Subject(s)
Hardness , Saliva/microbiology , Single-Blind Method , Tooth Erosion/chemically induced , Tooth Remineralization/methods , Analysis of Variance , Brazil
9.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 29(1): 1-7, 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777199

ABSTRACT

Concern has been raised about the bonding of restorative procedures to an erosive lesion, given the change in organic and inorganic composition and structure of this substrate. This in vitro study evaluated the effect of erosive drinks and an enzyme inhibitor (2% chlorhexidine digluconate – 2% CHX) on bond strength to dentin. Sixty sound human third molars were selected, and the occlusal enamel was flattened, exposing the dentin surface. The specimens were randomly divided into three groups: AS-Artificial saliva (control group), RC- Regular Cola and ZC- Zero Cola. Twenty specimens were immersed in their respective solution for 1 minute, 3 times a day, over the course of 5 days. After acid etching and before bonding with Adper Single Bond 2, half of the samples of each group (n = 10) were treated with 2% CHX, whereas the other half (n = 10) were not, forming the control group (CONV). All the specimens were restored with Filtek Z250 composite resin filled in Tygon tubes (0.48 mm2), yielding six microcylinders for microshear bond strength testing. Three composite resin microcylinders of each specimen were tested after 1 month, and the remaining microcylinders were tested after 6 months. Failure modes were determined using a stereomicroscope (40x). The data were statistically analyzed by three-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (α = 0.05). Overall bonding was reduced after 6 months, regardless of treatment. The 2% CHX enhanced bond strength after 1 month only in the ZC group, and did not enhance bonding performance to demineralized dentin by erosive protocol after 6 months in any group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carbonated Beverages , Chlorhexidine/analogs & derivatives , Chlorhexidine/chemistry , Dentin/drug effects , Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry , Tooth Erosion/chemically induced , Analysis of Variance , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/chemistry , Composite Resins/chemistry , Dental Restoration Failure , Dental Bonding/methods , Dental Cements/chemistry , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Dentin-Bonding Agents/chemistry , Immersion , In Vitro Techniques , Random Allocation , Saliva, Artificial/chemistry , Shear Strength/drug effects , Surface Properties/drug effects , Time Factors
10.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 29(1): 1-6, 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777225

ABSTRACT

A low pH and a high titratable acidity of juices and cola-based beverages are relevant factors that contribute to dental erosion, but the relative importance of these properties to maintain salivary pH at demineralizing levels for long periods of time after drinking is unknown. In this crossover study conductedin vivo, orange juice, a cola-based soft drink, and a 10% sucrose solution (negative control) were tested. These drinks differ in terms of their pH (3.5 ± 0.04, 2.5 ± 0.05, and 5.9 ± 0.1, respectively) and titratable acidity (3.17 ± 0.06, 0.57 ± 0.04 and < 0.005 mmols OH- to reach pH 5.5, respectively). Eight volunteers with a normal salivary flow rate and buffering capacity kept 15 mL of each beverage in their mouth for 10 s, expectorated it, and their saliva was collected after 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 s. The salivary pH, determined using a mini pH electrode, returned to the baseline value at 30 s after expectoration of the cola-based soft drink, but only at 90 s after expectoration of the orange juice. The salivary pH increased to greater than 5.5 at 15 s after expectoration of the cola drink and at 30 s after expectoration of the orange juice. These findings suggest that the titratable acidity of a beverage influences salivary pH values after drinking acidic beverages more than the beverage pH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Beverages , Citrus sinensis/chemistry , Saliva/chemistry , Buffers , Carbonated Beverages , Cross-Over Studies , Citric Acid/chemistry , Cola/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Reference Values , Time Factors , Titrimetry , Tooth Erosion/chemically induced
11.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 29(1): 1-7, 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777226

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of industrialised foods and drinks on primary tooth enamel previously eroded with hydrochloric acid (HCl). The crowns of one hundred two specimens were subjected to an erosive challenge with HCl and randomly divided into six groups (n = 17): Chocolate Milk (Toddynho® - Pepsico) - negative control; Petit Suisse Yogurt (Danoninho® - Danone); Strawberry Yogurt (Vigor); Apple puree (Nestlé); Fermented Milk (Yakult® - Yakult); and Home Squeezed Style Orange Juice (del Valle) - positive control. The 28-day immersion cycles for the test products were performed twice daily and were interspersed with exposure of the test substrate to artificial saliva. Measurements of enamel surface microhardness (SMH) were performed initially, after immersion in HCl and at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of experimentation. A two-way ANOVA, according to a split-plot design, followed by the sum of squares decomposition and Tukey’s test, revealed a significant effect for the interaction between Foods and Drinks and Length of Exposure (p < 0.00001). Orange juice resulted in greater mineral loss of enamel after 28 days. None of the test products was associated with recovery of tooth enamel microhardness.


Subject(s)
Humans , Beverages/adverse effects , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Hydrochloric Acid/chemistry , Snacks , Tooth Erosion/chemically induced , Tooth, Deciduous/drug effects , Analysis of Variance , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Fruit , Hardness Tests , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Random Allocation , Reference Values , Surface Properties , Saliva, Artificial/chemistry , Time Factors , Tooth, Deciduous/chemistry
12.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-708825

ABSTRACT

Desde hace una década están disponibles en el mercado nacional, tanto bebidas como otros productos energéticos. Su popularidad ha ido en aumento, sin embargo su consumo no está exento de riesgos. La cafeína es el ingrediente activo principal de estas bebidas y el consumo excesivo puede llegar a causar alteraciones en la salud general. Mucha gente las bebe a diario sin estar consciente del daño potencial que puede significar para su salud y sus dientes, especialmente en el caso de niños y adolescentes. En Chile, la acidez de estas bebidas es desconocida. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el pH de las bebidas energéticas presentes en el mercado chileno, estableciendo su potencial erosivo sobre los dientes. Metodología: La muestra quedó formada por 8 diferentes bebidas energéticas disponibles en Chile. El pH fue evaluado con un pHmetro calibrado (microprocessor pH to put AOKTON, pH/Ion 510) a 4°C y 17°C. Los resultados obtenidos fueron registrados y analizados estadísticamente. Resultados: El rango de pH osciló entre 2.57 (Kem Xtreme) y 3.30 (Red Bull). El promedio fue 2.88 a 4°C y 2.89 a 17°C. Conclusiones: Todas las muestras estudiadas tuvieron pH ácido, haciendo de ellas bebidas potencialmente erosivas para los dientes. Los valores de pH fueron menores a 4°C que a 17°C, pero sin diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p>0.05).


For a decade, energy drinks and other energy products have been available in the national market, and their popularity has increased. The consumption is not risk free, though. Caffeine is the main active ingredient in these drinks and an excessive consumption may be dangerous for general health. Many people drink them daily without being aware of the potential risk they pose on their health and teeth, especially on children and adolescents. Currently, the acidity of those beverages is unknown in Chile. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the pH of energy drinks, and correlate it with their erosive potential on teeth. Methodology: 8 different energy drinks available in Chile constituted the sample. pH was measured with a calibrated digital pHmeter (microprocessor pH to put AOKTON, pH / Ion 510) at 4°C and 17°C. The results obtained were registered and statistically analyzed. Results: pH values ranged from 2.57 (Kem Xtreme) to 3.30 (Red Bull) the mean pH was 2.88 and 2.89, at 4°C and 17°C respectively. Conclusions: All of the beverages showed low pH, which makes them potentially erosive for hard dental tissue. The pH values were lower at 4°C than at 17°C, but without statistical significance (p>0.05).


Subject(s)
Energy Drinks/analysis , Energy Drinks/adverse effects , Tooth Erosion/chemically induced , Chile , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
13.
J. appl. oral sci ; 21(4): 363-368, Jul-Aug/2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-684568

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of metallic ions to carbonated drinks on their erosive potential. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Powdered enamel was added to carbonated beverages (Coca-ColaTM or Sprite ZeroTM and shaken for 30 s. The samples were then immediately centrifuged and the supernatant removed. This procedure was repeated 5 times with the beverages containing Cu2+, Mg2+, Mn2+ or Zn2+ (1.25-60 mmol/L). For Coca-ColaTM, the concentration of each ion that exhibited the highest protection was also evaluated in combination with Fe2+. The phosphate or calcium released were analyzed spectrophotometrically. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05). RESULTS: For Coca-ColaTM, the best protective effect was observed for Zn2+ alone (10 mmol/L) or in combination (1 mmol/L) with other ions (12% and 27%, respectively, when compared with the control). Regarding Sprite ZeroTM, the best protective effect was observed for Cu2+ at 15 and 30 mmol/L, which decreased the dissolution by 22-23%. Zn2+ at 2.5 mmol/L also reduced the dissolution of powdered enamel by 8%. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the combination of metallic ions can be an alternative to reduce the erosive potential of Coca-ColaTM. Regarding Sprite ZeroTM, the addition of Cu2+ seems to be the best alternative. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Carbonated Beverages/adverse effects , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Ions/chemistry , Metals/chemistry , Tooth Erosion/prevention & control , Analysis of Variance , Calcium/analysis , Copper/chemistry , Magnesium/chemistry , Manganese/chemistry , Phosphates/analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors , Tooth Erosion/chemically induced , Zinc/chemistry
14.
Bauru; s.n; 2013. 124 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-707695

ABSTRACT

Os refrigerantes são potentes agentes erosivos que podem provocar perda de estrutura dentária e requerer o tratamento restaurador adesivo, dependendo do grau de comprometimento. Pelas diferentes propriedades apresentadas, estas bebidas podem afetar a adesão à dentina de diferentes formas. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a resistência de união (RU) em dentina erodida tratada com solução de clorexidina a 2%. Sessenta terceiros molares tiveram a superfície dentinária do terço oclusal exposta e foram distribuídos em 3 grupos, de acordo com o protocolo erosivo: controle, sem desafio (C), desafio erosivo com Coca-Cola (CC) e desafio erosivo com Coca-Cola Light (CL). As ciclagens erosivas foram por ciclos de 5-min de imersão 3x/dia durante 5 dias. Em seguida, metade dos dentes foi tratado com solução de clorexidina a 2% (1,5ul) e o restante com água deioinizada (1,5ul) e o processo adesivo realizado com Adper Single Bond 2® e resina composta Filtek Z350®. Os espécimes foram mantidos em estufa a 37oC por 24 horas. Após esse período, todos os espécimes foram seccionados em palitos (0,80mm2 a 1mm2). Um terço dos palitos obtidos de cada grupo foi testado imediatamente (I-24 h) pelo teste de microtração. Os espécimes remanescentes foram envelhecidos em saliva artificial por 6 meses (6m) e 1 ano (1a) antes do teste. Os dados obtidos da microtração foram analisados por meio dos testes de ANOVA a três critérios e Tukey (p<0,05). O modo de fratura foi analisado e classificado em adesivo, misto e coesivo em dentina ou resina composta. Simultaneamente, uma fatia (mesiodistal) de cada espécime foi analisado por microscopia confocal para análise da interface resina/dentina e formação de tag nos tempos de envelhecimento. Os valores médios de resistência adesiva (MPa ± dp; 24 horas/6 meses /1 ano) foram: C(38,57 ± 15,36/26,67 ± 19,37/12,21 ± 11,24); C-Chx2%(41,93 ± 9,97/31,12 ± 17,02/11,86 ± 10,4); CC(21,80 ± 7,09/8,33 ± 10,71/4,70 ± 9,04)...


Soft drinks are potent erosive agents, which can provoke loss of dental structure and require adhesive restorative treatment, depending on the compromising level. Due to the different properties, these beverages can affect bonding to dentin in different manners. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength (BS) to eroded dentin treated with 2% chlorhexidine solution. Sixty third human molars had their oclusal thirds removed to expose flat dentin and were divided into three groups, according to erosive protocol: Control (C) with no surface treatment, erosive challenge with Regular Coke (CC), erosive challenge with Light Coke (CL). The erosive challenge was performed by cycles of 5-min immersions, 3x/day during 5 days. After that, half of the teeth were treated with 2% chlorhexidine solution (1,5ul) and the remaining with deionized water (1,5ul) before adhesion procedure with Adper Single Bond 2® and FiltekTMZ350®. Specimens were stored at 37oC in deionized water for 24 hours. After this period, all specimens were sectioned into sticks (≈0.81 mm2 to 1mm2). A third of the specimens were tested immediately (I-24 h), for microtensile test. The remaining sticks aged in artificial saliva for 6 months (6m) and 1 year (1y) before testing. The failure mode was analyzed and classified as adhesive, mixed and cohesive in dentin or resin. Bond strength data was analyzed by three-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (p<0.05). Simultaneously, one slice (mesial-distal) of each specimen was analyzed by confocal microscopy for analysis of the interface resin/dentin and tag formation over the aging time. Means and standard-deviation (MPa) of each group (I, 6m and 1y) were: C (38.57±15.36, 26.67±19.37, 12.21±11.24), C-Chx 2% (41.93±9.97, 31.2±17.02, 11.86±10.4), CC (21.80±7.09, 8.33±10.71, 4.70±9.04), CC-Chx 2% (19.85±7.87, 24.32±11.7, 6.19±12.37) CL (22.70±9.63, 10.25±15.6, 4.93±5.54) and CL-Chx 2% (22.40±7.34, 20.94±14.68, 16.05±13.91). Adhesive and/or mixed failures were...


Subject(s)
Humans , Dentin-Bonding Agents/chemistry , Chlorhexidine/chemistry , Dentin , Dentin/chemistry , Tooth Erosion/chemically induced , Carbonated Beverages , Microscopy, Confocal , Surface Properties , Reproducibility of Results , Statistics, Nonparametric , Tensile Strength , Time Factors
15.
Bauru; s.n; 2013. 124 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-866662

ABSTRACT

Os refrigerantes são potentes agentes erosivos que podem provocar perda de estrutura dentária e requerer o tratamento restaurador adesivo, dependendo do grau de comprometimento. Pelas diferentes propriedades apresentadas, estas bebidas podem afetar a adesão à dentina de diferentes formas. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a resistência de união (RU) em dentina erodida tratada com solução de clorexidina a 2%. Sessenta terceiros molares tiveram a superfície dentinária do terço oclusal exposta e foram distribuídos em 3 grupos, de acordo com o protocolo erosivo: controle, sem desafio (C), desafio erosivo com Coca-Cola (CC) e desafio erosivo com Coca-Cola Light (CL). As ciclagens erosivas foram por ciclos de 5-min de imersão 3x/dia durante 5 dias. Em seguida, metade dos dentes foi tratado com solução de clorexidina a 2% (1,5ul) e o restante com água deioinizada (1,5ul) e o processo adesivo realizado com Adper Single Bond 2® e resina composta Filtek Z350®. Os espécimes foram mantidos em estufa a 37oC por 24 horas. Após esse período, todos os espécimes foram seccionados em palitos (0,80mm2 a 1mm2). Um terço dos palitos obtidos de cada grupo foi testado imediatamente (I-24 h) pelo teste de microtração. Os espécimes remanescentes foram envelhecidos em saliva artificial por 6 meses (6m) e 1 ano (1a) antes do teste. Os dados obtidos da microtração foram analisados por meio dos testes de ANOVA a três critérios e Tukey (p<0,05). O modo de fratura foi analisado e classificado em adesivo, misto e coesivo em dentina ou resina composta. Simultaneamente, uma fatia (mesiodistal) de cada espécime foi analisado por microscopia confocal para análise da interface resina/dentina e formação de tag nos tempos de envelhecimento. Os valores médios de resistência adesiva (MPa ± dp; 24 horas/6 meses /1 ano) foram: C(38,57 ± 15,36/26,67 ± 19,37/12,21 ± 11,24); C-Chx2%(41,93 ± 9,97/31,12 ± 17,02/11,86 ± 10,4); CC(21,80 ± 7,09/8,33 ± 10,71/4,70 ± 9,04)...


Soft drinks are potent erosive agents, which can provoke loss of dental structure and require adhesive restorative treatment, depending on the compromising level. Due to the different properties, these beverages can affect bonding to dentin in different manners. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength (BS) to eroded dentin treated with 2% chlorhexidine solution. Sixty third human molars had their oclusal thirds removed to expose flat dentin and were divided into three groups, according to erosive protocol: Control (C) with no surface treatment, erosive challenge with Regular Coke (CC), erosive challenge with Light Coke (CL). The erosive challenge was performed by cycles of 5-min immersions, 3x/day during 5 days. After that, half of the teeth were treated with 2% chlorhexidine solution (1,5ul) and the remaining with deionized water (1,5ul) before adhesion procedure with Adper Single Bond 2® and FiltekTMZ350®. Specimens were stored at 37oC in deionized water for 24 hours. After this period, all specimens were sectioned into sticks (≈0.81 mm2 to 1mm2). A third of the specimens were tested immediately (I-24 h), for microtensile test. The remaining sticks aged in artificial saliva for 6 months (6m) and 1 year (1y) before testing. The failure mode was analyzed and classified as adhesive, mixed and cohesive in dentin or resin. Bond strength data was analyzed by three-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (p<0.05). Simultaneously, one slice (mesial-distal) of each specimen was analyzed by confocal microscopy for analysis of the interface resin/dentin and tag formation over the aging time. Means and standard-deviation (MPa) of each group (I, 6m and 1y) were: C (38.57±15.36, 26.67±19.37, 12.21±11.24), C-Chx 2% (41.93±9.97, 31.2±17.02, 11.86±10.4), CC (21.80±7.09, 8.33±10.71, 4.70±9.04), CC-Chx 2% (19.85±7.87, 24.32±11.7, 6.19±12.37) CL (22.70±9.63, 10.25±15.6, 4.93±5.54) and CL-Chx 2% (22.40±7.34, 20.94±14.68, 16.05±13.91). Adhesive and/or mixed failures were...


Subject(s)
Humans , Dentin-Bonding Agents/chemistry , Chlorhexidine/chemistry , Dentin , Dentin/chemistry , Tooth Erosion/chemically induced , Carbonated Beverages , Microscopy, Confocal , Surface Properties , Reproducibility of Results , Statistics, Nonparametric , Tensile Strength , Time Factors
16.
J. appl. oral sci ; 20(5): 493-502, Sept.-Oct. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-654911

ABSTRACT

Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition. The consideration of chemical, biological and behavioral factors is fundamental for its prevention and therapy. Among the biological factors, saliva is one of the most important parameters in the protection against erosive wear. Objective: This review discusses the role of salivary factors on the development of dental erosion. Material and Methods: A search was undertaken on MeDLINe website for papers from 1969 to 2010. The keywords used in the research were "saliva", "acquired pellicle", "salivary flow", "salivary buffering capacity" and "dental erosion". Inclusion of studies, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken independently and in duplicate by two members of the review team. Disagreements were solved by discussion and consensus or by a third party. Results: Several characteristics and properties of saliva play an important role in dental erosion. Salivary clearance gradually eliminates the acids through swallowing and saliva presents buffering capacity causing neutralization and buffering of dietary acids. Salivary flow allows dilution of the acids. In addition, saliva is supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, providing calcium, phosphate and fluoride necessary for remineralization after an erosive challenge. Furthermore, many proteins present in saliva and acquired pellicle play an important role in dental erosion. Conclusions: Saliva is the most important biological factor affecting the progression of dental erosion. Knowledge of its components and properties involved in this protective role can drive the development of preventive measures targeting to enhance its known beneficial effects.


Subject(s)
Humans , Saliva/chemistry , Saliva/physiology , Tooth Erosion/chemically induced , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Dental Pellicle/chemistry , Dentin/chemistry , Fluorides/administration & dosage , Salivary Proteins and Peptides/physiology , Salivation/physiology , Tooth Remineralization
17.
J. appl. oral sci ; 20(4): 410-413, July-Aug. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-650629

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study evaluated the effect of calcium glycerophosphate (CaGP) supplemented to soft drinks on bovine enamel erosion. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four pH-cycles were performed, alternating demineralization by the beverage and remineralization in artificial saliva. RESULTS: Mean wear (±SD, µm) was 7.91±1.13, 7.39±1.01, 7.50±0.91 and 5.21±1.08 for Coca-Cola® without CaGP or containing CaGP at 0.1, 1.0 or 2.0 mM, respectively, while no wear was detected for CaGP at 5.0 and 10.0 mM. Corresponding figures for Sprite Zero® without CaGP or containing CaGP at 0.1, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0 or 10.0 mM were 8.04±1.30, 7.84±0.71, 7.47±0.80, 4.96±0.81, 3.99±0.10 and 1.87±0.12, respectively. CONCLUSION: Supplementation of both beverages with CaGP seems to be an alternative to reduce their erosive potential.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Carbonated Beverages/adverse effects , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Glycerophosphates/pharmacology , Tooth Erosion/prevention & control , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Hardness , Materials Testing , Random Allocation , Saliva, Artificial , Surface Properties , Tooth Erosion/chemically induced , Tooth Wear/prevention & control
18.
Braz. dent. j ; 23(4): 367-372, 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-658012

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated by an in vitro model the effect of beverages on dental enamel previously subjected to erosive challenge with hydrochloric acid. The factor under study was the type of beverage, in five levels: Sprite® Zero Low-calorie Soda Lime (positive control), Parmalat® ultra high temperature (UHT) milk, Ades® Original soymilk, Leão® Ice Tea Zero ready-to-drink low-calorie peach-flavored black teaand Prata® natural mineral water (negative control). Seventy-five bovine enamel specimens were distributed among the five types of beverages (n=15), according to a randomized complete block design. For the formation of erosive wear lesions, the specimens were immersed in 10 mL aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid 0.01 M for 2 min. Subsequently, the specimens were immersed in 20 mL of the beverages for 1 min, twice daily for 2 days at room temperature. In between, the specimens were kept in 20 mL of artificial saliva at 37ºC. The response variable was the quantitative enamel microhardness. ANOVA and Tukey's test showed highly significant differences (p<0.00001) in the enamel exposed to hydrochloric acid and beverages. The soft drink caused a significantly higher decrease in microhardness compared with the other beverages. The black tea caused a significantly higher reduction in microhardness than the mineral water, UHT milk and soymilk, but lower than the soft drink. Among the analyzed beverages, the soft drink and the black tea caused the most deleterious effects on dental enamel microhardness.


Este estudo avaliou através de um modelo in vitro o efeito de bebidas no esmalte dental previamente submetido a desafio erosivo com ácido clorídrico. O fator em estudo foi o tipo de bebida, em cinco níveis: Sprite Zero (Coca-Cola® Brasil) controle positivo, leite integral Ultra High Temperature (Parmalat®), extrato de soja integral (Ades® Original), chá preto com baixo teor calórico sabor pêssego (Leão Ice Tea Zero Coca-Cola® Brasil) e água mineral Prata® (controle negativo). Setenta e cinco espécimes de esmalte bovino foram distribuídos entre os cinco tipos de bebidas (n = 15), de acordo com delineamento em blocos completos e casualizados. Para a formação das lesões de desgaste erosivo, os espécimes foram imersos durante 2 min em 10 mL de solução aquosa de ácido clorídrico 0,01 M. Subsequentemente foram imersos em 20 mL das bebidas por 1 min, duas vezes ao dia durante 2 dias, em temperatura ambiente. Nos intervalos entre as imersões os espécimes permaneceram em saliva artificial a 37ºC. A variável de resposta quantitativa foi microdureza superficial do esmalte. ANOVA e teste de Tukey demonstraram diferenças altamente significativas (p <0,00001) no esmalte exposto ao ácido clorídrico e às bebidas. O refrigerante provocou diminuição da microdureza superficial significativamente maior do que as demais bebidas. O chá preto provocou diminuição da microdureza significativamente maior que a água mineral, o leite UHT e o extrato de soja, porém menor que o refrigerante.Entre as bebidas analisadas, refrigerante e chá preto demonstraram efeitos mais deletérios sobre a microdureza do esmalte dental.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Beverages/classification , Dental Enamel/pathology , Hydrochloric Acid/adverse effects , Tooth Erosion/chemically induced , Beverages/adverse effects , Carbonated Beverages/adverse effects , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Fluorides/analysis , Hardness , Humidity , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Ion-Selective Electrodes , Milk , Mineral Waters/adverse effects , Random Allocation , Soy Milk , Saliva, Artificial/chemistry , Temperature , Time Factors , Tea/adverse effects
19.
Arq. odontol ; 48(4): 227-233, 2012. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-698353

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar o pH, a concentração de Sólidos Solúveis Totais - SST (°Brix), a titrabilidade ácida, e o teor de cálcio e fosfato de três bebidas à base de soja, sabor maçã (AdeS®, Sollys®, AdeS Zero®), água mineral sem gás Água Schin® (controle negativo - CN) e de Coca-Cola® (controle positivo - CP),comercializadas na cidade de João Pessoa - Brasil. Materiais e Métodos: A avaliação do pH foi realizada mediante o uso de pHmetro digital e a do °Brix foi determinada por um refratômetro específico de campo. Para avaliação da titrabilidade ácida foi medida o momento de viragem do indicador fenolftaleína. O teor de cálcio foi mensurado a partir do uso de solução padrão de Ácido Etilenodiamino Tetra-Acético - EDTA (0,01 M) e sua reação com o cálcio na presença do indicador em meio alcalino. A quantificação de fosfato foi feita por meio de espectofotômetro. Para obtenção dos valores de pH, °Brix e titrabilidade ácida foram feitas três aferições, para o cálcio foram feitas duas (a média aritmética foi considerada como resultado final para estas aferições) e para o fosfato, uma aferição. Os resultados foram analisados descritivamente, Resultados: Os valores de pH variaram de 4,01 (Sollys®) a 4,25 (AdeS Zero®). Para os SST a variação obtida foi de 4,17°Brix (AdeS Zero®) a 8,00°Brix (AdeS®). A titrabilidade ácida variou de 5,87mg/100ml (AdeS®) a 7,7mg/100ml (Sollys®). Para a quantidade de cálcio e fosfato a variação foi de 25,55mg/100ml (AdeS®) a 98,15mg/100ml (Sollys®) e24mg/100ml (AdeS®) a 49,5mg/100ml (Sollys®), respectivamente. Conclusões: As bebidas analisadas neste estudo revelaram-se potencialmente erosivas e cariogênicas.


Subject(s)
Dental Caries/chemically induced , Diet, Cariogenic , Tooth Erosion/chemically induced , In Vitro Techniques , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration/radiation effects
20.
Braz. oral res ; 25(6): 562-567, Nov.-Dec. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-608027

ABSTRACT

Acid erosion is a superficial loss of enamel caused by chemical processes that do not involve bacteria. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as the presence of acid substances in the oral cavity, may cause a pH reduction, thus potentially increasing acid erosion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microhardness of bleached and unbleached bovine enamel after immersion in a soda beverage, artificial powder juice and hydrochloric acid. The results obtained for the variables of exposure time, acid solution and substrate condition (bleached or unbleached enamel) were statistically analyzed by the ANOVA and Tukey tests. It was concluded that a decrease in microhardness renders dental structures more susceptible to erosion and mineral loss, and that teeth left unbleached show higher values of microhardness compared to bleached teeth.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Acids/adverse effects , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Hardness/drug effects , Hydrogen Peroxide/adverse effects , Tooth Bleaching/adverse effects , Carbonated Beverages/adverse effects , Citrates/adverse effects , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Gastric Juice/chemistry , Hardness Tests/methods , Random Allocation , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Tooth Erosion/chemically induced
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