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Braz. dent. j ; 31(6): 664-672, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132357


Abstract Evaluated the effect of CPP-ACP/NaF and xylitol/NaF varnishes in reduce erosion and progression of erosion. Forty enamel blocks were divided into four groups (n=10): G1=CPP-ACP/NaF varnish (MI varnishTM); G2=xylitol/NaF varnish (Profluorid®); G3=NaF varnish (Duraphat®, positive control) and G4=deionized water (MilliQ®, negative control). Samples were immersed in Sprite ZeroTM (pH 2.58, 4x/day, 3 days), in between immersions, the specimens stayed in artificial saliva. After 3 days of erosion, the eroded area was divided in two (half of one received an additional varnish layer while the other half repeated the same 3-day erosion cycle). The 3D, non-contact profilometry technique was used to determinate tooth structure loss (TSL) and surface roughness (SR). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and 3D images were utilized to evaluate the topography of the samples. Mann-Whitney, one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests were used (significance level of 0.05%). SEM and 3D images were descriptively evaluated. After 3 or 6 days of erosion, all tested varnishes were better than G4 (p<0.05) for TSL and SR. In addition, G1 had lower values for TSL than G3 (p<0.05) after 3 days of erosion. Under SEM and 3D images observation, all groups presented porosity, irregularities and depressions on the surface enamel after 3 and 6 days of erosion, more pronounced in G4. An application of topical NaF varnishes was effective in reducing TSL and enamel roughness after erosion challenges, being the CCP-ACP/NaF varnish more effective than NaF varnish and water after 3 days of erosion.

Resumo Avaliou-se o efeito dos vernizes CPP-ACP/NaF e xilitol/NaF na redução da erosão e progressão da erosão. Quarenta blocos de esmalte foram divididos em quatro grupos (n=10): G1=verniz CPP-ACP/NaF (verniz MITM); G2=verniz xilitol/NaF (Profluorid®); G3=verniz NaF (Duraphat®, controle positivo) e G4=água desionizada (MilliQ®, controle negativo). As amostras foram imersas em refrigerante Sprite ZeroTM (pH 2.58, 4x/dia, 3 dias), entre imersões, os espécimes ficaram em saliva artificial. Após 3 dias de erosão, a área erodida foi dividida em duas (metade recebeu uma camada adicional de verniz, enquanto a outra metade repetiu o mesmo ciclo de erosão de 3 dias). A técnica de perfilometria 3D de não contato foi utilizada para determinar a perda de estrutura dentária (PED) e rugosidade superficial (RS). Microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e imagens em 3D foram utilizadas para avaliar a topografia das amostras. Testes de Mann-Whitney, One-way ANOVA e Tukey foram utilizados (nível de significância de 0,05%). Imagens do MEV e 3D foram avaliadas descritivamente. Após 3 ou 6 dias de erosão, todos os vernizes testados foram melhores que G4 (p<0,05) para PED e RS. Além disso, o G1 apresentou menores valores de PED do que o G3 (p<0,05) após 3 dias de erosão. Observando as imagens em MEV e 3D, todos os grupos apresentaram porosidade, irregularidades e depressões no esmalte superficial após 3 e 6 dias de erosão, sendo mais pronunciados no G4. Uma aplicação tópica de vernizes fluoretados foi eficaz na redução da rugosidade e PED do esmalte após desafios de erosão. Além disso, o grupo CPP-ACP/NaF teve melhor desempenho na redução da PED quando comparado ao verniz de NaF e a água, após 3 dias de erosão.

Humans , Tooth Erosion/prevention & control , Sodium Fluoride , Xylitol , Caseins , Fluorides, Topical , Dental Enamel
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 9(2): 142-149, abr. 30, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151910


Objective: This study investigated the effect of endogenous erosion on the microhardness of dentine and a nanofilled composite resin. Procedures for preventing erosion were also studied. Materials and Methods: 90 bovine dentine specimens were divided into three groups in accordance with the method for preventing: negative control, topical application of fluoride and resin-modified glass ionomer varnish. 120 composite resin specimens were distributed into four groups, which also included a resin sealant, among the preventive procedures. Specimens were then randomly divided into three sub-groups according to the exposure to simulate gastric acid solution and subsequent remineralization: negative control, 9 and 18 cycles. Surface analysis was carried out by measuring the Knoop hardness. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using 2-way ANOVA and Tukey test. Result: The mean hardness of dentine and of the composite specimens resin exhibited lower hardness after 18 cycles. However, the resin-modified glass ionomer varnish resulted in greater values compared to the other preventive procedures. Conclusion: A resin-modified glass ionomer varnish seems to be a promising method for minimizing the damage caused by endogenous acid, but its protection can be reduced depending on the intensity of the erosive challenge.

Objetivo: Este estudio investigó el efecto de la erosión endógena sobre la microdureza de la dentina y una resina compuesta de nanorrelleno. También se estudiaron los procedimientos para prevenir la erosión. Materiales and Métodos:90 muestras de dentina bovina se dividieron en tres grupos de acuerdo con el método para prevenir: control negativo, aplicación tópica de fluoruro y barniz de ionómero de vidrio modificado con resina. Se distribuyeron 120 muestras de resina compuesta en cuatro grupos, que también incluían un sellador de resina, entre los procedimientos preventivos. Las muestras se dividieron al azar en tres subgrupos de acuerdo con la exposición para simular la solución de ácido gástrico y la remineralización posterior: control negativo, 9 y 18 ciclos. El análisis de la superficie se realizó midiendo la dureza Knoop. Los datos obtenidos se analizaron estadísticamente mediante ANOVA de 2 vías y prueba de Tukey. Resultados: La dureza media de la dentina y de la resina de muestras compuestas exhibió una dureza más baja después de 18 ciclos. Sin embargo, el barniz de ionómero de vidrio modificado con resina resultó en valores mayores en comparación con los otros procedimientos preventivos. Conclusión: Un barniz de ionómero de vidrio modificado con resina parece ser un método prometedor para minimizar el daño causado por el ácido endógeno, pero su protección puede reducirse dependiendo de la intensidad del desafío erosivo.

Animals , Cattle , Tooth Erosion/prevention & control , Composite Resins , Dentin , Dentin-Bonding Agents , Hardness , Hydrochloric Acid
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20200051, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1134789


Abstract Proanthocyanidin has been shown to be efficient in inhibiting matrix metalloproteinases. Objective The aim of this in situ study was to evaluate the protective effect of Proanthocyanidin-based mouthrinses either with naturally acidic or with a neutral pH applied on dentin subjected to erosion. Methodology Eight volunteers wore one palatal device in two phases (7 days washout) with 16 samples per group (n=8). The groups under study were: First Phase/ G1 - 10% proanthocyanidin mouthrinse (pH 7.0, Experimental group 1 - Purified Grape Seeds Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins), G2 - 10% proanthocyanidin mouthrinse (pH 3.0, Experimental group 2 - Purified Grape Seeds Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins). Second Phase/ G3 - 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthrinse (pH 7.0, Positive control group), G4 - no previous treatment (Negative control group). Each device was subjected to 3 erosive cycles (5 minutes) per day for 5 days. Treatments with different mouthrinses were applied once after the second erosive challenge (5 minutes). Profilometry was used to quantify dentin loss (µm). Results Data were analyzed by repeated measures of ANOVA followed by Fisher's test (p<0.05). G1 (1.17±0.69) and G3 (1.22±0.25) showed significantly lower wear values with no statistical difference between them. G2 (2.99±1.15) and G4 (2.29±1.13) presented higher wear values with no significant differences between them. Conclusion The 10% proanthocyanidin mouthrinse (pH 7.0) could be a good strategy to reduce dentin wear progression.

Humans , Proanthocyanidins/pharmacology , Dentin/drug effects , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Tooth Erosion/prevention & control
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20200493, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1134787


Abstract Objective This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different toothpastes on the surface wear of enamel, dentin, composite resin (CR), and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC), and to perform a topographic analysis of the surfaces, based on representative images generated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) after erosion-abrasion cycles. Methodology One hundred and forty bovine incisors were collected and divided into two groups: 72 enamel and 72 dentin blocks (4×4 mm). Half of the specimens were restored with CR (Filtek Z350 XT) and the other half with RMGIC (Fuji II LC). Then, samples were submitted to a demineralization cycle (5 days, 4×2 min/day, 1% citric acid, pH 3.2) and exposed to three different toothpastes (2×15 s/day): without fluoride (WF, n=12), sodium fluoride-based (NaF, n=12), and stannous fluoride-based (SnF2, n=12). Surface wear, as well as restoration interfaces wear, were investigated by profilometry of the dental substrates and restorative materials. All representative surfaces underwent AFM analysis. Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's tests (α=0.05). Results NaF-based toothpaste caused the greater dentin surface wear (p<0.05). Toothpastes affected only enamel-restoration interfaces. AFM analysis showed precipitate formation in dentinal tubules caused by the use of fluoride toothpastes. Conclusions NaF-based toothpastes had no protective effect on enamel adjacent to CR and RMGIC against erosion-abrasion challenges, nor on dentin adjacent to RMGIC material. SnF2-based toothpastes caused more damage to interfaces between enamel and RMGIC.

Animals , Cattle , Tooth Erosion/chemically induced , Tooth Erosion/prevention & control , Toothpastes , Composite Resins , Glass Ionomer Cements , Dental Enamel , Dentin
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4785, 01 Fevereiro 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-998223


Objective: To evaluate in situ the effect of toothpastes containing casein phosphopeptide - amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate associated to fluoride (CPP-ACPF) on initial erosion prevention. Material and Methods: Bovine enamel blocks (n = 192) were randomly assigned into 4 phases according to the baseline surface hardness: GI: CPP-ACP Paste (MI Paste™), GII: CPP-ACPF Paste (MI Paste Plus™), GIII: Fluoridated paste and GIV: Placebo Paste. In each of the 4 crossover phases, twelve volunteers wore intraoral palatal appliances containing 4 enamel blocks for 2 hours, then the tested treatments were applied intraorally (3 min) and the appliance was maintained in the mouth for another 3 hours. After, the appliances were removed and immersed in hydrochloric acid (0.01 M, pH 2.3) for 30 seconds to promote erosive demineralization. The final surface hardness was evaluated and percentage of surface hardness loss was calculated. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 5%). Results: The application of CPP-ACP paste, independent of fluoride content, resulted in significant lower enamel hardness loss (GI: 9.26% ±3.48 and GII: 9.14% ±1.73) compared to NaF (GIII: 15.5% ± 3.94) and placebo (GIV: 16.7% ± 4.07) pastes, which did not show difference between them. Conclusion: The CPP-ACP pastes were able to reduce initial erosive demineralization in relation to fluoride and placebo pastes. Nevertheless the formulation of CPP-ACP with fluoride did not provide an additional benefit.

Tooth Erosion/prevention & control , Toothpastes , Calcium Fluoride/administration & dosage , Tooth Demineralization/diagnosis , Brazil , Double-Blind Method , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 18(1): 3764, 15/01/2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-965765


Objective: To evaluate a possible association between tooth erosion and weight status in Brazilian schoolchildren. Material and Methods: 1211 children aged 8-12-year-old from public and private schools in Southern Brazil were selected by a two-stage cluster method. Oral conditions were assessed by six trained and calibrated examiners. Tooth erosion assessment was determined by using the O´Sullivan index. Anthropometric measures were taken in order to obtain the body mass index. Socio-demographic and behavioral data were collected using questionnaires in children and parents. Multivariate Poisson regression model considering the cluster sample was used for data analysis (Prevalence ratio - PR; 95% Confidence Interval - CI). Results: Tooth erosion was observed in 25.1% of the children. Obesity and overweight prevalence was 34.6%. In the multivariate adjusted model, tooth erosion was associated with children from private schools (PR 1.68; 95%CI 1.05-2.68) and higher frequency of physical activity weekly (PR 1.48; 95%CI 1.04-2.09), whereas dental crowding in both arches was considered a protective effect (PR 0.55; 95%CI 0.34-0.89). In the stratified analysis regarding the type of school, children from private schools presented a positive association between tooth erosion and obesity (PR 3.26; 95%CI 1.38-7.69). Conclusion: Tooth erosion was not associated with obesity in the total sample. Socioeconomic differences seem to influence the relationship tooth erosion and obesity.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Socioeconomic Factors , Tooth Erosion/prevention & control , Brazil , Child , Obesity , Parents , Oral Health , Multivariate Analysis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Public Sector , Private Sector
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 32: e40, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889471


Abstract This research explored the potential of Camellia sinensis-derived teas and active compounds to be used as treatments to prevent dentin wear. Human root dentin slabs were randomly assigned to 5 groups (n = 10) as follows: distilled water (DW, control), epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), theaflavin gallate derivatives (TF), commercial green tea (GT), and commercial black tea (BT). The samples were submitted to a pellicle formation and an erosive cycling model (5x/day, demineralization using 0.01 M hydrochloric acid/60 s) followed by remineralization (human stimulated saliva/60 min) for three days. The samples were treated for 5 min using the test group solutions between the erosive cycles. Dentin changes were assessed with profilometry analysis and FT-Raman spectroscopy. The data regarding wear were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (p < 0.05). EGCG, TF derivatives, and both regular teas significantly suppressed erosive dentin loss (38-47%, p < 0.05). No obvious changes in the Raman spectra were detected in the specimens; however, the DW group had a minor relationship of 2880/2940 cm−1. The phenolic contents in both green and black tea and the important catechins appear to have protective effects on dentin loss.

Humans , Biflavonoids/pharmacology , Camellia sinensis/chemistry , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Dentin/drug effects , Gallic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Tea/chemistry , Tooth Erosion/prevention & control , Catechin/pharmacology , Fluorides/analysis , Fluorides/pharmacology , Gallic Acid/pharmacology , Water/chemistry
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170029, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893704


Abstract Literature has reported positive results regarding the use of lasers in the control of erosive lesions; however, evaluating whether they are effective in the control of the progression of erosive/abrasive lesions is important. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the Er:YAG laser irradiation in controlling the progression of erosion associated with abrasive lesions in enamel. Material and methods Bovine incisors were sectioned, flattened and polished. Forty-eight enamel slabs were subjected to treatment in an intraoral phase. Twelve volunteers used an intraoral appliance containing one slab that was irradiated with an Er:YAG laser (5.2 J/cm2, 85 mJ, 2 Hz) and another non-irradiated slab on each side of the appliance, during one phase of 5 d, under a split-mouth design. Devices were subjected to erosive challenges (1% citric acid, 5 min, 3 times a day) and abrasive challenges one h after (brushing force of 1.5 N for 15 s) randomly and independently on each side of the device. Measurements of enamel loss were performed via 3D optical profilometry (μm). We analyzed data using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests and morphological characteristics via scanning electron microscopy. Results Following erosive and abrasive challenges, the group that was irradiated with the Er:YAG laser presented less loss of structure than the non-irradiated group. The group that underwent erosion and irradiation did not exhibit a significant difference from the non-irradiated group. Conclusion Irradiation with the Er:YAG laser did not control the loss of structure of enamel subjected to erosion but did control abrasion after erosion.

Animals , Cattle , Tooth Abrasion/prevention & control , Tooth Erosion/prevention & control , Dental Enamel/radiation effects , Lasers, Solid-State/therapeutic use , Surface Properties/radiation effects , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Reproducibility of Results , Statistics, Nonparametric , Disease Progression , Citric Acid/chemistry , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Hardness Tests
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170222, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893701


Abstract The effect of fluoride agents on the retention of orthodontic brackets to enamel under erosive challenge is little investigated. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) and sodium fluoride (NaF) agents on the shear bond strength of brackets to enamel and on the enamel microhardness around brackets under erosive challenge. Methods: Brackets were bonded to bovine incisors. Five groups were formed according to fluoride application (n=10): TiF4 varnish, TiF4 solution, NaF varnish, NaF solution and control (without application). The specimens were submitted to erosive challenge (90 s cola drink/2h artificial saliva, 4x per day for 7 days). Solutions were applied before each erosive cycle and varnishes were applied once. Vickers Microhardness (VHN) was obtained before and after all cycles of erosion and the percentage of microhardness loss was calculated. Shear bond strength, adhesive remnant index and polarized light microscopy were conducted after erosion. The data were analyzed by ANOVA, Tukey, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests (α=0.05). Results: The %VHN had no statistically significant differences among the experimental groups. However, considering the comparisons of all groups with the control group, TiF4 varnish showed the highest protection from enamel demineralization (effect size of 2.94, while the effect size for the other groups was >2.4). The TiF4 varnish group had significantly higher shear bond strength compared to other groups. There was no difference among groups for adhesive remnant index. Polarized light microscopy showed higher demineralization depth for the control group. Conclusions: Application of NaF and TiF4 agents during mild erosive challenge minimized the enamel mineral loss around brackets, however only the experimental TiF4 varnish was able to prevent the reduction of shear bond strength of brackets to enamel.

Animals , Cattle , Sodium Fluoride/chemistry , Titanium/chemistry , Tooth Erosion/prevention & control , Cariostatic Agents/chemistry , Dental Bonding/methods , Orthodontic Brackets , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Fluorides/chemistry , Reference Values , Saliva, Artificial/chemistry , Surface Properties , Materials Testing , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Tooth Demineralization/prevention & control , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Shear Strength , Hardness Tests , Microscopy, Polarization
Rev. Ateneo Argent. Odontol ; 57(2): 33-38, nov. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-973121


El objetivo de este trabajo consiste en describir las distintas lesiones cervicales no cariosas, la abrasión, la erosión y la abfracción. Se desarrollarán en detalle su etiología, localización y características clínicas. Se mencionarán los diferentes procedimientos a realizar para su prevención y los materiales a utilizar para su restauración.

This article describes the different types of non-cariouscervical lesions, for example abrasion, erosionand abfraction. We will discuss their etiology, location and clinical features in detail. We will describe the procedures to prevent them, aswell as the materials used for their restoration.

Humans , Tooth Cervix/injuries , Tooth Erosion/etiology , Tooth Erosion/prevention & control , Tooth Erosion/therapy , Tooth Abrasion/etiology , Tooth Abrasion/prevention & control , Tooth Abrasion/therapy , Tooth Wear , Crown Lengthening/methods , Tooth Attrition/etiology , Tooth Attrition/prevention & control , Tooth Attrition/therapy , Fluorides, Topical/administration & dosage , Tooth Remineralization/methods , Preventive Dentistry , Dental Occlusion , Malocclusion/prevention & control
Braz. dent. j ; 28(4): 489-497, July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888668


Abstract This study evaluated the effect of a bioactive glass ceramic for the control of erosion and caries lesions. Fragments (n=10) of bovine enamel and root dentin received daily application of different treatments (Biosilicate; Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride- APF; Untreated - control) during the performance of erosive cycles. Surfaces were analyzed with 3D optical profilometry to quantify the superficial loss in four periods (1, 7, 14 and 21 days), as well as the lesion depth with confocal laser scanning microscopy. For caries progression assessment, initial Knoop microhardness was measured on enamel bovine fragments. Initial carious lesions were developed and specimens were divided into three groups (n=10), according to the daily topical application (Biosilicate; APF; no application - control), during the de-remineralization cycles for 14 days. Final microhardness was obtained to calculate the change of surface microhardness. Subsurface demineralization was analyzed using cross-sectional microhardness (depths 10, 30, 50, 70, 90, 110 and 220 µm). Data were tested using ANOVA and Tukey's test (a=5%). Results of erosive evaluation showed that Biosilicate promoted the lowest (p<0.05) values of surface loss, regardless of time, for both enamel and dentin; APF promoted lower (p<0.05) surface loss than control; analyzing different periods of time, APF did not show difference (p>0.05) between 14 and 21 days of demineralization. Results of enamel caries assessment showed that Biosilicate resulted in higher (p<0.05) surface and subsurface microhardness than both APF and control-applications. It may be concluded that Biosilicate application showed a higher potential to reduce surface loss and development of erosion and caries lesions.

Resumo Este estudo avaliou o efeito de uma vitrocerâmica bioativa para o controle de lesões de erosão e cárie. Fragmentos (n=10) de esmalte bovino e dentina radicular receberam aplicação diária de diferentes tratamentos (Biosilicato; Fluoreto de Fosfato Acidulado - APF; não tratado - controle) durante a realização de ciclos erosivos. As superfícies foram analisadas com profilometria óptica 3D para quantificar a perda superficial em quatro períodos (1, 7, 14 e 21 dias), bem como a profundidade da lesão com microscopia confocal de varredura a laser. Para a avaliação da progressão de cárie, foi obtida a microdureza Knoop inicial de fragmentos de esmalte bovino. As lesões cariosas iniciais foram desenvolvidas e os espécimes foram divididos em três grupos (n =10), de acordo com a aplicação tópica diária (Biosilicato; APF; sem aplicação - controle) durante os ciclos de desmineralização por 14 dias. A microdureza final foi obtida para calcular a perda da microdureza superficial. A desmineralização sub-superficial foi analisada utilizando microdureza transversal (profundidades 10, 30, 50, 70, 90, 110 e 220 μm). Os dados foram testados utilizando ANOVA e teste de Tukey (α=5%). Os resultados da avaliação erosiva mostraram que o Biosilicato promoveu os menores valores (p <0,05) de perda superficial, independente do tempo, tanto para o esmalte como para a dentina; APF promoveu menor (p <0,05) perda de superfície do que controle; analisando os períodos de tempo, APF não mostrou diferença (p>0,05) entre 14 e 21 dias de desmineralização. Os resultados da avaliação da cárie no esmalte mostraram que o Biosilicato resultou em maiores (p<0,05) valores de microdureza superficial e subsuperficial do que as aplicações APF e controle. Pode-se concluir que a aplicação de Biosilicato apresentou maior potencial de redução da perda superficial e desenvolvimento de lesões de erosão e cárie.

Animals , Cattle , Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride , Ceramics , Dentin/pathology , Glass , Tooth Erosion/prevention & control , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Hardness Tests , Microscopy, Confocal , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , X-Ray Diffraction
Braz. dent. j ; 28(4): 482-488, July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888662


Abstract The present study evaluated the effect of NaF and CPP-ACP/NaF varnishes to reduce erosion produced by soft drink (SD) combined or not with pediatric liquid medicine. Enamel specimens were pre-treated with fluoride varnish, according to the following groups: NaF varnish (Duraphat®) or CPP-ACP/NaF varnish (MI varnishTM). Two types of erosive cycles were made: by soft drink erosion (SDE) or by pediatric liquid medicine plus soft drink erosion (PLM/SDE). Bovine enamel specimens were randomly assigned in six groups (n=10): G1=NaF + SDE; G2=CPP-ACP/NaF + SDE; G3=Distilled and deionized (DD) water + SDE; G4=NaF + PLM/SDE; G5=CPP-ACP/NaF + PLM/SDE and G6=DD water + PLM/SDE. Before treatments, the sample surface was divided in two areas (unexposed area-UA and exposed area-EA). The specimens were evaluated by 3D non-contact profilometry technique to determinate tooth structure loss (TSL) and surface roughness (Sa). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was also performed. After SDE, G2 presented the lowest TSL values compared to G3 (p=0.008). G1 and G2 did not differ between them (p=0.203) and no groups differed among them despite Sa. Regarding TSL and Sa, G4 and G5 differed from G6 (p=0.0001), but not between them (p=1.00). Examining 3D and SEM images, the greatest differences between UA and EA were observed for G3 and G6. CPP-ACP/NaF varnish seems to be a promising treatment to reduce enamel loss from the erosion produced by a soft drink. Both varnishes also showed capacity to reduce TSL and Sa after erosion by soft drink combined to pediatric liquid medicine.

Resumo O presente estudo avaliou o efeito dos vernizes de NaF e CPP-ACP/NaF na redução da erosão promovida por refrigerante e associada a um medicamento líquido pediátrico. Os espécimes de esmalte foram pré-tratados com verniz fluoretado, de acordo com o grupo de alocação: verniz NaF (Duraphat®) ou verniz CPP-ACP NaF (verniz MITM). Dois tipos distintos de desafio erosivo foram realizados: erosão com refrigerante (ER) ou erosão com medicamento líquido pediátrico e refrigerante (MLP/ER). Espécies de esmalte bovino foram aleatorizados em seis grupos (n=10): G1 = NaF + ER; G2 = CPP-ACP/NaF + ER; G3 = Água destilada e deionizada (DD) + ER; G4 = NaF + MLP/ER; G5 = CPP-ACP/NaF + MLP/ER e G6 = DD água + MLP/ER. Antes dos tratamentos, a superfície das amostras foi dividida em duas áreas (não exposta-NE e área exposta-AE). Os espécimes foram avaliados pela técnica de perfilometria 3D de não-contato para determinar a perda de estrutura dentária (PED) e a rugosidade superficial (RS). A microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) também foi utilizada. Após ER, G2 apresentou os menores valores de PED comparado ao G3 (p=0,008). G1 e G2 não diferiram entre si (p=0,203) e não houve diferença entre os grupos no que diz respeito a RS. Os resultados de PED e RS para a MLP/ER mostraram que G4 e G5 diferiram de G6 (p=0,0001), mas não diferiram entre si (p=1,00). Examinando as imagens 3D da perfilometria e de MEV, as maiores diferenças entre UA e EA foram observadas para G3 e G6. O verniz CPP-ACP/NaF parece ser um tratamento promissor para reduzir a perda de esmalte por erosão produzida por refrigerante e ambos os vernizes mostraram capacidade em reduzir a PED e RS após erosão com medicamento líquido pediátrico associado a refrigerante.

Humans , Animals , Child , Cattle , Tooth Erosion/etiology , Carbonated Beverages/adverse effects , Fluorides, Topical/pharmacology , Drug Therapy , Tooth Erosion/prevention & control , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Dosage Forms
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(4): 420-426, July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893644


Abstract Objective The prevalence of dental erosion has been recently increasing, requiring new preventive and therapeutic approaches. Vegetable oils have been studied in preventive dentistry because they come from a natural, edible, low-cost, and worldwide accessible source. This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of different vegetable oils, applied in two concentrations, on initial enamel erosion. Material and Methods Initially, the acquired pellicle was formed in situ for 2 hours. Subsequently, the enamel blocks were treated in vitro according to the study group (n=12/per group): GP5 and GP100 - 5% and pure palm oil, respectively; GC5 and GC100 - 5% and pure coconut oil; GSa5 and GSa100 - 5% and pure safflower oil; GSu5 and GSu100 - 5% and pure sunflower oil; GO5 and GO100 - 5% and pure olive oil; CON− - Deionized Water (negative control) and CON+ - Commercial Mouthwash (Elmex® Erosion Protection Dental Rinse, GABA/positive control). Then, the enamel blocks were immersed in artificial saliva for 2 minutes and subjected to short-term acid exposure in 0.5% citric acid, pH 2.4, for 30 seconds, to promote enamel surface softening. The response variable was the percentage of surface hardness loss [((SHi - SHf) / SHf )×100]. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05). Results Enamel blocks of GP100 presented similar hardness loss to GSu100 (p>0.05) and less than the other groups (p<0.05). There was no difference between GP5, GC5, GC100, GSa5, GSu100, GSa100, GSu5, GO5, GO100, CON− and CON+. Conclusion Palm oil seems to be a promising alternative for preventing enamel erosion. However, further studies are necessary to evaluate a long-term erosive cycling.

Humans , Young Adult , Tooth Erosion/prevention & control , Plant Oils/therapeutic use , Dental Pellicle/drug effects , Saliva/chemistry , Saliva, Artificial , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Palm Oil , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Tooth Demineralization/prevention & control , Hardness Tests
Braz. dent. j ; 28(3): 337-345, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888656


Abstract Erosion incidence is increasing and its control is still a challenge in clinical practice. This study evaluated 4% TiF4-gel effects on eroded human dentin subjected to in situ erosive/abrasive episodes. Seventy-two previously eroded dentin slabs (0.05 M citric acid, pH 2.3, 20 min) were allocated to 6 groups (n=12) according to the treatment to be performed during the in situ phase and number of erosive/abrasive cycles, as follows: 4% TiF4-gel applied once (TiF41), twice (TiF42) or three times (TiF43) followed by 1, 2 and 3 erosive/abrasive cycles, respectively. Gel was applied before the beginning of the next cycle. Control groups were subjected to 1 (C1), 2 (C2) and 3 (C3) erosive/abrasive cycles only. A seventh group (n=12) comprised in vitro uneroded samples (UN) subjected to 3 erosive/abrasive cycles. Each cycle corresponded to 2 days of erosive (citric acid 0.5%, pH 2.6, 6x/day) and abrasive (electric toothbrush, 10 s/sample, 1 x/day) challenges. Samples were evaluated under profilometry and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Atomic force microscopy images (AFM) were also made (n=3). Repeated measures 2-way ANOVA and Tukey test (p<0.001) showed that TiF42, which did not differ from TiF41 and TiF43, revealed a significant reduction in surface loss compared to all control groups. TiF41 and TiF43 showed no significant difference from C1, but both groups demonstrated significantly smaller surface loss than C2 and C3. ESEM and AFM micrographs suggested alterations on treated surfaces compared to samples from control groups, showing reduced diameters of dentinal tubules lumens. Therefore, TiF4 was able to reduce the progression of erosive/abrasive lesions.

Resumo A incidência da erosão tem aumentado e o seu controle ainda é um desafio na prática clínica. Este estudo avaliou os efeitos do gel de TiF4 a 4% sobre a dentina humana erodida submetida a episódios erosivos/abrasivos in situ. Setenta e dois fragmentos de dentina previamente erodida (ácido cítrico 0,05 M, pH 2,3, 20 min) foram distribuídas em 6 grupos (n=12) de acordo com o tratamento a ser realizado durante a fase in situ e o número de ciclos erosivos/abrasivos, como descrito a seguir: gel de TiF4 a 4% aplicado uma (TiF41), duas (TiF42) ou três vezes (TiF43) seguido de 1, 2 e 3 ciclos erosivos/abrasivos, respectivamente. As aplicações dos géis foram realizadas antes do início do ciclo erosivo seguinte. Grupos controle foram submetidos a 1 (C1), 2 (C2) e 3 (C3) ciclos erosivos/abrasivos apenas. Um sétimo grupo (n=12) compreendia amostras sem erosão in vitro (UN) submetidas a 3 ciclos erosivos/abrasivos. Cada ciclo correspondia a 2 dias de desafios erosivos (ácido cítrico a 0,5%, pH 2,6, 6x/dia) e abrasivos (escova de dentes elétrica, 10 s/amostra, 1x/dia). As amostras foram avaliadas em perfilômetro e Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura Ambiental (MEV). Imagens de microscopia de força atômica (AFM) também foram capturadas (n=3). ANOVA a 2-fatores para medidas repetidas e o teste de Tukey (p<0,001) demonstraram que TiF42, que não diferiu do TiF41 e TiF43, revelou redução significativa na perda de superfície quando comparado a todos os grupos controle. TiF41 e TiF43 não apresentaram diferença estatisticamente significativa em relação ao C1, mas ambos os grupos demonstraram perda de superfície significativamente menor que C2 e C3. Micrografias de MEV e AFM sugeriram alterações nas superfícies tratadas quando comparadas a amostras dos grupos controle, apresentando redução no diâmetro das luzes dos túbulos dentinários. Portanto, o TiF4 foi capaz de reduzir a progressão das lesões erosivas/abrasivas.

Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Dentin/metabolism , Fluorides/pharmacology , Titanium/pharmacology , Tooth Erosion/prevention & control , Toothbrushing , Disease Progression , Gels , Microscopy, Atomic Force , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(3): 258-264, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893623


Abstract Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) is able to increase salivary calcium and phosphate levels at an acidic pH. Previous studies demonstrated that a CPP-ACP chewing gum was able to enhance the re-hardening of erosion lesions, but could not diminish enamel hardness loss. Therefore, there is no consensus regarding the effectiveness of CPP-ACP on dental erosion. Objective This in situ study investigated the ability of a CPP-ACP chewing gum in preventing erosive enamel loss. Material and Methods: During three experimental crossover phases (one phase per group) of seven days each, eight volunteers wore palatal devices with human enamel blocks. The groups were: GI - Sugar free chewing gum with CPP-ACP; GII - Conventional sugar free chewing gum; and GIII - No chewing gum (control). Erosive challenge was extraorally performed by immersion of the enamel blocks in cola drink (5 min, 4x/day). After each challenge, in groups CPP and No CPP, volunteers chewed one unit of the corresponding chewing gum for 30 minutes. Quantitative analysis of enamel loss was performed by profilometry (µm). Data were analyzed by Repeated-Measures ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05). Results The use of chewing gum (CPP and No CPP) resulted in lower erosive enamel loss compared with the control group (p<0.05). CPP-ACP chewing gum (CPP) did not improve the protection against erosive enamel loss compared with conventional chewing gum (No CPP) (p>0.05). Conclusion The CPP-ACP chewing gum was not able to enhance the anti-erosive effect of conventional chewing gum against enamel loss.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Tooth Erosion/prevention & control , Caseins/therapeutic use , Chewing Gum , Protective Agents/therapeutic use , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Saliva , Tooth Remineralization , Cariostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Caseins/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Cross-Over Studies , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Hardness Tests
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 31: e20, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839524


Abstract This in situ study aimed to investigate the effect of a tin-containing fluoride solution in preventing enamel erosion. Also, its effects on the partly demineralized zone were assessed for the first time. Thirteen volunteers participated in this 2-phase study, wearing removable intra-oral appliances containing four sterilized bovine enamel slabs, for 8 days, where 2 treatment protocols were tested using samples in replicas (n = 13): CO - no treatment (negative control) and FL - AmF/NaF/SnCl2 solution (500 ppm F-, 800 ppm Sn2+, pH = 4.5). Samples were daily exposed to an erosive challenge (0.65% citric acid, pH 3.6, 4 min, 2x/day). In the 2nd phase, volunteers switched to the other treatment protocol. Samples were evaluated for surface loss using a profilometer (n = 13) and a cross-sectional nanohardness (CSNH) test (n = 13) was carried out in order to determine how deep the partly demineralized zone reaches below the erosive lesion. The data were statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA. Erosive challenges lead to smaller enamel surface loss (p < 0.001) in the FL group when compared to group CO. Data from CSNH showed that there was no significant difference in demineralized enamel zone underneath erosion lesions between the groups. An amorphous layer could be observed on the surface of enamel treated with tin-containing solution alone. Under the experimental conditions of this in situ study, it can be concluded that AmF/NaF/SnCl2 solution prevents enamel surface loss but does not change the hardness of the partly demineralized zone near-surface enamel.

Humans , Animals , Female , Adult , Cattle , Young Adult , Sodium Fluoride/therapeutic use , Tin Fluorides/therapeutic use , Tooth Erosion/prevention & control , Cariostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Fluorides, Topical/therapeutic use , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Surface Properties/drug effects , Time Factors , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Anatomy, Cross-Sectional , Hardness Tests
Bauru; s.n; 2017. 135 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-879738


O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar em esmalte, a aplicação de materiais resinosos com e sem excesso, quando submetido à erosão de curta duração in vitro (subprojeto 1) e avaliar a resistência desses materiais quando submetidos à erosão e/ou abrasão em estudo prolongado in vitro (subprojeto 2) e in situ (subprojeto 3). O estudo foi desenvolvido com espécimes/blocos preparados a partir de esmalte bovino previamente erodidos (imersão em HCl 0,01 M, pH 2,3 por 30 s), os quais foram aleatorizados entre os grupos e tratados de acordo com as recomendações do fabricante. No subprojeto 1 foram avaliados dois fatores: o tipo de tratamento (controle, selante de fossas e fissuras, sistema adesivo convencional de 3 passos, sistema adesivo autocondicionante e infiltrante) e a condição do material (com/sem remoção de material na superfície de esmalte). Em metade dos espécimes, após a aplicação dos materiais houve a remoção de seu excesso na superfície de esmalte, anteriormente à fotoativação. Após os tratamentos os espécimes foram submetidos à ciclagem erosiva por 5 dias (HCl 0,01 M, pH 2,3, por 2 min e saliva artificial por 2 h, 4 vezes/dia) e os resultados delinearam os demais sobreprojetos. No subprojeto 2 foram avaliados dois fatores: o tipo de tratamento (controle, selante de fossas e fissuras, sistema adesivo convencional de 3 passos e infiltrante) e o tipo de desgaste (erosão, abrasão, erosão/abrasão). Após os tratamentos, os espécimes sem remoção do excesso foram submetidos à ciclagem erosiva (HCl 0,01 M, pH 2,3, por 2 min e saliva artificial por 2 h, 4 vezes/dia), abrasiva (30 movimentos recíprocos, com força de 1,5 N e solução de slurry 1:3, dentifrício fluoretado) e associação de ambas (erosão 4 vezes/dia + 2 vezes/dia de abrasão) durante 30 dias. No subprojeto 3 foram avaliados três fatores: tipo de tratamento (controle, selante de fossas e fissuras, sistema adesivo convencional de 3 passos e infiltrante), o tipo de desgaste (erosão, erosão/abrasão) e o tempo de desafio (5 e 28 dias). Em uma única fase, 21 voluntários usaram um dispositivo palatino contendo os blocos de esmalte tratados sem remoção do excesso (uma fileira correspondia à erosão e a outra a erosão/abrasão, e cada uma continha 2 espécimes por tratamento). Durante 28 dias úteis de desafio, os blocos foram submetidos ex vivo à erosão (HCl 0,01 M, pH 2,3, por 2 min, e saliva humana por 2 h, 4 vezes/dia), e erosão/abrasão (erosão, 4 vezes/dia + 2 vezes/dia de abrasão, com movimentos oscilatórios por 15 s e solução de slurry 1:3, com dentifrício fluoretado), sendo que após os desafios e durante os finais de semana, os aparelhos permaneceram imersos em saliva artificial, totalizando 28 dias de ciclagem. Os resultados foram avaliados por perfilometria e os dados foram submetidos à ANOVA, seguido do teste Tukey (p <0,05). No subprojeto 1, observou-se que todos os materiais sem remoção do excesso formaram uma camada protetora sobre o esmalte, e após o desafio erosivo, permaneceram sobre a superfície inibindo a sua perda. Nos grupos onde o excesso de material foi removido, houve perda de esmalte no selante, adesivo convencional e infiltrante já após o tratamento, e todos os materiais nos quais o excesso foi removido houve perda de esmalte estatisticamente semelhante ao grupo controle, com exceção do selante, que promoveu menor perda de esmalte. No subprojeto 2, houve diferença na espessura de material após o tratamento, sendo que o adesivo foi o que apresentou maior espessura, seguido do selante e infiltrante. Após a fase in vitro, observou-se que a erosão/abrasão resultou em perda de esmalte significativamente maior que a erosão e esta, por sua vez, maior que a abrasão. Todos os materiais, independente do tipo de desgaste, se mantiveram após os 30 dias de desafio, porém, o adesivo foi o que sofreu maior perda em espessura, diferindo estatisticamente do selante e infiltrante. No subprojeto 3, houve diferença na espessura de material após o tratamento, sendo que o infiltrante foi o grupo que apresentou maior espessura, seguido do selante e depois do adesivo. Após a fase in situ, não houve diferença entre erosão e erosão/abrasão, e ao comparar os materiais, com 5 e 28 dias de desafio, não foi observada mudança significativa na espessura de material. A perda de esmalte foi superior com 28 dias de desafio. Considerando os resultados, conclui-se que os materiais resinosos aplicados sobre o esmalte erodido foram efetivos na inibição da perda de esmalte, quando submetidos a desafios erosivos associados ou não a abrasão in vitro e in situ.(AU)

This study aimed to evaluate the application of resin-based materials on enamel with and without removal of the excess subjected to short erosion in vitro (subproject 1) and to evaluate the resistance of these materials when subjected to erosion and/or abrasion in a prolonged study in vitro (subproject 2) and in situ (subproject 3). Specimens/blocks of bovine enamel previously eroded (immersion in 0.01 M HCl, pH 2.3 for 30 s) were randomized among groups and treated following the manufacturer's instructions. On subproject 1 there were 2 factors under study, type of treatment (control, sealant, self-etching adhesive, 3-step adhesive and infiltrant) and materials condition (with/without material excess removal). After materials application, in half of the specimens, the excess was removed, prior to polymerization. The specimens were subjected to erosive cycling for 5 days (0.01 M HCl, pH 2.3 for 2 min and artificial saliva for 2 h, 4 times/day). On the subproject 2, there were 2 factors under study, type of treatment (control, sealant, adhesive and infiltrant) and type of wear (erosion, abrasion, erosion/abrasion). After the treatments, the specimens were subjected to erosive cycling (0.01 M HCl, pH 2.3 for 2 min and artificial saliva for 2 h, 4 times/day), abrasive (30 reciprocal movements, force 1.5 N and slurry with fluoride dentifrice) and combination of both (erosion, 4 times/day + abrasion 2 times/day) for 30 days. On subproject 3, there were 3 factors under study, types of treatment (control, sealant, adhesive and infiltrant), type of wear (erosion, erosion/abrasion) and challenge time (5 and 28 days). In a single phase, 21 volunteers used a palatal appliance (one row corresponded to erosion and the other to erosion/abrasion, 2 specimens per treatment in each row). During 20 days of challenge, the blocks were subjected to erosion (0.01 M HCl, pH 2.3 for 2 min, and human saliva for 2 h, 4 times/day), and erosion/abrasion (erosion 4 times/day + abrasion 2 times/day with oscillatory motions for 15 s and slurry with fluoridated dentifrice). After the challenges and during the weekends, the appliance was kept immersed in artificial saliva. The results were evaluated by profilometry and the data were analyzed by ANOVA, followed by the Tukeys test (p<0.05). On subproject 1, it was observed that all materials without excess removal formed a layer over enamel. After the erosive challenge this layer remained inhibiting enamel loss. Sealant, 3- steps adhesive and infiltrant with material excess removal showed enamel loss after treatment. All materials with excess removal, showed loss of enamel statistically similar to the control group, except for the sealant, that promoted minor enamel loss. On subproject 2, after the treatment, materials thickness showed significance differences. The adhesive had the highest thickness followed by the sealant and infiltrant. There was no significant difference between sealant and infiltrant. After the erosive challenge in vitro it was observed that erosion/abrasion resulted in significantly higher enamel loss than erosion, which was higher than abrasion. All materials, regardless wear conditions, were maintained after the 30 days of challenge, however, the adhesive showed greatest material thickness loss, statistically differing from the sealant and infiltrant. On subproject 3, the application of resin-based materials did not cause superficial enamel loss. After the erosive challenge, there was no difference between the conditions ERO and ERO + ABR (p=0.869). All materials promoted protection against erosion compared to control group (p=0.001). The infiltrant group showed a thicker layer of material above enamel compared to the other materials (p =0.001). Based on results, it is concluded that the resin-based materials applied onto enamel were effective in inhibiting enamel loss subjected to erosive challenges associated or not with abrasion in vitro and in situ.(AU)

Humans , Animals , Cattle , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Resins, Synthetic/chemistry , Tooth Abrasion/prevention & control , Tooth Erosion/prevention & control , Hardness Tests , Reference Values , Saliva/chemistry , Time Factors
J. appl. oral sci ; 24(3): 223-228, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-787539


ABSTRACT Objective This in situ/ex vivo study investigated the effect of CO2 laser irradiation and acidulated phosphate fluoride gel (APF) application, separately and in combination, on enamel resistance to erosion. Material and Methods During 2 experimental 5-day crossover phases, 8 volunteers wore intraoral appliances containing bovine enamel blocks which were submitted to four groups: 1st phase - control, untreated and CO2 laser irradiation, 2nd phase - fluoride application and fluoride application before CO2 laser irradiation. Laser irradiation was performed at 10.6 µm wavelength, 5 µs pulse duration and 50 Hz frequency, with average power input and output of 2.3 W and 2.0 W, respectively (28.6 J/cm2). APF gel (1.23%F, pH 3.5) was applied on enamel surface with a microbrush and left on for 4 minutes. Then, the enamel blocks were fixed at the intraoral appliance level. The erosion was performed extraorally 4 times daily for 5 min in 150 mL of cola drink. Enamel loss was measured profilometrically after treatment and after the in situ phase. The data were tested using one-way Repeated Measures Anova and Tukey's test (p<0.05). Results CO2 laser alone (2.00±0.39 µm) did not show any significantly preventive effect against enamel erosion when compared with the control group (2.41±1.20 µm). Fluoride treated enamel, associated (1.50±0.30 µm) or not (1.47±0.63 µm) with laser irradiation, significantly differed from the control. Conclusion The APF application decreased enamel wear; however, CO2 laser irradiation did not enhance fluoride ability to reduce enamel wear.

Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Adult , Cattle , Young Adult , Tooth Erosion/prevention & control , Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride/therapeutic use , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Dental Enamel/radiation effects , Lasers, Gas/therapeutic use , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Cariostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Combined Modality Therapy , Statistics, Nonparametric , Gels
J. appl. oral sci ; 24(1): 61-66, Jan.-Feb. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-777356


ABSTRACT The use of gels and mouthrinses with MMP inhibitors (chlorhexidine, and green tea extract) was shown to prevent erosive wear. The aim of this study was to analyze the protective effect of toothpastes containing MMP inhibitors on dentine loss induced by erosion in vitro. Material and Methods Five groups each containing 12 specimens of human root dentine were prepared. The specimens were subjected to 1 min erosion by immersion in a cola drink, 4 times a day, for 5 d. Each day, after the first and last erosive challenges, the specimens were brushed for 15 s with a slurry of dentifrice and water (1:3) containing placebo, 1,100 ppm fluoride, 0.61% green tea extract, 0.12% chlorhexidine or 0.004% chlorhexidine (commercial toothpaste). Between the acid challenges, the specimens were stored in artificial saliva with remineralizing potential until the next treatment. Dentine loss was determined using profilometry. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA after log transform (p<0.05). Results The mean wear values (μm) were as follows: placebo 1.83±0.53; 0.61% green tea extract 1.00±0.21; fluoride 1.27±0.43; 0.12% chlorhexidine 1.19±0.30; and 0.004% chlorhexidine 1.22±0.46. There was a significant difference in wear between placebo and all the treatment toothpastes, which did not differ from each other. Conclusion The results suggest that toothpastes containing MMP inhibitors are as effective as those based on NaF in preventing dentine erosion and abrasion.

Humans , Tooth Abrasion/prevention & control , Tooth Erosion/prevention & control , Toothpastes/chemistry , Dentin/drug effects , Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Saliva, Artificial/chemistry , Surface Properties/drug effects , Time Factors , Toothbrushing , Materials Testing , Carbonated Beverages , Random Allocation , Chlorhexidine/chemistry , Analysis of Variance