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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(5 supl.1): 9-9, nov. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1128779

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: As ectopias atriais podem manifestar-se de diversas formas desde a ausência de sintomas até síncope. Descrevemos um caso de bigeminismo atrial bloqueado com prolongamento do intervalo QT e consequente Torsades de Pointes. Relato de caso: Paciente do sexo feminino, 75 anos, foi admitida no serviço de pronto atendimento devido a queixa de episódios recorrentes de síncope em posição sentada após sensação inespecífica de mal-estar, dispneia e turvação visual associado a liberação esfincteriana. ECG na admissão revelou ritmo sinusal e ectopias supraventriculares frequentes, motivo pelo qual iniciou-se terapia com amiodarona. Holter de 24h demonstrou bigeminismo atrial bloqueado e prolongamento do intervalo QT seguido por episódios de Torsade de Pointes e fibrilação ventricular. Realizado implante de marcapasso provisório seguido por ablação do foco arritmogênico em região de anel triscuspídeo. A paciente evoluiu com melhora da sintomatologia e Holter de controle demonstrou ausência de arritmias.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Torsades de Pointes , Syncope
2.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 27(4): 307-313, jul.-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1289230

ABSTRACT

Resumen El síndrome de takotsubo o miocardiopatía por estrés es una alteración de la funcionalidad miocárdica, que se asocia con frecuencia a situaciones de estrés físico o emocional. Corresponde entre el 1 y el 2% de todos los ingresos a urgencias por síndrome coronario agudo y tiene una prevalencia y tasa de mortalidad de 4,1% y 2% a 8%, respectivamente. Hasta el 10% de los pacientes presenta algún tipo de complicación. En Colombia los datos epidemiológicos son limitados. En la actualidad se desconoce con exactitud la fisiopatología subyacente y no hay consenso acerca del tratamiento del síndrome y las complicaciones asociadas; por consiguiente, estos interrogantes son posibles temas de investigación. Se expone un caso clínico de características inusuales, que cursó con alteraciones electrocardiográficas, cinéticas y de conducción miocárdica infrecuentes, además de evolución clínica inesperada, que culminó en paro cardiorrespiratorio secundario a taquicardia ventricular polimórfica por persistencia del intervalo QT prolongado. Con base en la experiencia clínica y en la evidencia científica disponible se recomienda monitorizar estrechamente a los pacientes con alteración adquirida de la repolarización miocárdica hasta que esta se normalice y considerar la implantación de un dispositivo cardiaco tipo cardiodesfibrilador en casos de alto riesgo.


Abstract Takotsubo syndrome or stress cardiomyopathy is a myocardial functional disorder, which is often associated with situations of physical or emotional stress. It accounts for between 1% and 2% of all those admitted to the Emergency Department due to acute coronary syndrome, and has a prevalence and mortality rate of 4.1% and 2% to 8%, respectively. Up to 10% of the patients have some type of complication. Epidemiological data are scarce in Colombia. The underlying pathophysiology is still not exactly known, and there is no consensus on the treatment of the syndrome and the associated complications. Therefore, these questions are possible research topics. A clinical case of unusual characteristics is presented, which included rare electrocardiographic, kinetic, and myocardial conduction characteristics. It also had an unexpected clinical outcome, which culminated in cardiorespiratory arrest secondary to a polymorphic ventricular tachycardia due to persistence of the prolonged QT interval. Based on clinical experience and on the available scientific evidence, it is recommended to closely monitor patients with an acquired change in myocardial repolarisation until it returns to normal, and to consider an implantable cardioverter defibrillator in cases of high risk.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Ventricular Fibrillation , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy , Cardiomyopathies , Torsades de Pointes , Psychological Distress
3.
CorSalud ; 12(1): 87-92, ene.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124646

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La torsade de pointes es una taquiarritmia ventricular de gran importancia clínica que aparece típicamente en presencia de un intervalo QT prolongado y que, sin identificación y tratamiento puntual, puede conducir a la muerte súbita cardíaca. La prolongación de los intervalos QT y QT corregido aumenta significativamente la posibilidad de que aparezca esta arritmia en los síndromes de QT largo congénitos o adquiridos. En casi todos los pacientes, dichos intervalos se encuentran marcadamente prolongados en el período previo al evento arrítmico. Se describe un caso de una paciente con marcapasos que presentó esta arritmia y sufrió varios episodios sincopales.


ABSTRACT Torsade de pointes is a clinically important ventricular tachyarrhythmia that typically appears in the presence of a long QT interval and which, without prompt identification and treatment, can lead to sudden cardiac death. The prolongation of QT and corrected QT intervals significantly increases the chance of this arrhythmia to appear in congenital or acquired long QT syndromes. In almost all patients, these intervals are markedly long in the period prior to the arrhythmic event. We describe a case of a female patient with a pacemaker who presented this arrhythmia and suffered several syncopal events.


Subject(s)
Torsades de Pointes , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Romano-Ward Syndrome
4.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 29(3 Supl): 320-323, jul.-set. 2019. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1023248

ABSTRACT

A cardiomiopatia periparto é uma causa rara de insuficiência cardíaca no período entre o último mês de gestação e os cinco meses após o parto. A síndrome do QT longo caracteriza-se pelo atraso da repolarização ventricular e pode se manifestar com síncope e morte súbita devido a um tipo de taquicardia ventricular polimórfica conhecida como torsades de pointes. Descrição do caso: J.S., 26 anos, sexo feminino, natural e procedente de São Paulo. Paciente puérpera - 40º dia (G3P3A0), procurou o pronto-socorro com queixa de síncope durante amamentação e dispneia em moderados esforços. Durante a avaliação no PS, evoluiu para desconforto torácico e agitação psicomotora, sendo notada taquicardia ventricular não sustentada no monitor cardíaco ( torsades de pointes), que foi controlada com cardioversão elétrica e sulfato de magnésio intravenoso. O eletrocardiograma mostrou ritmo sinusal, alteração difusa da repolarização ventricular e intervalo QTc de 580 ms. O ecocardiograma mostrou disfunção sistólica moderada, com fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo de 43% à custa de hipocinesia difusa. Após avaliação da equipe de arritmologia chegou-se ao diagnóstico de cardiomiopatia periparto associado à síndrome do QT longo. Foi iniciado tratamento otimizado para insuficiência cardíaca e implantado cardiodesfibrilador por causa de episódios recorrentes de arritmia durante a internação. Discussão: A cardiomiopatia periparto é uma doença rara, porém, tem taxa de mortalidade elevada, entre 18% e 56%. A paciente descrita satisfez os quatro critérios para o diagnóstico: sintomas de insuficiência cardíaca nos primeiros 5 meses depois do parto, ausência de cardiomiopatia prévia, etiologia desconhecida e disfunção sistólica com FEVE < 45%. A síndrome do QT longo é uma doença genética de apresentações variáveis. Os fatores que desencadeiam as taquiarritmias são situações de instabilidade elétrica por hiperatividade do sistema simpático e também situações raras, como a cardiomiopatia periparto. Em casos de arritmias ventriculares graves, o tratamento é o implante de cardiodesfibrilador. Conclusão: A associação da cardiomiopatia periparto com a síndrome do QT longo é rara. A gravidade associada a essas condições torna importante o diagnóstico precoce e tratamento imediato pelo potencial risco de morte associado a ambas as condições clínicas


Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a rare cause of heart failure during the period between the last month of pregnancy and five months after delivery. Long QT syndrome is characterized by a delay in ventricular repolarization and may manifest with syncope and sudden death due to a type of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia known as torsades de pointes. Case description: J.S., 26-years-old, female, born and residing in São Paulo, Puerperal - 40th day (G3C3A0), went to the emergency room complaining of syncope during breastfeeding and dyspnea on moderate exertion. During evaluation in the ER, the patient developed thoracic discomfort and psychomotor agitation, with non-sustained ventricular tachycardia on the cardiac monitor (torsades de pointes), which was controlled with electrical cardioversion and intravenous magnesium sulfate. The electrocardiogram showed sinus rhythm, diffuse alteration of ventricular repolarization and QTc interval of 580 ms. The echocardiogram showed moderate systolic dysfunction, with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 43% influenced by diffuse hypokinesia. After evaluation by the arrhythmology team, the diagnosis of peripartum cardiomyopathy associated with long QT syndrome was made. Optimized treatment for heart failure was initiated and a cardioverter-defibrillator was implanted due to recurrent episodes of arrhythmia during hospitalization. Discussion: Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a rare disease, but it has a high mortality rate, between 18% and 56%. The patient described met the 4 diagnostic criteria: symptoms of heart failure in the first 5 months after delivery, absence of prior cardiomyopathy, unknown etiology, and systolic dysfunction with LVEF<45%. Long QT syndrome is a genetic disease of varying presentations. The factors that trigger the tachyarrhythmias are situations of electrical instability due to sympathetic system hyperactivity and rare situations, such as peripartum cardiomyopathy. In cases of severe ventricular arrhythmias, the treatment is a cardioverter-defibrillator implant. Conclusion: The association of peripartum cardiomyopathy with long QT syndrome is rare. The severity associated with these conditions points out early diagnosis and immediate treatment important because of the potential risk of death associated with both clinical conditions


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Long QT Syndrome , Tachycardia, Ventricular , Peripartum Period , Cardiomyopathies/diagnosis , Syncope , Risk Factors , Torsades de Pointes , Electrocardiography/methods , Heart Rate
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742427

ABSTRACT

In 2005, the International Council for Harmonization (ICH) established cardiotoxicity assessment guidelines to identify the risk of Torsade de Pointes (TdP). It is focused on the blockade of the human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) channel known to cause QT/QTc prolongation and the QT/QTc prolongation shown on the electrocardiogram. However, these biomarkers are not the direct risks of TdP with low specificity as the action potential is influenced by multiple channels along with the hERG channel. Comprehensive in vitro Proarrhythmia Assay (CiPA) initiative emerged to address limitations of the current model. The objective of CiPA is to develop a standardized in silico model of a human ventricular cell to quantitively evaluate the cardiac response for the cardiac toxicity risk and to come up with a metric for the TdP risk assessment. In silico working group under CiPA developed a standardized and reliable in silico model and a metric that can quantitatively evaluate cellular cardiac electrophysiologic activity. The implementation mainly consists of hERG fitting, Hill fitting, and action potential simulation. In this review, we explained how the in silico model of CiPA works, and briefly summarized current overall CiPA studies. We hope this review helps clinical pharmacologists to understand the underlying estimation process of CiPA in silico modeling.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Biomarkers , Cardiotoxicity , Computer Simulation , Electrocardiography , Hope , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Risk Assessment , Sensitivity and Specificity , Torsades de Pointes
6.
Prensa méd. argent ; 104(7): 337-351, sep2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1051007

ABSTRACT

Se estableció los efectos de la claritromicina sobre el intervalo QT corregido (iQTc) en pacientes gerontes, que requirieron hospitalización por infección respiratoria, mediante registro electrocardiográfico al inicio y al final del tratamiento. Se observó en 61% de los casos un aumento del iQTC (0,04 seg en promedio). No obstante las comorbilidades asociadas, ningún caso evolucionó a taquicardia ventricular polimórfica


The effects of clarithromycin on the corrected QT interval (iQTc) in elderly patients, who required hospitalization due to respiratory infection, were established by electrocardiographic recording at the beginning and at the end of the treatment. An increase in iQTC was observed in all cases (0.04 sec on average). Despite the associated comorbidities, no case evolved to polymorphic ventricular tachycardia


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Prospective Studies , Torsades de Pointes/therapy , Tachycardia, Ventricular/complications , Clarithromycin/adverse effects , Romano-Ward Syndrome/drug therapy , Ventricular Myosins , Death, Sudden , Electrocardiography
7.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 25(4): 279-279, jul.-ago. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-985471

ABSTRACT

Resumen La toxicidad por antimoniales puede comprometer múltiples sistemas y llega a ser potencialmente fatal. Se presenta el caso de un joven militar quien durante el tratamiento de su segundo episodio de leishmaniasis cutánea presentó toxicidad pancreática y cardiaca, desarrollando un síndrome de QT largo adquirido y tormenta eléctrica con episodios frecuentes de taquicardia ventricular que incluían torsade de pointes. Se realizó tratamiento en unidad de cuidados intensivos, donde requirió múltiples descargas de desfibrilador y la administración de sulfato de magnesio hasta la resolución del cuadro clínico.


Abstract The toxicity due to antimonial can compromise multiple systems, and is potentially fatal. The case is presented of a young soldier, who had pancreatic and cardiac toxicity during the treatment of his second episode of cutaneous leishmaniasis. This developed into an acquired long QT syndrome and an electrical storm with frequent episodes of ventricular that included torsade de pointes. Treatment was given in the Intensive Care Unit, where he required multiple defibrillator discharges and the administering of magnesium sulphate until the clinical symptoms were resolved.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Torsades de Pointes , Romano-Ward Syndrome
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773793

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the effect of taurine magnesium coordination compound (TMCC) on torsades de pointes (TdP) in isolated guinea pig hearts.@*METHODS@#Healthy male guinea pigs weighting 250~300 g were randomly divided into 4 groups:①TdP model group (=7):Isolated hearts were perfused by normal K-H solution 20 minutes, then perfused by slowly activated delayed rectifier potassium current(IKs) blocker 10mol/L Chromanol 293B under hypokalemic solution(1.8 mmol/L) to establish TdP model;②~④ TdP model + TMCC group (=6):Isolated hearts were perfused by normal K-H solution for 20 minutes, then perfused by IKs blocker 10mol/L Chromanol 293B under hypokalemic solution(1.8 mmol/L) for 60 minutes, at the same time TMCC which concentration was 1, 2, 4 mmol/L was administered respectively by Langendorff retrograde aortic perfusion method. Cardiac surface electrocardiogram of guinea pigs was collected and recorded by Biopac electrophysiological recorder. Incidence of TdP, transmural dispersion of repolarization (TDR), instability of QT interval were acquired from Lead Ⅱ electrocardiograph (ECG) wave forms to describe the effect of TMCC on TdP model. Datas were acquired at the time of 20 min and pre-TdP, in case there was no TdP observed, a value of 60 min was entered for calculation purpose.@*RESULTS@#Incidence of TdP in TdP model group was 6/7. TdP incidence could be decreased significantly by 1, 2, 4 mmol/L TMCC, and was 5/6, 1/6, 0/6 respectively. Compared with the pre-drug, Chromanol 293B under hypokalemic solution in TdP model group increased TDR(corrected) evidently(0.05). Compared with the TdP model group, 2, 4 mmol/L TMCC could evidently decrease the instability of QT interval induced by Chromanol 293B under hypokalemic solution(<0.05). During the establishment of TdP model, P waves in more than one cardiac cycle continuously were disappeared in ECG. However, P wave could always be seen independent in ECG acquired from TdP model + TMCC group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#TMCC can play the role against TdP through decreasing TDR and instability of QT interval, and inhibiting early after depolarization(EAD).


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents , Pharmacology , Electrocardiography , Guinea Pigs , In Vitro Techniques , Long QT Syndrome , Magnesium , Pharmacology , Male , Random Allocation , Taurine , Pharmacology , Torsades de Pointes , Drug Therapy
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742172

ABSTRACT

Long QT syndrome is a cardiac repolarization disorder and is associated with an increased risk of torsades de pointes. The acquired form is most often attributable to administration of specific medications and/or electrolyte imbalance. This review provides insights into the risk for QT prolongation associated with drugs frequently used in the treatment of chronic pain. In the field of pain medicine all the major drug classes (i.e. NSAIDs, opioids, anticonvulsive and antidepressant drugs, cannabinoids, muscle relaxants) contain agents that increase the risk of QT prolongation. Other substances, not used in the treatment of pain, such as proton pump inhibitors, antiemetics, and diuretics are also associated with long QT syndrome. When the possible benefits of therapy outweigh the associated risks, slow dose titration and electrocardiography monitoring are recommended.


Subject(s)
Analgesics , Analgesics, Opioid , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Anticonvulsants , Antidepressive Agents , Antiemetics , Cannabinoids , Chronic Pain , Diuretics , Electrocardiography , Long QT Syndrome , Muscle Relaxants, Central , Narcotics , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Torsades de Pointes
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740058

ABSTRACT

K⁺ channels are key components of the primary and secondary basolateral Cl- pump systems, which are important for secretion from the salivary glands. Paroxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) for psychiatric disorders that can induce QT prolongation, which may lead to torsades de pointes. We studied the effects of paroxetine on a human K⁺ channel, human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG), expressed in Xenopus oocytes and on action potential in guinea pig ventricular myocytes. The hERG encodes the pore-forming subunits of the rapidly-activating delayed rectifier K⁺ channel (I(Kr)) in the heart. Mutations in hERG reduce I(Kr) and cause type 2 long QT syndrome (LQT2), a disorder that predisposes individuals to life-threatening arrhythmias. Paroxetine induced concentration-dependent decreases in the current amplitude at the end of the voltage steps and hERG tail currents. The inhibition was concentration-dependent and time-dependent, but voltage-independent during each voltage pulse. In guinea pig ventricular myocytes held at 36℃, treatment with 0.4 µM paroxetine for 5 min decreased the action potential duration at 90% of repolarization (APD₉₀) by 4.3%. Our results suggest that paroxetine is a blocker of the hERG channels, providing a molecular mechanism for the arrhythmogenic side effects of clinical administration of paroxetine.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Animals , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Guinea Pigs , Heart , Humans , Long QT Syndrome , Muscle Cells , Oocytes , Paroxetine , Salivary Glands , Serotonin , Tail , Torsades de Pointes , Xenopus
11.
Anaesthesia, Pain and Intensive Care. 2017; 21 (2): 263-267
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189156

ABSTRACT

Long QT Syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by prolongation of QT interval on an ECG. Patients with this disorder have an increased risk of developing life-threatening arrhythmias such as torsades de pointes, and occasionally sudden cardiac arrest. We present this case of undiagnosed Long QT Syndrome in a 7 years old boy, who presented to our service for incision and drainage of an abscess in the left axilla under general anesthesia. This case highlights the importance of proper and meticulous preanesthesia evaluation, even in low risk patients, so that potentially harmful medical conditions are diagnosed well in time and managed accordingly


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Anesthesia , Torsades de Pointes , Child , Electrocardiography
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-54236

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Htr3a antagonist, ondansetron, has been reported to prolong the QT interval and induce Torsades de pointes in the treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting. To explore the mechanisms underlying these findings, we examined the effects of ondansetron on the mouse cardiac voltage-gated K⁺ (Kv) channel. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ondansetron increased QT intervals in late pregnant (LP) mice. We measured the Kv channels in freshly isolated left ventricular (LV) myocytes from non-pregnant (NP) and late pregnant (LP) mice, using patch-clamp electrophysiology. Ondansetron blocked Kv current at a dose of 50 µM, and reduced the amplitude of peak current densities in a dose-dependent manner (0, 1, 5, 50 µM), in LP but not in NP mice. In contrast, serotonin and the Htr3 agonist, m-CPBG, increased Kv current densities in NP, but not in LP mice. Interestingly, during pregnancy, serum serotonin levels were markedly increased, suggesting the saturation of the effect of serotonin. Immunostaning data showed that Kv4.3 protein and Htr3a co-localize at the membrane and t-tubule of cardiomyocytes. Moreover, Kv4.3 membrane trafficking was enhanced in response to Htr3a-mediated serotonin stimulation in NP, but not in LP mice. Membrane analysis showed that serotonin enhances Kv4.3 membrane trafficking in NP, but not LP mice. CONCLUSION: Ondansetron reduced Kv current densities, and reduced the Kv4.3 membrane trafficking in LP mouse ventricular cardiomyocytes. This data suggests that QT prolongation by ondansetron is mediated by the reduction of Kv current densities and Kv4.3 membrane trafficking.


Subject(s)
Animals , Electrophysiology , Membranes , Mice , Muscle Cells , Myocytes, Cardiac , Ondansetron , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting , Pregnancy , Serotonin , Torsades de Pointes
15.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 747-752, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-50584

ABSTRACT

Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a rare cardiac channelopathy associated with syncope and sudden death due to torsades de pointes and ventricular fibrillation. Syncope and sudden death are frequently associated with physical and emotional stress. Management of patients with LQTS consists of life-style modification, β-blockers, left cardiac sympathetic denervation (LCSD), and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation. Prohibition of competitive exercise and avoidance of QT-prolonging drugs are important issues in life-style modification. Although β-blockers are the primary treatment modality for patients with LQTS, these drugs are not completely effective in some patients. Lifelong ICD implantation in young and active patients is associated with significant complications. LCSD is a relatively simple and highly effective surgical procedure. However, LCSD is rarely used.


Subject(s)
Channelopathies , Death, Sudden , Defibrillators, Implantable , Humans , Long QT Syndrome , Stress, Psychological , Sympathectomy , Syncope , Torsades de Pointes , Ventricular Fibrillation
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-186466

ABSTRACT

Flecainide acetate is a potent class IC anti-arrhythmic drug with a major sodium channel blocking effect. Flecainide toxicity can cause myocardial impairment and precipitate circulatory collapse. It may also result in life-threatening arrhythmia, although cases of flecainide-induced torsades de pointes are rare. Furthermore, the electrical and hemodynamic deteriorations observed during flecainide toxicity may not respond to conventional treatments. In the present study, we report the case of a 20-year-old Korean man with flecainide poisoning, who presented with hypotension. The patient was successfully treated with sodium bicarbonate, amiodarone, MgSO₄, and lidocaine, with no recourse to extracorporeal therapy. Although there is no standard therapy for flecainide toxicity, this report demonstrates that intensive pharmacological treatment is beneficial in cases of flecainide overdose.


Subject(s)
Amiodarone , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Flecainide , Hemodynamics , Humans , Hypotension , Lidocaine , Poisoning , Shock , Sodium Bicarbonate , Sodium Channels , Torsades de Pointes , Young Adult
17.
Rev. ciênc. farm. básica apl ; 36(2)jun. 2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-767271

ABSTRACT

O intervalo QT (iQT), parâmetro eletrocardiográfico, é um biomarcador não invasivo da repolarização ventricular. O aumento do iQT é uma alteração que pode ser de considerável importância clínica, pois predispõe a torsade de pointes e morte cardíaca súbita. O objetivo do presente trabalho é identificar os medicamentos utilizados em domicílio por idosos, que podem induzir o prolongamento do iQT. Trata-se de um estudo quantitativo descritivo exploratório e retrospectivo, realizado em um hospital público de ensino. Foram incluídos 190 idosos com informação sobre uso domiciliar de medicamentos registrada em prontuário. A mediana da idade foi de 69,5 anos, sendo 99 (52,1%) mulheres. O número de medicamentos utilizados por paciente em domicílio apresentou mediana de 4,0. Foram identificados 159 fármacos, sendo que 23 (14,5%) apresentavam capacidade de induzir prolongamento do iQT. Entre os idosos, 39 (20,5%) usavam estes fármacos, sendo os mais prevalentes a amiodarona, amitriptilina, nortriptilina, citalopram e fluoxetina. A hipertensão arterial foi o fator de risco mais frequente dentre aqueles que predispõem a prolongamento do iQT. As utilizações de medicamentos que induzem prolongamento do iQT e a presença de fatores de risco predisponentes mostram que os idosos estão expostos ao risco de desenvolvimento de torsade de pointes. A identificação dos fármacos que induzem prolongamento do iQT, das interações medicamentosas e das condições clínicas que predispõem a esse prolongamento são importantes para garantia da segurança da farmacoterapia de idosos e para evitar eventos adversos graves.(AU)


The QT interval (QTi), an electrocardiographic parameter, is a noninvasive biomarker of ventricular repolarization. Increased QTi is a change that may have clinical importance because predisposes to torsade de pointes and sudden cardiac death. The objective of this study was to identify drugs used by elderly at home which may induce QTi prolongation. This is a quantitative, retrospective, descriptive, exploratory study conducted in a teaching hospital. A total of 190 elderly with information on the use of medications at home available in medical records were included in the study. The median age was 69.5 years, and 99 (52.1 %) were female. The median number of medications used per patient at home was 4.0. A variety of 159 drugs were identified including 23(14.5%) that may induce QTi prolongation. Among the 39 elderly (20.5%) using drugs that may induce QTi prolongation, the most frequent were: amiodarone, amitriptyline, nortriptyline, citalopram and fluoxetine. Hypertension was the most frequent risk factor for QTi prolongation. The use of these drugs and the presence of risk factors place the elderly at increased risk for developing torsade de pointes. The identification of drugs that may induce QTi prolongation, drug-drug interactions and clinical conditions that may lead to this adverse effect reinforces the need for actions to ensure the drug safety in the elderly population and to avoid serious adverse events.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Torsades de Pointes , Drug Utilization , Biomarkers/metabolism
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-652369

ABSTRACT

Tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy is caused by persistent tarchyarrhythmias and is characterized by ventricular systolic dysfunction and congestive heart failure. Tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy is usually reversible via treatment. The cornerstone in the management of disease in these patients is to achieve a normal heart rate. We report a torsades de pointes during treatment of tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy. Intravenous magnesium sulfate and potassium were administrated, but torsades de pointes was repeated. After overdrive right ventricular pacing, torsades de pointes was terminated. Careful monitoring of the QT interval and serum electrolyte and drug levels in such patients is warranted during treatment of tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy.


Subject(s)
Cardiomyopathies , Heart Failure , Heart Rate , Humans , Magnesium Sulfate , Potassium , Tachycardia , Torsades de Pointes
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-52953

ABSTRACT

Torsade de pointes (TdP) is an uncommon and specific form of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, associated with a prolonged QT interval. Prolongation of the QT interval is the most widely recognized electrophysiological abnormality in patients with liver cirrhosis. We observed a case of TdP leading to cardiopulmonary resuscitation after the induction of general anesthesia, in a patient with liver cirrhosis scheduled for emergency cadaveric donor liver transplantation. The patient had mild QT prolongation on preoperative electrocardiography with a corrected QT (QTc) interval of 455 ms. Drugs used in the preoperative period can elongate cardiac repolarization. Sevoflurane and 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor antagonists such as palonsetron, used during general anesthesia may have triggered further QT prolongation, producing a fatal condition such as TdP. More caution and consideration in selecting drugs for anesthetic management are necessary for liver cirrhosis patients, especially in patients with preoperative QT prolongation.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General , Cadaver , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Electrocardiography , Emergencies , Heart Arrest , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Transplantation , Liver , Long QT Syndrome , Preoperative Period , Serotonin , Tachycardia, Ventricular , Tissue Donors , Torsades de Pointes
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