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Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(1): 99-110, ene.-mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249062


Resumen | Introducción. El arsénico es un tóxico ambiental ampliamente diseminado en todo el mundo. En hombres y animales, diversos órganos y tejidos son blancos de sus efectos deletéreos, entre ellos, el los del sistema inmunológico. Objetivo. Determinar la intoxicación aguda por arsénico en tejidos y células diana de ratones Balb/c in vivo. Materiales y métodos. Se aplicó una inyección intraperitoneal de 9,5 o 19 mg/kg de arsenito de sodio (NaAsO2) o un volumen equivalente de solución fisiológica como control, en ratones Balb/c con 3 por cada grupo experimental. Tras media hora, los animales fueron sacrificados y se extrajeron bazos, timos, hígados, riñones y sangre. En cada muestra, se determinó la concentración de arsénico, polifenoles y hierro, y también, se evaluaron marcadores oxidativos, como peróxidos, productos avanzados de oxidación proteica y grupos sulfhidrilos libres. En los esplenocitos obtenidos del bazo, se determinaron la viabilidad celular y el potencial mitocondrial. Resultados. La dosis aguda inyectada de NaAsO2 redujo la función mitocondrial de los esplenocitos, lo que derivó en muerte celular. La presencia confirmada de arsénico en las muestras de bazo y la citotoxicidad resultante, produjeron disminución de los polifenoles y de los grupos sulfhidrilos libres, y alteraron el contenido y la distribución del hierro, pero no se aumentó la producción de peróxidos. Conclusión. Estos hallazgos aportan evidencia científica sobre los cambios en biomarcadores involucrados en la inmunotoxicidad del arsénico y ofrecen, además, una metodología para ensayar potenciales tratamientos frente a la acción deletérea de este compuesto en el sistema inmunológico.

Abstract | Introduction: Arsenic is an environmental toxic present worldwide. In men and animals, various organs and tissues are targets of its deleterious effects including those of the immune system. Objective: To determine acute arsenic toxicity in tissues and target cells of Balb/c mice using an in vivo methodology. Materials and methods: We injected Balb/c mice intraperitoneally with 9.5 or 19 mg/ kg of sodium arsenite (NaAsO2), or an equivalent volume of physiological solution as a control (with 3 per experimental group). After 30 minutes, the animals were sacrificed to obtain spleen, thymus, liver, kidneys, and blood. We determined arsenic, polyphenols, and iron concentrations in each sample and we evaluated the oxidative markers (peroxides, advanced products of protein oxidation, and free sulfhydryl groups). In splenocytes from the spleen, cell viability and mitochondrial potential were also determined. Results: The exposure to an acute dose of NaAsO2 reduced the mitochondrial function of splenocytes, which resulted in cell death. Simultaneously, the confirmed presence of arsenic in spleen samples and the resulting cytotoxicity occurred with a decrease in polyphenols, free sulfhydryl groups, and an alteration in the content and distribution of iron, but did not increase the production of peroxides. Conclusion: These findings provide scientific evidence about changes occurring in biomarkers involved in the immunotoxicity of arsenic and offer a methodology for testing possible treatments against the deleterious action of this compound on the immune system.

Arsenic , Mice , Oxidative Stress , Toxicity Tests, Acute , Immune System
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021342, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350167


Paraquat is a potent herbicide widely used in the Indian agriculture industry. Human fatality due to paraquat poisoning is not uncommon in this country. The primary effect of paraquat is on the lungs, and the resultant pulmonary damage leads to the patient's demise. There is a high mortality rate in paraquat poisoning as the treatment is usually supportive with no known antidote. There are limited human studies that have observed the histopathological changes in lungs in paraquat poisoning. The authors have discussed the time-related histopathological changes in lungs in paraquat poisoning on autopsy subjects. The role of anticoagulants and fibrinolytic agents in the treatment of this poisoning has also been discussed.

Humans , Male , Female , Paraquat/poisoning , Lung Injury/pathology , Lung/pathology , Autopsy , Toxicity Tests, Acute
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 45: 38-45, May 15, 2020. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177420


BACKGROUND: Taraxacum species (commonly known as dandelion) used as herbal medicine have been reported to exhibit an antiproliferative effect on hepatoma cells and antitumor activity in non-small-cell lung cancer cells. Although several investigations have demonstrated the safety of Taraxacum officinale, the safety of tissue-cultured plants of T. formosanum has not been assessed so far. Therefore, the present study examines the safety of the water extract of the entire plant of tissue cultured T. formosanum based on acute and subacute toxicity tests in rats, as well as the Ames tests. RESULTS: No death or toxicity symptoms were observed in the acute and subacute tests. The results of the acute test revealed that the LD50 (50% of lethal dose) value of the T. formosanum water extract for rats exceeded 5 g/kg bw. No abnormal changes in the body weight, weekly food consumption, organ weight, or hematological, biochemical, and morphological parameters were observed in the subacute toxicity test. Thus, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of T. formosanum water extract was estimated to be higher than 2.0 g/kg. Finally, the results of the Ames test revealed that T. formosanum water extract was not genotoxic at any tested concentration to any of five Salmonella strains. CONCLUSIONS: The water extract of tissue-cultured T. formosanum was non-toxic to rats in acute and subacute tests and exhibited no genotoxicity to five Salmonella strains.

Animals , Rats , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Taraxacum/toxicity , Tissue Culture Techniques/methods , Safety , Flavonoids/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Urinalysis , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Phenol/analysis , Toxicity Tests, Acute , Herbal Medicine , Taraxacum/chemistry , Serum , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Toxicity Tests, Subacute , Mutagenicity Tests
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 66(1)20200129.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094947


Introdução: O câncer de próstata é considerado a neoplasia maligna mais comum que acomete homens em todas as Regiões do país, à exceção do câncer de pele não melanoma. Se diagnosticado e tratado precocemente, o câncer de próstata tem alta taxa de cura; contudo, terapêuticas como a radioterapia podem gerar complicações agudas que podem impactar as atividades cotidianas. Apesar das complicações no pós-tratamento, a radioterapia tem sido um método bastante praticado e que apresenta resultados positivos, ocasionando melhoria da sobrevida livre de doença. Objetivo: Avaliar os principais fatores preditores de complicações agudas que acometem pacientes em tratamento radioterápico para câncer de próstata. Método: Para identificação de fatores preditores de complicações agudas pós-radioterapia, avaliaram-se, consecutiva e prospectivamente, 208 pacientes diagnosticados com adenocarcinoma de próstata tratados com radioterapia conformacional 3D em um centro referência vinculado ao SUS entre os anos 2016 e 2017. Realizou-se ainda avaliação retrospectiva de prontuários para coleta de dados adicionais. A análise estatística foi realizada por meio dos testes qui-quadrado, exato de Fisher, Anova e regressão logística ordinal. Resultados: Após análise da amostra, evidenciou-se que, entre as complicações agudas, as de maior incidência foram radiodermite, cistite e enterite/retite, de forma que tais complicações tiveram como fatores associados volume irradiado, tratamento prévio e sintomas prévios ao tratamento. Conclusão: O estudo sugere que, apesar da existência de complicações ao final do tratamento, a grande maioria é de baixa complexidade e que pacientes submetidos a procedimentos cirúrgicos prévios podem evoluir com presença de complicações mais graves.

Introduction: Prostate cancer is considered the most common malignancy that affects men in all regions of the country, except for non-melanoma skin cancer. If diagnosed and treated early, prostate cancer has a high cure rate; however, therapies such as radiotherapy can generate acute complications that can impact daily activities. Despite post-treatment complications, radiotherapy has been a widely practiced method and has shown positive results, leading to improved disease-free survival. Objective: To evaluate the main predictive factors for acute complications that affect patients undergoing radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Method: To identify predictive factors for acute post-radiotherapy complications, 208 patients diagnosed with prostate adenocarcinoma treated with 3D conformational radiotherapy were consecutively and prospectively evaluated at a referral center linked to SUS between the years 2016 and 2017. It was carried out retrospective evaluation of medical records to collect additional data. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test, Fisher's exact, Anova and ordinal logistic regression. Results: After analyzing the sample, it was evidenced that among the acute complications, those with the highest incidence were radiodermatitis, cystitis, enteritis/rectitis, so that these complications had associated predictive factors as irradiated volume, previous treatment and symptoms. Conclusion: The study suggests that despite the existence of complications at the end of the treatment, the vast majority are of low complexity and that the patients submitted to previous surgical procedures can evolve with the presence of more severe complications.

Introducción: El cáncer de próstata se considera la neoplasia maligna más común que afecta a los hombres en todas las regiones del país, con la excepción del cáncer de piel no melanoma. Si se diagnostica y trata temprano, el cáncer de próstata tiene una alta tasa de curación; sin embargo, las terapias como la radioterapia pueden generar complicaciones agudas que pueden afectar las actividades diarias. A pesar de las complicaciones posteriores al tratamiento, la radioterapia ha sido un método ampliamente practicado y ha mostrado resultados positivos, lo que lleva a una mejor supervivencia libre de enfermedad. Objetivo: Evaluar los principales predictores de complicaciones agudas que afectan a los pacientes sometidos a radioterapia para el cáncer de próstata. Método: Para identificar los factores predictivos de complicaciones agudas posteriores a la radioterapia, 208 pacientes diagnosticados con adenocarcinoma de próstata tratados con radioterapia conformacional 3D fueron evaluados consecutiva y prospectivamente en un centro de referencia vinculado al SUS entre los años 2016 y 2017. Se realizó evaluación retrospectiva de registros médicos para recopilar datos adicionales. El análisis estadístico se realizó utilizando la prueba de chi-cuadrado, exacta de Fisher, de Anova y la regresión logística ordinal. Resultados: Después de analizar la muestra, se evidenció que, entre las complicaciones agudas, las de mayor incidencia fueron radiodermatitis, cistitis, enteritis/retitis y síntomas obstructivos, por lo que estas complicaciones tenían factores predictivos asociados, como el volumen irradiado, el tratamiento previo y los síntomas. Conclusión: El estudio sugiere que a pesar de la existencia de complicaciones al final del tratamiento, la gran mayoría son de baja complejidad. Como factores predictivos encontrados, se puede mencionar el volumen irradiado, la existencia de tratamiento previo y los síntomas en la consulta inicial.

Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prognosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Adenocarcinoma/radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Conformal/adverse effects , Radiodermatitis/radiotherapy , Brazil , Adenocarcinoma/complications , Retrospective Studies , Toxicity Tests, Acute , Cystitis/radiotherapy , Enteritis/radiotherapy
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828999


Objective@#To verify the health advisory for short-term exposure to phenol.@*Methods@#The method of this validation experiment was the same as the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology for toxicology experiments used to determine phenol drinking water equivalent level (DWEL). Pregnant female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered phenol in distilled water by gavage at daily doses of 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) from implantation (the 6th day post-mating) to the day prior to the scheduled caesarean section (the 20th day of pregnancy). The following information was recorded: general behavior; body weight; number of corpus luteum, live birth, fetus, stillbirth, and implantation; fetal gender; body weight; body length; tail length; and abnormalities and pathomorphological changes in the dams.@*Results@#In the 60 mg/kg b.w. dose group, the mortality of pregnant rats increased with increasing doses, suggesting maternal toxicity. Fetal and placental weights decreased as phenol dose increased from 30 mg/kg b.w., and were significantly different compared those in the vehicle control group, which suggested developmental toxicity in the fetuses. However, the phenol-exposed groups showed no significant change in other parameters compared with the vehicle control group ( > 0.05).@*Conclusion@#Despite using the same method as the US EPA, a different NOEAL of 15 mg/(kg·d) was obtained in this study.

Animals , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Environmental Pollutants , Toxicity , Female , Fetal Development , Phenol , Toxicity , Pregnancy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Toxicity Tests, Acute
Acta toxicol. argent ; 27(2): 49-59, Sept. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088537


Calea uniflora Less known popularly as Arnica in Brazil, is a native plant from Brazil, popular used by coastal populations from south of Santa Catarina. The purpose of this study was to verify the safety profile in of hydroalcoholic extract of C. uniflora in florescences.The hydroalcoholic extract of C. uniflora in florescences was evaluated for its acute and sub-acute toxicity. Acute topical toxicity was performed using the methodology of guideline 402 from OECD. Acute oral toxicity was performed using the methodology of guideline 423 from OECD and sub-acute toxicity was performed using the methodology adapted of guideline 407 from OECD. The single dose for oral or topical administration of C. uniflora showed DL50> 5000 mg/kg b.w. The sub-acute treatment induced animal death in groups, which was administered extract in the doses 100, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg. The main signs of toxicity observed were respiratory difficulty, increase in lung weigh, lung damage and muscular relation. The topical or oral administration of C. uniflora extract in short period did not caused toxicological effects in animals, however, when administered for a longer period and in concentrations of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg (oral.) caused lung damage and even the death of the animal.

Calea uniflora Less conocida popularmente como Arnica en Brasil, es una planta nativa de Brasil, popularmente utilizada por poblaciones costeras del sur de Santa Catarina. El objetivo de este estudio fue verificar el perfil de seguridad del extracto hidroalcoólico de inflorescencias de C. uniflora. El extracto hidroalcoólico de inflorescencias de C. uniflora fue evaluado en cuanto a su toxicidad aguda y subaguda. La toxicidad tópica aguda se realizó utilizando la metodología de la directriz 402 de la OECD. La toxicidad oral aguda fue realizada usando la metodología de la directriz 423 de la OECD y la toxicidad subaguda fue realizada usando la metodología adaptada de la directriz 407 de la OECD. La dosis única para administración oral o tópica de C. uniflora mostro DL50> 5000 mg/kg. El tratamiento subagudo indujo la muerte de animales en grupos a los que se administró extracto en las dosis de 100, 250, 500 y 1000 mg/kg. Los principales signos de toxicidad observados fueron dificultad respiratoria, aumento del peso del pulmón, daño pulmonar y relación muscular. La administración tópica oral del extracto de C. uniflora a corto plazo no causó efectos toxicológicos en los animales, mientras que, cuando se administró por un período mayor y en las concentraciones de 250, 500 y 1000 mg/kg (oral) causaron danos en los pulmones y hasta la muerte del animal.

Animals , Rats , Arnica/adverse effects , Arnica/toxicity , Skin Absorption , Rats, Wistar , Toxicity Tests, Acute , Toxicity Tests, Chronic , Gastrointestinal Absorption
Acta toxicol. argent ; 27(1): 30-36, mayo 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1010980


Ananas comosus, conocido popularmente como piña, tiene una anatomía de planta bien definida y numerosos fitoquí­micos farmacológicamente activos. Algunos de éstos son responsables del potencial antimicrobiano de la especie, que ha sido ampliamente estudiado dada la resistencia bacteriana a los antibióticos actualmente utilizados. Teniendo esto en cuenta, se define que la característica principal de un medicamento es la ausencia de efectos tóxicos, por lo tanto, es necesario buscar datos sobre la toxicidad de A. comosus, colaborando para su posible uso como fármaco. Comparando extractos hidroalcohólicos de las hojas de la corona, cáscara y pulpa de la infrutescencia, fue posible determinar que los tres extractos probados no son tóxicos, siendo el de menor toxicidad para Artemia salina Leach (extracto de hojas con CL50 igual a 994 μg/mL) y a sangre de cordero (extracto de pulpa con porcentaje de hemólisis igual a 0,83%). Los estudios sobre principios y metodologías similares a los utilizados aquí han encontrado resultados comparables que indican la baja toxicidad de la planta. Estos resultados aportan a las investigaciónes que promueven el uso de la piña como agente fitoterapéutico y reafirman su presencia en el Sistema Único de Salud de Brasil.

Ananas comosus, popularly known as pineapple, has well defined plant anatomy and numerous pharmacologically active phytochemicals. Some of these are responsible for the species antimicrobial potential, which has been widely studied given the bac­terial resistance to the currently used antibiotics. Considering this, it is defined that the main characteristic of a drug is the absence of toxic effects, thus, there is a need to seek data regarding the toxicity of A. comosus, collaborating for its possible use as a drug. Comparing hydroalcoholic extracts from the crown leaves, skin and pulp of the infructescence, it was possible to determine that the three tested extracts are non-toxic, being the one with the lowest toxicity to Artemia salina Leach (leaves extract with LC50 equal to 994 μg/mL) and to lamb's blood (pulp extract with percentage of haemolysis equal to 0.83%). Studies concerning principles and methodologies similar to those used here have found comparable results stating the low toxicity of the plant. These results contribute to the research that promotes the use of pineapple as a phytotherapeutic agent and reaffirms its presence in the Brazilian Unified Health System.

Toxicity Tests, Acute/methods , Ananas/toxicity , Plants, Medicinal/adverse effects , Brazil , Erythrocytes/drug effects
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e17754, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039063


The study evaluated the vasorelaxant effect induced by the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam (EEtOH-Zr/leaves). Wistar rats were treated with the leaf extract containing a single dose of 2,000 mg / kg, v.o. After 14 days, the animals were anesthetized for blood collection and subsequent analysis of the biochemical parameters; they were then euthanized (sodium pentobarbital-100 mg/kg, i.p.) for the removal and morphological analysis of the heart, lung, liver and kidney. The vasorelaxation activity the and vascular reactivity of EEtOH-Zr/leaves were evaluated on artery mesenteric rings isolated from rats. The extract showed no signs of toxicity and no significant difference in the values of the biochemical parameters between the control group and the group of treated animals. In the evaluation of pharmacological activity in the smooth muscle, the EEtOH-Zr/leaves caused vasorelaxant effect on the tonic contraction induced by phenylephrine in mesenteric artery preparations in the presence (pD2=2.17±0.05 µg/mL; Emax=99.8±5.2%) and absence (pD2=2.14±0.05 µg/mL; Emax=95.3±6.4%) of the vascular endothelium. Oral administration of EEtOH-Zr/leaves reduced the contraction induced by the cumulative addition of PHE. It is concluded that the EEtOH-Zr/leaves promote vasorelaxation and reduce vascular reactivity of adrenergic alpha-1 agonist in the mesenteric artery. The results did not show toxic effects of the extract.

Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/adverse effects , Toxicity Tests, Acute/analysis , Zanthoxylum/toxicity , Mesenteric Arteries/drug effects , Blood Vessels/drug effects
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e18107, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039037


This study evaluated the acute and sub-chronic toxicities of ethanol leaf extract of Dryopteris filix-mas. Acute toxicity and phytochemical tests on ethanol leaf extract were determined. In sub-chronic toxicity test, animals were treated with 62.5, 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg of extract every day for 90 days. Blood samples were collected via retro-orbital puncture for baseline studies and at 31, 61 and 91st days for determination of hematological, kidney and liver function parameters. Liver and kidneys were harvested for histopathology analyses on 91st day. Also, a 28 day recovery study was carried out to determine reversibility in toxicological effects. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, phenols, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, alkaloids, terpenoids, reducing sugar and cardiac glycosides. Acute toxicity test did not show toxicity or death at 5000 mg/kg. There was significant (p<0.005) reduction in white blood cell and lymphocyte counts, significant (p<0.05) increase in some liver and kidney biomarkers as well as alterations in liver and kidney histo-architecture on 91st days in animals that were treated with 250 and 500 mg/kg extract. However, toxicities observed on 91st day were reversible in recovery studies. The leaf extract of Dryopteris filix-mas may be hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic when used for long periods

Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Plant Extracts/analysis , Toxicity Tests, Acute/adverse effects , Dryopteris/toxicity , Toxicity Tests, Subchronic/instrumentation , Ethanol/toxicity
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773649


Based on metabolomics,the metabolites of larvae zebrafish with overdose of Panax notoginseng saponins( PNS) were compared with those in normal group of larvae zebrafish to investigate the possible toxicity mechanism of overdose PNS in larvae zebrafish. An experimental animal model of long-term toxicity induced by PNS overdose was established by administering 1-6 dpf at low,medium and high doses of PNS,respectively. The ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry( UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) technique was combined with principal component analysis( PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis( OPLS-DA) to screen and identify biomarkers associated with toxicity,and then the MetaboAnalyst database was used to analyze metabolism-related pathways. The results showed that the metabolites of each group could be distinguished distinctly,and they deviated more from the normal group in a time and dose dependent manner. Twenty-nine potential biomarkers related to toxicity( VIP>1,P<0. 05) were identified preliminarily,mainly involving six metabolic pathways. From the metabonomics point of view,the toxicity mechanism of overdose PNS may be related to the disorders of lipid metabolism,amino acid metabolism and energy metabolism.

Amino Acids , Metabolism , Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Energy Metabolism , Larva , Lipid Metabolism , Mass Spectrometry , Metabolomics , Panax notoginseng , Toxicity , Saponins , Toxicity , Toxicity Tests, Acute , Zebrafish
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1026516


Introdução: A radioterapia é uma das modalidades terapêuticas de escolha para os tratamentos adjuvante e neoadjuvante, em pacientes com câncer de mama. Tal modalidade provoca reação de pele dolorosa conhecida como radiodermatite. Objetivo: Avaliar os fatores associados com o aparecimento de radiodermite após radioterapia e a sua associação com o maior grau de toxicidade nesses pacientes. Método: Estudo retrospectivo, com 117 pacientes com de câncer de mama submetidos à radioterapia conformacional 3D, entre 2016 a 2018, em doses variáveis. Dados pessoais foram coletados a partir de prontuário, e o grau de radiodermite estabelecido segundo os critérios do grupo de oncologia radioterápica. O total de 15 potenciais preditivos foram elencados e analisados por estatísticas univariada e multivariada. Resultados: A população do estudo apresentou uma média de 50 anos, 47% relataram alguma comorbidade, 59,83% realizaram cirurgia radical e 81,19% desenvolveram radiodermite. Observou-se, em análise multivariada, associação do desenvolvimento de radiodermite com maiores doses da radiação (p=0,011) e com uso de bólus diário (p=0,009). Conclusão: As principais variáveis que culminaram em maiores graus de radiodermite foram a dose da radiação e o uso de bólus diário. Categorizando os fatores preditivos, identificam-se o paciente com maior risco de lesões graves e a possibilidade da criação de protocolos mais eficazes na prevenção das radiodermatites.

Introduction: Radiotherapy is one of the therapeutic modalities chosen for adjuvant and neoadjuvant treatment in patients with breast cancer. This modality causes a painful skin reaction known as radiodermatitis. Objective:To evaluate the factors related with the appearance of radiodermatitis after radiotherapy and their relationship with the highest degree of toxicity in patients with breast cancer. Method: Retrospective study, with 117 patients with breast cancer submitted to 3D conformational radiotherapy between 2016 and 2018, at variable doses. Personal data were collected from medical records, and the degree of radiodermatitis established according to the criteria of the Radiation Oncology Group. The total of 15 predictive factors in potential were listed and later analyzed by univariate and multivariate statistics. Results: The study population presented an average of 50 years, 47% reported some comorbidities, 59.83% underwent radical surgery and 81.19% developed radiodermatitis. In a multivariate analysis, there was an association between development of radiodermatitis and higher doses of radiation (p=0.011) and daily bolus use (p=0.009). Conclusion:The main elements that culminated in higher degrees of radiodermatitis were the dose of radiation and the use of daily bolus. By categorizing the predictive factors, we can identify the patient with the highest risk of severe skin lesions and enables the creation of more effective protocols for the prevention of radiodermatitis.

Introducción: La radioterapia es una modalidad terapéutica para tratamiento adyuvante y neoadyuvante, en pacientes con cáncer de mama. Tal modalidad provoca reacción de piel dolorosa conocida como radiodermatitis. Objetivo: Evaluar factores conexos con la aparición de radiodermatitis tras la radioterapia y su asociación con el mayor grado de toxicidad. Método: Estudio retrospectivo, con 117 pacientes con cáncer de mama sometidos a la Radioterapia Conformacional 3D entre 2016 a 2018. Los datos personales fueron recolectados a partir de prontuario, así como el grado de radiodermatitis establecido según los criterios del grupo de oncología radioterápica. El total de 15 potencial predictivos fueron enumerados y posteriormente analizados por estadística univariana y multivariada. Resultados: La población del estudio presentó un promedio de 50 años, el 47% informó de algunas comorbilidades, el 59,83% se sometió a cirugía radical y el 81,19% desarrolló radiodermatitis. En un análisis multivariado, hubo una asociación entre el desarrollo de radiodermatitis y dosis más altas de radiación (p=0.011) y el uso diario de bolos (p=0.009). Conclusión: Las principales variables que culminaron en mayores grados de radiodermatitis fueron la dosis de radiación y el uso de bolos diarios. Al categorizar los factores predictivos, podemos identificar al paciente con el mayor riesgo de lesiones cutáneas graves y permitir la creación de protocolos más efectivos para la prevención de la radiodermatitis.

Humans , Radiodermatitis/diagnosis , Radiotherapy/adverse effects , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Precipitating Factors , Retrospective Studies , Toxicity Tests, Acute
Acta toxicol. argent ; 26(1): 1-11, mayo 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-973611


El hombre ha cambiado el ambiente para sostener la demanda global de recursos naturales como el agua. La gestión de los cuerpos hídricos tiene que ser constante, con el propósito preventivo y correctivo, dependiendo del estado de antropización de cada sistema. El objetivo de este artículo fue analizar la toxicidad del sedimento y los metales Mn, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd y Cu, en el reservorio Paiva Castro, que abastece la Region Metropolitana de São Paulo. Se realizaron 2 muestreos (Mayo 2011, estación seca y Enero de 2012, estación húmeda) y se analizaron 5 puntos próximos a la captación de agua por la Companhia de Saneamento Básico do Estado de São Paulo. Se realizaron ensayos de toxicidad aguda y crónica en sedimento, a través de ensayos biológicos con el cladócero Daphnia similis y el insecto Chironomus xanthus. El tratamiento de datos se realizó con el test de Fisher (mortalidad). El nivel de asociación entre las variables en sedimento y en los test ecotoxicológicos fueron evaluados por test no-paramétricos, a través del coeficiente de correlación de Spearman's. Los resultados del presente trabajo señalaron bajas concentracones de metales en el sedimento del área de estudio y ausencia de toxicidad en los organismos ensayados. Se puede concluir que área estudiada del reservorio Paiva Castro se encuentra poco impactada por los metales, sin efectos directos sobre la calidad de vida los organismos bentónicos: D. similis y C. xanthus.

Man had changed the natural environment in an attempt trying to supply the global demand for resources. The management of the hydric bodies has to be constant, with preventive and corrective purpose, depending on the eutrophization state of each one. The objective of this article was to analyze the sediment toxicity and the metals Mn, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd and Cu, in the Paiva Castro reservoir, that supply the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo. It was made 2 collections (May 2011, dry season and January 2012, wet season). It was analyzed 5 points next to the water captation station by the Companhia de Saneamento Básico do Estado de São Paulo. The sediment was analyzed as for acute and chronic toxicity through bioassays with the cladocerans Daphnia similis and the insect Chironomus xanthus. Data treatment was done with Fisher Exact Test (mortality). The association level between the variables in sediment and ecotoxicological tests was available in non-parametric tests, through the Spearman's correlation coefficient. Oriented on the results presented in this work, pointing low concentrations of heavy metals in the sediments presented in the collect local, and the absence of toxicity, we can say that at this reservoir, at least in the collect area, it's low impacted, not implicating in direct interferences in the quality of life of benthonic organisms.

Zinc/toxicity , Cadmium/toxicity , Water Reservoirs/prevention & control , Sediments/analysis , Copper/toxicity , Lead/toxicity , Manganese/toxicity , Nickel/toxicity , Brazil , Metals, Heavy/toxicity , Toxicity Tests, Acute/analysis , Toxicity Tests, Acute/methods , Toxicity Tests, Chronic/analysis , Toxicity Tests, Chronic/methods
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(2): e17459, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951930


ABSTRACT Linseed hydrogel (LSH) was evaluated by acute toxicity for its potential application in oral drug delivery design. White albino mice and rabbits were divided in four groups (I-IV) and different doses of LSH (1, 2 and 5 g/kg body weight) were given except to the control group (I) that was left untreated. Rabbits were monitored for eye irritation, acute dermal toxicity and primary dermal irritation, whereas, body weight, food and water consumption, hematology and clinical biochemistry, gross necropsy and histopathology of vital organs were scrutinized in mice. LSH was considered safe after eye irritation test as no adverse signs or symptoms were seen in the eye. In dermal toxicity and irritation study, skin of treated rabbits was found normal in color without any edema or erythema. After oral administration, there was no sign of any abnormalities in treated group animals (II-IV). The hematology and clinical biochemistry of treated group animals was comparable with the control group. Histopathology of vital organs has not shown any lesion or abnormalities. In the light of these outcomes, it can be concluded that LSH is not a hazardous biomaterial and could be incorporated as an excipient in oral and dermal preparations.

Animals , Male , Female , Rabbits , Rats , Polysaccharides , Flax/classification , Hydrogel, Polyethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate/analysis , Drug Liberation , Administration, Oral , Toxicity Tests, Acute/methods , Hematology
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(3): e17579, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974398


Glucuronoxylan hydrogel (GXH) isolated from M. pudica seeds was assessed for acute toxicology in albino mice that were alienated into four groups. Three groups, i.e., II, III and IV received GXH at a dose of 1, 2 and 5 g/kg, respectively while group I was retained untreated and provided routine diet. After administering GXH, mice were examined for vomiting, diarrhea, allergy and tremors for 8 h. All animals were carefully observed for food and water consumption at 1, 2, 3, 7 and 14 day after administering GXH. At the end of studies, blood samples were drawn for investigation of hematological and biochemical parameters. All animals were sacrificed, relative body weight of vital organs was calculated and their histopathology was studied. It was concluded that there was insignificant difference in body weight, behavioral pattern, food and water intake among treated and control groups. Haematology and biochemistry of blood samples from all groups were found analogous. Histopathological evaluation of vital body organs exhibited no lesions in all groups. Ocular, cardiac and dermal safety of GXH was also established on albino rabbits.

Animals , Male , Female , Mice , Rabbits , Mimosa pudica/toxicity , Hydrogels/analysis , Toxicity Tests, Acute/analysis , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Mimosa pudica/adverse effects
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 335-341, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691058


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>This study investigated the acute and subacute toxicity of whole-plant aqueous extract of Vernonia mespilifolia Less. (AEVM) in rats for evaluating its safety profile.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>AEVM for the acute (2000 and 5000 mg/kg) and subacute (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg) toxicity studies was administered orally to rats according the guidelines 425 and 407 of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, respectively. Food and water intake as well as body and organ weight of animals were recorded. Signs of toxicity were assessed, and hematological, biochemical and histopathological analyses were performed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In the acute toxicity study, a single dose of the aqueous extract at 2000 or 5000 mg/kg caused no mortality in the animals, suggesting that the median lethal dose is greater than 5000 mg/kg. In the subacute toxicity study, administration of the extract for 28 d, at all doses, caused no significant changes in the body weights or organ weights of rats in the treated groups when compared with the control group. In addition, hematological and biochemical parameters also revealed no toxic effects of the extract on rats. Histological sections of the heart, liver and kidney from test animals showed no signs of degeneration.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>These results showed that AEVM at dosage levels up to 600 mg/kg is nontoxic and could also offer protection on some body tissues. AEVM could, therefore, be considered safe.</p>

Animals , Female , Heart , Kidney , Lethal Dose 50 , Liver , Male , Plant Extracts , Toxicity , Plant Leaves , Rats, Wistar , Toxicity Tests, Acute , Toxicity Tests, Subacute , Vernonia , Toxicity
Mycobiology ; : 269-277, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729771


The production of water-soluble pigments by fungal strains indigenous to South Korea was investigated to find those that are highly productive in submerged culture. Among 113 candidates, 34 strains that colored the inoculated potato dextrose agar medium were selected. They were cultured in potato dextrose broth and extracted with ethanol. The productivity, functionality (radical-scavenging activities), and color information (CIELAB values) of the pigment extracts were measured. Five species produced intense yellowish pigments, and two produced intense reddish pigments that ranked the highest in terms of absorbance units produced per day. The pigment extracts of Penicillium miczynskii, Sanghuangporus baumii, Trichoderma sp. 1, and Trichoderma afroharzianum exhibited high radical-scavenging activity. However, the S. baumii extract showed moderate toxicity in the acute toxicity test, which limits the industrial application of this pigment. In conclusion, P. miczynskii KUC1721, Trichoderma sp. 1 KUC1716, and T. afroharzianum KUC21213 were the best fungal candidates to be industrial producers of safe, functional water-soluble pigments.

Agar , Colorimetry , Efficiency , Ethanol , Fungi , Glucose , Korea , Penicillium , Solanum tuberosum , Toxicity Tests, Acute , Trichoderma
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 3(2): 78-84, 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | MTYCI, LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-1145637


Objetivo. Determinar la toxicidad a dosis repetidas durante 28 días, de la ingestión por vía oral del agua termal de San Antonio de Putina-SAP-(Puno), en un modelo murino. Materiales y métodos. Diseño experimental, se utilizaron diez ratas de experimentación de cepa Holtzman, los que fueron divididos en dos grupos de cinco cada uno: un grupo de estudio, al que se le administró en forma repetida, agua termal traída de SAP, en una dosis de 1000 mg/kg en un volumen de 2 mL/100g, y un grupo control con agua potable esterilizada en el mismo volumen. Se realizaron observaciones clínicas diarias, determinación semanal del peso corporal, y después de 28 días se procedió con el estudio histopatológico de órganos (corazón, riñón, hígado y pulmón) y la determinación de parámetros hematológicos y bioquímicos; previo sacrificio de los animales de experimentación. Resultados. No se produjeron muertes (DL50> 1000 mg/kg) ni alteraciones permanentes de signos clínicos. Se observó aumento de peso, sin diferencias estadísticas entre los grupos. Los resultados hematológicos y bioquímicos reflejaron ligeras variaciones no significativas entre grupos, pero dentro del rango de la normalidad. No se observaron alteraciones histopatológicas. Conclusiones. No se encontraron signos de toxicidad aguda ante la administración de agua termomineral de San Antonio de Putina (Puno) en dosis repetidas por un periodo de 28 días.

Objective. To determine 28-day oral acute toxicity at repeated doses of hot springs water from San Antonio de Putina ­SAP- (Puno) in rats. Materials and methods. Experimental design, ten Holtzman rats were used, which were divided into two groups of five each: a study group that was exposed to repeated administration of SAP hot spring water in a dose of 1000 mg / kg in a volume of 2 mL/100g; and a control group, which sterilized water was given in the same volume. Daily clinical observations were made, weekly determination of body weight; and after 28 days; previous sacrifice of animals, the histopathological study of organs (heart, kidney, liver and lung) and determination of hematological and biochemical parameters were made. Results. No deaths (LD50> 1000 mg/kg) or permanent alterations of clinical signs were observed. Weight gain without statistical differences between the groups was observed. The hematological and biochemical results showed slight nonsignificant variations between groups, but in normality levels. No histopathological alterations were observed. Conclusions. No signs of acute toxicity were found after 28-days repeated administration of hot spring water from San Antonio de Putina (Puno).

Animals , Rats , Balneology , Toxicity Tests, Acute , Hot Springs , Peru , Complementary Therapies , Medicine, Traditional
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 46(2): 102-112, abr.-jun. 2017. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-901209


Introducción: la nanotecnología y el empleo de materiales a nano escala son un área relativamente nueva de la ciencia y la tecnología con un gran crecimiento en el mercado global. Muchos de los productos no cuentan con estudios que garanticen su uso seguro, tanto para el hombre como para los ecosistemas. Los estudios ecotoxicológicos permiten evaluar los efectos de un determinado xenobiótico sobre especies representativas de los diferentes compartimentos ambientales. Objetivo: evaluar los efectos tóxicos de nanopartículas de Ag, Au, Ag/Ag y superparamagnéticas de óxido de hierro, en dos especies bioindicadoras de los ecosistemas terrestre y acuático. Métodos: como parte de los estudios de seguridad se realizaron ensayos de toxicidad aguda por contacto en lombriz de tierra de la especie Eisenia andrei, con una duración de 96 horas y estudios en anfibios de la especie Osteopillus septentrionales en diferentes etapas del desarrollo (embrionario y larval). Se evaluó la ocurrencia de mortalidad y de efectos tóxicos, en el caso del ensayo en lombriz de tierra; se determinó además la viabilidad celular. Resultados: los efectos tóxicos más significativos en el caso de la lombriz de tierra fueron, la ocurrencia de alteraciones fisiológicas y conductuales al ser expuesta a NPs de Ag de 3 nm y superparamagnéticas de óxido de hierro, estas últimas provocaron citotoxicidad a la concentración 1,38 mg/mL. En el caso de los anfibios se evidenció toxicidad en NPs de Ag 3 nm y superparamagnéticas de óxido de hierro. Conclusiones: todas las nanopartículas mostraron efectos tóxicos en las especies bioindicadoras evaluadas(AU)

Introduction: Nanotechnology and the use of nanoscale materials are a relatively new area of science and technology with big growth in the global market. Many of these products don't have studies that guarantee their safe use, both for man and for ecosystems. Ecotoxicological studies allow the evaluation of the effects of a particular xenobiotic on representative species of the different environmental compartments. Objective: To evaluate the toxic effects of nanoparticles of Ag, Au, Ag / Ag and super paramagnetic iron oxide in two bioindicators of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Methods: Acute contact toxicity tests were carried out on ground worm of the Eisenia andrei species, with a duration of 96 hours and studies on amphibians of the species Osteopillus septentrionales at different stages of development (embryonic and larval). The occurrence of mortality and toxic effects was evaluated in the case of earthworm test; cell viability was also determined. Results: The most significant toxic effects in the case of earthworms were the occurrence of physiological and behavioral alterations when exposed to 3 nm Ag of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, where the latter caused cytotoxicity at concentration of 1.38 mg / mL. In the case of amphibians, toxicity was evidenced in Ag 3 nm nanoparticles and superparamagnetic iron oxide. Conclusions: All nanoparticles showed toxic effects in the evaluated bioindicator species(AU)

Humans , Animals , Xenobiotics/analysis , Metal Nanoparticles/analysis , Ecotoxicology/methods , Toxicity Tests, Acute/methods
Vitae (Medellín) ; 24(1): 23-29, 2017. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-988506


Background: The mahogany tree (Swietenia macrophylla King) is widely used in traditional medicine, especially its seeds, which are used in Malaysia, Indonesia and some countries of South America. Recently an active fraction of the leaf ethanolic extract (labelled "Sm13-16,23"), showed promising results against some toxins of South American pit vipers. Objectives: In this study the aim was to evaluate the acute oral toxicity of fraction Sm13-16,23 from the leaf ethanolic extract, using Swiss Webster mice. Methods: Fraction Sm13-16,23 was administered orally in a single dose to 2000 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg, clinical follow-up for 14 days was performed and then euthanasia, necropsy and histopathology of organs were performed. Results: Overall, there were not deaths recorded during the study period. Further not signs of toxicity in doses of 300mg/kg were observed, but at doses of 2000 mg/kg, histopathological lesions in the liver, as karyomegaly and binucleation were observed. Conclusions: Fraction Sm13-16, 23 does not produce toxicity lesion at doses of 300mg/kg, indicating that the acute oral toxicity risk is low.

Antecedentes: El árbol de la caoba (Swietenia macrophylla King) es utilizado ampliamente en la medicina tradicional, especialmente sus semillas, que son usadas en Malasia, Indonesia y algunos países de Suramérica. Recientemente una fracción activa del extracto etanólico de las hojas (llamada "Sm13-16,23"), demostró resultados promisorios frente algunas toxinas de las víboras suramericanas. Objetivos: En este estudio se evaluó la toxicidad aguda oral de la fracción Sm13-16,23 del extracto etanólico de las hojas de S. macrophylla utilizando ratones Swiss Webster. Métodos: La fracción Sm13-16,23 se administró vía oral como dosis única a 2000 mg/kg y 300 mg/kg, se realizó seguimiento clínico de los animales durante 14 días y finalmente se les aplicó la eutanasia. Se practicó la necropsia de cada animal y se tomaron algunos órganos para su evaluación histopatológica. Resultados: No se registraron muertes durante el tiempo de estudio, ni se evidenciaron signos de toxicidad a dosis de 300mg/kg, sin embargo, a la dosis de 2000 mg/kg, se encontraron lesiones histopatológicas en el hígado; como cariomegalia y binucleación de los hepatocitos. Conclusión: La fracción Sm13-16,23 no produjo lesiones de toxicidad a dosis de 300mg/ kg, lo que indicia que el riesgo de toxicidad aguda oral es bajo.

Humans , Toxicity Tests, Acute , Meliaceae , Pathology , Phenolic Compounds
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 30 (4): 1351-1356
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189705


Bisthiourea derivatives were synthesized by the reaction of benzoylisothiocyanate and diamines to give 1,2-Bis [N'-benzoylthioureidobenzene [1], l,3-di[benzoylthioureido] benzene [2] and l,4-di [benzoylthioureido] benzene [3] in acetone. Acute toxicity study revealed that LD[50] of compound [1] and [3] is 120 mg/kg body weight. Visceral pain induced by injecting i.p acetic acid in mice were strongly inhibited by all the compounds. 94.65, 95.25 and 85.54% analgesic activity were observed in compounds [1], [2] and [3] at 15 mg/kg and [2] and [3] shows 97.63 and 96.42% at 30 mg/kg body weight respectively while [1] gives 100% analgesic activity. 100% cytotoxicity was observed in compounds [2] and [3] and 96% in compound [1] at 750 ppm. The results suggest that these compounds may have potential values for treatment of cancer and painful disorders

Animals, Laboratory , Toxicity Tests, Acute , Analgesics , Visceral Pain , In Vitro Techniques , Mice