Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 19 de 19
Filter
1.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e18107, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039037

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the acute and sub-chronic toxicities of ethanol leaf extract of Dryopteris filix-mas. Acute toxicity and phytochemical tests on ethanol leaf extract were determined. In sub-chronic toxicity test, animals were treated with 62.5, 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg of extract every day for 90 days. Blood samples were collected via retro-orbital puncture for baseline studies and at 31, 61 and 91st days for determination of hematological, kidney and liver function parameters. Liver and kidneys were harvested for histopathology analyses on 91st day. Also, a 28 day recovery study was carried out to determine reversibility in toxicological effects. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, phenols, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, alkaloids, terpenoids, reducing sugar and cardiac glycosides. Acute toxicity test did not show toxicity or death at 5000 mg/kg. There was significant (p<0.005) reduction in white blood cell and lymphocyte counts, significant (p<0.05) increase in some liver and kidney biomarkers as well as alterations in liver and kidney histo-architecture on 91st days in animals that were treated with 250 and 500 mg/kg extract. However, toxicities observed on 91st day were reversible in recovery studies. The leaf extract of Dryopteris filix-mas may be hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic when used for long periods


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Plant Extracts/analysis , Toxicity Tests, Acute/adverse effects , Dryopteris/toxicity , Toxicity Tests, Subchronic/instrumentation , Ethanol/toxicity
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773377

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of oral cadmium (Cd) ingestion on the pulmonary immune response.@*METHODS@#Determination of Cd content in lungs and histopathological evaluation of the tissue was performed in rats following 30-day oral Cd administration (5 and 50 mg/L). Antioxidant enzyme defense (superoxide dismutase and catalase), cell infiltration, and production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interferon (IFN)-γ, as well as the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitric oxide (NO), and various cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-17] were investigated.@*RESULTS@#Cd caused tissue damage and cell infiltration in the lungs, and this damage was more pronounced at higher doses. Cd deposition resulted in lung inflammation characterized by a dose-dependent IL-1β increase in lung homogenates, increased TNF levels at both doses, and IL-6 stimulation at low doses with inhibition observed at higher doses. Cd exerted differential effects on lung leukocytes isolated by enzyme digestion, and these effects were characterized by a lack of change in the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, an inhibition of IL-1β and TNF, and stimulation of MPO and IFN-γ. The higher capacity of Cd-exposed lung cells to respond to the opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis was demonstrated in vitro.@*CONCLUSION@#The potential of ingested Cd to exert both proinflammatory and immunosuppressive effects on pulmonary tissue inflammation and immune reactivity highlights the complex immunomodulatory actions of this metal.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Animals , Cadmium , Toxicity , Leukocytes , Metabolism , Lung , Allergy and Immunology , Pathology , Male , Rats , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Toxicity Tests, Subchronic
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773409

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the possible long-term health effects of the defoamer used in seawater desalination by sub-chronic toxicity testing.@*METHODS@#Blood analysis, internal organ assessment, and histopathological examination were carried out in rats exposed to low, medium, and high (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/kg BW, respectively) doses of defoamer for 90 days through oral administration.@*RESULTS@#The high dose group showed decreased blood alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (P < 0.05). All doses resulted in a significant increase in albumin and decrease in globulin (P < 0.05). The direct bilirubin and indirect bilirubin were decreased in the medium and high dose groups (P < 0.05). All dose groups showed significant induction of alkaline phosphatase (P < 0.05). Pathological examination revealed a case of liver mononuclear cell infiltration in the medium dose group and three cases of liver congestion, steatosis of hepatic cells around the central vein, and punctate necrosis with multiple focal mononuclear cell infiltration in male rats administered the high dose. The No Observed Adverse Effect Level was 0.5 g/kg BW in rats, with albumin and total bilirubin as health effect indices.@*CONCLUSION@#Long-term defoamer exposure may cause liver injury but has no significant impact on renal function in rats. The effect on blood cells in female rats was more prominent than that in male rats.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Animals , Antifoaming Agents , Toxicity , Blood Chemical Analysis , Body Weight , Eating , Female , Male , Rats, Wistar , Toxicity Tests, Subchronic
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690670

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the subchronic oral toxicity of silica nanoparticles (NPs) and silica microparticles (MPs) in rats and to compare the difference in toxicity between two particle sizes.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into seven groups: the control group; the silica NPs low-, middle-, and high-dose groups; and the silica MPs low-, middle-, and high-dose groups [166.7, 500, and 1,500 mg/(kg•bw•day)]. All rats were gavaged daily for 90 days, and deionized water was administered to the control group. Clinical observations were made daily, and body weights and food consumption were determined weekly. Blood samples were collected on day 91 for measurement of hematology and clinical biochemistry. Animals were euthanized for necropsy, and selected organs were weighed and fixed for histological examination. The tissue distribution of silicon in the blood, liver, kidneys, and testis were determined.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>There were no toxicologically significant changes in mortality, clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, necropsy findings, and organ weights. Differences between the silica groups and the control group in some hematological and clinical biochemical values and histopathological findings were not considered treatment related. The tissue distribution of silicon was comparable across all groups.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Our study demonstrated that neither silica NPs nor silica MPs induced toxicological effects after subchronic oral exposure in rats.</p>


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Animals , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Male , Nanoparticles , Toxicity , Particle Size , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Silicon Dioxide , Toxicity , Toxicity Tests, Subchronic
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690648

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>The present study was undertaken to evaluate the subchronic toxicity of lanthanum and to determine the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL), which is a critical factor in the establishment of an acceptable dietary intake (ADI).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>In accordance with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) testing guidelines, lanthanum nitrate was administered once daily by gavage to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats at dose levels of 0, 1.5, 6.0, 24.0, and 144.0 mg/kg body weight (BW) per day for 90 days, followed by a recovery period of 4 weeks in the 144.0 mg/kg BW per day and normal control groups. Outcome parameters were mortality, clinical symptoms, body and organ weights, serum chemistry, and food consumption, as well as ophthalmic, urinary, hematologic, and histopathologic indicators. The benchmark dose (BMD) approach was applied to estimate a point of departure for the hazard risk assessment of lanthanum.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Significant decreases were found in the 144.0 mg/kg BW group in the growth index, including body weight, organ weights, and food consumption. This study suggests that the NOAEL of lanthanum nitrate is 24.0 mg/kg BW per day. Importantly, the 95% lower confidence value of the benchmark dose (BMDL) was estimated as 9.4 mg/kg BW per day in females and 19.3 mg/kg BW per day in males.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The present subchronic oral exposure toxicity study may provide scientific data for the risk assessment of lanthanum and other rare earth elements (REEs).</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Chemical Analysis , Body Weight , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Lanthanum , Toxicity , Male , No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Toxicity Tests, Subchronic , Urinalysis
6.
Acta toxicol. argent ; 25(3): 91-100, dic. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-949796

ABSTRACT

Smallanthus sonchifolius (Yacón) es una planta usada comúnmente por largos periodos de tiempo con el fin de ayudar en el control de la diabetes y otros desordenes metabólicos, por lo que con el propósito de evaluar la toxicidad subcrónica de la variedad colombiana de esta planta, fueron tratadas 30 ratas hembra de 8 semanas de edad dividas en 6 grupos. A cada uno de ellos se administró durante 28 días una de las siguientes dosis de infusión acuosa liofilizada (500, 250 y 125 mg/kg de peso), evaluando paralelamente grupos control (positivo y negativo) e incluyendo entre ellos grupos con y sin dieta hipercalórica. Para el seguimiento del perfil metabólico de los animales, se tomaron muestras de sangre periódicamente durante el ensayo y se evaluaron los niveles séricos de: glucemia, triglicéridos, colesterol total y HDL. Además, también se realizó el control del peso, así como estudios comportamentales que incluyeron el Test de Irwin y el Test Hipocrático. Al final de estudio (28 días), se realizó el análisis anatomopatológico e histológico comparativo con el fin de detectar posibles daños tisulares. Como resultado pudo observase que el liofilizado, si bien puede tener un efecto antihiperglucemiante, no modificó significativamente el perfil lipídico. Además, a pesar de que la administración se hizo durante 28 días, no se observaron cambios comportamentales que evidencien toxicidad, pero sí pudieron observarse cambios histológicos en el tejido cardiaco como hialinización, separación y redondeo de fibras.


Abstract. Smallanthus sonchifolius (Yacón) is a plant commonly used over long periods of time to help control diabetes and other metabolic disorders. To assess the sub-chronic toxicity of the Colombia variety of this plant, it was tested on 30 eight-week-old female rats, divided into six groups. For 28 days each group was administered with the following doses: three groups with lyophi­lized aqueous infusion (500 mg, 250 mg and 125 mg per kg of weight), two control groups (positive and negative) being assessed in parallel; this groups receiving hyper-caloric diet, and the last group was the general control or normal control. To monitor the animals' metabolic profile, blood samples were taken from time to time during the test period, and the serum levels of glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL were measured. Weight tracking was also carried out, as well as behavioral studies, including the Irwin Test and the Hippocratic Test. At the end of the study (28 days), comparative anatomo-pathological and histological analyses were performed to detect possible tissue damage. The results showed that, although the lyophilized infusion could have an antihyperglycemic effect, it did not significantly change the lipid profile. Moreover, though the infusion was administered during 28 days, it was found that it did not lead to any behavioral changes indicating toxicity, but did produce in heart tissue histological changes such as hyalinization, separation and rounding of fibers.


Subject(s)
Rats , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Phytotherapeutic Drugs , Toxicity Tests, Subchronic/methods , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy
7.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Oct; 52(10): 989-995
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153793

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the safety of rambutan rind extract (RRE) in male Wistar rats. While acute toxicity was evaluated by feeding the rats with single doses of RRE (1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 5000 mg/kg) and its sub-chronic toxicity was observed in rats orally administered with RRE (500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg) daily for 30 days. In acute toxicity study, the LD50 was found to be greater than 5000 mg/kg of RRE. In sub-chronic toxicity study, no mortality and sign of toxicity was found up to 1000 mg/kg/day of RRE. At 2000 mg/kg/day dose, the mortality rate was 12.5%. Significant decreases in body weight gain and food consumption were found in both acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies. In acute toxicity study, all the studied doses of RRE did not alter serum levels of triglyceride (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). In sub-chronic toxicity study, all studied doses of RRE significantly decreased plasma levels of TG and blood urea nitrogen, but did not alter plasma levels of AST and ALT. TC levels did not show any significant change in both the studies. The obtained results provide basic information for in vivo experimental studies of the pharmacological potentiality of RRE.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Body Weight/drug effects , Eating/drug effects , Male , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Sapindaceae/chemistry , Toxicity Tests, Acute , Toxicity Tests, Subchronic
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-247081

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the effects of exposure to aluminum (Al) on long-term potentiation (LTP) and AMPA receptor subunits in rats in vivo.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Different dosages of aluminum-maltolate complex [Al(mal)3] were given to rats via acute intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection and subchronic intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. Following Al exposure, the hippocampal LTP were recorded by field potentiation technique in vivo and the expression of AMPAR subunit proteins (GluR1 and GluR2) in both total and membrane-enriched extracts from the CA1 area of rat hippocampus were detected by Western blot assay.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Acute Al treatment produced dose-dependent suppression of LTP in the rat hippocampus and dose-dependent decreases of GluR1 and GluR2 in membrane extracts; however, no similar changes were found in the total cell extracts, which suggests decreased trafficking of AMPA receptor subunits from intracellular pools to synaptic sites in the hippocampus. The dose-dependent suppressive effects on LTP and the expression of AMPA receptor subunits both in the membrane and in total extracts were found after subchronic Al treatment, indicating a decrease in AMPA receptor subunit trafficking from intracellular pools to synaptic sites and an additional reduction in the expression of the subunits.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Al(mal)3 obviously and dose-dependently suppressed LTP in the rat hippocampal CA1 region in vivo, and this suppression may be related to both trafficking and decreases in the expression of AMPA receptor subunit proteins. However, the mechanisms underlying these observations need further investigation.</p>


Subject(s)
Aluminum , Toxicity , Animals , Down-Regulation , Genetics , Physiology , Hippocampus , Physiology , Long-Term Potentiation , Genetics , Physiology , Male , Protein Transport , Genetics , Physiology , Random Allocation , Rats , Receptors, AMPA , Genetics , Metabolism , Toxicity Tests, Acute , Toxicity Tests, Subchronic
9.
Clinics ; 68(6): 865-875, jun. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-676934

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Ficus deltoidea leaves have been used in traditional medicine in Southeast Asia to treat diabetes, inflammation, diarrhea, and infections. The present study was conducted to assess the genotoxicity and acute and subchronic toxicity of a standardized methanol extract of F. deltoidea leaves. METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats were orally treated with five different single doses of the extract and screened for signs of toxicity for two weeks after administration. In the subchronic study, three different doses of the extract were administered for 28 days. Mortality, clinical signs, body weight changes, hematological and biochemical parameters, gross findings, organ weights, and histological parameters were monitored during the study. Genotoxicity was assessed using the Ames test with the TA98 and TA100 Salmonella typhimurium strains. Phytochemical standardization was performed using a colorimeter and high-performance liquid chromatography. Heavy metal detection was performed using an atomic absorption spectrometer. RESULTS: The acute toxicity study showed that the LD50 of the extract was greater than 5000 mg/kg. In the subchronic toxicity study, there were no significant adverse effects on food consumption, body weight, organ weights, mortality, clinical chemistry, hematology, gross pathology, or histopathology. However, a dose-dependent increase in the serum urea level was observed. The Ames test revealed that the extract did not have any potential to induce gene mutations in S. typhimurium, either in the presence or absence of S9 activation. Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed high contents of phenolics, flavonoids, and tannins. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed high levels of vitexin and isovitexin in the extract, and the levels of heavy metals were below the toxic levels. CONCLUSION: The no-observed adverse effect level ...


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Rats , Ficus/toxicity , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Plant Leaves/toxicity , Apigenin/analysis , Body Weight/drug effects , Chromatography, Liquid , Methanol , Organ Size/drug effects , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Toxicity Tests, Acute , Toxicity Tests, Subchronic
10.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 15(2): 244-249, 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-677033

ABSTRACT

O objetivo desse estudo foi realizar um ensaio toxicológico pré-clínico para analisar a toxicidade do chá das folhas de Morus nigra L. (Moraceae). A toxicidade subcrônica do chá (CF-Mn) foi avaliada durante 30 dias por via oral em ratos. Ao grupo controle foi administrado água, para comparação. Durante o período experimental foi avaliada a presença de sinais de toxicidade, variação do peso corporal, e o consumo de líquido e alimento. Ao final do experimento o sangue dos animais foi retirado para análise de parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos. Não foram observados mortalidade e sinais de toxicidade indicando baixa toxicidade da planta. Não houve alterações nos parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos. Nas condições do estudo, o CF-Mn pode ser considerado de baixa toxicidade, pois não produziu efeitos tóxicos nos animais tratados.


The aim of this study was to carry out a pre-clinical toxicological assay to analyze the toxicity of tea from the leaves of Morus nigra L. (Moraceae). The subchronic toxicity of this tea (CF-Mn) was orally evaluated during 30 days in rats. The control group was given water for comparison. During the experimental period, signs of toxicity, body weight variation, and water and food consumption were assessed. At the end of the experiment, the blood of animals was removed for analysis of hematological and biochemical parameters. No mortality and no toxicity signs were observed, indicating low toxicity of the plant. There was no alteration in the hematological and biochemical parameters. Under the study conditions, CF-Mn can be considered of low toxicity since it did not produce toxic effects in treated animals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Morus/toxicity , Tea/toxicity , Toxicity Tests, Subchronic/methods
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-343695

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the effects of subchronic benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) exposure on the neurobehavior and hippocampal acetylcholine (Ach) level, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, and mRNA and protein expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 subtype (nAChR α7) in rats, and to investigate the neurotoxic mechanism of B[a]P.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Sixty healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into blank control group, solvent control group, and B [a]P exposure groups. Each rat in the exposure groups was intraperitoneally injected with B[a]P at 1.0, 2.5, or 6.25 mg/kg once every other day for 90 days. The learning and memory ability of the rats was examined by Morris water maze test and step-down test; the hippocampal Ach level was measured by alkaline hydroxylamine method; the AChE activity was measured by DNTB method; the mRNA and protein expression levels of hippocampal nAChR α7 were measured by quantitative PCR and Western blot.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The 2.5 and 6.25 mg/kg B[a]P exposure groups showed significantly lower learning and memory abilities than the blank control group and solvent control group (P < 0.05); also, the two groups had significantly lower hippocampal Ach levels than the blank control group, solvent control group, and 1.0 mg/kg B[a]P exposure group (P < 0.05). The 6.25 mg/kg B[a]P exposure group showed significantly lower hippocampal AChE activity than the blank control group, solvent control group, and 1.0 mg/kg B[a]P exposure group (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the mRNA and protein expression levels of nAChR α7 among all groups (P > 0.05). The hippocampal Ach level was negatively correlated with the mean escape latency period and total distance travelled (r = -0.567, P < 0.01; r = -0.503, P < 0.01) but positively correlated with the time in platform quadrant (r = 0.800, P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Subchronic B[a]P exposure may impair the learning and memory ability in rats, which is related to the downregulation of hippocampal Ach level.</p>


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Metabolism , Acetylcholinesterase , Metabolism , Animals , Benzo(a)pyrene , Toxicity , Hippocampus , Metabolism , Male , Maze Learning , Memory , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Cholinergic , Metabolism , Toxicity Tests, Subchronic , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor , Metabolism
12.
Clinics ; 67(5): 497-502, 2012. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-626347

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Echinophora platyloba DC is a widely used herbal medicine and food seasoning in Iran. It is claimed to exert antimicrobial, antifungal, and antispasmodic effects. Despite the prevalent use of this plant as a food and medicine, there are no reports on its possible toxic effects. To evaluate the safety of E. platyloba, we tested its acute and sub-chronic toxicity in male and female Wistar rats. METHODS: Rats were orally treated with four different single doses of E. platyloba total extract and screened for signs of toxicity two weeks after administration. In the sub-chronic toxicity study, E. platyloba was administered for 45 days. Mortality, clinical signs, body weight changes, hematological and biochemical parameters, gross findings, organ weights, and histological markers were monitored during the study. RESULTS: We found no mortality and no abnormality in clinical signs, body weight, or necropsy findings in any of the animals in the acute study. The results of the subchronic study showed no significant difference in hematological parameters in either sex. There was a significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase in the female groups. A significant increase in the relative lung weight of female rats was noted at 500 mg/kg. Histopathological examinations revealed intra-alveolar hemorrhage in the male rats (500 mg/kg). In the females, congestion of the alveolar capillaries (at 500 mg/kg) and liver bridging necrosis (at 200 mg/kg) were significantly increased. CONCLUSION: The no observed adverse effect level of E. platyloba was determined to be 200 and 50 mg/kg for male and female rats, respectively.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Apiaceae/toxicity , Body Weight/drug effects , Liver/drug effects , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Pulmonary Alveoli/drug effects , Apiaceae/classification , Capillaries/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Liver/pathology , No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level , Plants, Medicinal , Pulmonary Alveoli/pathology , Rats, Wistar , Toxicity Tests, Acute , Toxicity Tests, Subchronic
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-246531

ABSTRACT

According to the requirements of ISO10993-11.2006 and ISO10993-6:r2007 standards, we used SD rats for evaluating the subchronic systemic toxicity and local implantation response of two kinds of sodium hyaluronan gels with different application. The results of 90d subchronic toxicity study by intraperitoneal route showed that the animals of the tested group and control group grew normally. There were no differences in the increases of the body weight, haematological index and clinical biochemistry indexes. The examination of gross pathology and histopathology revealed no abnormal changes caused by the test substance during the process. But there was different degree test article residual in the body of the animals at the end of the experiment. It was observed in the local subcutaneous implantation that at the early stage, gel A had mild inflammatory response, cysts were seen clearly, and new blood capillaries were visible at local area. Later, the wall got thinner and dense with little tissue reaction. Gel B also had mild inflammatory response earlier, but it totally disappeared after 14 days of implantation. It can be concluded that the gel products with different characteristics decided its degradation and metabolic process in the body of the test animals and therefore the areas of application of the products clinically. Meanwhile, we compared the evaluation method of subchronic systemic toxicity and local implantation response in risk assessment, providing reference for the choice of biological safe testing.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Gels , Toxicity , Hyaluronic Acid , Toxicity , Implants, Experimental , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Toxicity Tests, Subchronic
14.
Acta Medica Iranica. 2011; 49 (12): 669-775
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-146506

ABSTRACT

Stachys lavandulifolia is used as the herbal tea and its wide and potent medical effects have been reported for the extract in animal studies. This study aimed to find the safety profile of the extract to find the appropriate doses for further human studies. The aerial parts of the plant were air-dried and the hydroalcoholic extract was obtained and concentrated by percolation method with 140 mg/ml concentration. To assess the toxicity profile of this extract, 60 female mice [30 cases, 30 controls, 24.8 +/- 2.1 g, 4-6 weeks] were administered the extract by oral gavages in acute [24 hrs], subacute [14 days] and subchronic [45 days] models. All clinical, hematological, biochemical and histopathological changes were assessed in appropriate midpoints and endpoints and compared with control group. Doses up to 140 mg/kg were recognized as maximum tolerated dose in subchronic model. Abnormal changes in kidney and liver weight in treatment groups as well as the significant elevation of biochemical parameters in 45 days study has suggested the possible hepatic and renal toxicity potentials of this extract with doses upper than 140mg/kg. Doses up 70 mg/kg could be considered as no observable adverse effect level [NOAEL] and could be used in further clinical trials on the possible therapeutic effects of this plant


Subject(s)
Female , Animals, Laboratory , Toxicity Tests, Subchronic , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Toxicity Tests, Acute , Maximum Tolerated Dose , Mice , Organ Size/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drinking/drug effects , Eating/drug effects
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-272619

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the activity, protein and gene expression of renal HK-ATPase (HKA) in rats subchronic exposed to trimethyltin chloride (TMT).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>In subchronic toxic test (14-week), 55 female SD rats (age, 6 weeks) were divided randomly into 5 groups: control, low, medium, high and super high dosage, respectively, which drank water with TMT of 0, 8.20, 32.81, 131.25 and 262.50 microg x kg(-1) x d(-1) for 14 weeks. Then serum K+ levels were measured; the activities of HK-ATPase (HKA) in kidneys were detected by the method of determinated phosphorus content; Western Blot assay and real-time PCR were used to exam the protein and mRNA expression levels of HKA in kidneys, respectively.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The serum K+ level in super-high dosage group was (5.6 +/- 0.4) mmol/L, which was significantly lower than that [(6.9 +/- 0.3) mmol/L] in control group (P < 0.01). The HKA enzymatic activity of kidneys in low and super high dosage groups was 4.50 +/- 1.45 and 4.55 +/- 0.72 micromolPi x mg prot(-1)h(-1), respectively, which were significantly lower than that (6.55 +/- 0.77 micromol Pi x mg prot(-1) h(-1)) in control group (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>When rats were exposed subchronic to TMT, the renal HKA activity could reduce, but the expression levels of HKA protein and mRNA did not decrease.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Gene Expression , H(+)-K(+)-Exchanging ATPase , Genetics , Metabolism , Kidney , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Toxicity Tests, Subchronic , Trimethyltin Compounds , Toxicity
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-282485

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the acute, subacute and subchronic toxicity induced by ammonium dinitramide (ADN), and to ascertain the gradation and target organs of acute toxicity induced by AND.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>According to technical specifications for toxicity determination of chemicals, the oral tests for acute, subacute and subchronic toxicity induced by AND were performed for 90 days.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The oral LDx for mouse and rat was 568.9 mg/kg and 616.6 mg/kg ADN respectively. The gradation of acute toxicity induced by AND was low level. The results of oral subacute and subchronic toxicity tests (for 28 and 90 days) showed that a gain in weight in group exposed to 123 mg/kg AND was significantly lower than that in control group (P<0.05), the TBIL and ALT in group exposed to 61.6 and 123 mg/kg AND significantly increased and the ratio of liver weight to body weight obviously decreased, as compared with control group, the number of animals with hepatic pathological changes in group exposed to 61.6 and 123 mg/kg AND was significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The gradation of acute toxicity induced by ADN was low level. When the exposure dose of AND was 30.8 mg/kg, the adverse effect was not observed, and the target organ was liver.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Weight , Female , Liver , Pathology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred Strains , Nitrites , Toxicity , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds , Toxicity , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Toxicity Tests, Acute , Toxicity Tests, Subchronic
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-323312

ABSTRACT

As the new type cornea ulcer renovation material, the biological amnion is to be implanted into the human body for a long time, a subchronic toxicity study in rats is made to evaluate its possibility of subchronic toxicity. The study is based on the requirements of "Biological Evaluation of Medical Devices, Part 11: Tests for systemic toxicity and Part 6: Tests for local effects after implantation". After the implantation of examples to be tested, animals were observed daily for mortality and 92 days later the possible subchronic toxicity was evaluated. And a necropsy was conducted and the selected organs were excised, weighed, and processed histologically. Body weights, organ weights, organ/body weight ratios, hematology values and clinical chemistry values were analyzed statistically. Results show that daily clinical observation, body weights, necropsy findings, organ weights and organ/body weight ratios were within acceptable limits in test and control treatment groups. There were no obvious changes in histopathology, hematology values or clinical chemistry values in either male or female rats and no notable differences between the biological amnion and the control amnion. This study proves that, the cornea ulcer renovation material, the biological amnion does not induce subchronic toxicity.


Subject(s)
Amnion , Transplantation , Animals , Biological Products , Toxicity , Corneal Ulcer , General Surgery , Female , Male , Materials Testing , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Toxicity Tests, Subchronic
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-321933

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the spatial learning and exploration along with the CNS excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters profiles in adult rats subchronically exposed to the anticholinesterase organophosphorus insecticide dimethoate.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Rats were gavaged daily with dimethoate (0, 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg via oral) in NS. for 90 days. Morris water maze tasks were used to test the spatial learning and memory in the rats after the dimethoate exposure. Simultaneously, rats were decapitated for the determination of brain cholinesterase AChE activities, glutamate concentrations, and the NMDA receptor NMDA-R densities and affinities in hippocampus.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Latencies to find a hidden escape platform were significantly longer in dimethoate dosed groups than that of the control group in the place navigation tests. Subsequently, the times of crossing the location of platform which had been removed obviously decreased in the highest dose group compared with that of the control in the spatial probe tests (P < 0.05). AChE activity was significantly reduced 42% approximately 78% by all three doses of dimethoate (P < 0.05). Glutamate concentrations were increased significantly 132.9% approximately 134.5% by the two highest doses of dimethoate (P < 0.05). In addition, the NMDA receptor bindings were reduced 21.2% approximately 23.2% with the statistical significance at the same two highest doses (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the receptor affinities was reduced 33.1% by the highest dose group (P < 0.05). The lesions of spatial memory were statistically corrected with the decrease of the NMDA-R affinities (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The cholinergic lesion as well as the excitatory amino acid system alteration might attribute to the inferior ability in spatial learning and memory in dimethoate subchronically exposed rats.</p>


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase , Metabolism , Animals , Chronic Disease , Dimethoate , Toxicity , Disease Models, Animal , Glutamic Acid , Metabolism , Insecticides , Toxicity , Learning , Male , Memory , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate , Metabolism , Toxicity Tests, Subchronic
19.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 28(1): 37-41, jan.-jun. 2006. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-485572

ABSTRACT

A busca de novos medicamentos tem levado ao desenvolvimento de novos fármacos que sejam eficientes e destituídos de toxicidade. Uma das fronteiras nessas pesquisas são os medicamentos fitoterápicos. No Brasil, a Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA) regulariza essas pesquisas e padroniza os procedimentos. A Resolução da Diretoria Colegiada (RDC) 48/2004, por exemplo, regulariza o registro de fitoterápicos. O Anacardium occidentale Linn está entre as plantas mais estudadas, devido às ações antibiótica e antiinflamatória de seus metabólitos secundários, principalmente taninos. Esta planta também possui a capacidade de impedir a formação da placa bacteriana bucal. Diante dessas ações, formas farmacêuticas acabadas (cremes e géis) foram desenvolvidas a partir do extrato bruto seco (EBS) das cascas do caule do A. occidentale Linn para registro de um novo fitomedicamento. Entretanto, testes pré-clínicos e clínicos devem ser feitos de acordo com a lei vigente. O presente trabalho avaliou a toxicidade subcrônica do EBS em cães sem raça definida (SRD). Os testes revelaram apenas hepatotoxicidade transitória demonstrada pela elevação dos níveis da alanina transaminase (ALT) e aspartato transaminase (AST).


Research on new medicaments has led to the development of efficient and non-toxic drugs. In Brazil, the Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (National Department of Sanitary Supervision - ANVISA) regularizes and standardizes the procedure. Anacardium occidentale is amongst the most researched plants, due to the antibiotics and antinflammatory properties of its secondary metabolites, mainly tannins and flavonoids. Furthermore, it prevents the dental plaque formation. On account of these actions, finished pharmaceutical forms (creams and gels) were developed from the crude dry extract (CDE) of A. occidentale Linn stem rinds, in order to register a new form. However, pre-clinical and clinical assays can be made in accordance with the effective law. The present work evaluated the subchronic toxicity of the CDE in dogs of indefinite pedigree. Data showed an increase of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels, which may indicate transitory hepatotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Dogs , Anacardium , Anacardium , Biological Factors , Biological Products , Toxicity , Toxicity Tests, Subchronic
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL