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1.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 31(3): e009322, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1394894

ABSTRACT

Abstract The seroprevalence of Sarcocystis spp. and Toxoplasma gondii was researched in swine raised in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Serum samples from 84 pigs from 31 farms were tested using indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for both agents. Additionally, 53 samples of pork sausages and tissues destined for human consumption, including: salami, sausage, black pudding, heart, tongue, brain, and rib muscle, were submitted to PCR to detect DNA for each agent. The frequency of anti-Sarcocystis spp. antibodies was 36.9% (31/84), with titers ranging from 32 to 1024, and 25% (21/84) for anti-T. gondii antibodies, with titers ranging from 64 to 2048. Sarcocystis spp. and T. gondii DNA were detected in 67.9% (36/53) and 13.2% (7/53) of samples, respectively. The presence of antibodies and the detection of DNA from Sarcocystis spp., and T. gondii suggests that the pigs were infected and may serve as an important reservoir for both parasites. The infection by these protozoa in the swine population is relevant to public health due to their zoonotic potential.


Resumo A soroprevalência de Sarcocystis spp. e Toxoplasma gondii foi pesquisada em suínos criados em Santa Maria, RS, Brasil. Amostras de soro de 84 suínos de 31 fazendas foram testadas pela reação deimunofluorescência indireta (IFA) para ambos os agentes. Adicionalmente, 53 amostras de embutidos suínos e tecidos cárneos destinados ao consumo humano, incluindo: salame, linguiça, morcela, coração, língua, cérebro e músculo da costela foram submetidas à PCR para detecção de DNA para cada agente. A frequência de anticorpos anti-Sarcocystis spp. foi de 36,9% (31/84), com títulos variando de 32 a 1.024; e 25% (21/84) para anticorpos anti-T. gondii, com títulos variando de 64 a 2048. A presença de DNA de Sarcocystis spp. e T. gondii foi detectada em 67,9% (36/53) e 13,2% (7/53) das amostras avaliadas, respectivamente. A detecção de anticorpos e DNA de Sarcocystis spp. e T. gondii sugere que os suínos foram infectados e podem servir como um importante reservatório de ambos os parasitas. A circulação desses agentes na população suína é relevante para a saúde pública devido ao seu potencial zoonótico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Swine Diseases/diagnosis , Swine Diseases/parasitology , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/diagnosis , Sarcocystosis/diagnosis , Sarcocystosis/veterinary , Swine/parasitology , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Toxoplasma/genetics , Toxoplasma/immunology , Antibodies, Protozoan/analysis , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/epidemiology , Prevalence , DNA, Protozoan/immunology , Sarcocystis/genetics , Sarcocystis/immunology , Sarcocystosis/epidemiology , Pork Meat/parasitology
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929061

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasma gondii is a worldwide parasite that can infect almost all kinds of mammals and cause fatal toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients. Apoptosis is one of the principal strategies of host cells to clear pathogens and maintain organismal homeostasis, but the mechanism of cell apoptosis induced by T. gondii remains obscure. To explore the apoptosis influenced by T. gondii, Vero cells infected or uninfected with the parasite were subjected to apoptosis detection and subsequent dual RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Using high-throughput Illumina sequencing and bioinformatics analysis, we found that pro-apoptosis genes such as DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3), growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible α (GADD45A), caspase-3 (CASP3), and high-temperature requirement protease A2 (HtrA2) were upregulated, and anti-apoptosis genes such as poly(adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose) polymerase family member 3 (PARP3), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) repeat containing 5 (BIRC5) were downregulated. Besides, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 1 (TRAF1), TRAF2, TNF receptor superfamily member 10b (TNFRSF10b), disabled homolog 2 (DAB2)‍-interacting protein (DAB2IP), and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 3 (ITPR3) were enriched in the upstream of TNF, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways, and TRAIL-receptor 2 (TRAIL-R2) was regarded as an important membrane receptor influenced by T. gondii that had not been previously considered. In conclusion, the T. gondii RH strain could promote and mediate apoptosis through multiple pathways mentioned above in Vero cells. Our findings improve the understanding of the T. gondii infection process through providing new insights into the related cellular apoptosis mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Chlorocebus aethiops , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Mammals/genetics , Toxoplasma/genetics , Toxoplasmosis/pathology , Vero Cells , ras GTPase-Activating Proteins/genetics
3.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(2): e000321, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251382

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotypic characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii isolated from free-range chickens in the metropolitan area of Goiânia, Goiás, in Brazil's central-west region. The seroprevalence rate was found to be 96%, according to an indirect hemagglutination assay. Brain and heart samples were processed by peptic digestion for a mice bioassay. The tissues were homogenized and the resulting samples were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which revealed that 64% of them contained the parasite's DNA. The mice bioassay revealed 15 isolates, 8 of them tachyzoites isolates from the peritoneal lavage and 7 from brain cysts. T. gondii genotypes were determined through PCR-RFLP, using the following markers: SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, alt. SAG2, Apico and CS3. Three genotypes were identified, inclued ToxoDB #65, and the other two are not yet described in the literature. Hence, we conclude that the isolates obtained from the metropolitan area of Goiânia showed relatively low genetic diversity.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as características genotípicas de Toxoplasma gondii isolados de galinhas caipiras da Região Metropolitana de Goiânia, Goiás, Região Centro Oeste do Brasil. A soroprevalência foi de 96% dos animais, determinada por hemaglutinação indireta. As amostras de cérebro e coração foram processadas através da digestão péptica para o bioensaio em camundongos. Os tecidos foram homogeneizados, e as amostras resultantes foram analisadas por reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR), que possibilitou a detecção do DNA do parasito em 64% deles. Por meio do bioensaio em camundongos, foi possível detectar 15 isolados, 8 deles apresentando taquizoítos na lavagem peritoneal e 7 apresentando cistos cerebrais. A determinação dos genótipos de T. gondii foi realizada por PCR-RFLP com os seguintes marcadores: SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, alt. SAG2, Apico e CS3. Foi possível definir 3 genótipos, incluindo o ToxoDB # 65 e dois deles ainda não foram descritos na literatura. Portanto, conclui-se que os isolados obtidos na região metropolitana de Goiânia apresentaram diversidade genética relativamente baixa.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Rodent Diseases , Toxoplasma/genetics , Toxoplasmosis, Animal , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/diagnosis , Genetic Variation , Brazil , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Chickens , Genotype
4.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(2): e000621, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251368

ABSTRACT

Abstract Molecular methods such as Copro-PCR stand out in the diagnosis of T. gondii, because they are highly sensitive and specific, and can distinguish T. gondii from other morphologically similar coccids. The purpose was the detection of Toxoplasma gondii copro-prevalence by polymerase chain reaction in 149 fecal samples from stray and domiciled cats, using three distinct markers (B5-B6, 18S and 529bp RE). Oocysts of T. gondii/H. hammondi were detected in 15.4% by parasitology fecal tests (PFT), and 4% of these oocysts were positively identified as T. gondii by Copro-PCR. The presence of T. gondii genetic material was detected in 16.1%, but 12% of the samples that tested positive by Copro-PCR were negative in PFT. Samples with discordant results were subjected to a new Copro-PCR with 18S marker and a 529, and of the 17 samples, 9 contained T. gondii genetic material. A comparison of the PFT and the molecular methods showed the latter was more sensitive, since it detected 22.1% while the PFT detected 15.4%. Demonstrating the high sensitivity and specificity of the Copro-PCR, particularly with the association of primers (k=0.809), but also confirms the importance of using molecular techniques in laboratories, since Copro-PCR was able to detect samples considered negative by PFT.


Resumo Métodos moleculares como a Copro-PCR se destacam no diagnóstico de T. gondii por serem altamente sensíveis e específicos, podendo distinguir T. gondii de outros coccídeos morfologicamente semelhantes. O objetivo foi a detecção da coproprevalência de Toxoplasma gondii por reação em cadeia da polimerase, em 149 amostras fecais de gatos errantes e domiciliados, utilizando-se três marcadores distintos (B5-B6, 18S e 529pb RE). Oocistos de T. gondii/H. hammondi foram detectados em 15,4% pelos exames parasitológicos de fezes (EPF), e 4% desses oocistos foram identificados positivamente como T. gondii pela Copro-PCR. A presença de material genético de T. gondii foi detectada em 16,1%, mas 12% das amostras positivas pelo Copro-PCR foram negativas no EPF. As amostras com resultados discordantes foram submetidas a uma nova Copro-PCR com os marcadores 18S e 529 e, das 17 amostras, 9 continham material genético de T. gondii. A comparação do EPF com os métodos moleculares mostrou que esse último foi mais sensível, pois detectou 22,1%, enquanto o EPF detectou 15,4%. Isso demonstra a alta sensibilidade e especificidade da Copro-PCR, principalmente com a associação de marcadores (k = 0,809); mas também confirma a importância do uso de técnicas moleculares em laboratórios, uma vez que a Copro-PCR foi capaz de detectar amostras consideradas negativas pelo EPF.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Toxoplasma/genetics , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , DNA, Protozoan , Oocysts , Feces
5.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(1): e023320, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156231

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to detect Toxoplasma gondii DNA in oysters (Crassostrea spp.) sold on seven beaches in the State of Pará, Brazil. According to the National Program for Hygiene and Sanitary Control of Bivalve Mollusks, 100 g of the edible part of mollusks is required to analyze contaminating microorganisms. In this study, 12 oysters were assumed to be equivalent to 100 g of edible parts when preparing each pooled sample. In total, 360 oysters were purchased from 30 vendors. From groups of 12 oysters purchased per vendor, 60 pooled samples were obtained, comprising 30 gill tissues and 30 gastrointestinal tracts. For molecular analysis, nested-PCR was conducted to amplify a 155-base-pair product of the B1 gene from T. gondii. All analyzed samples were negative for T. gondii. Our findings indicate that the oyster samples sold on the beaches in the State of Pará were not contaminated by T. gondii.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar DNA de Toxoplasma gondii em ostras (Crassostrea spp.) comercializadas em sete praias do Estado do Pará, Brasil. De acordo com o Programa Nacional de Controle Higiênico Sanitário de Moluscos Bivalves, 100 g da parte comestível dos moluscos são necessários para a análise de microrganismos contaminantes. Neste estudo, 12 ostras foram consideradas equivalentes a 100 g de partes comestíveis na preparação de cada amostra agrupada. No total, 360 ostras foram compradas de 30 vendedores. De grupos de 12 ostras adquiridas por vendedor, foram obtidas 60 amostras agrupadas, compreendendo 30 tecidos branquiais e 30 tratos gastrointestinais. Para a análise molecular, a nested PCR foi realizada para amplificar um produto de 155 pares de bases do gene B1 de T. gondii. Todas as amostras analisadas foram negativas para T. gondii. Os resultados indicam que as amostras de ostras comercializadas em praias do Estado do Pará não foram contaminadas por T. gondii.


Subject(s)
Animals , Toxoplasma/genetics , Crassostrea , Brazil , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
6.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(1): e028520, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156222

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to identify members of the Sarcocystidae family in naturally infected wild birds at a rescue center in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. The heart and brain of 44 wild birds were evaluated by bioassay in mice to detect T. gondii, and extracted DNA was used for nested PCR of the 18S ribosomal DNA gene to detect members of the Sarcocystidae family. The positive samples were sequenced, assembled, edited and compared with sequences deposited in GenBank. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from six (13.6%) out of 44 birds. Toxoplasma gondii DNA was identified in 10/44 (22.7%) of the birds. The amplified sequences exhibited 100% similarity with the DNA of the ME49 strain of T. gondii. Sarcocystis DNA (99% similarity) was identified in 5/44 (11.4%) of the birds. T. gondii and Sarcocystis spp. are common in wild birds in Minas Gerais, Brazil.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar membros da família Sarcocystidae em aves silvestres de vida livre naturalmente infectadas e resgatadas no estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Coração e cérebro de 44 aves silvestres foram avaliados por bioensaio em camundongos para detecção de T. gondii e extração de DNA para Nested-PCR do gene 18S do DNA ribossomal de membros da família Sarcocystidae. As amostras positivas foram sequenciadas, analisadas, editadas e comparadas com sequências depositadas no GenBank. Toxoplasma gondii foi isolado de seis (13,6%) das 44 aves. DNA de T. gondii foi identificado em 10/44 (22,7%) das 44 aves. As sequências amplificadas exibiram 100% de similaridade com o DNA da cepa ME49 de T. gondii. DNA de Sarcocystis (99% de similaridade) foi identificado em 5/44 (11,4%) das 44 aves. T. gondii e Sarcocystis spp. são encontrados, comumente, em aves silvestres no estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Bird Diseases/parasitology , Bird Diseases/epidemiology , Coccidiosis/epidemiology , Sarcocystidae/genetics , Toxoplasma/genetics , Biological Assay , Birds , Brazil , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA, Protozoan , Sarcocystis/genetics
7.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(2): e029320, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1288693

ABSTRACT

Abstract Toxoplasmosis occurs worldwide causing economic losses to the animal production and problems to the public health. The study aimed to detect Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis spp.in 141 meat products from commercial meat cuts of pork, beef, and kibbeh sold in commercial markets from Botucatu, SP, Brazil. Samples were bioassayed in mice to isolate the parasite, and the parasite DNA detected by PCR targeting the 529 base pairs repeat element region (PCR-529-bp). All samples resulted negative on bioassay, whereas PCR positive for 9 (6,38%), distributed as 5/48 beef, 3/49 pork, and 1/44 kibbeh. PCR-positive were investigated for the the parasite genotype using multiplex-, nested-, and RFLP-PCR for 11 markers (SAG1, 5'-3'SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, B-TUB, GRA6, L358, c22-8, c29-6, PK1, Apico). Complete genotype was determined on just one PCR-positive sample that matched MAS, TgCkBr89 and TgCkBr147 isolates already identified. In addition, nested- and RFLP-PCR targeting 18S rRNA was run for all PCR-positive samples and, the products, sequenced and aligned to the GenBank at NCBI website. Four samples showed 100% homology with T. gondii (GenBank #L37415.1), three with Sarcocystis hominis (GenBank #AF006471.1), two Sarcocystis cruzi (GenBank #AF176934.1), and one Sarcocystis hirsuta (GenBank #AF006469.1), indicating the circulation of T. gondii and Sarcocystis spp.


Resumo A toxoplasmose está mundialmente distribuída e causa perdas na produção animal e problemas de saúde pública. Objetivou-se detectar Toxoplasma gondii e Sarcocystis spp. em 141 produtos cárneos de origem suína (49), bovina (48) e de quibe cru (44), comercializados em mercados de Botucatu, SP, Brazil. Realizou-se bioensaio das amostras em camundongos para isolamento do parasita, e detecção do DNA pela reação em cadeia pela polimerase, tendo como alvo a região do elemento repetitivo de 529 pares de bases (PCR-529-bp). Todas as amostras foram negativas ao bioensaio e 9 (6,38%) positivas à PCR, sendo 5/48 bovinas, 3/49 suínas e 1/44 quibe. Determinou-se a genotipagem das amostras positivas pela multiplex-, nested- e RFLP-PCR com 11 marcadores (SAG1, 5'-3'SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, B-TUB, GRA6, L358, c22-8, c29-6, PK1, Apico). Obteve-se genótipo completo em uma amostra, semelhante a outros já identificados (MAS, TgCkBr89 e TgCkBr147). Nested- e RFLP-PCR do gene 18S rRNA das amostras positivas à PCR foram realizadas, e os produtos da nested-PCR, sequenciados e alinhados com dados do GenBank no NCBI. Quatro apresentaram 100% de homologia com T. gondii (L37415.1), duas Sarcocystis hominis (AF006471.1), duas Sarcocystis cruzi (AF176934.1), uma Sarcocystis hirsuta (AF006469.1), indicando a circulação de T. gondii e Sarcocystis spp.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Rodent Diseases , Toxoplasma/genetics , Toxoplasmosis, Animal , Sarcocystis/genetics , Brazil , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Genotype , Meat
8.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(supl.2): 144-156, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038835

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. La infección por Toxoplasma gondii puede presentarse en los humanos con un amplio rango de manifestaciones que van desde el estado asintomático hasta la enfermedad grave, según el estado inmunológico del individuo. Los mecanismos de transmisión incluyen la transfusión sanguínea, pero poco se sabe sobre la frecuencia del parásito en los bancos de sangre de Colombia. Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia de la infección con T. gondii en donantes de un banco de sangre de Cúcuta mediante técnicas de diagnóstico serológico y molecular. Materiales y métodos. Se determinaron los anticuerpos IgG e IgM contra T. gondii mediante un inmunoensayo en suero en 348 donantes. Se determinó la frecuencia de ADN de T. gondii utilizando la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) en sangre total de donantes seropositivos y se analizaron las variables de interés con base en la información obtenida durante la selección de donantes. Resultados. De los 348 donantes participantes, 134 (38,5 %) presentaron anticuerpos IgG contra T. gondii; dos (0,6 %) de ellos presentaron tanto IgG como IgM y, en dos (1,5 %), se detectó ADN del parásito en la sangre. Un análisis bivariado evidenció una asociación entre la seropositividad para T. gondii y tener más de 26 años de edad (p=0,020). Conclusiones. La prevalencia de la infección con T. gondii encontrada en los donantes de sangre sugiere una exposición significativa al agente, la cual adquiere relevancia al detectarse la parasitemia.


Abstract Introduction: Toxoplasma gondii infection manifests differently in humans according to their immunity ranging from asymptomatic profiles to severe disease. There are multiple transmission mechanisms including blood transfusions, but little is known about the frequency of T. gondii infection in Colombia's blood banks. Objective: To determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection in blood donors of a blood bank in the city of Cúcuta by serological and molecular diagnostic techniques. Materials and methods: We identified IgG and IgM antibodies against T. gondii by immunoassay in serum from 348 donors. The frequency of T. gondii DNA was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in whole blood from seropositive donors and relevant variables were analyzed based on the information obtained from surveys during blood donor selection. Results: Out of the 348 enrolled donors, 134 (38.5%) showed IgG antibodies against T. gondii; two of them (0.6%) had both IgG and IgM, and in two of them (1.5%), parasite DNA was detected in blood samples. A bivariate analysis indicated an association between seropositivity to T. gondii and being over 26 years of age (p=0.020). Conclusions: The prevalence of T. gondii infection found in the blood donors of this study suggests a significant exposure to the infectious agent that becomes relevant when parasitemia is detected.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Toxoplasma/isolation & purification , Blood Banks , Blood Donors , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Toxoplasmosis/epidemiology , DNA, Protozoan/blood , Parasitemia/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Toxoplasma/genetics , Toxoplasma/immunology , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Colombia/epidemiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Hospitals, University
9.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(1): 113-118, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990804

ABSTRACT

Abstract Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are closely related coccidian parasites (phylum Apicomplexa). This is the first study from urban synanthropic rodent species that involved serological and molecular diagnosis of T. gondii and N. caninum infection, and genotyping of T. gondii in Argentina. A total of 127 rodent samples were trap captured: Mus musculus (n = 78), Rattus norvegicus (n = 26) and Rattus rattus (n = 23). Antibodies against T. gondii and N. caninum were detected by IFAT in 32.8% (40/122) and 0.8% (1/122) of rodent samples, respectively, demonstrating contact with these protozoans. Additionally, T. gondii DNA was detected in 3.3% (4/123) of rodent central nervous system samples and 2 samples were genotyped by multilocus nPCR-RFLP. Neospora caninum DNA was not detected by PCR. The 2 genotyped samples were type III allele for all markers except for SAG-1 (type I for Rat1Arg and type II/III for Rat2Arg) and were identified as #48 and #2 (likely) according to the allele combinations reported on Toxo DB (Toxo-DB). The results of the present study revealed a wide distribution of T. gondii and less for N. caninum, in synanthropic rats and mice in the studied area.


Resumo Toxoplasma gondii e Neospora caninum são parasitas coccídeos intimamente relacionados (filo Apicomplexa). Este é o primeiro estudo de espécies de roedores sinantrópicos urbanos, o qual envolveu diagnósticos sorológicos e moleculares da infecção por T. gondii e N. caninum e genotipagem de T. gondii na Argentina. Um total de 127 amostras de roedores foram obtidas: Mus musculus (n = 78), Rattus norvegicus (n = 26) e Rattus rattus (n = 23). Anticorpos contra T. gondii e N. caninum foram detectados pela IFAT em 32,8% (40/122) e 0,8% (1/122) das amostras de roedores, respectivamente, demonstrando contato com esses protozoários. Adicionalmente, o DNA de T. gondii foi detectado em 3,3% (4/123) das amostras do sistema nervoso central de roedores e duas amostras foram genotipadas por nPCR-RFLP multilocus. O DNA de N. caninum não foi detectado por PCR. As 2 amostras genotipadas eram do tipo III para todos os marcadores, exceto para SAG-1 (tipo I para Rat1Arg e tipo II / III para Rat2Arg) e foram identificadas como # 48 e # 2 (provavelmente) de acordo com as combinações de alelos relatadas no Toxo DB (Toxo-DB). Os resultados do presente estudo indicam uma ampla distribuição de T. gondii e menor para N. caninum , em ratos e camundongos sinantrópicos na área estudada.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Rodentia/parasitology , Toxoplasma/genetics , Toxoplasma/immunology , Neospora/genetics , Neospora/immunology , Argentina , Rodentia/classification , Urban Population , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA, Protozoan/blood , Genotype , Mice
10.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(4): 481-487, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977925

ABSTRACT

Abstract Recent genetic population studies on Toxoplasma gondii in Brazil have shown large genetic variability. The objective of the present study was to isolate and genotypically characterize T. gondii from free-ranging and captive wild mammals and birds in Pernambuco state, Brazil. Fragments of heart, brain, skeletal muscle and diaphragm tissue from 71 birds and 34 mammals, which were either free-ranging or captive, were collected. Samples from 32 of these animals were subjected to bioassays in mice. Samples from the remaining 73 animals underwent biomolecular diagnosis, using PCR technique, targeting a repetitive DNA fragment of 529 bp in T. gondii. A non-virulent isolate (TgButstBrPE1) was obtained from a free-ranging striated heron (Butorides striata) and, based on primary samples, seven animals were found to be positive. The primary samples and the isolate obtained were subjected to PCR-RFLP using the markers SAG1, 5'3'SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, Apico and CS3. ToxoDB-RFLP genotype #13 from the striated heron isolate and Type BrIII genotype from a captive otter ( Lontra longicaudis) (PS-TgLonloBrPE1) were obtained. The present study describes the first isolation and genotypic characterization of T. gondii in free-ranging striated heron, and the first genotypic characterization of T. gondii in a captive otter.


Resumo Recentes estudos genéticos nas populações deste parasita no Brasil têm mostrado grande variabilidade genética. O objetivo do presente estudo foi isolar e caracterizar genotipicamente T. gondii de aves e mamíferos de vida livre e de cativeiro no estado de Pernambuco, Brazil. Fragmentos de tecido do coração, cérebro, músculo esquelético e diafragma de 71 aves e 34 mamíferos de vida livre ou cativeiro foram colhidos. Amostras de 32 destes animais foram submetidas a bioensaios em camundongos. As amostras dos 73 animais restantes foram submetidas a diagnóstico biomolecular usando a técnica de PCR, tendo como alvo o fragmento repetitivo de 529 pb do DNA de T. gondii. Dentre os 32 bioensaios conduzidos, obteve-se um isolado não-virulento (TgButstBrPE1) de um socozinho (Butorides striata ) de vida livre, e dentre as amostras primárias, sete animais foram positivos. As amostras primárias e o isolado foram submetidos a PCR-RFLP usando os marcadores SAG1, 5'3'SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, Apico e CS3. Foram obtidos o genótipo ToxoDB-RFLP #13 do isolado do socozinho e o genótipo Type BrIII de uma lontra (Lontra longicaudis) de cativeiro (PS-TgLonloBrPE1). O presente estudo descreve o primeiro isolamento e caracterização genotípica de T. gondii em socozinho de vida livre, e a primeira caracterização genotípica de T. gondii em lontra em cativeiro.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Toxoplasma/isolation & purification , Birds/parasitology , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , DNA, Protozoan/analysis , Mammals/parasitology , Toxoplasma/genetics , Toxoplasma/immunology , Genetic Variation , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Brazil , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genotype , Mammals/classification
11.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(3): 384-389, July-Sept. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042481

ABSTRACT

Abstract Toxoplasma gondii presents a high prevalence worldwide, infecting several animals. Felines are considered the definitive hosts and among the intermediate hosts we highlight mammals and birds. The man can become infected by ingesting tissue cysts present in birds and mammals. Biological and molecular aspects of T. gondii allows a better understanding of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis. This work is a serologic screening of 58 chickens grown (Gallus gallus domesticus) for human consumption in Espírito Santo State, by means of indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA). Thirteen chickens tested positive for anti-T. gondii antibodies. The heart and brain of five positive chickens were harvested, treated with pepsin and inoculated separately, in two Swiss mice, intraperitoneally. Tachyzoites were observed in the peritoneum of all the animals, between seven and 10 days after the inoculum. Ten isolates were obtained and biologically characterised in BALB/c mice inoculated with 101 to 104 tachyzoites. All isolates were classified as virulent or intermediately virulent. Isolates were genotyped by means of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis, revealing three different genotypes. None of the isolates exhibited the clonal type I, II or III genotype. No genotypic differences were observed between the isolates from the brain or heart from the same bird.


Resumo Toxoplasma gondii apresenta alta prevalência mundial, capaz de infectar diversos animais. Felinos são considerados os hospedeiros definitivos e entre os hospedeiros intermediários destacamos os mamíferos e as aves. O homem pode se infectar ingerindo cistos teciduais presentes na carne das aves e mamíferos. O conhecimento dos aspectos biológicos e moleculares do parasito possibilitam melhor entendimento da epidemiologia da toxoplasmose. Neste trabalho foi realizada triagem sorológica por hemaglutinação indireta (HI) em 58 galinhas caipiras (Gallus gallus domesticus) utilizadas para consumo humano, provenientes do estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil. Treze galinhas apresentaram sorologia positiva para T. gondii. O coração e o cérebro de cinco galinhas positivas foram colhidos, tratados com pepsina e inoculados separadamente, em dois camundongos Swiss, por via intraperitoneal. Observou-se taquizoítos no peritônio de todos os camundongos, entre sete e 10 dias após o inóculo. Foram obtidos 10 novos isolados de T. gondii os quais foram estudados em camundongos BALB/C inoculados com 101 a 104 taquizoítos por animal. Todos os isolados foram considerados virulentos ou de virulência intermediária. A caracterização molecular dos isolados, realizada por PCR-RFLP, demonstrou a ocorrência de três genótipos distintos. Nenhum isolado apresentou genótipo clonal ou linhagem clonal do Brasil. Não foi observada diferença molecular (PCR-RFLP) entre os isolados obtidos a partir do cérebro ou do coração da mesma ave. Dois isolados já haviam sido relatados na literatura como causadores de doenças em humanos.


Subject(s)
Female , Mice , Poultry Diseases/parasitology , Toxoplasma/pathogenicity , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Chickens/parasitology , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/diagnosis , Poultry Diseases/diagnosis , Toxoplasma/isolation & purification , Toxoplasma/genetics , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Brazil , Agglutination Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA, Protozoan/analysis , Genotype , Mice, Inbred BALB C
12.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(3): 327-337, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-959196

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to determine factors associated with vegetable contamination with zoonotic protozoan. Samples of water, soil and vegetables were collected from July/2014 to May/2016, totaling 83 samples, 21 properties of Londrina region, Paraná, Brazil. DNA amplification of Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis in the samples was conducted using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR results were positive for T. gondii in 12.9% (8/62), Cryptosporidium spp. in 11.3% (7/62) and G. intestinalis in 25.8% (16/62) of the samples. DNA sequencing identified C. parvum in five samples and G. intestinalis Assemblage E in three. The statistical associations demonstrated greater probability of positive samples for T. gondii and for at least one of the three protozoa when the source of irrigation water was the river; a greater chance of positive samples for Cryptosporidium spp. when deer were present on the property; and a smaller chance of positive samples for at least one of the three etiologic agents when soil was supplemented with limestone. The results expose some critical contamination points, providing support for training farmers on good management practices during the production process.


Resumo O trabalho teve como objetivo determinar os fatores associados à contaminação de vegetais por protozoários zoonóticos. Amostras de água, solo e vegetais foram coletadas de julho/2014 a maio/2016, totalizando 83 amostras de 21 propriedades da região de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil. A amplificação de fragmentos de DNA de T. gondii, Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia intestinalis foi realizada por meio da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). Os resultados da PCR foram positivos para T. gondii em 12,9% (8/62), Cryptosporidium spp. em 11,3% (7/62) e G. intestinalis. em 25,8% (16/62) das amostras. O sequenciamento de DNA identificou C. parvum em cinco amostras e G. intestinalis, Assemblage E em três amostras. As associações estatísticas evidenciaram maior probabilidade de amostras serem positivas para T. gondii ou para pelo menos um dos três protozoários quando a fonte de água de irrigação era o rio; uma maior chance de amostras positivas para Cryptosporidium spp. quando havia cervos na propriedade; e uma menor chance das amostras serem positivas para pelo menos um dos três agentes etiológicos quando o solo era suplementado com calcário. Os resultados expõem alguns pontos críticos de contaminação, fornecendo suporte para capacitar os agricultores em boas práticas de gestão durante o processo de produção.


Subject(s)
Toxoplasma/isolation & purification , Vegetables/parasitology , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Giardia lamblia/isolation & purification , Cryptosporidium/isolation & purification , Soil/parasitology , Toxoplasma/genetics , Water/parasitology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Giardia lamblia/genetics , Cryptosporidium/genetics
13.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(1): 36-40, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899775

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción El diagnóstico de toxoplasmosis congénita (TC) en el recién nacido es muy importante porque debe recibir tratamiento siempre, sintomático o no, para evitar o aminorar las secuelas de la enfermedad. Objetivo Evaluación comparativa de los métodos disponibles en la institución para el diagnóstico de TC. Materiales y Métodos Se evaluaron métodos diagnósticos en 67 niños cuyas madres cursaron toxoplasmosis aguda durante el embarazo. Se utilizó la técnica de Sabin Feldman para IgG al nacimiento y durante el seguimiento serológico hasta el año de vida. Para determinar IgM, IgA e IgE se utilizó la técnica immunosorbent agglutination assay (ISAGA). El diagnóstico directo se realizó por reacción de polimerasa en cadena (RPC), aislamiento y caracterización molecular del parásito. Resultados La sensibilidad (S) de ISAGA IgM fue 87%, ISAGA IgA 91% y la especificidad (E) fue 100% para ambas; cuando se realizaron en conjunto, la S aumentó a 98%. La detección de IgE contribuyó al diagnóstico cuando se la detectó sólo en la sangre del neonato y no en sangre materna. Se aisló el parásito en cuatro casos de TC, uno fue genotipo II y los otros tres, genotipos "atípicos". La S del aislamiento fue 80% y la E 100%. Conclusión Los métodos serológicos utilizados mostraron una buena eficacia diagnóstica. Un caso fue detectado sólo por el aislamiento y la caracterización molecular tiene gran valor epidemiológico.


Background. Congenital toxoplasmosis diagnosis in the newborn is a very important issue due to the need for early treatment to prevent future sequels. Aim To compare available methods at the institution for the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis. Material and Methods In this study we have evaluated the different diagnostic tests used in 67 congenital exposed newborns, including serological tests, PCR, parasite isolation and molecular characterization. Results The ISAGA IgM and IgA tests showed sensitivity (Se) of 87 and 91%, respectively, and specificity (Sp) of 100%. When ISAGA IgM and IgA were performed simultaneously, the Se increased to 98% and the Sp was 100%. The presence of IgE contributed to the diagnosis when it was detected in the child's serum but not in maternal blood. In four congenital infected children the parasite was isolated and genotyped: one was genotype II and the other three were "atypical" genotypes. No parasite was isolated in children without congenital toxoplasmosis. Discussion Overall, serological tests showed a good diagnostic performance although in one case they were all negative and isolation was the only tool to identify the infection. We conclude that it is essential to use all diagnostic tests in every single exposed child, including if possible, molecular characterization due to its epidemiological implication.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Toxoplasma/isolation & purification , Serologic Tests/methods , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/diagnosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Toxoplasma/genetics , Toxoplasma/pathogenicity , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/immunology , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/parasitology , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/parasitology , Genotyping Techniques
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(6): e170471, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040597

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasma gondii uses epigenetic mechanisms to regulate both endogenous and host cell gene expression. To identify genes with putative epigenetic functions, we developed an in silico pipeline to interrogate the T. gondii proteome of 8313 proteins. Step 1 employs PredictNLS and NucPred to identify genes predicted to target eukaryotic nuclei. Step 2 uses GOLink to identify proteins of epigenetic function based on Gene Ontology terms. This resulted in 611 putative nuclear localised proteins with predicted epigenetic functions. Step 3 filtered for secretory proteins using SignalP, SecretomeP, and experimental data. This identified 57 of the 611 putative epigenetic proteins as likely to be secreted. The pipeline is freely available online, uses open access tools and software with user-friendly Perl scripts to automate and manage the results, and is readily adaptable to undertake any such in silico search for genes contributing to particular functions.


Subject(s)
Toxoplasma/genetics , Computer Simulation , Cell Nucleus/parasitology , Proteome/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic/genetics , Host-Parasite Interactions/physiology , Toxoplasma/physiology
15.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(6): 638-647, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888925

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Symptomatic forms of toxoplasmosis are a serious public health problem and occur in around 10-20% of the infected people. Aiming to improve the molecular diagnosis of symptomatic toxoplasmosis in Brazilian patients, this study evaluated the performance of real time PCR testing two primer sets (B1 and REP-529) in detecting Toxoplasma gondii DNA. The methodology was assayed in 807 clinical samples with known clinical diagnosis, ELISA, and conventional PCR results in a 9-year period. All samples were from patients with clinical suspicion of several features of toxoplasmosis. According to the minimum detection limit curve (in CT), REP-529 had greater sensitivity to detect T. gondii DNA than B1. Both primer sets were retrospectively evaluated using 515 DNA from different clinical samples. The 122 patients without toxoplasmosis provided high specificity (REP-529, 99.2% and B1, 100%). From the 393 samples with positive ELISA, 146 had clinical diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and positive conventional PCR. REP-529 and B1 sensitivities were 95.9% and 83.6%, respectively. Comparison of REP-529 and B1 performances was further analyzed prospectively in 292 samples. Thus, from a total of 807 DNA analyzed, 217 (26.89%) had positive PCR with, at least one primer set and symptomatic toxoplasmosis confirmed by clinical diagnosis. REP-529 was positive in 97.23%, whereas B1 amplified only 78.80%. After comparing several samples in a Brazilian referral laboratory, this study concluded that REP-529 primer set had better performance than B1 one. These observations were based after using cases with defined clinical diagnosis, ELISA, and conventional PCR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Toxoplasma/genetics , Toxoplasmosis/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis/classification , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , DNA Primers/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
16.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 26(2): 177-184, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899274

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of the study was to report on a fatal case of feline toxoplasmosis with coinfection with the feline leukemia virus (FeLV). A domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus) presented intense dyspnea and died three days later. In the necropsy, the lungs were firm, without collapse and with many white areas; moderate lymphadenomegaly and splenomegaly were also observed. The histopathological examination showed severe necrotic interstitial bronchopneumonia and mild necrotic hepatitis, associated with intralesional cysts and tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii that were positive by anti-T. gondii immunohistochemical (IHC) evaluation. The bone marrow showed chronic myeloid leukemia and the neoplastic cells were positive by anti-FeLV IHC evaluation. DNA extracted from lungs was positive for T. gondii by PCR targeting REP-529. T. gondii was characterized by PCR-RFLP and by the microsatellites technique. ToxoDB-PCR-RFLP #10, i.e. the archetypal type I, was identified. Microsatellite analysis showed that the strain was a variant of type I with two atypical alleles. This was the first time that a T. gondii clonal type I genotype was correlated with a case of acute toxoplasmosis in a host in Brazil.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi relatar um caso de toxoplasmose felina fatal com coinfecção com o vírus da leucemia felina (FeLV). Um gato doméstico (Felis silvestris catus) apresentou intensa dispneia e morreu três dias depois. Na necropsia, observaram-se pulmões firmes, não colabados e com múltiplas áreas brancas, além de linfoadenomegalia e esplenomegalia moderadas. No exame histopatológico, evidenciaram-se broncopneumonia intersticial necrótica acentuada e hepatite necrótica discreta associada a cistos e taquizoítas de T. gondii intralesionais positivos na imuno-histoquímica (IHC) anti-T. gondii. Evidenciou-se ainda, na medula óssea, leucemia mieloide crônica com IHC anti-FeLV positiva nas células neoplásicas. O DNA extraído dos pulmões foi positivo para T. gondii por meio da PCR-REP-529. T. gondii foi caracterizado por PCR-RFLP e pela técnica de microssatélites. Foi identificado o genótipo ToxoDB-PCR-RFLP #10, i.e., o arquétipo tipo I. A análise por microssatélites mostrou que a cepa era uma variante do tipo I, com dois alelos atípicos. Esta é a primeira vez que T. gondii clonal tipo I foi relacionado com um caso agudo de toxoplasmosis em um hospedeiro no Brasil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/veterinary , Cat Diseases/pathology , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/pathology , Immunocompromised Host , Toxoplasma/genetics , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Brazil , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/pathology , Cat Diseases/parasitology , Fatal Outcome , Genotype
17.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 69(1): 139-145, jan.-fev. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-834165

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasmosis is a widespread zoonosis that can infect warm-blooded animals including birds and humans, and chickens are considered to be indicators of environmental contamination. In Brazil, Toxoplasma gondii has a non-clonal population structure composed of three lineages (I, II, and III), presenting high recombination, and resulting in wide genetic diversity. This study aimed to genetically characterize T. gondii isolates from naturally infected chickens (Gallus domesticus) in Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil region. Sera from 133 free-range chickens were analyzed by an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) to detect IgG antibodies against T. gondii. Brain and heart from 30 positive animals, based on IFA (≥ 1:64), were used to isolate the parasite using a mouse bioassay. Strain genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP using 12 genetic markers (SAG1, 5´-3´SAG2, alt. SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, Apico, and CS3). The results were classified according to the genotypes based on the ToxoDB (http://toxodb.org/toxo/). Of 133 chicken sera analyzed, 84 (63.16%) were positive, with antibody titers ranging from 16 to 1024. Eleven isolates were obtained from mouse bioassay (Ck3, Ck32, Ck35, Ck56, Ck63, Ck89, Ck102, Ck103, Ck125, Ck127, and Ck128). Genotyping revealed six genotypes; three were classified as #26, #53, and #120, and three (NEO1, NEO2, and NEO3) were had not been previously described. No clonal lineages of type I, II, or III were identified. The present study confirms the high genetic diversity of T. gondii in Brazil.(AU)


A toxoplasmose é uma zoonose de ampla distribuição, que acomete animais homeotérmicos, incluindo as aves e o ser humano. Galinhas podem ser consideradas indicadoras de contaminação ambiental. No Brasil, Toxoplasma gondii não apresenta estrutura populacional clonal (I, II e III), ocorrendo alta frequência de recombinação, o que resulta na grande diversidade genética observada. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar geneticamente T. gondii de galinhas (Gallus domesticus) naturalmente infectadas do estado de Santa Catarina. Soros de 133 aves criadas extensivamente foram analisados pela reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI) para detecção de anticorpos IgG contra T. gondii. Para o isolamento do parasito (bioensaio em camundongos), foram utilizados coração e cérebro de 30 aves que apresentaram títulos maiores que 64 na RIFI. Os isolados obtidos foram submetidos à caracterização genotípica por meio da RFLP-PCR utilizando 12 marcadores genéticos (SAG1, 5'-3'SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, Apico e CS3). Os resultados obtidos foram classificados de acordo com os genótipos presentes no ToxoDB (http://toxodb.org/toxo/). Das 133 amostras de soros de galinha analisadas, 84 (63,16%) foram positivas, com títulos de anticorpos variando de 16 a 1024. No bioensaio, foram obtidos 11 isolados (Ck 3, Ck 32, Ck 35, Ck 56, Ck 63, Ck 89, Ck 102, Ck 103, Ck 125, Ck127 e Ck 128). A análise genotípica revelou a presença de seis genótipos, três dos quais classificados como #26, #53 e #120, e três, NEO1, NEO2 e NEO3, não descritos anteriormente. Nenhuma linhagem clonal I, II ou III foi encontrada. O presente trabalho confirma a ampla diversidade genética do parasito observada no Brasil.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Chickens/parasitology , Toxoplasma/genetics , Toxoplasma/isolation & purification , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/veterinary , Genotyping Techniques/veterinary , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(5): 602-607, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-798119

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Road-killed wild animals host zoonotic pathogens such as Toxoplasma gondii, offering a new opportunity for the epidemiological study of these infectious organisms. METHODS This investigation aimed to determine the presence of T. gondii and other apicomplexan parasites in tissue samples of 64 road-killed wild animals, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Positive samples were then typed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) using 7 markers: SAG1, 5′-3′SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, c29-6, PK1, and Apico. PCR-RFLP targeting 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes was also performed on all samples to detect other apicomplexan parasites. RESULTS T. gondii DNA was detected in 16 tissue samples from 8 individual animals, as follows: 1 Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), 1 Didelphis albiventris (white-eared opossum), 1 Lutreolina crassicaudata (lutrine opossum), 2 Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater), 1 Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon), and 2 Sphiggurus spinosus (Paraguay hairy dwarf porcupine). Seven different T. gondii genotypes were identified, 6 of which were novel. Typing by 18S rRNA verified these 16 T. gondii-infected samples, and identified 1 Sarcocystis spp.-infected animal [Dasypus novemcinctus (nine-banded armadillo)]. The amplified T. gondii (GenBank accession No. L37415.1) and Sarcocystis spp. 18S rRNA products were confirmed by sequencing. CONCLUSIONS Our results indicate that T. gondii is commonly present in wild mammals, which act as sources of infection for humans and animals, including other wild species. The approach employed herein proved useful for detecting T. gondii and Sarcocystis spp. in the environment and identifying their natural reservoirs, contributing to our understanding of host-parasite interactions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Toxoplasma/genetics , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Sarcocystis/genetics , Animals, Wild/parasitology , Mammals/parasitology , Toxoplasma/isolation & purification , Brazil , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sarcocystis/isolation & purification , Genotype
19.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 25(1): 82-89, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777525

ABSTRACT

Abstract Phylogenies within Toxoplasmatinae have been widely investigated with different molecular markers. Here, we studied molecular phylogenies of the Toxoplasmatinae subfamily based on apicoplast and mitochondrial genes. Partial sequences of apicoplast genes coding for caseinolytic protease (clpC) and beta subunit of RNA polymerase (rpoB), and mitochondrial gene coding for cytochrome B (cytB) were analyzed. Laboratory-adapted strains of the closely related parasites Sarcocystis falcatula and Sarcocystis neurona were investigated, along with Neospora caninum, Neospora hughesi, Toxoplasma gondii (strains RH, CTG and PTG), Besnoitia akodoni, Hammondia hammondiand two genetically divergent lineages of Hammondia heydorni. The molecular analysis based on organellar genes did not clearly differentiate between N. caninum and N. hughesi, but the two lineages of H. heydorni were confirmed. Slight differences between the strains of S. falcatula and S. neurona were encountered in all markers. In conclusion, congruent phylogenies were inferred from the three different genes and they might be used for screening undescribed sarcocystid parasites in order to ascertain their phylogenetic relationships with organisms of the family Sarcocystidae. The evolutionary studies based on organelar genes confirm that the genusHammondia is paraphyletic. The primers used for amplification of clpC and rpoB were able to amplify genetic sequences of organisms of the genus Sarcocystisand organisms of the subfamily Toxoplasmatinae as well.


Resumo A filogenia da subfamília Toxoplasmatinae tem sido amplamente investigada com diversos marcadores moleculares. Neste estudo, a filogenia molecular da subfamília Toxoplasmatinae foi analisada através de genes de apicoplasto e mitocondriais. Foram analisadas sequências parciais de genes de apicoplasto codificadores da protease caseinolítica (clpC), e da subunidade beta da RNA polimerase (rpoB) e de gene mitocondrial codificador de citocromo B (cytB). Foram investigadas cepas adaptadas em laboratório de Sarcocystis neurona eSarcocystis falcatula, parasitos estreitamente relacionados, além de Neospora caninum, Neospora hughesi, Toxoplasma gondii (cepas RH, CTG e PTG),Besnoitia akodoni, Hammondia hammondi e duas linhagens geneticamente divergentes de Hammondia heydorni. A análise molecular, baseada em genes de organelas, não diferenciou claramenteN. caninum de N. hughesi, porém foi possível confirmar as duas linhagens de H. heydorni. Foram encontradas pequenas diferenças entre as cepas adaptadas em laboratório deS. falcatula e S. neurona em todos os marcadores moleculares avaliados. Concluindo, filogenias congruentes foram reconstruídas com os três diferentes genes que podem ser úteis em triagem de parasitos sarcocistídeos não identificados, para identificar sua relação com organismos da família Sarcocystidae. Os estudos evolutivos com genes organelares confirmam que o gênero Hammondia é parafilético. Osprimers utilizados para amplificação declpC e rpoB foram capazes de amplificar sequências genéticas de organismos do gênero Sarcocystis e da subfamília Toxoplasmatinae.


Subject(s)
Animals , Phylogeny , Sarcocystidae/genetics , Apicoplasts/genetics , Toxoplasma/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods , Neospora/genetics
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36487

ABSTRACT

The sodium hydrogen exchanger 1 (NHE1), which functions in maintaining the ratio of Na+ and H+ ions, is widely distributed in cell plasma membranes. It plays a prominent role in pH balancing, cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and migration. However, its exact subcellular location and biological functions in Toxoplasma gondii are largely unclear. In this study, we cloned the C-terminal sequence of T. gondii NHE1 (TgNHE1) incorporating the C-terminal peptide of NHE1 (C-NHE1) into the pGEX4T-1 expression plasmid. The peptide sequence was predicted to have good antigenicity based on the information obtained from an immune epitope database. After induction of heterologous gene expression with isopropyl-b-D-thiogalactoside, the recombinant C-NHE1 protein successfully expressed in a soluble form was purified by glutathione sepharose beads as an immunogen for production of a rabbit polyclonal antiserum. The specificity of this antiserum was confirmed by western blotting and immunofluorescence. The antiserum could reduce T. gondii invasion into host cells, indicated by the decreased TgNHE1 expression in T. gondii parasites that were pre-incubated with antiserum in the process of cell entry. Furthermore, the antiserum reduced the virulence of T. gondii parasites to host cells in vitro, possibly by blocking the release of Ca2+. In this regard, this antiserum has potential to be a valuable tool for further studies of TgNHE1.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Line , Immune Sera/genetics , Male , Mice , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Rabbits , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Sheep , Sodium-Hydrogen Exchangers/genetics , Toxoplasma/genetics , Toxoplasmosis/parasitology
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