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1.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(8): e00301120, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339539

ABSTRACT

This article aims to present methodological aspects on the collection, analyses, coverage, challenges, and the lessons learned from laboratory assessment of micronutrients on the Brazilian National Survey on Child Nutrition (ENANI-2019). This is a household survey on a probability sample of children under five years of age from 123 Brazilian municipalities in all 26 states and the Federal District. Blood samples were drawn by venipuncture at the homes of children 6 to 59 months of age. This procedure was performed by experienced phlebotomists from the laboratories located in the selected municipalities and scheduled in advance. Blood and serum levels were measured for biomarkers of nutritional status, using the services of a clinical test laboratory with nationwide coverage, for the following micronutrients: iron (hemoglobin and ferritin), zinc, selenium, folic acid, and vitamins A, B1, B6, B12, D, and E. C-reactive protein was analyzed as a marker of inflammation. A barcode identifier was used to track the blood samples and to link the biochemical test results to the other data collected in the survey. A total of 14,558 children were studied. Of the 12,598 eligible children, 8,829 (70.1%) had blood samples drawn. Of the total number of children who had samples drawn, 91.8% (n = 8,025) have results for at least nine of the 12 analyses performed. Coverage of the analysis varied from 95% (for vitamins A and E) to 84.2% (for folic acid). Aliquots of whole blood and serum were stored in a biorepository for future analyses. The results of this pioneering study in the country will back the formulation and, when necessary, the reorientation of public policies in food and nutrition.


O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar os aspectos metodológicos referentes à coleta e análise de dados laboratoriais do Estudo Nacional de Alimentação e Nutrição Infantil (ENANI-2019), a cobertura das análises laboratoriais, os desafios enfrentados e as lições aprendidas. Trata-se de um inquérito populacional de base domiciliar de crianças menores de cinco anos realizado em 123 municípios dos 26 estados da Federação e o Distrito Federal. A coleta de sangue por punção venosa foi realizada em domicílio em crianças com idade entre 6 e 59 meses, por coletador experiente de laboratório(s) existente(s) nos municípios amostrados. Foram determinadas as concentrações sanguíneas e séricas de biomarcadores do estado nutricional utilizando os serviços de um laboratório de análises clínicas com abrangência nacional para os seguintes micronutrientes: ferro (hemoglobina e ferritina), zinco, selênio, ácido fólico, vitaminas A, B1, B6, B12, D e E. A proteína C reativa foi analisada como marcador de inflamação. Um código de barras identificador das amostras de sangue foi utilizado para o rastreio da amostra e para a junção dos resultados dos exames bioquímicos com os demais dados coletados na pesquisa. Foram estudadas 14.558 crianças. Das 12.598 elegíveis, 8.829 (70,1%) realizaram coleta de sangue. Do total de crianças que realizaram coleta de sangue, 91,8% (n = 8.025) têm resultados para pelo menos nove das 12 análises realizadas. A cobertura por análise variou de 95% (para vitaminas A e E) a 84,2% (para ácido fólico). Os resultados deste estudo pioneiro subsidiarão a formulação e, quando for o caso, o redirecionamento de políticas públicas de alimentação e nutrição.


El objetivo de este artículo es presentar aspectos metodológicos, respecto a la recogida y análisis de datos de laboratorio del Estudio Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición Infantil (ENANI-2019), así como la cobertura de los mismos, los desafíos enfrentados y lecciones aprendidas. Se trata de una encuesta poblacional de base domiciliaria con niños menores de cinco años, realizada en 123 municipios de los 26 estados de la Federación y el Distrito Federal. La recogida de sangre por punción venosa se realizó en domicilios con niños, de edades comprendidas entre los 6 y los 59 meses, con la intervención de un flebotomista con experiencia en laboratorio(s) existente(s) en los municipios de muestra. Se determinaron las concentraciones sanguíneas y séricas de biomarcadores del estado nutricional, utilizando los servicios de un laboratorio de análisis clínicos con alcance nacional para los siguientes micronutrientes: hierro (hemoglobina y ferritina), zinc, selenio, ácido fólico, vitaminas A, B1, B6, B12, D y E. La proteína C reactiva se analizó como marcador de inflamación. Un código de barras identificador de las muestras de sangre se utilizó para el rastreo de la muestra y para la conjunción de los resultados de los exámenes bioquímicos con los demás datos recogidos en la investigación. Se estudiaron 14.558 niños. De los 12.598 elegibles, a 8.829 (70,1%) se les sacó sangre. Del total de niños, a quienes se les tomó muestras de sangre, un 91,8% (n = 8.025) obtuvieron resultados para por lo menos nueve de los 12 análisis realizados. La cobertura por análisis varió de un 95% (para vitaminas A y E), a un 84,2% (para ácido fólico). Los resultados de este estudio pionero apoyarán la formulación y, cuando fuera necesario, la redirección de políticas públicas de alimentación y nutrición.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Trace Elements , Micronutrients , Brazil , Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Nutritional Status
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880344

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#There is little data on the association between the lower nutrition represented by serum albumin levels and related factors in a general population. The present study aimed to determine whether the albumin level positioned as some kind of biomarker with frailty measures, trace elements, and an inflammation marker.@*METHODS@#In 2018, we performed an epidemiological survey in 1368 subjects who resided in Tanushimaru, Japan, in which we examined the blood chemistry including albumin, trace elements, hormone levels, and carotid ultrasonography. Albumin levels were categorized into 4 groups (G1 [3.2-3.9 mg/dL], G2 [4.0-4.3 mg/dL], G3 [4.4-4.6 mg/dL], and G4 [4.7-5.3 mg/dL]). The participants underwent measurements of handgrip strength and were tested by asking to walk 5 m. Their cognitive functions were evaluated by the mini-mental state examination (MMSE).@*RESULTS@#Multiple stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that albumin levels were significantly and independently associated with age (inversely), systolic blood pressures, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), MMSE score, frailty measures (handgrip strength), an inflammation marker (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein), hormones (growth hormone (inversely) and insulin-like growth factor-1), and trace elements (calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc), with a linear trend.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Lower albumin levels, even in the normal range, were found to be related factors of frailty measures, trace elements, and an inflammation marker in a general population.


Subject(s)
Aged , Albumins/metabolism , Biomarkers/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Frailty/physiopathology , Hand Strength/physiology , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Japan , Male , Trace Elements/blood
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879874

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the association of serum levels of trace elements with core symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).@*METHODS@#From September 2018 to September 2019, an investigation was performed for 1 020 children with ASD and 1 038 healthy children matched for age and sex in the outpatient service of grade A tertiary hospitals and special education institutions in 13 cities of China. Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC), Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) were used to assess the core symptoms of the children with ASD. The inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to measure serum levels of trace elements magnesium, iron, copper, and zinc.@*RESULTS@#The children with ASD had significantly lower serum levels of magnesium, copper, and zinc than the healthy children (@*CONCLUSIONS@#The serum levels of magnesium and zinc may be associated with core symptoms in children with ASD, which requires further studies. The nutritional status of trace elements should be monitored for children with ASD in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Child , China , Copper/analysis , Humans , Trace Elements/analysis , Zinc
4.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 92(2): e649, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126742

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Comparar las concentraciones de los oligoelementos cobre y zinc en la leche materna, de vaca y de cabra. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal. Se recogieron muestras de leche materna de madres lactantes sanas (91 mujeres) que asistieron a un centro materno infantil en la ciudad de Maracaibo-Venezuela. Previo consentimiento informado se seleccionaron madres que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. Las concentraciones de los oligoelementos en estudio, se determinaron mediante espectrofotometría de absorción atómica con llama. Resultados: En el análisis de la muestra de leche humana se hallaron concentraciones de cobre de 0,290 ± 0,04 mg/L y concentraciones de zinc de 1,580 ± 0,35 mg/L. Estos valores son considerados aceptables según la ingesta diaria de referencia para estos oligoelementos y fueron más elevada en muestras en leche de cabra según la literatura, mientras que las concentraciones de zinc en ambas leches (cabra y vaca), registradas por otros especialistas, fueron más elevadas que en la leche humana del presente estudio. Conclusiones: Las concentraciones de cobre y zinc halladas en la leche materna en este trabajo son las ingestas recomendadas para el desarrollo y madurez del sistema nervioso central del neonato(AU)


Objective: To compare the concentrations of trace elements like copper and zinc present in breast, cow's and goat's milk. Methods: Descriptive, cross sectional study. Samples of breast milk were collected from healthy lactating mothers (91 women) who attended a maternal and children health center in Maracaibo city, Venezuela. Mothers were selected prior informed consent who met the inclusion criteria. The concentrations of the studied trace elements were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry with flame. Results: In the analysis of the human milk´s sample, there were found concentrations of Cu (0.290 ± 0.04 mg/L) and concentrations of Zn (1.580 ± 0.35 mg/L). These levels are considered acceptable according to the permitted intake of trace elements and according to the literature, those are higher in goat milk´s samples, while concentrations of Zn in both milks (goat and cow), registered by other specialists were higher than in the human milk´s of the present study. Conclusions: The concentrations of copper and zinc found in breast milk are the recommended daily intake for the development and maturity of the central nervous system of the newborns(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Trace Elements/analysis , Dietary Minerals/administration & dosage , Milk, Human/chemistry , Goats , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Breast-Milk Substitutes
5.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(1): 224-232, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-1088925

ABSTRACT

A total of 640 one-day-old Cobb broiler chicks, half male and half female, were reared up to 49 days of age. A completely randomized 2 × 4 factorial design was used. Experimental treatments consisted of four levels of organic zinc supplementation and one control (inorganic zinc supplementation) and two levels of sex (female and male), with four replicates of 16 birds per experimental plot. Animal performance, carcass and cut yields, and meat quality were evaluated. Feed intake increased with zinc supplementation. Broilers that received the lowest level of organic zinc showed better feed conversion than those fed an equivalent level of inorganic zinc. Increased levels of organic zinc reduced the abdominal fat content in females but impaired the oxidative stability of meat. The results showed that male broilers have better performance, carcass yield, and meat quality than females and that organic zinc improves broiler feed conversion and reduces abdominal fat but increases lipid oxidation in meat.(AU)


Foram alojados 640 pintainhos de corte, sendo metade de machos e metade de fêmeas, da linhagem Cobb, de um a 49 dias de idade. Foi adotado um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2 × 4. Os tratamentos experimentais consistiram em quatro níveis de suplementação de zinco orgânico e um controle inorgânico, e diferentes sexos, com quatro repetições de 16 aves por parcela experimental. Foram avaliados o desempenho, a característica da carcaça e dos cortes, bem como a qualidade de carne dos frangos. O aumento dos níveis de zinco elevou o consumo de ração dos frangos. Os frangos que receberam zinco orgânico na exigência mínima apresentaram melhor conversão alimentar comparados àqueles que receberam ração de fonte inorgânica. O aumento nos níveis de zinco orgânico proporcionou redução no teor de gordura abdominal para fêmeas, mas níveis de zinco orgânico prejudicaram a estabilidade oxidativa da carne. Conclui-se que frangos machos apresentam melhor desempenho, carcaça e qualidade de carne em relação às fêmeas, e que o zinco orgânico melhora a conversão alimentar dos frangos, reduz a gordura abdominal, porém eleva a oxidação lipídica da carne.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Trace Elements/administration & dosage , Zinc/administration & dosage , Weight Gain , Chickens/growth & development , Meat/analysis
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878294

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This research was performed to evaluate the effect of tebuconazole (TBZ) on reproductive organs of male rats and to assess the protective role of combined essential trace elements in alleviating the detrimental effect of TBZ on male reproductive function.@*Methods@#For this purpose, 48 rats were exposed to 100 mg/kg TBZ, TBZ supplemented with zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), copper (Cu), and iron (Fe), TBZ + (Se + Zn); TBZ + Cu; or TBZ + Fe. The experiment was conducted for 30 consecutive days.@*Results@#TBZ caused a significant perturbation in mineral levels and reduction in reproductive organs weights, plasma testosterone level, and testicular antioxidant enzyme activities. The TBZ-treated group also showed a significant increase in sperm abnormalities (count, motility, and viability percent), plasma follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone concentrations, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and severe DNA degradation in comparison with the controls. Histopathologically, TBZ caused testis impairments. Conversely, treatment with trace elements, in combination or alone, improved the reproductive organ weights, sperm characteristics, TBZ-induced toxicity, and histopathological modifications in testis.@*Conclusion@#TBZ exerts significant harmful effects on male reproductive system. The concurrent administration of trace elements reduces testis dysfunction, fertility, and toxicity induced by TBZ.


Subject(s)
Animal Feed/analysis , Animals , Antioxidants/metabolism , Diet , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Fungicides, Industrial/adverse effects , Male , Minerals/metabolism , Mutagenicity Tests , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Spermatozoa/physiology , Testis/physiology , Trace Elements/metabolism , Triazoles/adverse effects
7.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 525-530, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877290

ABSTRACT

@#Introduction. We analyzed the concentrations of the trace elements [chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cesium (Cs), lead (Pb), thorium (Th), and uranium (U)] in commercial bottled water consumed in the town of Angono, Rizal province, Luzon island, Philippines to evaluate the health risks of the trace elements in drinking water. There are some arguments that water resources available in the Philippines are heavily polluted by various materials, inparticular heavy metal elements. Method. The concentrations of seven trace elements in commercial bottled water produced and consumed in the Philippines were analyzed using a solution nebulization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SN−ICP−MS). Result. The concentrations of the trace elements except for Cs, which does not yet have a WHO guideline value, in the locally produced bottled water were below the WHO guideline values. The Cs concentrations (<0.6 μg/L) of the bottled water of the Philippines were generally similar to those of the bottled water produced and consumed in other countries such as Japan, China, and Indonesia. Conclusion. The concentrations of trace elements in bottled water consumed in Angono, Philippines can be regarded as being at safe levels, as well as those of daily life water (i.e. tap, well, and spring water) consumed in the said town.


Subject(s)
Drinking Water , Trace Elements , Philippines
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828436

ABSTRACT

Based on the theory of "component structure", the component structure characteristics of 17 inorganic elements in 20 batches of genuine Moutan Cortex and 12 batches of non-genuine Moutan Cortex were analyzed. The analytical method of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS) for inorganic elements in Moutan Cortex was established, and the fingerprint of inorganic elements was drawn. Through correlation analysis and principal component analysis, the constituent elements of inorganic elements in Moutan Cortex were excavated, namely characteristic elements As, Cr, Pb, Se, K, Cu and Cd. The amount and the quantity relative ratio between the components of genuine and non-genuine Moutan Cortex samples were analyzed. It was found that the amount of characteristic elements in the bulk genuine Moutan Cortex samples was 0.33, 1.42, 1.33, 0.11, 4 385.78, 4.87, 0.49 mg·kg~(-1), with the quantity relative ratio of 1.00∶4.30∶4.03∶0.33∶13 290.24∶14.76∶1.48. The amount of characteristic elements in sub-packaged genuine Moutan Cortex was 0.24, 1.96, 0.36, 0.05, 5 122.01, 4.81, 0.05 mg·kg~(-1), with the quantity relative ratio of 1.00∶8.17∶1.50∶0.21∶21 341.71∶20.04∶0.21. The unique structural characteristics of inorganic elements in genuine Moutan Cortex are studied to provide a basis for the quality control and safety evaluation of Moutan Cortex.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Paeonia , Principal Component Analysis , Quality Control , Trace Elements
9.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 6(2): 132-148, jul dic 2019. ^c27 cmilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095876

ABSTRACT

Los oligoelementos son importantes constituyentes nutricionales de las hierbas comestibles. Se colectaron 11 especies, nueve nativas (Amaranthus hybridus, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, Crotalaria longirostrata, Dysphania ambrosioides, Lycianthes synanthera, Sechium edule, Solanum americanum, S. nigrescens, S. wendlandii) y dos introducidas (Moringa oleifera, Spinacea oleracea) en dos regiones de Guatemala. Se prepararon muestras de la hierba seca, cocida y de caldo de hierba fresca. Se cuantificaron por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica los macro (N, P, K) y oligoelementos (Ca, Mg, Na, Cu, Zn, Mn), taninos por espectrofotometría y oxalatos por permanganimetría. El contenido de oligoelementos es diverso, para Zn, la hierba control S. oleracea contienen buena cantidad (90-140 ppm); de las nativas D. ambrosioides (130-160 ppm) y A. hybridus (70-80 ppm) tienen la mayor cantidad. Respecto a Fe las hierbas control tienen buena composición (S. oleracea, 220-280 ppm y M. oleifera, 105-135 ppm); de las nativas A. hybridus (90-240 ppm), C. aconitifolius (75-185 ppm) y L. synanthera (75-140 ppm) tienen buenas concentraciones. Se encontraron niveles elevados de oxalatos en S. oleracea (67.30 (5.51) mg/g), L. synanthera (56.30 (9.67) mg/g) y S. nigrescens (33.6 (5.48) mg/g); en las demás hierbas se encontraron niveles menores. Los niveles de taninos fueron bajos (0.1-0.8 mg/g) para todas las especies. Se demuestra que cuatro especies nativas tienen un buen contenido de oligoelementos y presentan valores menores de antinutricionales que los controles.


Trace elements are important nutritional constituents from edible herbs. Eleven species were collected in two regions of Guatemala, nine native (Amaranthus hybridus, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, Crotalaria longirostrata, Dysphania ambrosioides, Lycianthes synanthera, Sechium edule, Solanum americanum, S. nigrescens, S. wendlandii) and two introduced (Moringa oleifera, Spinacea oleracea). Dry, cooked and broth samples were prepared. By atomic absorption spectrometry, macro (N, P, K) and trace elements (Ca, Mg, Na, Cu, Zn, Mn) were quantified, tannins by spectrophotometry, and oxalates by permanganometry. Trace elements content is diverse, for Zn, control herb S. oleracea contained high quantity (90-140 ppm); from the natives D. ambrosioides (130-160 ppm) and A. hybridus (70-80 ppm) contained high amounts. For Fe, control herbs had high composition (S. oleracea, 220-280 ppm, M. oleifera, 105-135 ppm); from the natives A. hybridus (90-240 ppm), C. aconitifolius (75-185 ppm) and L. synanthera (75-140 ppm) had the highest amounts. High levels of oxalates were demonstrated in S. oleracea (67.30 (5.48) mg/g), L. synanthera (56.30 (9.67) mg/g), and S. nigrescens (33.6 (5.48) mg/g); from the others levels.


Subject(s)
Trace Elements/analysis , Vegetables/classification , Tannins/analysis , Trace Elements/administration & dosage , Amaranthus/chemistry , Jatropha/chemistry , Malnutrition/prevention & control
10.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(4): 1227-1235, jul.-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-1038598

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito metafilático de minerais traços e vitaminas A e E injetáveis, em parâmetros do estresse oxidativo e na função de neutrófilos em fêmeas da raça Holandesa no período de transição. Sessenta animais foram divididos em dois grupos: animais que receberam minerais traços e vitaminas A e E injetáveis (GMTV) (n= 30) e grupo controle (GC) (n= 30). Não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos nos parâmetros avaliados, porém observou-se diferença significativa entre tratamento e dia para os valores da SOD, com maior atividade dessa enzima em fêmeas GMTV, nas semanas próximas ao parto. Observou-se diferença de dia e para interação tratamento e dia para o TBARS, em que fêmeas GMTV mostraram menores valores de TBARS em todos os momentos, exceto sete dias após o parto. Houve efeito significativo de dia para leucócitos, interação tratamento e dia para neutrófilos e interação tratamento e dia para fagocitose de neutrófilos, em que as fêmeas GMTV apresentaram valores menores de leucócitos e neutrófilos próximo ao parto, além de maior fagocitose de neutrófilos. Pode-se observar que houve melhora no sistema oxidativo e imune de fêmeas GMTV, resposta que provavelmente está relacionada com a administração dos minerais traços e vitaminas A e E.(AU)


This study evaluates the metaphylactic of the subcutaneous administration of a trace minerals and vitamins A and E, on the oxidative stress and neutrophil function in Holsteins cows under the transition period. Sixty females were divided in two groups: group with trace minerals and vitamins (GMTV) (n= 30) and group control (GC) (n= 30). There was no significant difference between those groups; however, we find significant difference between treatment and day for Superoxide dismutase (SOD) values with higher activity of this enzyme in females GMTV on the weeks next to the parturition. Still, there was difference on day and, for interactions between treatment and day for TBARS, were females GMTV showed lower values of TBARS in all moments, except on day seven after the parturition. For leucocytes, there is a significant effect by day, interaction on treatment and day on neutrophils, and interaction treatment and day for neutrophil phagocytosis, were females GMTV showed lower values of leucocytes and neutrophils next to the parturition, and an increase of neutrophils phagocytosis. In summary, cows from the GMTV group had an improvement on the immune and oxidative systems, probably correlated with the administration of this supplement.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Trace Elements/analysis , Vitamin A/administration & dosage , Vitamin E/administration & dosage , Oxidative Stress , Neutrophils , Injections, Subcutaneous/veterinary
11.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(2): 141-148, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989402

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: We aimed to compare the body mass index and vitamin and mineral status of children with and without amblyopia. Methods: Amblyopic children aged between 5 and 18 years (n=46) and age-matched control children (n=32) were evaluated in terms of anthropometric parameters, including height, weight, body mass index and demographic features. Serum vitamin B12 and folate were measured using an Advia Centaur XP (Siemens, Ireland) biochemistry analyzer. We evaluated the inorganic mineral elements from hair samples with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry using a Thermo XSeries 2 analyzer (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Bremen, Germany). Results: No significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of height, weight, and body mass index or serum B12 and folate concentrations (p>0.05). Children with severe amblyopia had lower vitamin B12 and folate and higher body mass index. The levels of phosphorus (p=0.012), selenium (p=0.002), molybdenum (p<0.001), iodine (p=0.002), chromium (p=0.022), boron (p<0.001), and beryllium (p=0.005) were all significantly lower in the amblyopia group compared to the control group. All of these minerals, except phosphorus, were also significantly lower in those with severe amblyopia compared to those with milder amblyopia and controls (p<0.05). Conclusion: Amblyopic children are significantly deficient in some inorganic elements. Inorganic elements, vitamin B12, and folate may play an important role in the visual development of amblyopic children.


RESUMO Objetivo: Nosso objetivo foi comparar o índice de massa corporal e o nível de vitaminas e minerais de crianças com e sem ambliopia. Métodos: Crianças amblióticas com idades entre 5 e 18 anos (n=46) e crianças controle pareadas por idade (n=32) foram avaliadas quanto a parâmetros antropométricos, incluindo altura, peso, índice de massa corporal e características demográficas. A vitamina B12 e o folato séricos foram medidos utilizando um analisador bioquímico Advia Centaur XP (Siemens, Irlanda). Avaliamos os elementos minerais inorgânicos de amostras de cabelo com espectrometria de massa de plasma indutivamente acoplado usando um analisador Thermo XSeries 2 (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Bremen, Alemanha). Resultados: Não houve diferença significativa entre os dois grupos em relação à altura, peso e índice de massa corporal ou concentrações séricas de B12 e folato (p>0,05). Crianças com ambliopia severa tinham menor vitamina B12 e folato e maior índice de massa corporal. Os níveis de fósforo (p=0,012), selênio (p=0,002), molibdênio (p<0,001), iodo (p=0,002), cromo (p=0,022), boro (p<0,001) e berílio (p=0,005) foram todos significativamente menores no grupo com ambliopia em comparação com o grupo controle. Todos esses minerais, exceto o fósforo, também foram significativamente menores naqueles com ambliopia em comparação com aqueles com ambliopia leve e grupo controle (p<0,05). Conclusão: As crianças amblíopes são significativamente deficientes em alguns elementos inorgânicos. Elementos inorgânicos, vitamina B12 e folato podem desempenhar um papel importante no desenvolvimento visual de crianças com ambliopia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Vitamin B 12/blood , Amblyopia/physiopathology , Amblyopia/blood , Nutritional Status/physiology , Folic Acid/blood , Hair/chemistry , Reference Values , Trace Elements/analysis , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Anthropometry , Prospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777605

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The effects of prenatal exposure to toxic elements on birth outcomes and child development have been an area of concern. This study aimed to assess the profile of prenatal exposure to toxic elements, arsenic (As), bismuth (Bi), cadmium (Cd), mercury (total mercury (THg), methylmercury (MHg), inorganic mercury (IHg)), lead (Pb), antimony (Sb) and tin (Sn), and essential trace elements, copper (Cu), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn), using the maternal blood, cord blood and placenta in the Tohoku Study of Child Development of Japan (N = 594-650).@*METHODS@#Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to determine the concentrations of these elements (except mercury). Levels of THg and MeHg were measured using cold vapour atomic absorption spectrophotometry and a gas chromatograph-electron capture detector, respectively.@*RESULTS@#Median concentrations (25th-75th) of As, Cd, Pb, Sb, Sn and THg in the maternal blood were 4.06 (2.68-6.81), 1.18 (0.74-1.79), 10.8 (8.65-13.5), 0.2 (0.06-0.40) and 0.2 (0.1-0.38) ng mL and 5.42 (3.89-7.59) ng g, respectively. Median concentrations (25th-75th) of As, Cd, Pb, Sb, Sn and THg in the cord blood were 3.68 (2.58-5.25), 0.53 (0.10-1.25), 9.89 (8.02-12.5), 0.39 (0.06-0.92) and 0.2 (0.2-0.38) ng mL and 9.96 (7.05-13.8) ng g, respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#THg and Sb levels in the cord blood were twofold higher than those in the maternal blood. Cord blood to maternal blood ratios for As, Cd and Sb widely varied between individuals. To understand the effects of prenatal exposure, further research regarding the variations of placental transfer of elements is necessary.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Fetal Blood , Chemistry , Humans , Japan , Maternal Exposure , Maternal-Fetal Exchange , Metals , Blood , Placenta , Chemistry , Pregnancy , Blood , Trace Elements , Blood , Urban Health
13.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 222-227, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760569

ABSTRACT

Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) is a well-established method adopted by international pharmacopoeia for quantitative and purity analyses. Emodin is a type of anthraquinone, well known as the main active component of Fabaceae, Polygonaceae and Rhamnaceae. Purity analysis of emodin is usually performed by using the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV method. However, it cannot detect impurities such as salts, volatile matter, and trace elements. Using the qNMR method, it is possible to determine the compound content as well as the nature of the impurities. Several experimental parameters were optimized for the quantification, such as relaxation delay, spectral width, number of scans, temperature, pulse width, and acquisition time. The method was validated, and the results of the qNMR method were compared with those obtained by the HPLC and mass balance analysis methods. The qNMR method is specific, rapid, simple, and therefore, a valuable and reliable method for the purity analysis of emodin.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Emodin , Fabaceae , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Methods , Polygonaceae , Relaxation , Rhamnaceae , Salts , Spectrum Analysis , Trace Elements
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764381

ABSTRACT

Metabolic abnormalities and catheter-related infections are common complications of parenteral nutrition (PN). Particulate contamination is a catheter-related complication can occur when administering PN: mixing the electrolytes, trace elements, vitamins into the PN, or puncturing a rubber stopper at the PN formulation. In addition, the aggregation of the components of the PN solution by a drug incompatibility reaction could be related to particulate contamination. PN contaminated with precipitates, insoluble particles, and bacteria was reported as the cause of the death of a patient. The Food and Drug Administration recommended that the filters be used during PN administration. In-line filters can retain the bacteria and insoluble particles in PN solutions, and prevent their infusion into the patient. Therefore, in-line filters are recommended to prevent catheter-related complications that can occur during PN infusion. A 0.2µ filter for lipid-free PN and a 1.2µ filter for lipid-containing PN solutions can be used. On the other hand, when a filter is applied, the infusion rate can decrease and the economic burden will increase for patients requiring long-term PN. In addition, small particles, such as viruses, polymers, and proteins cannot be filtered out completely. In conclusion, in-line filers are recommended to prevent catheter-related complications that can occur during PN administration, but there are no international standardized guidelines. Therefore, standardized guidelines will be needed based on evidence accompanied by clinical trials. In addition, in-line filter applications should be considered in the clinical field depending on the patient's condition.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Catheter-Related Infections , Drug Incompatibility , Electrolytes , Filtration , Hand , Humans , Parenteral Nutrition , Polymers , Rubber , Trace Elements , United States Food and Drug Administration , Vitamins
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764314

ABSTRACT

Cancer is the most common cause of death worldwide. Annually, more than ten million new cancer cases are diagnosed, and more than six million deaths occur due to cancer. Nonetheless, over 80% of human cancer may be preventable through proper nutrition. Numerous nutritional compounds are effective in preventing cancer. Selenium and zinc are essential micronutrients that have important roles in reducing oxidative stress and protecting DNA from the attack of reactive oxygen species. Selenium is an essential trace element that possesses several functions in many cellular processes for cancer prevention. Meanwhile, zinc may have protective effects on tumor initiation and progression, and it is an essential cofactor of several mammalian proteins. Results show that both selenium and zinc provide an effective progression of DNA repair system; thus, cancer development that originated from DNA damage is decreased. Results mostly focus on the separate effects of these two elements on different cell types, tissues, and organs, and their combined effects are largely unknown. This review aimed to emphasize the joint role of selenium and zinc specifically on DNA repair for cancer prevention.


Subject(s)
Cause of Death , DNA Damage , DNA Repair , DNA , Humans , Joints , Micronutrients , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species , Selenium , Trace Elements , Zinc
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763665

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have suggested an association between selenium (Se) and diabetes mellitus (DM). However, different studies have reported conflicting results. Therefore, we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis to clarify the impact of Se on DM. METHODS: We searched the PubMed database for studies on the association between Se and DM from inception to June 2018. RESULTS: Twenty articles evaluating 47,930 participants were included in the analysis. The meta-analysis found that high levels of Se were significantly associated with the presence of DM (pooled odds ratios [ORs], 1.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.44 to 2.45). However, significant heterogeneity was found (I2 =82%). Subgroup analyses were performed based on the Se measurement methods used in each study. A significant association was found between high Se levels and the presence of DM in the studies that used blood (OR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.60 to 2.93; I2 =77%), diet (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.10 to 2.36; I2 =0%), and urine (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.02 to 2.17; I2 =0%) as samples to estimate Se levels, but not in studies on nails (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.52 to 2.98; I2 =91%). Because of significant heterogeneity in the studies with blood, we conducted a sensitivity analysis and tested the publication bias. The results were consistent after adjustment based on the sensitivity analysis as well as the trim and fill analysis for publication bias. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis demonstrates that high levels of Se are associated with the presence of DM. Further prospective and randomized controlled trials are warranted to elucidate the link better.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Diabetes Mellitus , Diet , Epidemiologic Studies , Odds Ratio , Population Characteristics , Prospective Studies , Publication Bias , Selenium , Trace Elements
17.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 948-953, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786547

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Depression is a prevalent condition that is costly to individuals and society. In view of a role of tryptophan (TRP), selenium (Se), vitamin D (Vit D), magnesium (Mg) and serotonin in depression, the present study concerns to evaluate the circulating levels of TRP, Se, Vit D, Mg and serotonin in depression as well as the correlation between TRP and other serum analytes is also established.METHODS: Healthy (n=48) and depressed (n=48) subjects were recruited and their blood samples were obtained after an overnight fast of 12 h, serum was stored for the determination of levels of TRP, Se, Vit D, Mg, and serotonin.RESULTS: show that levels of TRP, Se, Vit D, Mg, and serotonin were decreased in the depressed patient when compared to normal subjects. There is a direct correlation between TRP and Vit D, and TRP and Se while the inverse correlation between TRP and Mg, and TRP and serotonin in depressed subjects. The association among TRP and other biomarkers is non-significant.CONCLUSION: In conclusion, depression is associated with deficiency of TRP, Se, Vit D, Mg, and serotonin displays the characteristics of biomarkers. The correlation between TRP and other biomarkers/trace elements is also important in depression.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Depression , Humans , Magnesium , Selenium , Serotonin , Trace Elements , Tryptophan , Vitamin D
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773177

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the evaluation model for the proficiency testing of heavy metal and harmful element residues in pharmaceuticals,and to provide reference for the proficiency testing program and proficiency testing result in the field of residue analysis. The proficiency test result of cadmium determination in honeysuckle as an example. The algorithm A,NIQR,and Horwitz function are used to calculate the assigned value and the standard deviation. Z was obtained at the same time. If | Z | ≤2,the result is satisfactory. If 2< | Z | <3,the result is questionable. If | Z | ≥3,the result is unsatisfactory. In addition,the median value is the assigned value,and deviation(D%) is used. If D% is not more than 16%,the result is satisfactory; if D% is more than 16%,the result is unsatisfactory. After analysis,in the results of questionable or dissatisfied laboratories calculated by algorithm A and NIQR,the deviation error of some data is within the scope of the standard. In the results of the satisfactory laboratory evaluated by the Horwitz function,some data deviation errors far exceed the standard range. The evaluation result of the D% meets the requirements. According to heavy metal and harmful element trace analysis methods,this study is the first to apply D% to the evaluation of the detection ability of heavy metals and harmful elements in pharmaceuticals. This method makes the evaluation result more reasonable,and has important reference significance for the evaluation of other proficiency test results.


Subject(s)
Cadmium , Laboratories , Laboratory Proficiency Testing , Lonicera , Chemistry , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Reference Standards , Plant Preparations , Reference Standards , Trace Elements
19.
J. appl. sci. environ. manag ; 23(1): 111-119, 2019. ilus
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1263376

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: An integrated geochemical and sedimentological study of the Campano- Maastrichtian sediment of Ajali and Owelli Formation exposed within the southern portion of the Anambra basin was undertaken to determine the sandstone provenance, tectonic setting, and paleo-weathering conditions. All sandstone samples are enriched in quartz (Q) but poor in feldspar (F) andlithic-fragments (L). The major-element concentrations of these sandstones reveal the relative homogeneity of their source. Geochemically, the sandstones are classified as quartzarenite, sub-litharenite, and subarkose. Tectonic setting discrimination diagrams suggest a passive continental margin. The sediments are enriched in SiO2 and depleted in Na2O, CaO and TiO2.Chemical index of weathering (CIW) of the sample suggests intense recycling and high degree of weathering in a humid climatic condition. Results of the elemental ratios critical of provenance compared to those of felsic and basic derived sediment of UCC and PAAS values suggests a felsic source rock. Cu/Zn, U/Th, Ni/Co and (Cu+Mo)/Zn paleo-oxygenation ratios used as redox parameters depicts an oxic environment. Finally, presence of minerals, like Anatase, Rutile and Microcline depicts an igneous and metamorphic source terrain


Subject(s)
Geologic Sediments , Minerals , Nigeria , Trace Elements
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742360

ABSTRACT

Male infertility (MI) is a complex multifactorial disease, and idiopathic infertility accounts for 30% of cases of MI. At present, the evidence for the effectiveness of empirical drugs is limited, and in vitro fertilization is costly and may increase the risk of birth defects and childhood cancers. Therefore, affected individuals may feel obliged to pursue natural remedies. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may represent a useful option for infertile men. It has been demonstrated that TCM can regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis and boost the function of Sertoli cells and Leydig cells. TCM can also alleviate inflammation, prevent oxidative stress, reduce the DNA fragmentation index, and modulate the proliferation and apoptosis of germ cells. Furthermore, TCM can supply trace elements and vitamins, ameliorate the microcirculation of the testis, decrease the levels of serum anti-sperm antibody, and modify epigenetic markers. However, the evidence in favor of TCM is not compelling, which has hindered the development of TCM. This review attempts to elucidate the underlying therapeutic mechanisms of TCM. We also explore the advantages of TCM, differences between TCM and Western medicine, and problems in existing studies. Subsequently, we propose solutions to these problems and present perspectives for the future development of TCM.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Congenital Abnormalities , DNA Fragmentation , Epigenomics , Fertilization in Vitro , Germ Cells , Humans , Infertility , Infertility, Male , Inflammation , Leydig Cells , Male , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Microcirculation , Oxidative Stress , Sertoli Cells , Testis , Trace Elements , Vitamins
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