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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(6): 1625-1630, dic. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528781

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The trachea is a tubular organ lying between larynx and lungs containing smooth muscle, membranes, and cartilage. This paper evaluated the dimessions of the trachea and main bronchi morphometry in healthy adults using Computed Tomography. This retrospective observational study was performed with 170 healthy adult subjects (89 females, 52.35 %; 81 males,47.65 %). The length of the trachea, the anteroposterior and transverse diameter of the trachea and the right and left main bronchi were measured. From these measurements, the trachea shape were calculated and four types of trachea were identified as circular, oval, horseshoe-shaped, and rectangular. All measurements were significantly higher in males than females (excluding tracheal bifurcation angle). According to the value obtained by dividing the anteroposterior by the width of the trachea, tracheal shapes are considered; the circular shape was seen 104 subjects (61.2 %), followed by oval type (34 subjects), horseshoe type (24 subjects) and rectangular type. (8 subjects). Also, the most frequently seen was circular type in both females and males. Hovewer, there was no significant difference between sex in terms of trachea shape. Additionally, a striking finding was that trachea morphometry and morphology showed the significance according to age dependent changes. Trachea measurements were affected several reasons such as used methods, age, sex, or race. This study has many clinical importance as it may reduce the risk of accidental damage to these area by clinicians such as cardiothoracic surgeons, anesthetist, or radiologist.


La tráquea es un órgano tubular que se encuentra entre la laringe y los pulmones y que contiene músculo liso, membranas y cartílago. Este trabajo evaluó las dimensiones de la tráquea y la morfometría de los bronquios principales en adultos sanos mediante Tomografía Computarizada. Este estudio observacional retrospectivo se realizó con 170 sujetos adultos sanos (89 mujeres, 52,35 %; 81 hombres, 47,65 %). Se midió la longitud de la tráquea, el diámetro anteroposterior y transversal de la tráquea y los bronquios principales derecho e izquierdo. A partir de estas mediciones, se calculó la forma de la tráquea y se identificaron cuatro tipos de tráquea: circular, ovalada, en forma de herradura y rectangular. Todas las mediciones fueron significativamente mayores en hombres que en mujeres (excluyendo el ángulo de bifurcación traqueal). Según el valor que se obtiene al dividir el anteroposterior por el ancho de la tráquea, se consideran las formas traqueales; la forma circular fue observada en 104 sujetos (61,2 %), seguida del tipo ovalado (34 sujetos), tipo herradura (24 sujetos) y tipo rectangular (8 sujetos). Además, el tipo más frecuente fue el circular tanto en mujeres como en hombres. Sin embargo, no hubo diferencias significativas entre sexos en términos de forma de la tráquea. Además, un hallazgo sorprendente fue que la morfometría y la morfología de la tráquea mostraron importancia según los cambios dependientes de la edad. Las mediciones morfométricas de la tráquea se vieron afectadas por varios motivos, como los métodos utilizados, la edad, el sexo o la raza. Este estudio tiene importancia clínica ya que puede reducir el riesgo de daño accidental por parte de médicos como cirujanos cardiotorácicos, anestesistas o radiólogos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Trachea/anatomy & histology , Trachea/diagnostic imaging , Turkey , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Sex Factors , Retrospective Studies , Age Factors
2.
Cambios rev. méd ; 22 (2), 2023;22(2): 938, 16 octubre 2023. ilus., tabs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1526598

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. La procalcitonina, es un biomarcador que puede usarse como apoyo diagnóstico en infecciones bacterianas y la monitorización del tratamiento antibiótico, sobre todo en pacientes con sepsis. De ahí que, fue utilizado durante la pandemia COVID-19 OBJETIVO. Determinar los valores de procalcitonina en pacientes con COVID-19 y definir una p osible correlación entre su incremento y vinculación en coinfección o infección secundaria por Klebsiella pneumoniae y Pseudomonas aeruginosa con multidrogo resistencia y resistencia extendida a los antibióticos. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Estudio retrospectivo observacional, descriptivo transversal, realizado del 1 de mayo al 31 de octubre del 2020 en el Hospital de Especialidades Carlos Andrade Marín sobre 7028 pacientes adultos, hospitalizados, con diagnóstico de COVID-19, y resultados de procalcitonina, cuyas muestras de secreción traqueal y/o hemocultivo presentaron desarrollo de Klebsiella pneumoniae y Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Su análisis estadístico fue desarrollado mediante la prueba Chi Cuadrado de Pearson. RESULTADOS. Se recibieron 861 muestras de hemocultivo y 391 de secreción traqueal, obteniéndose: 32% aislamientos de Klebsiella pneumoniae y Pseudomonas aeruginosa multidrogo y extremadamente resistente. Entre los pacientes COVID-19 que fallecieron, 34,4% mostraron incrementos de procalcitonina. Al contrario, entre los pacientes que sobrevivieron sólo en 8,8% se observó incrementos de procalcitonina evidenciándose un vínculo entre el incremento de procalcitonina y mortalidad. CONCLUSIONES. No existe diferencia en relación al incremento en los valores de procalcitonina en pacientes COVID-19 con co-infección o infección secundaria por Klebsiella pneumoniae y Pseudomonas aeruginosa multidrogo y extremadamente resistente y los valores de procalcitonina en pacientes con coinfección e infección secundaria con otro tipo de aislamientos bacterianos.


INTRODUCTION. Procalcitonin is a biomarker that can be used as a diagnostic support in bacterial infections and the monitoring of antibiotic treatment, especially in patients with sepsis. Hence, it was used during the COVID-19 pandemic OBJECTIVE. To determine the values of procalcitonin in patients with COVID-19 and to define a possible correlation between its increase and linkage in co-infection or secondary infection by Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with multidrug resistance and extended resistance to antibiotics. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Retrospective observational, descriptive cross-sectional study, conducted from May 1 to October 31, 2020 at the Hospital de Especialidades Carlos Andrade Marín on 7028 adult patients, hospitalized, with diagnosis of COVID-19, and procalcitonin results, whose tracheal secretion and/or blood culture samples presented development of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Their statistical analysis was developed using Pearson's Chi-squared test. RESULTS. We received 861 blood culture and 391 tracheal secretion samples, obtaining: 32% isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and multidrug-resistant and extremely resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Among the COVID-19 patients who died, 34.4% showed increased procalcitonin levels. On the contrary, among patients who survived, only 8.8% showed increased procalcitonin levels, showing a link between increased procalcitonin levels and mortality. CONCLUSIONS. There is no difference in relation to the increase in procalcitonin values in COVID-19 patients with co-infection or secondary infection by Klebsiella pneumoniae and multidrug-resistant and extremely resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and procalcitonin values in patients with co-infection and secondary infection with other types of bacterial isolates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Coinfection , Procalcitonin , COVID-19 , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Trachea , Biomarkers , Sepsis , Ecuador , Anti-Bacterial Agents
3.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 15(3): [188-199], sept. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1510766

ABSTRACT

Resumen Antecedentes: la ingeniería tisular permite obtener órganos como injertos a partir de tejidos descelularizados, regenerados con células autólogas. Objetivo: descelularizar y regenerar tráqueas porcinas. Material y métodos: se descelularizaron tráqueas porcinas colocándolas cada una en el epiplón de cuatro cerdos Yorkshire para su regeneración in vivo. Una tráquea desce-lularizada con tritón (DT), descelularizada con desoxicolato (DD), descelularizada con desoxicolato y reforzada con un polímero y células epiteliales (DDR), y una nativa crio-preservada (NC). Después de 8 días se obtuvieron la DD, NC y DDR; y al día 15, la DT. Se las evaluó mecánica e histológicamente, se realizó el análisis casuístico. Resultados: las tráqueas descelularizadas conservaron la integridad del cartílago, sin diferencias mecánicas, excepto la DDR con mayor rigidez. Las tráqueas regeneradas presentaron menor rigidez, excepto la DDR que además perdió el epitelio y la vascula-ridad. Las DT, DD mostraron epitelio no respiratorio, fibrosis y vasculogénesis con in-flamación. Conclusiones: las matrices conservaron sus características mecánicas. La regenera-ción in vivo ofrece ventajas como la esterilidad, interacción celular, nutrientes; es senci-llo, factible y económico, pero no hay control del crecimiento celular y vascularización, y los tejidos presentaron alteraciones mecánicas e histológicas. El polímero impidió la re-epitelialización y revascularización. Este estudio abre la posibilidad de mejorar las me-todologías de ingeniería tisular aplicadas al tejido traqueal.


Abstract Introduction: tissue engineering makes it possible to obtain organs as grafts from de-cellularized tissues, regenerated with autologous cells.Objective: decellularize and regenerate porcine tracheas.ARTÍCULO ORIGINAL | Respirar, 2023; 15(3): 188-199 | ISSN 2953-3414 | https://doi.org/10.55720/respirar.15.3.5RECIBIDO: 9 agosto 2023ACEP TADO: 31 agosto 2023 Elisa Barrera-Ramírezhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-2778-0882Rubén Efraín Garrido-Cardonahttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-6083-5403Alejandro Martínez-Martínezhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-3448-910XLuis Fernando Plenge-Tellecheahttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-1619-5004Edna Rico-Escobarhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-0933-0220Esta revista está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento 4.0 Internacional. Respirar 2023; 15 (3): 189ARTÍCULO ORIGINAL / E. Barrera-Ramírez, R.E. Garrido-Cardona, A. Martínez-Martínez, L.F. Plenge-Tellechea, E. Rico-EscobarDescelularización y regeneración de tráqueaISSN 2953-3414Materials and Methods: Porcine tracheas were decellularized by placing each one in the omentum of four Yorkshire pigs for regeneration in vivo. A trachea decellularized with triton (DT), decellularized with deoxycholate (DD), decellularized with deoxycho-late and reinforced with a polymer, and epithelial cells (DDR), and a cryopreserved na-tive (NC). After 8 days, the DD, NC and DDR were obtained; and on day 15, the DT. The evaluation was mechanically and histologically, performing the case analysis.Results: the decellularized tracheas preserved the integrity of the cartilage, with no me-chanical differences, except for the DDR with greater rigidity. The regenerated trache-as presented less rigidity, except the DDR, which also lost the epithelium and vascular-ity. The DT, DD showed non-respiratory epithelium, fibrosis and vasculogenesis with inflammation.Conclusions: the matrices retained their mechanical characteristics, in vivo regenera-tion offers advantages such as sterility, cell interaction, nutrients; it is simple, feasible and economical, but there is no control of cell growth and vascularization, and the tis-sues presented mechanical and histological alterations. The polymer prevented re-epi-thelialization and revascularization. This study opens the possibility of improving tissue engineering methodologies applied to tracheal tissue.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Regeneration/physiology , Trachea/anatomy & histology , Tissue Engineering/methods , Octoxynol , Deoxycholic Acid , Decellularized Extracellular Matrix
4.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 83(2): 206-213, jun. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515466

ABSTRACT

La traqueotomía percutánea por dilatación es un procedimiento que se realiza en las unidades de paciente crítico, implica la disección roma de los tejidos pretraqueales, seguida de la dilatación de la tráquea sobre la guía y la inserción de la cánula traqueal mediante la técnica de Seldinger. En las últimas décadas, la evidencia sugiere que, en manos de médicos capacitados, es al menos tan segura como la traqueotomía quirúrgica, con similar incidencia de complicaciones. La selección adecuada de pacientes y el uso de herramientas de seguridad complementarias, como broncoscopio o ultrasonido, disminuyen las tasas de falla y complicaciones. Siendo contraindicaciones absolutas para traqueotomía percutánea por dilatación una anatomía anormal, tumor maligno en el sitio de traqueostomía, coagulopatías o vía aérea difícil. La guía mediante broncoscopia permite la evaluación de la profundidad del tubo endotraqueal, confirma la posición de la aguja en el eje de la tráquea y la adecuada inserción del cable guía y dilatador. Entre sus desventajas destacan que, el sitio de punción está sujeto a sesgo y no puede guiar con precisión la aguja en la penetración de la tráquea. La traqueotomía percutánea guiada por ultrasonido es una alternativa validada en unidades, donde no se cuente con broncoscopia. Es un método rápido, seguro, que permite la identificación de estructuras anatómicas, vasculatura cervical, permite identificar el sitio de la punción y guía la inserción de la aguja en la tráquea. Esta técnica presenta altas tasas de éxito al primer intento, reduciendo significativamente el número de punciones.


Percutaneous dilation tracheostomy is a procedure performed in critical patient units. It involves blunt dissection of the pretracheal tissues followed by dilation of the trachea over the guidewire and insertion of the tracheal cannula using the Seldinger technique. In recent decades, evidence suggests that in the hands of trained physicians it is at least as safe as surgical tracheostomy, with a similar incidence of complications. The proper selection of patients and the use of complementary safety tools such as bronchoscope or ultrasound reduce failure rates and complications. Being absolute contraindications for PDT abnormal anatomy, malignant tumor at the tracheostomy site, coagulopathies, or difficult to treat airway. Bronchoscopy guidance allows evaluation of the depth of the endotracheal tube, confirms the position of the needle in the axis of the trachea and the proper insertion of the guide wire and dilator. Among its disadvantages are that the puncture site is subject to slant and cannot accurately guide the needle into the trachea. In addition, it requires Critical Patient Units with bronchoscope and trained personnel. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous tracheotomy is a validated alternative in units where bronchoscopy is not available. It is a fast, safe method that allows the identification of anatomical structures, cervical vasculature, identifies the puncture site and guides the insertion of the needle into the trachea. With high first-attempt success rates, significantly reducing the number of punctures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tracheotomy/methods , Dilatation/methods , Trachea/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color/methods
5.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 83(2): 176-180, jun. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515477

ABSTRACT

La manga traqueal cartilaginosa es una malformación de la vía aérea donde no se distinguen anillos traqueales. Un segmento continuo de cartílago se extiende desde el cricoides, pudiendo llegar hasta los bronquios principales. Está asociada a síndromes de craneosinostosis con la mutación FGFR2, además de muertes prematuras por oclusión de la tráquea con tapones mucosos. Se presenta el curso clínico de pacientes portadores de manga traqueal cartilaginosa en el contexto de una malformación craneofacial. Caso 1. Masculino, al nacer hipoplasia del tercio medio facial. Polisomnografía: índice de apnea/hipopnea de 37,7/hr. Laringotraqueobroncoscopía (LTBC): tráquea sin anillos cartilaginosos desde cricoides hasta bronquios fuentes. Se indica traqueostomía. Caso 2. Masculino, al nacer cráneo en trébol. Poligrafía: Síndrome de apnea/hipopnea obstructiva del sueño (SAHOS) leve. Revisión vía aérea: desde subglotis hasta bronquios principales se extiende tráquea en manga. Se indica traqueostomía. En el contexto de una craneosinostosis en niños, especialmente con mutación FGFR2, creemos necesario realizar una LTBC en búsqueda de manga traqueal, ya que si es diagnosticada se debe recomendar traqueostomía, mejorando su expectativa de vida. Si la indicación de traqueostomía fuese por SAHOS, es obligatoria una LTBC preoperatoria, para evitar el no tener referencias anatómicas en el proceso.


A tracheal cartilaginous sleeve is a malformation of the airway in which the tracheal rings are indistinguishable. A continuous segment of cartilage extends from the cricoid, and it may reach all the way to the main bronchi. It is associated with various craniosynostosis syndromes with the FGFR2 mutation, in addition to premature deaths due to occlusions caused by mucus plugs in the trachea. Here we present the clinical course of patients who suffer from Tracheal Cartilaginous Sleeve in the context of a craniofacial malformation. First case. Male, presenting at birth a midfacial hypoplasia. Polysomnography: presents a 37,7/h index of apnea/hypopnea. Laryngotracheobronchoscopy (LTB): trachea is without cartilaginous rings from the cricoid to the main bronchi. A tracheostomy is indicated. Second case. Male, cloverleaf skull at birth. Polysomnography: Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS) non-severe degree. Revision of the airway: the trachea in sleeve extends from the subglottis to the main bronchi. A tracheostomy is indicated. In the context of craniosynostosis in children, especially with FGFR2 mutation, we believe it is necessary to do an LTB in the search of a tracheal sleeve, since if it is diagnosed a tracheostomy must be indicated, to better the life expectancy of the patient. If the tracheostomy indication comes from an OSAHS, a preoperatory LTB is obligatory to avoid not having anatomical references during the procedure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Trachea/abnormalities , Cartilage/abnormalities , Trachea/surgery , Trachea/pathology , Tracheotomy/methods , Cartilage/pathology
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 512-517, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440299

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The objective of the current research is to assess the branching angles of the tracheobronchial tree and the correlation between these angles and the lung volume using the 3-dimensional reconstruction method. Thorax CT (computed tomography) images of 150 individuals, who were over 18 years of age and did not have any pathology on CT, were obtained retrospectively. A 3-dimensional reconstruction of the trachea, bronchi, and lungs was carried out. External and internal angles between the trachea and main bronchi, between the main bronchi and lobar bronchi, and between the lobar bronchi were measured. The volume measurement of the right and left lungs was performed. The individuals included in the study were grouped by sex and age (20-40 years, 41-61 years, and 62-87 years). The left subcarinal angle (LSA), total subcarinal angle (TSA), and left interbronchial angle (LIA) were found to be greater in the 62-87 age group. Both the external angle (LULB-LMBE) and the internal angle (LULB- LMBI) between the left upper lobar bronchus and the left main bronchus were observed to be greater in males. In males, a statistically significant negative moderate correlation was identified between the right lung volume and the right subcarinal angle (RSA). In females, a statistically significant positive moderate correlation was revealed between the external (RULB-IBE) and internal angles (RULB-IBI) between the right upper lobar bronchus and the intermediate bronchus, and the right lung volume. In the literature review we performed, we did not find any studies investigating the correlation between the branching angles of the tracheobronchial tree and the lung volume using the 3-dimensional reconstruction method. Therefore, we are of the opinion that our study will contribute to the literature.


El objetivo de la investigación fue evaluar los ángulos de ramificación del árbol traqueobronquial y la correlación entre estos ángulos y el volumen pulmonar utilizando el método de reconstrucción tridimensional. Se obtuvieron retrospectivamente imágenes de tomografía computarizada de tórax de 150 individuos mayores de 18 años sin patología. Se realizó una reconstrucción tridimensional de la tráquea, los bronquios y los pulmones. Se midieron los ángulos externo e interno entre la tráquea y los bronquios principales, entre los bronquios principales y los bronquios lobares, y entre los bronquios lobares. Se realizó la medición del volumen de los pulmones derecho e izquierdo. Los individuos incluidos en el estudio fueron agrupados por sexo y edad (20-40 años, 41-61 años y 62-87 años). Se encontró que el ángulo subcarinal izquierdo, el ángulo subcarinal total y el ángulo interbronquial izquierdo eran mayores en el grupo de edad de 62 a 87 años. Tanto el ángulo externo (LULB-LMBE) como el ángulo interno (LULB-LMBI) entre el bronquio lobular superior izquierdo y el bronquio principal izquierdo era mayor en los hombres. En los hombres, se identificó una correlación moderada negativa estadísticamente significativa entre el volumen pulmonar derecho y el ángulo subcarinal derecho. En mujeres, se reveló una correlación positiva moderada estadísticamente significativa entre los ángulos externos (RULB-IBE) e internos (RULB-IBI) entre el bronquio lobar superior derecho y el bronquio intermedio, y el volumen pulmonar derecho. En la revisión bibliográfica que realizamos, no encontramos ningún estudio que analizara la correlación entre los ángulos de ramificación del árbol traqueobronquial y el volumen pulmonar utilizando el método de reconstrucción tridimensional. Por lo tanto, consideramos que nuestro estudio contribuirá a la literatura especializada del tema.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Trachea/diagnostic imaging , Bronchi/diagnostic imaging , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Trachea/anatomy & histology , Bronchi/anatomy & histology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Age Factors
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 349-354, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440319

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The purpose of this study is to evaluate changes in the trachea and bronchi using 3-dimensional reconstruction images obtained from the initial and follow-up computed tomography (CT) scans of COVID-19 patients. A hundred COVID-19 patients over the age of 18 were included in our study. CT images were transferred to Mimics software, and a 3-dimensional reconstruction of the trachea and bronchi was performed. The initial and follow-up CT images of COVID-19 patients were graded as none (grade 0), mild (grade 1), moderate (grade 2), and severe (grade 3) according to the total lung severity score. The patients were divided into progression and regression groups according to the grade increase/decrease between the initial and follow-up CTs. Moreover, the patients were divided into groups as 0-2 weeks, 2-4 weeks, 4-12 weeks, and over 12 weeks according to the duration between the initial and follow-up CTs. The mean cross-sectional area, circumference, and diameter measurements of the right upper lobar bronchus, intermediate bronchus, middle lobar bronchus, and left lower lobar bronchus decreased in the follow-up CTs of the progression group. This decrease was not found to be statistically significant. In the follow-up CTs of the regression group, the left upper lobar bronchus and left lower lobar bronchus measurements increased but not statistically significant. Upon comparing the onset of the disease and the follow-up period, statistically significant changes did not occur in the trachea, main bronchus, and lobar bronchus of COVID-19 patients.


El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar los cambios en la tráquea y los bronquios utilizando imágenes de reconstrucción tridimensionales obtenidas de las tomografías computarizadas (TC) iniciales y de seguimiento de pacientes con COVID-19. En nuestro estudio se incluyeron 100 pacientes con COVID-19 mayores de 18 años. Las imágenes de TC se transfirieron al software Mimics y se realizó una reconstrucción tridimensional de la tráquea y los bronquios. Las imágenes de TC iniciales y de seguimiento de los pacientes con COVID-19 se calificaron como ninguna (grado 0), leve (grado 1), moderada (grado 2) y grave (grado 3) según la puntuación total de gravedad pulmonar. Los pacientes se dividieron en grupos de progresión y regresión según el aumento/disminución del grado entre las TC iniciales y de seguimiento. Además, los pacientes se dividieron en grupos de 0 a 2 semanas, de 2 a 4 semanas, de 4 a 12 semanas y de más de 12 semanas según la duración entre la TC inicial y la de seguimiento. Las mediciones medias del área transversal, la circunferencia y el diámetro del bronquio lobar superior derecho, el bronquio intermedio, el bronquio lobar medio y el bronquio lobar inferior izquierdo disminuyeron en las TC de seguimiento del grupo de progresión. No se encontró que esta disminución fuera estadísticamente significativa. En las TC de seguimiento del grupo de regresión, las mediciones del bronquio lobar superior izquierdo y del bronquio lobar inferior izquierdo aumentaron pero no fueron estadísticamente significativas. Al comparar el inicio de la enfermedad y el período de seguimiento, no ocurrieron cambios estadísticamente significativos en la tráquea, el bronquio principal y el bronquio lobar de los pacientes con COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Trachea/diagnostic imaging , Bronchi/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/pathology , Trachea/pathology , Bronchi/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Follow-Up Studies , Printing, Three-Dimensional
8.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 38(2): 357-362, 20230303. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425216

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Los tumores glómicos provienen de los cuerpos glómicos, que son estructuras con función de termorregulación y se encuentran distribuidas por todo el cuerpo humano, principalmente a nivel distal de las extremidades, donde es común encontrar lesiones características, aunque hay reportes de casos que se presentaron como neoformación en localizaciones más inusuales. Su etiología aun es desconocida. No se sospechan en muchos pacientes y el diagnostico se realiza de manera incidental, por estudios imagenológicos o anatomopatológicos. Caso clínico. Paciente femenina de 66 años, con presencia de tumor glómico en vía aérea, diagnosticado por histopatología e inmunohistoquímica, que fue sometido a resección quirúrgica, con buena evolución posterior. Discusión. Esta presentación atípica de tumor glómico en vía aérea se manifiesta principalmente con síntomas y signos relacionados con obstrucción de la vía aérea. El manejo oportuno es primordial y el diagnóstico definitivo es por histopatología e inmunohistoquímica, donde se observan las características de las células glómicas, estructuras vasculares, músculo liso y la positividad en la inmunotinción de marcadores como actina del músculo liso, CD34, y actina específica del músculo, entre otras. Conclusión. Los tumores glómicos son neoformaciones benignas raras, con presentación más común en zonas distales. Su aparición depende de factores intrínsecos y extrínsecos de los pacientes. Su tasa de recidiva es muy baja en comparación de otros tumores


Introduction. Glomus tumors originate from glomus bodies, which are structures with thermoregulatory function and are distributed throughout the human body, mainly at the distal level of the extremities where it is common to find these characteristic lesions. Although, there are case reports of neoformation presentations with more unusual locations. Their etiology is still unknown. Many times when there is evidence of lesions in atypical areas they are not suspected in many patients and the diagnosis is made incidentally by imaging and/or anatomopathological studies. Clinical case. A 66-year-old female patient with the presence of a glomus tumor in the airway diagnosed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry, underwent surgical resection and presented good evolution after surgery. Discussion. This atypical presentation of glomus tumor in the airway presents mainly with symptoms and signs related to airway obstruction. Timely management is paramount in these patients, and the definitive diagnosis is by histopathology and immunohistochemistry where the presence of the characteristics of glomus cells, vascular structures, smooth muscle and immunostaining positivity towards some markers such as smooth muscle actin, CD34, muscle specific actin, among others, are seen. Conclusion. This type of tumors are rare benign neoformations, with common presentations in distal areas. Their appearance depends on intrinsic and extrinsic factors of the patients and their recurrence rate is very low compared to other tumors


Subject(s)
Humans , Tracheal Neoplasms , Immunohistochemistry , Glomus Tumor , Trachea , Biopsy , Airway Management
9.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 970-974, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987010

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the anatomical features and relative position of the brachiocephalic trunk and the trachea to provide an anatomical basis for diagnosis and treatment of mechanical airway obstruction and for facilitating the performance of tracheotomy.@*METHODS@#A total of 91 formalin- fixed adult cadavers (70 male and 21 female) were used in this study. The whole length of the larynx and the trachea were separated and exposed from the neck to the chest, followed by separation of the aortic arch and its 3 branches to observe the anatomical position of the brachiocephalic trunk and the trachea.@*RESULTS@#The brachiocephalic trunk and the trachea did not intersect in 3.30%, partially intersected in 71.43%, and completely intersected in 25.27% of the 91 cadaveric specimens. The male specimens all showed greater outer diameter of the aortic arch, the brachiocephalic trunk and the trachea with a greater length of the trachea than the female specimens (P < 0.05), while the distances from the aortic arch to the brachiocephalic trunk or the cricoid cartilage did not differ significantly between them (P > 0.05). The number of the tracheal cartilage rings above the brachiocephalic trunk ranged from 3 to 10, and the mean number did not differ significantly between the male and female specimens (P > 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The brachiocephalic trunk has complex anatomical relationship with the trachea, and caution should be taken to avoid injuries of the brachiocephalic trunk and the aortic arch in the diagnosis and treatment of mechanical respiratory obstruction and during tracheotomy.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Male , Humans , Trachea , Brachiocephalic Trunk , Larynx , Cadaver , Formaldehyde
10.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 539-543, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982394

ABSTRACT

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a double-stranded DNA virus with an envelope, is a ubiquitous pathogen that is prevalent in humans, although most people who contract it do not develop symptoms (Kerr, 2019). While the primary cells EBV attacks are epithelial cells and B lymphocytes, its target range expands to a variety of cell types in immunodeficient hosts. Serological change occurs in 90% of infected patients. Therefore, immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG, serologically reactive to viral capsid antigens, are reliable biomarkers for the detection of acute and chronic EBV infections (Cohen, 2000). Symptoms of EBV infection vary according to age and immune status. Young patients with primary infection may present with infectious mononucleosis; there is a typical triad of symptoms including fever, angina, and lymphadenectasis (Houen and Trier, 2021). In immunocompromised patients, response after EBV infection may be atypical, with unexplained fever. The nucleic acid of EBV can be detected to confirm whether high-risk patients are infected (Smets et al., 2000). EBV is also associated with the occurrence of certain tumors (such as lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma) because it transforms host cells (Shannon-Lowe et al., 2017; Tsao et al., 2017).


Subject(s)
Humans , Trachea , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Virus Diseases , Fever , Granuloma
11.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 527-533, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981989

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the role of bronchoscopy in slide tracheoplasty.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was conducted on the diagnosis and treatment of four children with tracheal stenosis admitted to Hunan Provincial People's Hospital from 2017 to 2020. The role of bronchoscopy was summarized in the preoperative evaluation, intraoperative positioning and measurement, and postoperative wound evaluation and treatment during slide tracheoplasty.@*RESULTS@#Bronchoscopy evaluation before slide tracheoplasty showed that 3 of the 4 children had complete trachea rings, 2 had pulmonary artery sling, and 2 had multiple stenosis. Slide tracheoplasty was performed in the hospital on 3 children, and the midpoint of the stenosis segment was judged under bronchoscopy, and the length of the stenosis segment was measured, which assisted in the resection of the stenosis segment of the trachea. The pathogens were identified by lavage after the surgery. One child who developed scar traction 9 months after slide tracheoplasty in another hospital was improved by interventional treatment under bronchoscopy. Mucosal changes were found under bronchoscopy in 2 children 4 days after surgery, and the treatment plan was adjusted. One month after surgery, 2 children had granulation hyperplasia, which was improved by cryotherapy under bronchoscopy. One child abandoned treatment due to anastomotic necrosis and died. Three survivors were followed up for over 6 months with good prognosis, but all had tracheobronchial malacia.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Bronchoscopy can be used for the management of slide tracheoplasty in children with tracheal stenosis, which is helpful to postoperative rehabilitation and follow-up.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Bronchoscopy , Constriction, Pathologic , Retrospective Studies , Trachea/surgery , Tracheal Stenosis/surgery , Treatment Outcome
12.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(4): 519-520, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447621

Subject(s)
Humans , Bronchi , Lung , Trachea
14.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(3): e133-e136, junio 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1368481

ABSTRACT

El complejo ring-sling es una asociación entre el sling de la arteria pulmonar y la estenosis traqueal congénita por anillos traqueales completos. El sling de la arteria pulmonar es una forma rara de anillo vascular dentro de las cardiopatías congénitas. Se presenta el caso clínico de un niño con estridor laríngeo asociado a dificultad respiratoria evaluado en otro centro, donde se realizó endoscopia respiratoria y se observó compresión traqueal extrínseca. Ante la sospecha clínica de anillo vascular, se solicitó angiotomografía computada (angioTC) y se confirmó diagnóstico de sling de arteria pulmonar. Fue derivado a nuestro hospital y durante la intervención quirúrgica se realizó nueva endoscopia respiratoria y traqueobroncografía. Se llegó al diagnóstico de estenosis traqueal congénita con bronquio derecho accesorio (pig bronchus) y anillos vasculares completos, ambos reparados en el mismo acto quirúrgico.


The ring-sling complex is an association between pulmonary artery sling and congenital tracheal stenosis. Pulmonary artery sling is a rare form of vascular ring in congenital heart disease. The clinical case of a child with inspiratory laryngeal stridor associated with respiratory distress is presented, evaluated in another center where respiratory endoscopy was performed, observing extrinsic tracheal compression. Given the clinical suspicion of a vascular ring, CT angiography was requested, confirming the diagnosis of pulmonary artery sling. He was referred to our hospital and during the surgical intervention a new respiratory endoscopy and tracheobronchography were performed, reaching the diagnosis of congenital tracheal stenosis, right accessory bronchus (pig bronchus) and complete vascular rings, both repaired in the same surgical act.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Tracheal Diseases , Tracheal Stenosis/surgery , Tracheal Stenosis/diagnosis , Bronchial Diseases/surgery , Vascular Malformations/complications , Vascular Ring/complications , Heart Defects, Congenital/complications , Pulmonary Artery/abnormalities , Trachea/abnormalities , Bronchi/abnormalities , Bronchi/surgery , Constriction, Pathologic
16.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 37(2): 237-244, 20220316. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362955

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La presencia de neumomediastino secundario a un trauma contuso es un hallazgo común, especialmente con el uso rutinario de la tomografía computarizada. Aunque en la mayoría de los casos es secundario a una causa benigna, la posibilidad de una lesión aerodigestiva subyacente ha llevado a que se recomiende el uso rutinario de estudios endoscópicos para descartarla. El propósito de este estudio fue determinar la incidencia de neumomediastino secundario a trauma contuso y de lesiones aerodigestivas asociadas y establecer la utilidad de la tomografía computarizada multidetector en el diagnóstico de las lesiones aerodigestivas. Métodos. Mediante tomografía computarizada multidetector se identificaron los pacientes con diagnóstico de neumomediastino secundario a un trauma contuso en un periodo de 4 años en un Centro de Trauma Nivel I. Resultados. Fueron incluidos en el estudio 41 pacientes con diagnóstico de neumomediastino secundario a un trauma contuso. Se documentaron en total tres lesiones aerodigestivas, dos lesiones traqueales y una esofágica. Dos de estas fueron sospechadas en tomografía computarizada multidetector y confirmadas mediante fibrobroncoscopia y endoscopia digestiva superior, respectivamente, y otra fue diagnosticada en cirugía. Conclusión. El uso rutinario de estudios endoscópicos en los pacientes con neumomediastino secundario a trauma contuso no está indicado cuando los hallazgos clínicos y tomográficos son poco sugestivos de lesión aerodigestiva.


Introduction.The presence of pneumomediastinum secondary to blunt trauma is a common finding, especially with the use of computed tomography. Although in most cases the presence of pneumomediastinum is secondary to a benign etiology, the possibility of an underlying aerodigestive injuries has led to the recommendation of the routine use of endoscopic studies to rule them out. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of pneumomediastinum secondary to blunt trauma and associated injuries and to establish the role of multidetector computed tomography in the diagnosis of aerodigestive injuries. Methods.Using multidetector computed tomography, patients with a diagnosis of pneumomediastinum secondary to blunt trauma were identified over a period of 4 years in a Level 1 Trauma Center. Results. Forty-one patients diagnosed with pneumomediastinum secondary to blunt trauma, were included in this study. Two airway ruptures were documented: two tracheal injuries and one esophageal injury. Two of them suspected on multidetector computed tomography and confirmed on bronchoscopy and esophagogastroduodenoscopy, respectively, and another was diagnosed in surgery. Conclusion.The routine use of endoscopic studies in patients with pneumomediastinum secondary to blunt trauma is not indicated when the clinical and tomographic findings are not suggestive of aerodigestive injury.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thorax , Esophageal Perforation , Trachea , Wounds and Injuries , Mediastinum
17.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 37(2): 305-307, 20220316. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362979

ABSTRACT

Se han descrito diversas técnicas para el tratamiento del enfisema subcutáneo y del neumomediastino. Algunos pacientes con pequeñas perforaciones traqueales pueden ser manejados de forma expectante, salvo que requieran ventilación mecánica. Se presentan las imágenes de un paciente con enfisema subcutáneo y neumomediastino no candidato a cirugía y quien fue tratado exitosamente con terapia de presión negativa.


Different techniques have been described for the treatment of subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediatinum. Some patients with small tracheal perforations can be managed expectantly, unless they require mechanical ventilation. Images of a patient with subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum not a candidate for surgery and who was successfully treated with negative pressure therapy are presented.


Subject(s)
Humans , Subcutaneous Emphysema , COVID-19 , Trachea , Ventilators, Negative-Pressure , Mediastinal Emphysema
18.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 88-93, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935649

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To analyze the clinical characteristics and outcomes of neonates with upper airway obstruction (UAO) who were admitted via transportation, hence to provide more evidence-based information for the clinical management of UAO. Methods: This was a single center retrospective study. Patients were hospitalized in Beijing Children's Hospital from January 1, 2016 to May 31, 2021 with age <28 days or postmenstrual age (PMA) ≤44 weeks, and UAO as the first diagnosis. The general information of patients, obstructed sites in the upper airway, treatment, complications and prognosis were analyzed. The outcomes of surgical UAO vs. non-surgical UAO were analyzed by 2 by 2 χ2 test. Results: A total of 111 cases were analyzed (2.3% of the total NICU hospitalized 4 826 infants in the same period), in which 62 (55.9%) were boys and 101 (91.0%) were term infants, and their gestational age was (38.7±2.0) weeks, birth weight (3 207±585) g, PMA on admission (40.8±2.5) weeks and weight on admission was (3 221±478) g. There were 92 cases (82.9%) with symptoms of UAO presenting on postnatal day 1, and 35 cases (31.5%) had extra-uterine growth retardation on admission. The diagnosis of UAO and the obstructive site was confirmed in 25 cases (22.5%) before transportation. There were 24 cases (21.6%), 71 cases (64.0%), and 16 cases (14.4%) who had UAO due to nasal, throat, and neck problems, respectively. The top 5 diagnosis of UAO were vocal cord paralysis (28 cases), bilateral choanal atresia (20 cases), laryngomalacia (15 cases), pharynx and larynx cysts (7 cases), and subglottic hemangioma (6 cases). The diagnosis and treatment of all the patients followed a multidisciplinary approach consisted of neonatal intensive care unit, ear-nose-throat department and medical image departments. A total of 102 cases (91.9%) underwent both bronchofiberscope and fiber nasopharyngoscope investigation. Seventy cases (63.1%) required ventilation. Among the 58 cases (52.3%) who required surgical intervention, 16 had tracheotomy. For cases with vs. without surgical intervention, the rate of cure and (or) improvement were 94.8% (55/58) vs. 54.7% (29/53), and the rate of being discharged against medical arrangement were 1.7% (1/58) vs. 45.3% (24/53) (χ²=24.21 and 30.11, both P<0.01). Conclusions: Neonatal UAO may locate at various sites of the upper airway. The overall prognosis of neonatal UAO is favorable. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary for efficient evaluation and appropriate surgical intervention.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Airway Obstruction/therapy , Hospitalization , Pharynx , Retrospective Studies , Trachea
19.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 104-109, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935586

ABSTRACT

Tissue engineering, as a new technology, provides a new avenue for the reconstruction of circumferential tracheal defects, which has always been a tremendous challenge for surgeons around the world. Recently, technologies such as decellularization, 3-dimensional printing, electrospinning and cell sheet have significantly enhanced the chondrification. Implantation of epithelial cells or transplantation of epithelial cell sheets also has accelerated the process of epithelialization. And pedicle muscle flap proved to be a reliable strategy for vascularization of tissue-engineered trachea. But it is still a huge challenge to achieve circumferential tracheal functional reconstruction. The key difficulty lies in how to simultaneously realize the functional regeneration of cartilage, blood vessels and epithelial tissues of tissue-engineered trachea. Therefore, how to integrate the above schemes and finally realize segmental tracheal reconstruction needs further research. This article reviews the research progress of repairing circumferential tracheal defects based on tissue engineering technology.


Subject(s)
Printing, Three-Dimensional , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Tissue Engineering , Tissue Scaffolds , Trachea/surgery
20.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 84-89, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935584

ABSTRACT

Objective: To examine the outcomes of Slide tracheoplasty for the children with severe congenital tracheal stenosis received previous repeated balloon dilatation or metal stent placement under endoscopy. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in 9 children with congenital tracheal stenosis undergoing previous interventional therapy under tracheoscopy and later received Slide tracheoplasty due to obvious respiratory symptoms at Department of Cardiac Surgery, Qilu Children's Hospital of Shandong University between February 2017 and July 2021. There were 7 males and 2 females with a median age at operation of 72.4 months (range: 13.3 to 98.9 months), and the median weight was 19.0 kg (range: 9.0 to 33.0 kg). Among the 9 patients, 2 patients began to receive repeated balloon dilatation (more than 3 times) 17.8 and 51.8 months ago respectively. One patient received metal stents placement into the trachea for 4 days and the other 6 children for median 56.8 months (range: 21.6 to 74.2 months). Complete tracheal cartilage rings and long segmental stenosis were present. in all 9 children. Operative details and outcome measures, including the need for endoscopic airway intervention and mortality, were collected. Results: Slide tracheoplasty was performed in all cases. Two patients with repeated balloon dilatation had different thickness of tracheal wall, local scar hyperplasia and irregular lumen. Among them, 1 case had obvious local calcification of tracheal wall, which was difficult to suture. The metal stent in one patient with short time of placement was completely removed. However, only part of the metal stents could be removed due to the long placement time in the other 6 cases. There was no operative death in the 9 children. The median postoperative tracheal intubation time was 25.3 hours (range: 17.4 to 74.5 hours). A silicone stent was placed in the trachea of 1 child due to obvious respiratory symptoms. Follow-up of median 11 months (range: 1 to 23 months) showed that no death occurred after discharge and all children had basically normal activity tolerance with no obvious respiratory symptoms. Conclusions: Slide tracheoplasty is feasible for children undergoing prior balloon dilatation or metal stents placement. Previously repeated balloon dilatation or metal stent placement under endoscopy increased the difficulty of slide tracheoplasty, the metal stent could not be completely removed after a long time.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Constriction, Pathologic , Dilatation , Endoscopy , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Retrospective Studies , Stents , Trachea/surgery , Tracheal Stenosis/surgery , Treatment Outcome
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