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2.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1148365

ABSTRACT

A la fecha de redacción de este artículo, más de 500 mil personas han sido afectadas por el virus SARS-CoV-2 en Chile, manifestando diferentes grados de la enfermedad COVID-19. Aquellas que sobrellevan condiciones más severas generan una condición que requiere soporte ventilatorio invasivo y tratamiento en unidades de cuidados intensivos, que de prolongarse en el tiempo deriva en la necesidad de una traqueostomía. A pesar de los beneficios que posee esta en la recuperación de personas con dificultades respiratorias, su implementación se asocia a alteraciones deglutorias que se suman a las generadas por COVID-19. Condición que supone un desafío para los/as fonoaudiólogos/as, quienes están expuestos/as al virus debido a su proceder en estructuras del tracto aerodigestivo y la realización de procedimientos potencialmente generadores de aerosol. El objetivo de este artículo es entregar orientaciones y herramientas clínicas para la intervención en la deglución de personas con traqueostomía y COVID-19. Estas emanan de un análisis pragmático de la evidencia disponible a la fecha, interpretadas bajo nuestra experiencia de atender a más de 561 personas con dicha condición. Se espera contribuir a la rehabilitación de la deglución en personas con COVID-19 y traqueostomía. Para ello se expone sobre las características de la deglución en esta población, su tratamiento, consideraciones para el uso de técnicas específicas, y orientaciones para la mejora de la calidad de vida mediante la mantención y/o recuperación de la funcionalidad deglutoria. Siempre bajo un esquema centrado en el cuidado y protección de las personas hospitalizadas y el equipo de salud.


At the time of writing this article, more than a million people have been affected by the SARS-CoV-2 virus in Chile, displaying different degrees of COVID-19 disease. Severe infections generate a condition that requires invasive ventilatory support and treatment in intensive care units, which, when extended in time, makes necessary conducting a tracheostomy. Despite its benefits for the recovery of patients with respiratory difficulties, it is linked to swallowing disorders that add to the problems generated by COVID-19. This represents a challenge for speech pathologists, who are potentially exposed to the virus because they work on structures of the aerodigestive tract and becuase they conduct procedures that may be aerosol-generating. The aim of this article is to provide guidance and clinical tools for swallowing-intervention in people with tracheostomies and COVID-19. Thees tools spring from a pragmatic analysis of the currently available evidence , interpreted based on our experience of caring more than561 infected patients. We hope to contribute to the rehabilitation of swallowing of patients with COVID-19 and a tracheostomy. The characteristics of swallowing in this population, its treatment, considerations for the use of specific techniques, and guidelines for improving the quality of life through the maintenance and/or recovery of swallowing functionality are discussed, focused caring and protecting hospitalized patients and the health team.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/surgery , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/surgery , Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/rehabilitation , Quality of Life , Deglutition Disorders/rehabilitation , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/rehabilitation , Critical Care , Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences/methods , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus
3.
Rev. chil. fonoaudiol. (En línea) ; 19: 1-9, nov. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1148401

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad COVID-19 fue declarada pandemia por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Su presentación más severa genera una condición que requiere tratamiento en unidades de cuidados intensivos, condición que al prolongarse en el tiempo requiere la implementación de una traqueostomía para facilitar la entrega de soporte ventilatorio invasivo. Si bien este dispositivo posee importantes ventajas que favorecen la recuperación y rehabilitación, también es cierto que genera diversas complicaciones en la comunicación de las personas, condición que se suma a los efectos propios del COVID-19 y la frecuente historia de intubación endotraqueal previa. El objetivo de este artículo es proveer orientaciones y herramientas clínicas para el tratamiento de la fonación para la comunicación en personas con traqueostomía y COVID-19. Se considera para ello las recomendaciones de la literatura existentes a la fecha, bajo un análisis pragmático y basado en nuestra experiencia de atender a más de 561 personas con esta condición. Se exponen las características de la comunicación en esta población, su tratamiento, consideraciones para el uso de técnicas específicas y orientaciones para la mejora de la calidad de vida. Siempre con un enfoque orientado al cuidado y protección de las/os usuarias/os y el equipo de salud, en particular fonoaudiólogas y fonoaudiólogos del país.


The COVID-19 disease was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. When most severe, it generates a condition that requires treatment in intensive care units, which, when extended in time, requires implementing of a tracheostomy to facilitate invasive ventilatory support. Although ventilatory support has important advantages that favor recovery and rehabilitation, it generates various complications for patients' communication, a condition that adds to the effects of COVID-19 and the frequent history of previous endotracheal intubation. The aim of this article is to provide guidance and clinical tools for the treatment of phonation to facilitate communication in people with tracheostomy and COVID-19. For this, the recommendations of the existing available literature are considered, under a pragmatic analysis and based on our experience of treating more than 561 infected patients. The characteristics of communication in this population, its treatment, considerations for the use of specific techniques and guidelines to improve quality of life are exposed. Always with an approach oriented to the care and protection of users and the health team, in particular speech-language pathologists in the country.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/surgery , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Voice Disorders/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/surgery , Communication Disorders/etiology , Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences/standards , Phonation , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/rehabilitation , Quality of Life , Hospital-Patient Relations , Voice Disorders/rehabilitation , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/rehabilitation , Communication , Communication Disorders/rehabilitation , Critical Care , Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences/methods , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Intubation, Intratracheal
4.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 47: e20202510, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1136560

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy is currently one of the main procedures performed in an intensive care unit (ICU). However, there are no well-defined indicators of technical difficulty in performing the procedure. Objectives: to define predictors of difficulty in performing bedside percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy. Methodology: prospective cohort study encompassing 21 patients who underwent bedside percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy in the ICU at a single center. Results: Sternohyoid (SH) distance shorter than 7 cm is associated with a 50% increase in the risk of technical difficulty (OR 0.44 and p <0.03). Conclusion: the reduction in (SH) distance is related to an increased risk of difficulty in performing percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy in the ICU bed.


RESUMO Introdução: a traqueostomia percutânea é hoje um dos principais procedimentos realizados em unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI). Não há, contudo, indicadores bem definidos de dificuldade técnica na realização do procedimento. Objetivos: definir preditores de dificuldade para realização de traqueostomia percutânea. Metodologia: estudo de coorte prospectivo no qual foram incluídos 21 pacientes submetidos a traqueostomia percutânea à beira leito, na UTI, em um único centro. Resultados: distância EH menor que 7 cm está associada a aumento de 50% na chance de dificuldade técnica (OR 0,44 e p<0,03). Conclusão: a redução da distância EH está relacionada com aumento do risco de dificuldade em realizar a traqueostomia percutânea à beira do leito, em UTI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Tracheostomy/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Dilatation/adverse effects , Dilatation/methods , Intensive Care Units
5.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 14(3): 159-163, sept. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087676

ABSTRACT

Tracheostomy in children is an extremely delicate procedure, which consists in the creation of a stoma between the trachea and the skin. Among the most frequent indications are neurological disorders, obstruction of the upper airway or prolonged mechanical ventilation. Pediatric versus adult airway differences should be considered during surgery. In the postoperative period, hemorrhage, pneumothorax, pneumomediatin can occur. In the late postoperative period, accidental decannulation, false pathway, infection of the tracheostomy, and later formation of periostomal or endotracheal granulomas may occur. The care of the tracheostomy in the clinical unit must be with trained personnel and the family environment must be prepared for home care. As long as the tracheostomy persists, control of the airway superior and inferior to the tracheostomy must be maintained by fiber optic. Patients with neurological compromise or cardiopulmonary damage have a lower decannulation rate and a longer hospital stay.


La traqueostomía en niños es un procedimiento extremadamente delicado, que consiste en la creación de un ostoma entre la tráquea y la piel. Entre las indicaciones más frecuentes se encuentran trastornos neurológicos, obstrucción de la vía aérea superior o ventilación mecánica prolongada. Consideraciones a las diferencias de la vía aérea pediátrica versus del adulto deben tenerse en cuenta durante la cirugía. En el postoperatorio se puede presentar hemorragia, neumotórax y neumomediastino. En el postoperatorio tardío puede ocurrir decanulación accidental, falsa vía, infección de la traqueostomía, y más tardíamente formación de granulomas periostomales o endotraqueales. El cuidado de la traqueostomía en la unidad clínica debe ser con personal capacitado y se debe preparar el entorno familiar para el cuidado en el domicilio. Mientras persista la traqueostomía se debe mantener control por fibra óptica de la vía aérea superior e inferior a la traqueostomía. Los pacientes con compromiso neurológico o daño cardiopulmonar tienen menor tasa de decanulación y mayor tiempo en el hospital.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Tracheostomy/methods , Patient Selection , Device Removal
6.
Clin. biomed. res ; 39(1)2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1026201

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Current literature suggests that tracheostomy has no impact on survival in unselected intensive care unit (ICU) patients, and that it actually transfers mortality from ICU to the ward. Methods: Data from 71 adult subjects who underwent tracheostomy as part of their ICU management and were subsequently transferred to the ward were obtained retrospectively. Results: During 2015, 104 subjects received tracheostomy. Thirty-two died during their initial ICU admission (30.4%) and were excluded from analysis. Of the remaining 73 individuals, 28 died (38.3%) in hospital. Most common diagnoses were sepsis (33.8%) and neurological emergencies (23.9%). Life-sustaining treatments were withheld or withdrawn in 25 decedents. Seven subjects died in later hospitalizations at our institution over the period recorded. Conclusions: Tracheostomy may represent a burden after ICU discharge, involving high resource use and low survival rate. Efforts should be made to recognize patients who might clearly benefit from this technique to avoid unwanted prolonged mechanical ventilation. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Tracheostomy/mortality , Critical Illness/mortality , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Comorbidity
7.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 38(4): 131-138, dic. 2018. tab., ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022572

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la traqueostomía es una práctica frecuente dentro de las unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI). El proceso de decanulación y el tiempo utilizado en ella resultan de interés clínico, mientras que los factores asociados al proceso y la dificultad en dicho proceso han sido poco estudiados. Objetivos: describir características clínicas y epidemiológicas de la población en estudio y su evolución desde el momento del ingreso en la UCI hasta el alta hospitalaria. Informar la incidencia de fallo de decanulación y analizar los factores de riesgo independientes asociados a la imposibilidad de esta. Materiales y métodos: estudio observacional de cohorte retrospectivo de pacientes internados en la UCI del Hospital Italiano de San Justo Agustín Rocca que requirieron traqueostomía durante su estadía. Utilizando la historia clínica informatizada se registraron variables epidemiológicas previas al ingreso en la UCI y datos evolutivos durante la internación. El período analizado fue desde el 5 de enero de 2016 hasta el 17 de diciembre de 2017. Se utilizaron modelos de regresión logística para la evaluación de potenciales predictores. Resultados: se reclutaron 50 pacientes, y todos fueron incluidos en el presente análisis. La edad promedio fue de 66 años (desvío estándar [DE] ± 15,5) y el 66% fueron hombres. El 42% fue decanulado durante el seguimiento. La incidencia en el fallo de decanulación fue del 4,77% (intervalo de confianza [IC] 95% 0,85-22,67). La mediana de tiempo hasta la decanulación desde la desvinculación de la asistencia ventilatoria fue de 17 días. En el análisis univariado hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas en tipo de diagnóstico de ingreso en UCI y en el alta vivo hospitalaria al comparar pacientes decanulados versus no decanulados. En el análisis multivariado de regresión logística se halló el tipo de diagnóstico de ingreso en UCI como predictor independiente de imposibilidad de decanulación. Conclusiones: el motivo de ingreso clínico en UCI fue un factor predictor independiente asociado al fracaso de la decanulación y esto, posiblemente, está relacionado con la condición clínica y el estado general al ingreso, en comparación con los pacientes que ingresaron por causas quirúrgicas. No se hallaron comorbilidades ni antecedentes que se relacionen con el fracaso de la decanulación. (AU)


Introduction: the tracheostomy remains a very common surgical procedure done in the intensive care unit (ICU). The process of decannulation is of scientific interest with its associated factors not being sufficiently studied. Objectives: to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the population and their relationship to effective decanulation. To report the cumulative incidence of decannulation failure and success. To analyze independent risk factors associated with decannulation failure. Materials and methods: the present was a retrospective cohort of adult patients in the ICU at Hospital Italiano de San Justo who required tracheostomy during their in-hospital stay. Epidemiological variables were recorded before ICU admission and during their hospital stay using data from the electronic medical record. The inclusion period was 2 years long. We used descriptive statistics and logistic regression models to compare the proportion of patients who could be decannulated versus those who could not. Results: 50 patients were enrolled in the present study. Their mean age was 66 (±15.5) years and 66% of patients were male. 21 patients (42%) achieved to be decannulated. The cumulative incidence of decannulation failure was 4.77% (95% CI: 0.85-22.87). Median time from weaning to decannulation was 17 days. In univariate analysis, statistically significant differences were found in ICU admission diagnosis (p<0.001) and hospital discharge alive (p<0.001) when comparing decannulated versus not decannulated patients. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, ICU admission diagnosis was found to be an independent predictor of decannulation failure (p<0.01). Conclusions: clinical ICU admission diagnosis was an independent predictor associated with decannulation failure. This could be related to differences in baseline morbidity and clinical condition of these patients compared with surgical patients. However, no individual morbidities or clinical conditions were found to be associated in decannulation failure. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Tracheostomy/methods , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Tracheostomy/instrumentation , Tracheostomy/mortality , Tracheostomy/rehabilitation , Tracheostomy/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness/rehabilitation , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/trends
8.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 78(3): 318-325, set. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978820

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Las indicaciones de traqueostomía en niños han cambiado considerablemente en los últimos años, así como el perfil epidemiológico de los pacientes y la morbimortalidad de este procedimiento. Las complicaciones de este procedimiento pueden ser clasificadas en intraoperatorias, inmediatas y tardías. La mortalidad global en pacientes pediátricos llevados a traqueostomía oscila entre el 13% y 19%. Sin embargo, menos del 5% es directamente atribuible a la cirugía. La presente revisión abarcará las complicaciones más frecuentes asociadas a traqueostomía pediátrica con recomendaciones en su prevención y manejo.


ABSTRACT Indications of tracheostomy in children have changed considerably in recent years, as well as the epidemiological profile of patients, and morbidity and mortality related to this procedure. Complications of pediatric tracheostomy can be classified into intraoperative, immediate and late. Overall mortality in pediatric patients with tracheostomy ranges from 13% to 19%. However, less than 5% is directly attributable to tracheostomy. This review will cover the most frequent complications associated with pediatric tracheostomy with recommendations for its prevention and management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Tracheostomy/mortality , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Hospital Mortality , Intraoperative Complications/epidemiology
9.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 83(6): 627-632, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889330

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Children may require tracheostomy due to many different health conditions. Over the last 40 years, indications of tracheostomy have endorsed substantial modifications. Objective: To evaluate pediatric patients warranted tracheostomy at our Hospital, in regard to their indications, associated comorbidities, complications and decannulation rates. Methods: Retrospective study concerning patients under 18 years of age undergoing tracheostomy in a tertiary health care center, from January 2006 to November 2015. Results: 123 children required a tracheostomy after ENT evaluation during the study period. A proportion of 63% was male, and 56% was under one year of age. Glossoptosis was the most common indication (30%), followed by subglottic stenosis (16%) and pharyngomalacia (11%). The mortality rate was 31%. By the end of this review, 35 children (28.4%) had been decannulated, and the fewer the number of comorbidities, the greater the decannulation rate (0.77 ± 0.84 vs. 1.7 ± 1.00 comorbidities; p < 0.001). Conclusion: Tracheostomy in children is a relatively frequent procedure at our hospital. The most common indications are glossoptosis and subglottic stenosis. A high mortality rate was found, potentially substantiated by the high number of critical care patients with chronic neurological conditions in this cohort. Our decannulation rate is slightly below other series, probably because of the greater amount of patients with comorbidities.


Resumo Introdução: As crianças podem necessitar de traqueostomia devido a diferentes problemas de saúde. Ao longo dos últimos 40 anos, as indicações de traqueostomia passaram por mudanças substanciais. Objetivo: Avaliar pacientes pediátricos com traqueostomia no nosso hospital, no que diz respeito às suas indicações, comorbidades associadas, complicações e taxas de decanulação. Método: Estudo retrospectivo de pacientes com menos de 18 anos submetidos a traqueostomia em um centro de saúde terciário, de janeiro de 2006 a novembro de 2015. Resultados: 123 crianças precisaram de uma traqueostomia após avaliação otorrinolaringológica durante o período do estudo. Do total, 63% eram do sexo masculino e 56% menores de um ano. Glossoptose foi a indicação mais comum (30%), seguida por estenose subglótica (16%) e faringomalácia (11%). A taxa de mortalidade foi de 31%. Até o fim deste artigo, 35 crianças (28,4%) haviam sido decanuladas e quanto menor o número de comorbidades, maior foi a taxa de decanulação (0,77 ± 0,84 vs. 1,7 ± 1,00 comorbidades; p < 0,001). Conclusão: A traqueostomia em crianças é um procedimento relativamente frequente em nosso hospital. As indicações mais comuns são glossoptose e estenose subglótica. Uma alta taxa de mortalidade foi encontrada, potencialmente comprovada pelo elevado número de pacientes críticos com condições neurológicas crônicas nessa coorte. Nossa taxa de decanulação está ligeiramente abaixo de outras séries, provavelmente por causa da maior quantidade de pacientes com comorbidades.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Tracheostomy/statistics & numerical data , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Comorbidity , Laryngostenosis/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Age Distribution , Device Removal/statistics & numerical data , Tertiary Care Centers , Glossoptosis/surgery , Intraoperative Complications/epidemiology
10.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 12(2): 85-89, abr. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-999094

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION. Tracheostomy is an old surgical procedure, wich is currwently performed, in pediatric patients. Bronchoscopy is an effective procedure to follow these patients as it reveals data that can not be obtained with other methods. The aim of this study was to determine indications, bronchoscopic findings and mortality in patients with tracheostomy at the Hospital del Niño Morelense (HNM). in addiction, we sought to detail the role of bronchoscopy in patients follow-up. METHODS. Observational, descriptive and transversal study. We reviewed the records of the patients with tracheostomy during 5 years looking for bronchoscopic findings. RESULTS: The main indication for tracheostomy was prolonged ventilation (74.4 percent). The main bronchoscopic diagnoses were subglottic stenosis (20 percent), granulomas in the trachea (70 percent), and in bronchi abnormal secretions (70 percent) mortality was 32.5 percent. CONCLUSIONS: The main indication for tracheostomy is prolonged ventuilation. Mortality in children with tracheostomy depends mainly on the underlying pathology. Bronchospy is useful for monitoring the child with a tracheostomy


INTRODUCCIÓN. La traqueostomía es un procedimiento quirúrgico antiguo, que se realiza en pediatría cada vez con mayor frecuencia. La broncoscopía es un procedimiento efectivo para el seguimiento del paciente con traqueostomía ya que nos revela datos que no se pueden obtener con otros métodos. Se tuvo como objetios determinar indicaciones, hallazgos broncoscópicos y mortalidad en pacientes con traqueostomía, en el Hospital del Niño Morelense (HNM). MÉTODOS. Estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal. Se revisaron los expedientes de los pacientes a quienes se les realizó traqueostomía durante 5 años buscando hallazgos broncoscópicos. RESULTADOS. La principal indicación de traqueostomía fue la ventilación prolongada (74 por ciento). Los principales diagnósticos broncoscópicos fueron: estenosis subglótica (20 por ciento), granulomas en tráquea (70 por ciento) y en bronquios secreciones anormales (70 por ciento). La mortalidad fue de 32.5 por ciento. CONCLUSIONES. la principal indicación para traqueostomía fue la ventilación prolongada. la mortalidad en niños con traqueostomía depende principalmente de la patología subyacente. La broncoscopía es útil para el seguimiento del niño con traqueostomía


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child , Adolescent , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Bronchoscopy/methods , Tracheostomy/methods , Tracheostomy/mortality , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Patient Selection , Airway Obstruction/surgery , Airway Obstruction/etiology , Observational Study , Mexico/epidemiology
11.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 83(2): 207-214, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839431

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Tracheostomy is a procedure with unique characteristics when used on pediatric patients due to the greater technical difficulty and higher morbidity and mortality rates relative to the procedure in adults. In recent decades, there have been significant changes in the medical care available to children, particularly for those who need intensive care. Surgical conditions have also improved, and there has been an advent of new equipment and medications. These advances have brought changes to both tracheostomy indications and tracheostomy complications. Objective: To perform a review of the articles published over the last three decades on the complications and mortality associated with tracheostomies in children. Methods: Articles were selected from the Cochrane, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, SciELO, National Library of Medicine (Medline Plus), and PubMed online databases. The articles selected had been published between January 1985 and December 2014, and the data was compared using the Chi-square test. Results: A total of 3797 articles were chosen, 47 of which were used as the basis for this review. When the three decades were evaluated as a whole, an increase in tracheostomies in male children under one year of age was found. The most common complications during the period analyzed in descending order of frequency were granuloma, infection, and obstruction of the cannula, accidental decannulation, and post-decannulation tracheocutaneous fistula. In the second and third decades of the review, granulomas represented the most common complication; in the first decade of the review, pneumothoraces were the most common. Mortality associated with tracheostomy ranged from 0% to 5.9%, while overall mortality ranged from 2.2% to 59%. In addition, the review included four studies on premature and/or very underweight infants who had undergone tracheostomies; the studies reported evidence of higher mortality in this age group to be largely associated with underlying diseases. Conclusion: Improved surgical techniques and intensive care, the creation of new medications, and vaccines have all redefined the main complications and the mortality rates of tracheostomy in children. It is a safe procedure that increases chances of survival in those who require the prolonged use of mechanical ventilation.


Resumo Introdução: A traqueostomia é um procedimento com características exclusivas em pacientes pediátricos devido à maior dificuldade técnica e às maiores taxas de morbidade e mortalidade em relação ao procedimento em adultos. Nas últimas décadas, houve mudanças significativas na assistência médica às crianças, especialmente para aquelas que necessitam de cuidados intensivos. As condições cirúrgicas também melhoraram e houve um advento de novos equipamentos e medicamentos. Esses avanços trouxeram mudanças tanto nas indicações de traqueostomia como nas suas complicações. Objetivo: Realizar uma revisão dos artigos publicados nas últimas três décadas sobre as complicações e a mortalidade em crianças submetidas à traqueostomia. Método: Os artigos foram pesquisados nas bases de dados online da Cochrane, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (Lilacs), SciELO, National Library of Medicine (Medline Plus) e PubMed. Os artigos selecionados foram publicados entre janeiro de 1985 e dezembro de 2014 e os dados foram comparados com uso de teste do qui-quadrado. Resultados: Foram selecionados 3.797 artigos, 47 dos quais foram usados como base para esta revisão. Quando as três décadas foram avaliadas como um todo, encontrou-se um aumento das traqueostomias em crianças do sexo masculino com menos de um ano. As complicações mais comuns no período analisado, em ordem decrescente de frequência, foram granuloma, infecção, obstrução da cânula, decanulação acidental e fístula traqueocutânea pós-decanulação. Na segunda e terceira décadas de revisão, os granulomas representaram a complicação mais comum; na primeira década da revisão, pneumotórax foi a mais comum. A mortalidade associada à traqueostomia variou de 0% a 5,9%, enquanto que a mortalidade global variou de 2,2% a 59%. Além disso, a revisão incluiu quatro estudos sobre lactentes prematuros e/ou nascidos com muito baixo peso submetidos à traqueostomia; os estudos mostraram que a mortalidade nessa faixa etária é decorrente associada a doenças subjacentes. Conclusão: A melhoria das técnicas cirúrgicas e de cuidados intensivos e a criação de medicamentos e vacinas redefiniram as principais complicações e as taxas de mortalidade da traqueostomia em crianças.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Postoperative Complications/mortality , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Tracheostomy/mortality
12.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 76(3): 331-336, dic. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-845635

ABSTRACT

El traqueostoma persistente es la complicación tardía más frecuente asociada al uso de traqueostomía. Se reportan tres casos de pacientes que se les realizó un cierre exitoso del traqueostoma persistente mediante técnica de cierre primario por planos con colgajo invertido. Las ventajas del método utilizado son que representa una alternativa simple, susceptible de realizar con anestesia local y de manera ambulatoria, con excelentes resultados estéticos, mejorando significativamente la calidad de vida de estos pacientes.


Persistent tracheostoma is the most common late complication associated with the use of tracheostomy. We report three cases in which patients underwent a successful closure of persistent tracheostoma using primary closure in layers with inverted flap technique. The advantages of this method are that it represents a simple alternative and is able to be performed under local anesthesia on an outpatient basis, with excellent aesthetic results, significantly improving the quality of life of these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Cutaneous Fistula/surgery , Surgical Flaps , Tracheal Diseases/surgery , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Cutaneous Fistula/etiology , Suture Techniques , Tracheal Diseases/etiology
14.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 113(6): e353-e356, dic. 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-838151

ABSTRACT

La fractura y migración de la cánula de traqueostomía en el árbol traqueobronquial es una complicación poco frecuente de la traqueostomía. El diagnóstico precoz y el tratamiento adecuado son esenciales debido al riesgo potencial de obstrucción respiratoria fatal. El diagnóstico se debe sospechar en todo niño traqueotomizado que presenta dificultad respiratoria. Se confirma mediante radiografía de tórax y examen endoscópico. El tratamiento de elección es la remoción endoscópica de la cánula aspirada a través del estoma traqueal. Describimos la presentación clínica y el manejo de la rotura de cánula de traqueostomía que se presentó como cuerpo extrano en la vía aérea de un niño de 18 meses. También incluimos recomendaciones para el cuidado de la traqueostomía.


Fracture and migration of the tracheotomy tube in the tracheobronchial tree is an uncommon complication of tracheotomy. Early diagnosis and proper treatment are essential because of the potential risk of fatal respiratory obstruction. Diagnosis should be suspected in all tracheotomized children undergoing breathing difficulties. It is confirmed by chest x-ray and endoscopic examination. The recommended treatment includes the endoscopic removal of the aspirated cannula through the tracheal stoma. We describe the clinical presentation and the management of a broken tracheotomy tube which was presented as a foreign body in the airway of a 18-month-old child. Recommendations for tracheostomy care are listed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Trachea/physiopathology , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Airway Obstruction/etiology , Equipment Failure , Foreign Bodies/diagnosis
15.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 27(2): 119-124, Apr-Jun/2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-750763

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: Evaluar eficacia y seguridad de la traqueostomía percutánea, mediante dilatación única con asistencia fibrobroncoscópica, en pacientes críticos sometidos a ventilación mecánica. Métodos: Entre los años 2004 y 2014, se incluyeron prospectivamente 512 enfermos consecutivos con indicación de traqueostomía según los criterios clínicos de nuestro centro. Un tercio de los pacientes fueron de alto riesgo. Se registraron variables demográficas, puntaje APACHE II, y días de ventilación mecánica previo a traqueostomía percutánea. La eficacia del procedimiento fue evaluada mediante tasa de éxito en su ejecución y necesidad de conversión a técnica abierta. La seguridad fue evaluada por tasa de complicaciones operatorias y postoperatorias. Resultados: La edad media del grupo fue 64 ± 18 años (203 mujeres y 309 varones). El puntaje APACHE II fue 21 ± 3. Los pacientes permanecieron en promedio 11 ± 3 días en ventilación mecánica antes de la realización de la traqueostomía percutánea. Todos los procedimientos se completaron exitosamente, sin necesidad de convertir a técnica abierta. Dieciocho pacientes (3,5%) presentaron complicaciones operatorias. Cinco pacientes experimentaron desaturación transitoria, cuatro presentaron hipotensión relacionada a la sedación, y nueve presentaron sangrado menor, pero ninguno requirió transfusión. No se registraron complicaciones graves, ni muertes asociadas al procedimiento. Once pacientes (2,1%) presentaron complicaciones postoperatorias. Siete presentaron sangrado menor y transitorio del estoma de la traqueostomía percutánea, 2 sufrieron desplazamiento de la cánula de traqueostomía y 2 desarrollaron infección superficial del estoma. Conclusión: La traqueostomía percutánea mediante la técnica de dilatación única con asistencia fibrobroncoscópica, parece ser efectiva y segura en enfermos críticos sometidos a ventilación mecánica, cuando es realizada por intensivistas experimentados mediante un abordaje ...


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous tracheostomy by means of single-step dilation with fiber optic bronchoscopy assistance in critical care patients under mechanical ventilation. Methods: Between the years 2004 and 2014, 512 patients with indication of tracheostomy according to clinical criteria, were prospectively and consecutively included in our study. One-third of them were high-risk patients. Demographic variables, APACHE II score, and days on mechanical ventilation prior to percutaneous tracheostomy were recorded. The efficacy of the procedure was evaluated according to an execution success rate and based on the necessity of switching to an open surgical technique. Safety was evaluated according to post-operative and operative complication rates. Results: The mean age of the group was 64 ± 18 years (203 women and 309 males). The mean APACHE II score was 21 ± 3. Patients remained an average of 11 ± 3 days on mechanical ventilation before percutaneous tracheostomy was performed. All procedures were successfully completed without the need to switch to an open surgical technique. Eighteen patients (3.5%) presented procedure complications. Five patients experienced transient desaturation, 4 presented low blood pressure related to sedation, and 9 presented minor bleeding, but none required a transfusion. No serious complications or deaths associated with the procedure were recorded. Eleven patients (2.1%) presented post-operative complications. Seven presented minor and transitory bleeding of the percutaneous tracheostomy stoma, 2 suffered displacement of the tracheostomy cannula, and 2 developed a superficial infection of the stoma. Conclusion: Percutaneous tracheostomy using the single-step dilation technique with fiber optic bronchoscopy assistance seems to be effective and safe in critically ill patients under mechanical ventilation when performed by experienced intensive care specialists using ...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Bronchoscopy/methods , Tracheostomy/methods , Fiber Optic Technology/methods , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Critical Illness , Hospitals, University , Middle Aged
16.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-159462

ABSTRACT

Tracheostomy is a routine life-saving operative procedure in the event of airway obstruction especially in faciomaxillary injuries. Bleeding is the most common complications of tracheostomy, innominate artery (IA) of normal width reaching second tracheal ring is very rare, and injury to IA can be a catastrophic complication. We reported a case of 40-year-old male presented with profuse bleeding from oral and nasal cavity following road traffic injury. During tracheostomy, there was a sudden forceful gush of blood coming out of incision site, warning a major vessel injury. Right-sided trap door thoracotomy procedure was performed, and the avulsed right IA was repaired as a life-saving procedure.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic/surgery , Adult , Brachiocephalic Trunk/injuries , Brachiocephalic Trunk/surgery , Humans , Male , Thoracotomy/methods , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Tracheostomy/methods , Wounds and Injuries/surgery
17.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 54(1): 18-24, ene.-mar. 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-754882

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el estoma traqueal persistente o fístula traqueocutánea es una complicación tardía rara, que se caracteriza por la persistencia del orificio traqueal de 3 a 6 meses después de retirada la cánula de traqueostomía. Objetivo: describir las características y los resultados obtenidos en pacientes que presentaron fístula traqueocutánea después de retirar el tubo en T insertado para tratar estenosis isquémica de tráquea y subglotis. Métodos: una serie de 20 pacientes con fístula traqueocutánea fueron tratados en el servicio de Cirugía general del Hospital Hermanos Ameijeiras entre junio de 1993 y enero de 2011. Se describen las características de los pacientes en cuanto a edad, sexo, indicación quirúrgica, tiempo para retirar el tubo en T y detalles de la técnica quirúrgica. Resultados: el tiempo para retirar el tubo en T fluctuó entre 3 y 163 meses. Nueve enfermos permanecieron con el tubo hasta 12 meses, en 2 se retiró entre 13 y 36 meses y 9 fueron decanulados en 37 meses o más. Los pacientes tratados con colgajos de piel fueron 18 y con sutura simple, 2. Dos pacientes tuvieron infección de la herida, ambos en el grupo tratado con colgajo de piel, uno de los cuales tuvo recidiva de la fístula, que resolvió con una reintervención. Hubo seguimiento entre 6 y 61 meses, incluyendo el paciente reoperado. No se presentaron más recurrencias de la fístula ni de la estenosis. Conclusiones: el tratamiento quirúrgico con colgajo cutáneo es efectivo para tratar fístula traqueocutánea desarrolladas al retirar el tubo en T(AU)


Introduction: Persistent tracheal stoma or tracheocutaneous fistula is a late tare complication that is characterized by permanence of a tracheal orifice for 3 to 6 months after removing the tracheostomy cannula. Objective: To describe the characteristics and the results achieved in patients who presented with tracheocutaneous fistula after removing the inserted T-tube to treat ischemic stenosis of the trachea and subglottis. Methods: A series of 20 patients with tracheocutaneous fistula were treated at the general surgery service of Hermanos Ameijeiras hospital from June 1993 through January 2011. The characteristics of the patients in terms of age, sex, surgical indication, length of time for the removal of the T-tube and details of the surgical technique were described. Results: The length of time elapsed until the T-tube removal ranged from 3 to 163 months. Nine patients remained with the inserted T-tube for 12 months. The cannula was removed in 2 patients after 13 to 36 months and 9 were taken the cannula out after 37 months or more. The number of patients treated with cutaneous flaps amounted to 18 with single suture. Two patients suffered wound infection, both from the group under cutaneous flap treatment; one of them had fistula recurrence which was finally managed after reoperation. The follow-up lasted 6 to 61 months including the reoperated patient. Neither fistula nor stenosis recurrences were observed anymore. Conclusions: The surgical treatment with cutaneous flap is effective to treat tracheocutaneous fistula that may appear when the T-tube is removed(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , Surgical Flaps/surgery , Tracheoesophageal Fistula/complications , Tracheoesophageal Fistula/surgery , Tracheostomy/adverse effects
18.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 29(2): 294-296, apr.-jun. 2014. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-598

ABSTRACT

Reconstruir lesão do estoma traqueal em pacientes submetidos a laringectómica total é um desafio, especialmente, quando a pele do perístoma está lesionada devido à radioterapia. A reconstrução é complexa e geralmente requer mais de uma abordagem. Apresenta-se técnica simples utilizada com sucesso em paciente de 80 anos com deiscência de lesão do estoma traqueal e retração da traqueia.


Reconstruction of tracheal stoma wound in patients who undergone total laryngectomy is challenging especially when the peristomal skin is unhealthy due to radi therapy. The reconstruction is complex and usually requires more than one stage. We present a simple techniqued successfully used in an 80-year-old patient with dehisced tracheal stoma wound and retraction of trachea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , History, 21st Century , Postoperative Complications , Radiotherapy , Surgical Flaps , Trachea , Wounds and Injuries , Case Reports , Tracheostomy , Longitudinal Studies , Diffusion of Innovation , Observational Study , Laryngeal Cartilages , Laryngectomy , Larynx , Postoperative Complications/surgery , Radiotherapy/methods , Surgical Flaps/surgery , Trachea/surgery , Wounds and Injuries/surgery , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Tracheostomy/methods , Laryngeal Cartilages/surgery , Laryngectomy/adverse effects , Laryngectomy/methods , Larynx/surgery , Larynx/pathology
19.
Medwave ; 14(4)mayo 2014. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-716824

ABSTRACT

Fundamento En los últimos 20 años ha habido un cambio considerable en el rol de la traqueostomía en la edad pediátrica. La obstrucción de la vía aérea superior secundaria a infecciones dejó de constituir la causa más común de traqueostomía en el niño. Asimismo, las alteraciones estructurales de la vía aérea superior y la necesidad de asistencia ventilatoria prolongada o crónica se han convertido en las indicaciones más frecuentes de traqueostomías pediátricas.Objetivo Determinar la incidencia de la traqueostomía en nuestro medio, sus principales indicaciones, complicaciones e influencia en la mortalidad. MetodologíaSe realizó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de los pacientes que requirieron traqueostomía en la unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos del Hospital Pediátrico Docente José Martí de Sancti Spíritus, Cuba, en un período de diez años, desde 1999 hasta 2008. Resultados Fue necesario practicar traqueostomía a 14 (0,5 por ciento) pacientes del total de ingresados durante ese período, de ellos 9 (64,2 por ciento) eran menores de un año. La indicación más frecuente fue la necesidad de ventilación mecánica prolongada asociada a patología neurológica con 10 (71,42 por ciento) casos. Las malformaciones e infecciones agudas de las vías aéreas superiores constituyeron indicaciones poco frecuentes. Las principales complicaciones que se presentaron fueron infección en 10 (71,4 por ciento) casos y la obstrucción en 4 (28,5 por ciento), siendo aislados más comúnmente la Pseudomonas aeruginosa en seis (60 por ciento), el Staphylococcus aureus en tres (30 por ciento), la Klebsiella pneumoniae en tres (30 por ciento) y el Enterobacter cloacae en tres (30 por ciento). Además, cuatro (28,5 por ciento) pacientes fueron decanulados exitosamente, fallecieron cinco (35,7 por ciento) y sólo en uno (7,14 por ciento) la causa se relacionó con la traqueostomía.


Introduction There has been a significant change in the role of pediatric tracheostomy over the last twenty years. Obstruction of the upper airway caused by infectious agents is no longer the leading cause of tracheostomy in children. Structural anomalies of the upper airway as well as the need for prolonged ventilator assistance have become the most frequent indication for pediatric tracheostomy. ObjectiveThe purpose of this paper is to assess the incidence, indications, complications, and role in mortality of tracheostomy in our pediatric population. MethodsA retrospective descriptive study of pediatric patients who underwent tracheostomy was conducted between 1999 and 2008 in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit of the José Martí de Sancti Spiritus Pediatric Teaching Hospital in Cuba. Results Tracheostomy was performed in 14 patients during the period of the study (0.5 percent of admitted patients). Nine of them (64.2 percent) were younger than one year. The most frequent indication for the procedure was the need for prolonged mechanical ventilation in patients with neurologic disorders in 10 patients (71.42 percent). Upper airway malformations and acute infections were infrequent indications for tracheostomy. The most frequent complications were infectious in 10 patients (71.4 percent) and obstruction in four patients (28.5 percent). The following germs were found: Pseudomona aeruginosa in six patients (60 percent), Staphylococcus aureus in three patients (30 percent), and Enterobacter cloacae in three patients (30 percent). Furthermore, four patients were successfully decannulated (28.5 percent), five patients died (35.7 percent) but only in one (7.14 percent), death could be attributed to tracheostomy. Conclusion The need for prolonged mechanical ventilation in patients with neurologic disorders was the main indication for tracheostomy in our pediatric population; most of these children were younger than one year. The procedure had little.


Subject(s)
Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Tracheostomy/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Age and Sex Distribution , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Cuba , Catheters/microbiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Hospitals, Pediatric , Patient Selection , Retrospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Tracheostomy/mortality
20.
Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis [The]. 2014; 63 (1): 233-237
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-154318

ABSTRACT

The tracheal iatrogenic stenosis remains a frequent, sometimes severe tracheal resection, anastomosis is the treatment of choice. However, the endoscopic treatment is used as an alternative therapy. We report a retrospective study for a period of 8 years. 174 patients had an iatrogenic tracheal stenosis of intubation [55.17%] and/or tracheotomy [44.82%]. The appearance and extent of stenosis were assessed by bronchoscopy, we noted a tracheal mala-cia [15%], a circumferential stenosis [58%], a little tight stenosis [12%] and diaphragm [5%]. Some patients have benefited from several therapeutic procedures, 90 patients were operated on early interventions with 53 and 37 after surgery, an improvement of the patient's clinical status have been postponed earlier, after failure of endoscopic methods. 293 interventional bronchoscopies were performed, 192 stenting, 45 Nd-YAG laser, 55 patients required a recalibration in the tube of the bronchoscope and one patient received cryotherapy, knowing that there are the patients who received combination therapy. We lamented death in the immediate postoperative sepsis, a recurrence of stenosis in 117 patients, and among the 192 implants placed we identified 37 migrations, 52 congestion, development of granulomatous lesions, an overhaul of the prosthesis is noted in 7.29%, three implants were embedded in the tracheal mucosa and there was only one spontaneous rejection. The long-term evolution was satisfactory in 92 patients. Nevertheless, the management of post intubation tracheal stenosis and/or post tracheostomy cannot be that requiring a multidisciplinary collaboration


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Intubation/statistics & numerical data , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Bronchoscopy/adverse effects , Prostheses and Implants , Endoscopy , Retrospective Studies
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