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1.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 83(2): 206-213, jun. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515466

ABSTRACT

La traqueotomía percutánea por dilatación es un procedimiento que se realiza en las unidades de paciente crítico, implica la disección roma de los tejidos pretraqueales, seguida de la dilatación de la tráquea sobre la guía y la inserción de la cánula traqueal mediante la técnica de Seldinger. En las últimas décadas, la evidencia sugiere que, en manos de médicos capacitados, es al menos tan segura como la traqueotomía quirúrgica, con similar incidencia de complicaciones. La selección adecuada de pacientes y el uso de herramientas de seguridad complementarias, como broncoscopio o ultrasonido, disminuyen las tasas de falla y complicaciones. Siendo contraindicaciones absolutas para traqueotomía percutánea por dilatación una anatomía anormal, tumor maligno en el sitio de traqueostomía, coagulopatías o vía aérea difícil. La guía mediante broncoscopia permite la evaluación de la profundidad del tubo endotraqueal, confirma la posición de la aguja en el eje de la tráquea y la adecuada inserción del cable guía y dilatador. Entre sus desventajas destacan que, el sitio de punción está sujeto a sesgo y no puede guiar con precisión la aguja en la penetración de la tráquea. La traqueotomía percutánea guiada por ultrasonido es una alternativa validada en unidades, donde no se cuente con broncoscopia. Es un método rápido, seguro, que permite la identificación de estructuras anatómicas, vasculatura cervical, permite identificar el sitio de la punción y guía la inserción de la aguja en la tráquea. Esta técnica presenta altas tasas de éxito al primer intento, reduciendo significativamente el número de punciones.


Percutaneous dilation tracheostomy is a procedure performed in critical patient units. It involves blunt dissection of the pretracheal tissues followed by dilation of the trachea over the guidewire and insertion of the tracheal cannula using the Seldinger technique. In recent decades, evidence suggests that in the hands of trained physicians it is at least as safe as surgical tracheostomy, with a similar incidence of complications. The proper selection of patients and the use of complementary safety tools such as bronchoscope or ultrasound reduce failure rates and complications. Being absolute contraindications for PDT abnormal anatomy, malignant tumor at the tracheostomy site, coagulopathies, or difficult to treat airway. Bronchoscopy guidance allows evaluation of the depth of the endotracheal tube, confirms the position of the needle in the axis of the trachea and the proper insertion of the guide wire and dilator. Among its disadvantages are that the puncture site is subject to slant and cannot accurately guide the needle into the trachea. In addition, it requires Critical Patient Units with bronchoscope and trained personnel. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous tracheotomy is a validated alternative in units where bronchoscopy is not available. It is a fast, safe method that allows the identification of anatomical structures, cervical vasculature, identifies the puncture site and guides the insertion of the needle into the trachea. With high first-attempt success rates, significantly reducing the number of punctures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tracheotomy/methods , Dilatation/methods , Trachea/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color/methods
2.
Cambios rev. méd ; 22(1): 862, 30 Junio 2023. ilus, tabs
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1451458

ABSTRACT

de la deglución, los cuales representan todas las alteraciones del proceso fisiológico encargado de llevar el alimento desde la boca al esófago y después al estómago, salvaguardando siempre la protección de las vías respiratorias. OBJETIVO. Definir el manejo óptimo, de la disfagia en pacientes con antecedente de infección severa por COVID-19. METODOLOGÍA. Se realizó una revisión de la literatura científica en las bases de datos PubMed y Elsevier que relacionan el manejo de la disfagia y pacientes con antecedente de infección severa por SARS-CoV-2. Se obtuvo un universo de 134 artículos que cumplieron los criterios de búsqueda. Se seleccionaron 24 documentos, para ser considerados en este estudio. RESULTADOS. La incidencia de disfagia posterior a infección severa por SARS-CoV-2 fue del 23,14%, siendo la disfagia leve la más frecuente 48,0%. Los tratamientos clínicos más empleados en el manejo de la disfagia fueron rehabilitación oral y cambio de textura en la dieta en el 77,23% de los casos, mientras que el único tratamiento quirúrgico empleado fue la traqueotomía 37,31%. Un 12,68% de pacientes recuperó su función deglutoria sin un tratamiento específico. La eficacia de los tratamientos clínicos y quirúrgicos en los pacientes sobrevivientes de la infección severa por SARS-CoV-2 fue del 80,68%, con una media en el tiempo de resolución de 58 días. CONCLUSIÓN. La anamnesis es clave para el diagnóstico de disfagia post COVID-19. El tratamiento puede variar, desde un manejo conservador como cambios en la textura de la dieta hasta tratamientos más invasivos como traqueotomía para mejorar la función deglutoria.


INTRODUCTION. The difficulty to swallow or dysphagia is included within the problems of swallowing, which represent all the alterations of the physiological process in charge of carrying the food from the mouth to the esophagus, and then to the stomach, always taking into account the protection of the airways. OBJECTIVE. To define the optimal management, both clinical and surgical, for the adequate treatment of dysphagia produced as a consequence of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODOLOGY. A review of the scientific literature was carried out using both PubMed and Elsevier databases, which relate the management of dysphagia and patients with a history of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS. The incidence of dysphagia following severe SARS-CoV-2 infection was of 23,14%, with mild dysphagia being the most frequent 48,00%. The most frequently used clinical treatments for dysphagia management were oral rehabilitation and change in dietary texture in 77,23% of cases, while tracheotomy was the only surgical treatment used 37,31%. A total of 12,68% of patients recovered their swallowing function without specific treatment. The efficacy of clinical and surgical treatments in survivors of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection was 80,68%, with a mean resolution time of 58 days. CONCLUSION. An adequate medical history is key to the diagnosis of post-COVID-19 dysphagia. Treatment can range from conservative management such as changes in diet texture to more invasive treatments such as tracheotomy to improve swallowing function.


Subject(s)
Rehabilitation , Respiration, Artificial , Tracheotomy , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Deglutition/physiology , COVID-19 , Otolaryngology , Rehabilitation of Speech and Language Disorders , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Speech , Tertiary Healthcare , Pulmonary Medicine , Deglutition Disorders , Respiratory Mechanics , Enteral Nutrition , Aerophagy , Dysgeusia , Ecuador , Exercise Therapy , Pathologists , Gastroenterology , Anosmia , Glossopharyngeal Nerve , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal
3.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 27(1)mar. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440509

ABSTRACT

El carcinoma papilar tiroideo es el tipo de cáncer más común de esta glándula, y su tratamiento de elección es la tiroidectomía. Entre las complicaciones asociadas resalta la parálisis de las cuerdas vocales, la cual ocurre por una lesión directa del nervio laríngeo recurrente durante la cirugía. Se presenta una paciente de 22 años de edad con este diagnóstico, a la cual se le realizó una tiroidectomía total; en el postoperatorio inmediato la paciente comenzó con estridor laríngeo intenso que requirió una traqueotomía de urgencia. En el examen físico se constató una parálisis bilateral de las cuerdas vocales y se decidió comenzar un tratamiento de rehabilitación del nervio recurrente laríngeo con laserterapia y HIVAMAT-200 como modalidades combinadas. Los resultados alcanzados con la fisioterapia fueron satisfactorios y la paciente se reintegró rápidamente a su ámbito familiar, escolar y social.


Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common type of cancer of this gland, and its treatment of choice is thyroidectomy. Vocal cord paralysis stands out among the associated complications, in which a direct injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve occurs during surgery. We present a 22-year-old female patient with this diagnosis, who underwent a total thyroidectomy; in the immediate postoperative period the patient began with intense laryngeal stridor requiring an emergency tracheotomy. Physical examination revealed bilateral vocal cord paralysis and it was decided to begin rehabilitation treatment of the recurrent laryngeal nerve with laser therapy and HIVAMAT-200 as combined modalities. The results achieved with physiotherapy were satisfactory and the patient was quickly reintegrated into her family, school and social environment.


Subject(s)
Thyroidectomy , Tracheotomy , Vocal Cord Paralysis , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary
4.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 83(3): 244-248, 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1522100

ABSTRACT

La obesidad es un problema de salud que ha presentado un aumento preocupante en Chile y el mundo, en las últimas décadas. Esta condición se asocia a múltiples comorbi-lidades, entre ellas, afecciones respiratorias. La traqueostomía es un procedimiento quirúrgico que puede resultar desafiante en este tipo de pacientes, debido a las alteraciones que la obesidad genera en la anatomía cervical, asociándose a mayor morbimortalidad. Requiere una buena planificación preoperatoria. Se presenta el caso de un paciente con antecedente de súper-súper obesidad, con un índice de masa corporal de 78 kg m2, que requirió la realización de una traqueostomía quirúrgica. Se describe el manejo realizado, junto a las consideraciones especiales aplicadas al caso: se realizó lipectomía cervical, se utilizó instrumental quirúrgico de mayor longitud, suturas al plano subcutáneo para facilitar visualización intraoperatoria, suturas de la piel a la tráquea previo a la apertura de la vía aérea, uso de cánula de traqueostomía extra larga. El paciente presentó como complicación postoperatoria un granuloma periostomal que fue tratado y, finalmente, fue decanulado previo su alta hospitalaria. Se presenta una revisión en la literatura pertinente al caso.


Obesity is a health problem that has shown a worrisome increase in Chile and the world in recent decades. This condition is associated to multiple comorbidities, including respiratory disorders. A tracheostomy is a surgical procedure that can be challenging in this type of patient due to the variations that obesity generates in the cervical anatomy, which is associated to greater morbidity and mortality. Due to this, it requires good preoperative planning. We present the case of a male patient with a history of super-super obesity, with a body mass index (BMI) of 78 kg m2, who required surgical tracheostomy; the management is described with the special considerations applied to the case: cervical lipectomy was performed, longer surgical instruments were used, sutures to the subcutaneous plane were placed to facilitate intraoperative visualization, skin sutures to the trachea were placed prior to opening the airway, use of extra-large tracheostomy cannula (XL). The patient presented a peristomal granuloma as a postoperative complication which was treated, and he was decannulated prior to hospital discharge. A review of the literature relevant to the case is presented.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Tracheotomy/methods , Obesity, Morbid , Postoperative Complications , Tracheotomy/adverse effects
5.
Rev. am. med. respir ; 22(3): 195-195, set. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1407071

ABSTRACT

El trabajo original que publica en esta edición el equipo multidisciplinario del Hospital Fernández merece la siguiente reflexión: La pandemia por SARS-CoV-2 puso a nuestro sistema de salud ante un desafío inédito. La falta de previsión de las autoridades ante este evento que se extendió primero por el hemisferio norte se sumó a una infraestructura deteriorada e insuficiente. Frente a semejante reto, el personal de salud en su conjunto respondió con su capacidad de trabajo, intelectual y, en muchos casos, con su propia vida para poder salvar a la mayor cantidad posible de enfermos. Nunca será reconocido suficientemente este esfuerzo


Subject(s)
Tracheotomy , Deglutition Disorders , Laryngeal Diseases , Laryngeal Nerve Injuries
6.
Acta otorrinolaringol. cir. cuello (En línea) ; 50(2): 117-123, 20220000. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1382301

ABSTRACT

Introducción: existe aún una controversia sobre los efectos en los parámetros ventilatorios en pacientes sometidos a una traqueotomía, y los estudios en casos de pacientes con SARS-CoV-2 son escasos. Objetivo: describir los cambios en los parámetros ventilatorios en pacientes operados de traqueotomía por SARS-CoV-2 en la unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI). Métodos: se realizó un estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo y longitudinal en el que se incluyeron las variables como edad, sexo, comorbilidades, tiempo de intubación, parámetros ventilatorios, gasométricos y el índice de Kirby. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva con medidas de tendencia central y medidas de dispersión. Resultados: se recibieron 493 casos con COVID-19, 133 (26,35 %) ingresaron, 21 fueron operados en la UCI; el género masculino fue 76 % y edad de 56 años; la obesidad y la hipertensión fueron las comorbilidades más comunes, todos con PCR positivo; los parámetros ventilatorios preoperatorios fueron presión positiva al final de la espiración (PEEP) de 7,61 y fracción inspirada de oxígeno (FiO2) de 41,42, la gasometría fue pH de 7,42, presión parcial de oxígeno (pO2) de 95,04, presión parcial de dióxido de carbono (pCO2) de 41,47, bicarbonato (HCO3) de 29,14, saturación de oxígeno (SatO2) de 94,7 %, el índice de Kirby x = 235; y los posoperatorios (PEEP de 7,19 y FiO2 de 40,6), la gasometría fue de pH de 7.44, pO2 de 43,7, pCO2 de 87,7, HCO3 de 27,4, SatO2 de 95,23 %. Fallecieron tres pacientes, dos pacientes complicados con sangrado y un caso con decanulación accidental. El tiempo promedio de ventilación mecánica de fue de 5,7 días. Conclusiones: la traqueotomía generó cambios muy sutiles en los parámetros ventilatorios y gasométricos; sin embargo, la liberación de la ventilación mecánica fue en promedio menor a una semana, desocupando espacio en la UCI.


Introduction: Controversy continues to exist regarding the effects on ventilatory parameters in patients undergoing tracheostomy, and studies in cases with SARS-CoV-2 are scarce. Objective: To describe changes in ventilatory parameters in patients undergoing tracheostomy for SARS-CoV-2 in the intensive care unit. Methods: A retrospective, descriptive, longitudinal study was carried out. Variables such as age, sex, comorbidities, time of IOT, ventilatory parameters, blood gases and the Kirby index were included. Descriptive statistics with measures of central tendency and measures of dispersion were used. Results: n = 493 COVID-19 cases were received, n = 133 (26.35%) were admitted, 21 were operated on in the ICU, male gender was 76%, age 56 years, obesity and hypertension were the most common comorbidities, all With CRP +, the preoperative ventilatory parameters x (PEEP 7.61) and (FiO2 41.42), the blood gas was (pH 7.42), (pO2 95.04), (pCO2 41.47), ( HCO3 29.14), (Saturation O2 94.7%) and the Kirby index x = 235 and postoperative x (PEEP 7.19) and (FiO2 40.6), the blood gas was (pH 7.44), (pO2 43.7), (pCO2 87.7), (HCO3 27.4), (Saturation O2 95.23%). n = 3 died, two patients with bleeding complications and one case with accidental decannulation. The mean time of mechanical ventilation was n = 5.7 days. Conclusions: The tracheostomy generated very subtle changes in the ventilatory and gasometric parameters, however, the release of mechanical ventilation was on average less than one week, emptying space in the ICU.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tracheotomy , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Coronavirus Infections
7.
Rev. cienc. cuidad ; 19(2): 84-98, 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1373532

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Determinar las complicaciones detalladas de traqueotomías asociadas a intuba-ciones prolongadas en el adulto. Metodología: Revisión sistemática de los 5 años anteriores con base en los lineamientos PRISMA. Se recurrió a las bases de datos Scopus, Web of Sci-ence, Taylor and Francis y el Portal Regional de la Biblioteca Virtual en Salud. Además, se seleccionó la información a través de palabras clave, tales como: traqueotomía, intubación prolongada, UCI, adulto, complicaciones. Las publicaciones estaban en idioma español e inglés. La información se catalogó según criterios de inclusión y exclusión. Análisis: 24 artículos fueron elegidos. El momento de la traqueotomía (TQ) por intubación prolongada sigue siendo incierto. La TQ temprana demostró mayores beneficios que la TQ tardía. La TQ percutánea demostró menores tasas de estancia en la UCI y en los hospitales, con menos com-plicaciones. La hemorragia y la desaturación fueron complicaciones registradas asociadas a TQ tardía. Conclusión: La TQ percutánea fue la que se eligió en la mayoría de casos por ser eficaz, rápida y segura; además, disminuye la estancia hospitalaria y en la UCI, con menos complicaciones. Se debe precisar que en la mayoría de las publicaciones, al menos uno de estos beneficios no alcanzó significancia estadística. La complicación con mayor frecuencia fue la hemorragia en el sitio de punción


Objective: To determine the detailed complications of tracheotomies associated with pro-longed intubation in adults. Methodology: Systematic review of the previous 5 years based on PRISMA guidelines. The databases Scopus, Web of Science, Taylor and Francis and the Regional Portal of the Virtual Health Library were used to select information through key-words tracheotomy, prolonged intubation, ICU, adult, complications; the publications were in Spanish and English. The information was catalogued according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Analysis: 24 articles were selected. The timing of tracheostomy (TQ) for prolonged intubation remains uncertain. Early TQ showed greater benefits than late TQ. Percutane-ous TQ demonstrated lower rates of ICU stay, hospital stay, and complications. Hemorrhage and desaturation were mostly reported complications associated with late TQ. Conclusion: Percutaneous TQ was the TQ of choice in most cases because it is effective, fast and safe, decreases hospital stay, ICU and complication rate, most publications at least one of these benefits did not reach statistical significance. The most frequent complication was bleeding at the puncture site


Objetivo: Determinar as complicações detalhadas da traqueostomia associadas à entubação prolongada em adultos. Metodologia: Revisão sistemática dos 5 anos anteriores com base nas diretrizes do PRISMA. As bases de dados Scopus, Web of Science, Taylor e Francis e o Portal Regional da Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde foram usadas para selecionar informações usando palavras-chave traqueostomia, intubação prolongada, UTI, adulto, complicações; as publicações foram em espanhol e inglês. As informações foram catalogadas de acordo com critérios de inclusão e exclusão. Análise: 24 artigos foram selecionados. O momento da traqueostomia (TQ) para entubação prolongada permanece incerto. O TQ precoce demon-strou maior benefício do que o TQ tardio. A TQ percutânea demonstrou taxas mais baixas de internação na UTI, internação hospitalar e complicações. A hemorragia e a dessaturação foram as complicações mais comumente relatadas associadas à TQ tardia. Conclusão: O TQ percutâneo foi o TQ de escolha na maioria dos casos, pois é eficaz, rápido e seguro, diminui a permanência hospitalar, a UTI e a taxa de complicações, a maioria das publicações pelo menos um desses benefícios não alcançou significância estatística. A complicação mais fre-qüente era o sangramento no local da punção


Subject(s)
Tracheotomy , Respiration, Artificial , Adult , Intensive Care Units , Intubation
8.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): 279-284, agosto 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1281012

ABSTRACT

La decanulación es el proceso de retirar la cánula de traqueotomía de forma definitiva, una vez que la patología original que motivó la traqueotomía se haya resuelto o mejorado significativamente.La predicción del éxito de decanulación es difícil debido a la influencia de varios factores. No existe un protocolo universalmente aceptado. Existen diversos protocolos y la elección depende, en gran medida, de cada institución y de la situación individual de cada paciente. Sin embargo, para lograr la decanulación exitosa deben tenerse en cuenta varios criterios esenciales que deben cumplirse independientemente del protocolo elegido.Se señalan las características que debe reunir el paciente apto para la decanulación y se presentan recomendaciones sobre los pasos necesarios para lograr el retiro de la cánula de traqueotomía en el niño de manera segura y minimizando el riesgo de fracaso.


Decannulation is the process of removing the tracheotomy cannula permanently, once the original pathology that led to the tracheotomy has been resolved or significantly improved. The prediction of decannulation success is difficult due to the influence of several factors. There is no universally accepted decannulation protocol. There are several protocols and the choice depends, largely, on each institution and the individual situation of each patient. However, in order to achieve successful decannulation, several essential criteria must be taken into account, which must be fulfilled regardless of the chosen protocol.We indicate the characteristics that the patient must meet for decannulation, and we present recommendations on the necessary steps to achieve the removal of the tracheotomy cannula in a child safely and minimizing the risk of failure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Tracheotomy , Device Removal/methods , Pediatrics , Cannula
9.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 87(1): 74-79, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153589

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Upper airway obstruction, secondary to neoplasms presenting with stridor, is traditionally treated by tracheostomy. However, this common procedure can potentially have an impact on the long-term outcome, with tumor implantation into the tracheostomized wound leading to peristomal recurrence after laryngectomy, with the risk of stomal recurrence. Objective: To describe our clinical experience with tumor debulking as an alternative treatment choice of tracheotomy in patients with advanced larynx cancer at a tertiary referral center. Methods: A retrospective chart review of 87 subjects who had advanced larynx cancer (T3/4) with airway obstruction from our institutional database was conducted. Medical records including demographics, daily notes during hospitalization, and operative notes were used for clinical data of patients. The strategy for maintaining the airway patency was tracheotomy (emergency or awake) and tumor debulking (laser or coblation). Endophytic and exophytic laryngeal tumors were also noted. Results: In 41/87 (47.1%) patients, a tracheotomy was performed as an initial treatment (11 were emergency, 30 were planned) to maintain airway patency. Tumor debulking was performed in 28 exophytic and 18 endophytic lesions by laser or coblation (17 and 29 patients, respectively). Tracheotomy was performed in 5 patients (4 endophytic, 1 exophytic) who could not tolerate debulking surgery due to aspiration, edema and dyspnea. Three of the them who required subsequent tracheotomy was in the laser group and two in the coblation group. The success rate of laser debulking was 82.35% (14/17) and 93.1% (27/29) for coblation. Conclusion: Tumor debulking is a safe and effective method to avoid awake tracheotomy in patients suffering from airway obstruction due to advanced larynx cancer.


Resumo Introdução: A obstrução das vias aéreas superiores com estridor, secundária a neoplasias, é tradicionalmente tratada com traqueotomia. No entanto, este procedimento comum pode potencialmente ter um impacto sobre o desfecho a longo prazo, com a implantação do tumor na ferida cirúrgica da traqueotomia, o que leva à recorrência peristomal após laringectomia, com o risco de recorrência do estoma. Objetivo: Descrever nossa experiência clínica com a redução do volume tumoral como tratamento alternativo à traqueotomia em pacientes com câncer avançado de laringe em um centro de referência terciário. Método: Foi realizada uma revisão retrospectiva de prontuários de 87 indivíduos com câncer avançado de laringe (T3/T4) com obstrução das vias aéreas em nosso banco de dados institucional. Registros médicos incluindo dados demográficos, anotações diárias durante a hospitalização e anotações operacionais foram utilizados como dados clínicos dos pacientes. A estratégia para manter a patência das vias aéreas foi a traqueotomia (emergência ou em pacientes acordados) e redução do volume tumoral (por laser ou coblation). Tumores endofíticos e exofíticos da laringe também foram anotados. Resultados: Uma traqueotomia foi realizada como tratamento inicial em 41/87 (47,1%) pacientes (11 foram de emergência, 30 foram eletivas) para manter a patência das vias aéreas. A redução do volume tumoral foi realizada em 28 lesões exofíticas e 18 endofíticas por laser ou coblation (17 e 29 pacientes, respectivamente). A traqueotomia foi realizada em 5 pacientes (4 endofíticos, 1 exofítico) que não podiam tolerar a cirurgia de redução de volume devido à aspiração, edema e dispneia. Três deles que necessitaram de uma traqueotomia subsequente estavam no grupo de laser e dois no grupo coblation. A taxa de sucesso da redução tumoral foi de 82,35% (14/17) para o laser e 93,1% (27/29) para coblation. Conclusão: A redução do volume tumoral é um método seguro e eficaz para evitar a traqueotomia com paciente acordado, nos casos de obstrução das vias aéreas devido ao câncer de laringe avançado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Laryngeal Neoplasms/surgery , Laryngeal Neoplasms/complications , Airway Obstruction/surgery , Airway Obstruction/etiology , Tracheotomy , Tracheostomy , Retrospective Studies , Cytoreduction Surgical Procedures , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
10.
Acta otorrinolaringol. cir. cuello (En línea) ; 49(2): 112-120, 2021. TAB, ILUS, GRAF
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253865

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: actualmente los profesionales de la salud se enfrentan al manejo de las vías aéreas artificiales en grupos pediátricos, esto requiere de cuidados delicados y mucha atención para detectar, establecer y manejar situaciones apremiantes; por esta razón, existe un mayor riesgo de aparición de infecciones bacterianas traqueopulmonares. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar la caracterización de las infecciones en pacientes pediátricos portadores de cánula de traqueotomía en las diferentes publicaciones científicas. Materiales y métodos: se realizó una revisión sistemática mediante la búsqueda de la literatura existente entre los años 2015-2020 en las bases de datos Elsevier, PubMed, Google Académico y SciELO, teniendo en cuenta los criterios de inclusión artículos en idioma inglés, español y población de edad entre los 0-15 años con infección de cánula de traqueotomía en los años 2015-2020. Resultados: de 258 artículos distribuidos en las bases de datos, se seleccionaron 21 artículos que cumplían con los criterios de inclusión. Conclusiones: a pesar de que en la actualidad existan criterios clínicos, factores de riesgo y pruebas de laboratorio asociados a infecciones de la cánula postraqueotomía en pacientes pediátricos, se requiere mayor investigación para definir las guías clínicas de manejo en la toma de decisiones médicas. Asimismo, se consideró como limitación importante la cantidad de literatura existente con respecto al tema.


Abstract Introduction: Currently, health professionals face the management of artificial airways in pediatric groups, this requires delicate care and a lot of attention to detect, establish and manage pressing situations, which is why there is a greater risk of tracheo-pulmonary bacterial infections. The objective was to analyze the characterization of infections in pediatric patients with tracheostomy tubes in the different scientific publications. Method: A systematic review of the literature was carried out between the years 2015-2020 in Elsevier, PubMed, Google Academic and SciELO databases, taking into account the inclusion criteria of the population aged 0-15 years in the years 2015-2020. The amount of existing literature on the subject was considered an important limitation. Results: From 258 articles distributed in the databases, 21 articles were selected that met the inclusion criteria. Conclusions: Although there are currently clinical criteria, risk factors and laboratory tests associated with infections of the post-tracheotomy tube in pediatric patients, further research is required to define clinical guidelines for management in medical decision-making.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Bacterial Infections/etiology , Tracheitis/microbiology , Tracheotomy/adverse effects , Bronchitis/microbiology , Cannula/adverse effects , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Tracheitis/diagnosis , Tracheitis/drug therapy , Bronchitis/diagnosis , Bronchitis/drug therapy
11.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1349482

ABSTRACT

Los progresos en la ciencia y la tecnología en el ámbito de la salud y, en concreto, en la unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI) hospitalarios han incrementado la supervivencia en la población que demanda atención médica; no obstante, también han generado una población que requiere cuidados y manejos específicos, en su mayoría de manera multidisciplinaria, entre ellos, los pacientes que requieren de atención a traqueotomía. La necesidad de estandarizar el proceso de decanulación es una carencia no cubierta. En esta revisión narrativa exponemos algunos criterios, protocolos o guías vertidas por los autores consultados, sin que hasta el momento exista una guía estandarizada.


Progress in science and technology in the health field, and specifically in the hospital intensive care unit, has increased survival in the population that requires medical care; however, it has also generated a population that requires specific care and management, mostly in a multidisciplinary way, including patients who require attention to a tracheostomy. The need to standardize the decannulation process is an unmet deficiency. In this narrative review, we expose some criteria, protocols or guidelines issued by the authors consulted, so far there is no standardized guide.good surgical and clinical results in the vast majority of cases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cannula , Tracheotomy
12.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 972-976, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942558

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical diagnosis and treatment of congenital laryngotracheoesophageal cleft (LTEC) in children. Methods: The clinical data of 8 children (including 7 males and 1 female)with congenital laryngotracheoesophageal cleft from January 2016 to June 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. The median diagnosing age was 3.75 months (5 days to 12 months). According to the modified Benjamin Inglis classification proposed by Sandu in 2006,there were 3 cases of type Ⅱ, 3 cases of type Ⅲa, 1 case of type Ⅲb and 1 case of type Ⅳa. All children were followed up regularly. Results: Six patients were treated for recurrent bronchopneumonia and aspiration during feeding. The patients were first treated in the pneumology departmentt or intensive care unit. Six patients combined with other malformations. Endoscopic repair operations were performed in 6 cases (3 cases of type Ⅱ, 3 cases of type Ⅲ a), 1 case of LTEC was operated through cervical approach, and 1 case of type IVa LTEC associated with VACTERL was repaired under thoracoscope combined with suspension laryngoscope. Seven patients underwent tracheotomy before or during the repair operations. Gastrostomy was performed in 2 children. The operations were successfully performed in all cases. Three children with type Ⅱ LTEC recovered well and decannulated. One case of type Ⅲa was followed up for 5 months with occasionally choking while feeding. Two cases of type Ⅲa, 1 case of type Ⅲb and 1 case of type Ⅳa died due to severe reflux, tracheomalacia or respiratory failure. Conclusions: Congenital LTEC is a rare congenital malformation which is difficult to diagnose for the poor specificity of clinical manifestations. LTEC needs to be classified by endoscopy examination under general anesthesia. Severe cases of LTEC have poorer outcomes than the mild cases, and the perioperative managements need multi-disciplinary cooperation to reduce the mortality.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Larynx/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Trachea , Tracheostomy , Tracheotomy
13.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 356-362, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942441

ABSTRACT

Objective: To discuss the complications and postoperative outcomes of tracheotomy with different etiology in children. Methods: One hundred and eighty-six patients underwent tracheotomy were retrospectively analyzed from January 2016 to December 2018,including 117 males and 69 females. The children aged from 4 days to 14 years (median age 31.5months). One case was operated under local anesthesia in emergency room, 2 cases were operated under local anesthesia in pediatric intensive care unit, the rest 183 cases were operated under general anesthesia in operation room. The 186 children were divided into four groups according to their direct causes of tracheotomy. Group A(90 cases): Neuromuscular disease and severe infection,Group B(26 cases): Head and neck tumor,Group C(57 cases): Congenital malformation and upper airway obstruction,Group D(13 cases): Accidental injury. The basic information, surgical complications and postoperative outcomes were recorded and analyzed. All patients were followed up by clinic or by telephone. Spss 19.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: One hundred and eighty-six patients were followed up for one to four years. 33 children lost the follow-up and 46 died. Among the 186 patients, 23 cases had emergency tracheotomy (12.4%). The rate of emergency tracheotomy in group C(16 cases, 28.1%) was higher than that in the other three groups(χ2=28.08,P<0.05). The average age of patients and hospital stay in group C were significantly lower than those in the other three groups (F=33.76,P<0.05; F=14.95,P<0.05). Incision bleeding occurred in 11 cases, Subcutaneous emphysema occurred in 6 cases and accidental decannulation occurred in 10 cases (4 cases within 2 weeks and 6 after 2 weeks). Six patients underwent tracheocutaneous fistula closure operation after decannulation and the stoma healed spontaneously in other extubated children. Two patients underwent secondary tracheotomy due to accidental decannulation, and three patients underwent secondary tracheotomy for dyspnea after decannulation. In 107 cases of survival children, decannulation was successful in 65 patients and failed in 42 patients. The average duration of wearing tracheal tube was 8.8 months. The decannulation rates in the four groups were 55.6%, 45%, 69% and 77.8%, with no significant difference. Conclusions: The complications after tracheotomy in children are rare, and no severe complications occurred in long-term tracheotomy patients. The duration of wearing tracheal tube is related to the treatment of their primary disease.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Anesthesia, General , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Tracheostomy , Tracheotomy/adverse effects
14.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 1-7, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812995

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the effect of icariin (ICA) on early β-defensin-2 and T cell subsets in rats after tracheotomy.@*METHODS@#A total of 54 SPF male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a normal control group (group A), a model group (group B), and a model+ICA treatment group (group C), with 18 rats in each group. A tracheotomy intubation model of the B and C group was prepared. After 6 h of surgery, ICA intervention was given to group C. Groups A and B were given the same amount of normal saline. Lung tissue, alveolar lavage fluid and peripheral blood were taken at 24 h, 72 h and 168 h, respectively. The expression of rat β-defensin-2 mRNA in lung tissue was detected by RT-PCR. The content of β-defensin-2 in alveolar lavage fluid and peripheral blood serum was detected by ELISA. The content of peripheral blood T cell subsets (CD3, CD4, CD8) was detected by flow cytometry, and the ratio of CD4/CD8 was calculated.@*RESULTS@#After tracheotomy, the levels of β-defensin-2 mRNA and β-defensin-2 in lung tissue from the group B were increased significantly at 24 h, then they were decreased gradually, and decreased most significantly at 168 h (0.05). The level of CD3 T cells in peripheral blood was significantly lower than that in the group A (0.05). After ICA intervention in group C: lung tissue, alveolar lavage fluid, peripheral blood serum β-defensin-2 content, and peripheral blood CD3 and CD4 T cell levels were gradually increased, significantly higher than those in the group B (<0.05). CD8 T cell level was significantly lower than that in the group A at 24 h (<0.05), the CD4/CD8 ratio was significantly higher at 168 h than those in the group A or B (both <0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#ICA can improve the early lung immune function in rats with tracheotomy, which might be related to up-regulation of β-defensin-2 in lung tissue and alveolar lavage fluid, concomitant with increases in CD3 and CD4 T cells and CD4/CD8 ratio in peripheral blood while reduction in CD8 cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Flavonoids , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , Tracheotomy , beta-Defensins
15.
Philippine Journal of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; : 32-36, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876441

ABSTRACT

@#Objective: This study aims to investigate which, if any head and neck symptoms (trismus, dysphagia, alterations in speech or facial movements, and dyspnea) might be good predictors of outcomes (mortality, tracheostomy, discharged, decannulated) and prognosis of tetanus patients. Methods: Design: Retrospective Cohort Study Setting: Tertiary National University Hospital Patients: Seventy-three (73) pediatric and adult patients diagnosed with tetanus and admitted at the emergency room of the Philippine General Hospital between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2017. Demographic characteristics, incubation periods, periods of onset, routes of entry, head and neck symptoms, stage, and outcomes were retrieved from medical records and analyzed. Results: Of the 73 patients included, 53 (73%) were adults, while the remaining 20 (27%) were pediatric. The three most common head and neck symptoms were trismus (48; 66%), neck pain/ rigidity (35; 48%), and dysphagia to solids (31; 42%). Results of multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only trismus (OR = 3.742, p = .015) and neck pain/ rigidity (OR = 4.135, p = .015) were significant predictors of decannulation. No dependent variable/symptoms had a significant effect in predicting discharge and mortality. Conclusion: Clinically diagnosed tetanus can be easily recognized and immediately treated. Most of the early complaints are head and neck symptoms that can help in early diagnosis and treatment resulting in better prognosis. In particular, trismus and neck pain/rigidity may predict the outcome of decannulation after early tracheotomy, but not of discharge and mortality.


Subject(s)
Tracheotomy , Tetanus , Trismus , Neck Pain , Muscle Rigidity
16.
Rev. Hosp. El Cruce ; (25): 28-34, Dic 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1047122

ABSTRACT

Paciente con secuela neurológica severa es dado de alta al domicilio, siendo dependiente total para AVD (Actividades de la Vida Diaria), traqueostomizado y sin posibilidad de comenzar con rehabilitación psicofísica por su contexto socioeconómico. OBJETIVO: El objetivo, es mostrar como la implementación de un programa vía Telemedicina, puede ser efectivo en pacientes seleccionados, cuando el contexto socioeconómico limita la posibilidad de continuar con su correspondiente rehabilitación. METODOLOGÍA: En consenso interdisciplinario, se creó un programa de seguimiento, evaluación y tratamiento vía Telemedicina, donde se programó un encuentro semanal, de manera virtual de 30-40 minutos durante 3 meses hasta cumplir el objetivo de decanular. RESULTADOS: Mediante este programa se logró capacitar e instruir a la familia para cuidado y el manejo domiciliario, y se logró el seguimiento sin eventos adversos. CONCLUSIONES: El programa de telekinesiología parece cumplir con el objetivo de acercar el hospital y la atención kinésica a pacientes seleccionados y a su familia, brindando una solución para la pronta rehabilitación.


Patient with a severe neurological sequela is discharged home, being totally dependent on DLA (Daily Life Activities), tracheostomized and unable to start with psychophysical rehabilitation due to its socioeconomic context. OBJECTIVE: The objective is to show how the implementation of a program via Telemedicine can be effective in selected patients, when patient´s recovery is limited due to its socioeconomic context. METHODS: By interdisciplinary consensus, a evaluation, monitorization and treatment program was created, and patient was followed-up via Telemedicine. We scheduled a virtual meeting weekly 30-40 min. for the time of 3 months to achieve the goal of decannulation. RESULTS: Through this program, the family was trained and instructed for home care and patient management, and follow-up was achieved without adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: The Telekinesiology program seems to accomplish the objective of bringing the hospital and physiotherapist care to selected patients and their family, providing a solution for prompt rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
Tracheotomy , Telemedicine , Kinesiology, Applied
17.
Philippine Journal of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; : 16-19, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-961069

ABSTRACT

@#<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To determine if there is a difference in the duration of mechanical ventilation and hospitalization between patients who underwent early compared to late tracheostomy.</p><p><strong>METHODS:</strong></p><p><strong>Design:    </strong>            Causal-Comparative (ex post facto) Chart Review</p><p><strong>Setting:    </strong>            Tertiary National University Hospital</p><p><strong>Participants:       </strong>            Records of 68 pediatric patients who underwent elective tracheostomy from January 1, 2013 to June 30, 2018 were considered for inclusion. Patients were excluded if invasive mechanical ventilation was not done prior to tracheostomy, if they underwent emergency tracheostomy or had incomplete records. Selected patients were categorized in the early tracheostomy group if the procedure was performed within 14 days of mechanical ventilation and late tracheostomy group if performed beyond 14 days. Early post-tracheostomy weaning from mechanical ventilation was defined as less than 7 days from time of tracheostomy.</p><p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> A total of 21 patients were included, 6 in the early tracheostomy group and 15 in the late tracheostomy group. Although early tracheostomy did not show significant association with shortened post-tracheostomy duration of mechanical ventilation (O.R. 6; C.I. 0.276 to 130.322; p = .476), two-sample t-tests showed the early tracheostomy group had a significantly shorter mean duration of mechanical ventilation and hospitalization compared to the late tracheostomy group (13.17 vs. 54.13 days, p = .0012; 21.17 vs. 66.67 days, p = .0032).</p><p><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong> Although early tracheostomy does not shorten post-tracheostomy mechanical ventilation support, there is a significant difference in the duration of mechanical ventilation and hospitalization between early and late tracheostomy groups and this may suggest potential benefits of performing tracheostomy earlier in children.</p><p> </p><p><strong>KEYWORDS:</strong> tracheotomy; pediatric; mechanical ventilation; hospitalization</p>


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tracheotomy , Ventilation , Hospitalization
18.
Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine ; (4): 173-176, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785600

ABSTRACT

Emergency physicians in the field are sometimes confronted with cases wherein patients cannot be intubated and ventilated. In some cases, cricothyrotomy, the method of choice for securing an emergency airway, may not have a successful outcome. We report a rare case of a 35-year-old male patient with avulsion of the larynx and a comminuted fracture of the jawbone, due to entrapment in a dung excavator. Prehospital tracheotomy was successfully performed. In cases with crush injuries to the larynx, anatomic structures, including the ligamentum conicum, are destroyed. In addition, massive subcutaneous emphysema blurs the anatomical key structures; hence, only a tracheotomy can prevent a lethal outcome.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Emergencies , Emergency Medical Services , Fractures, Cartilage , Fractures, Comminuted , Larynx , Methods , Subcutaneous Emphysema , Tracheotomy
19.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 1-5, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772339

ABSTRACT

Currently, enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) has been widely accepted by surgery and anesthesiology all over the world, and applied in colorectal surgery, gynecology, liver surgery, breast surgery, urology and spinal surgery. But ERAS are rarely used in the field of interventional bronchoscopy. In recent years, more and more researchers have begun to explore the application of ERAS in bronchoscopic interventional therapy. This article discussed that preoperative preparation, anesthesia, intraoperative operation, postoperative observation and other aspects can influence interventional bronchoscopy.
.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anesthesia , Methods , Bronchoscopy , Methods , Length of Stay , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Perioperative Care , Methods , Recovery of Function , Tracheal Neoplasms , General Surgery , Tracheotomy , Methods
20.
Anon.
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 59(1): 73-74, 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-972867

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Analizar las complicaciones a largo plazo de los pacientes críticos que requirieron traqueotomía percutánea (TP) con el método de dilatación con balón. DISEÑO: Estudio observacional, prospectivo, de cohorte. ÁMBITO: Dos unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI) polivalentes. PACIENTES: Adultos ventilados mecánicamente ingresados en UCI con indicación de TP. INTERVENCIÓN: En todos los pacientes se realizó TP mediante Ciaglia Blue Dolphin® con guía endoscópica. Los pacientes decanulados vivos fueron evaluados clínicamente, así como mediante laringotraqueoscopia y tomografía axial computarizada cervical al cabo de al menos 6 meses tras la decanulación. VARIABLES: Complicaciones intraoperatorias, postoperatorias y tardías. Mortalidad intra-UCI y hospitalaria. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 114 pacientes. Las complicaciones intraoperatorias más frecuentes fueron la hemorragia leve (n=20) y la dificultad para insertar la cánula (n=19). Dos pacientes tuvieron complicaciones intraoperatorias graves (1,7 por ciento) (Hemorragia e imposibilidad de finalización de la técnica, en un caso, y falsa vía y desaturación, en otro). Todos los pacientes decanulados vivos (n=52) fueron revisados a los 221 ±28 días tras la decanulación. Ningún paciente presentaba síntomas. La tomografía axial computarizada y la laringotraqueoscopia mostraron estenosis traqueal severa (>50 por ciento) en 2 pacientes (3,7 por ciento), ambos con periodos de canulación superiores a 100 días. CONCLUSIONES: La TP usando la técnica Ciaglia Blue Dolphin® con guía endoscópica es un procedimiento seguro. La estenosis traqueal grave es una complicación tardía que, aunque infrecuente, debe ser tenida en cuenta por su falta de expresividad clínica. Debería considerarse la evaluación de aquellos pacientes críticos que han sido traqueotomizados y han permanecido canulados durante periodos prolongados de tiempo.


Subject(s)
Postoperative Complications , Tracheotomy
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