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1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(3): 631-638, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278371

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to determine changes on intraocular pressure (IOP) and pupil diameter (PD) in healthy cats anesthetized with isoflurane, and premedicated with acepromazine alone or in combination with tramadol. Thirty cats were allocated in two groups (n=15/each) and were treated with acepromazine (AG) or acepromazine/tramadol (ATG). PD and IOP were assessed before and following 30 (PM1), and 40 minutes (PM2) of treatments. Anesthesia was induced with propofol, and IOP and DP were recorded (A10) at 10 minute intervals until the end of anesthesia (A40). IOP decreased in AG and ATG, when comparing baseline with PM1. IOP decreased only in AG, in comparisons between baseline and PM2. During anesthesia, IOP did not change within and between groups. Comparisons between baseline with those recorded at PM1 and 2 showed that PD increased in the ATG. During anesthesia, PD decreased significantly in AG and ATG. Both protocols maintained the IOP within the reference range to perform corneal or intraocular surgery in healthy cats but did not sustain pre-anesthetic pupil dilation observed in ATG.(AU)


O objetivo do presente artigo é determinar possíveis alterações na pressão intraocular (PIO) e no diâmetro pupilar (DP) em gatos saudáveis anestesiados com isoflurano e pré-medicados com acepromazina isolada ou em combinação com acepromazina/tramadol. Trinta gatos saudáveis foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos (n=15/cada) e tratados com acepromazina (GA) ou acepromazina/tramadol (GAT). DP e PIO foram avaliadas antes (basal) e após 30 (PM1) e 40 minutos (PM2) dos tratamentos. A anestesia foi induzida com propofol, e a PIO e o DP foram registrados (A10) a cada 10 minutos até o final da anestesia com isoflurano (A40). Ao se compararem os valores obtidos no basal com PM1, a PIO diminuiu em GA e GAT; com PM2, a PIO reduziu apenas no GA. Durante a anestesia, a PIO não diferiu dentro e entre os grupos. Comparações entre os valores basais e os registrados em PM1 e em PM2 mostraram que a DP aumentou significativamente no GAT. Durante a anestesia, o DP diminuiu significativamente em GA e GAT. Ambos os protocolos mantêm a PIO dentro dos valores de referência para realizar cirurgias corneanas ou intraoculares em gatos saudáveis, mas não sustentam a dilatação pupilar pré-anestésica observada em GAT.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Tramadol/administration & dosage , Mydriasis/veterinary , Pupil/drug effects , Intraocular Pressure , Isoflurane/adverse effects , Acepromazine/administration & dosage , Tonometry, Ocular/veterinary , Anesthetics, General/administration & dosage
2.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(6): 613-619, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155774

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives There are no consensus of the ideal technique to provide analgesia in knee ligament reconstructions. The aim of this study was to compare the intensity of postoperative pain in these patients under different modalities of analgesia. Method Randomized and controlled clinical trial of patients undergoing reconstruction of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) with flexor tendons between December 2013 and 2014. All patients underwent spinal anesthesia and rescue analgesia with tramadol. The groups C, M, R0,375 and R0,25 was compared with only the previously described technique, subarachnoid morphine (100░µg), or Femoral Nerve Block (BNF) with 25░mL of 0.375% ropivacaine and 0.25%, respectively. Pain intensity at 6, 12 and 24░hours, age, sex, rescue analgesia, adverse reactions and satisfaction were evaluated. Results Among the 83 eligible patients, a predominance of males (85.7%) was observed, between 28 and 31 years. The group C requested more opioid (27.3%) than the other groups, without significance when compared. There were no significant differences in pain intensity at 6, 12 and 24░hours. There was a higher incidence of urinary retention in the M group (23.8%) than in the R0,375 (0%) and prolonged quadriceps motor block in the R0,375 group (30%) than in the M and C groups (0%), with statistical significance (p░<░0.05). Conclusion There was no difference in the intensity of postoperative pain in patients submitted to ACL reconstruction with flexor tendons under the analgesic modalities evaluated, despite the predominance of urinary retention in the M group and motor block in the R0,375 group.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos Não há consenso sobre qual é a técnica ideal para prover analgesia em reconstruções ligamentares de joelho. Objetivou‐se comparar a intensidade da dor pós‐operatória desses pacientes sob diferentes modalidades de analgesia. Método Ensaio clínico randomizado e controlado de pacientes submetidos à reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior com tendões flexores entre dezembro de 2013 e 2014. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a raquianestesia e analgesia de resgate com tramadol. Compararam‐se os grupos C, M, R0,375 e R0,25; aos quais se ofertou apenas a técnica anteriormente descrita, morfina subaracnóidea (100 µg) ou bloqueio de nervo femoral com 25 mL de ropivacaína 0,375% e 0,25%, respectivamente. Avaliou‐se intensidade da dor em 6, 12 e 24 horas, idade, sexo, analgesia de resgate, reações adversas e satisfação. Resultados Entre os 83 pacientes elegíveis, observou‐se predomínio do sexo masculino (85,7%) entre 28 e 31 anos. O Grupo C solicitou mais opioide (27,3%) do que os demais grupos, sem significância quando comparados. Não houve diferenças significativas na intensidade da dor em 6, 12 e 24 horas. Houve maior incidência de retenção urinária no Grupo M (23,8%) do que no R0,375 (0%) e de bloqueio motor prolongado do quadríceps no Grupo R0,375 (30%) do que nos Grupos M e C (0%), com significância estatística (p< 0,05). Conclusão Não houve diferença na intensidade da dor pós‐operatória nos pacientes submetidos à reconstrução de ligamento cruzado anterior com tendões flexores sob as modalidades analgésicas avaliadas, apesar do predomínio de retenção urinária no Grupo M e bloqueio motor no Grupo R0,375.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Femoral Nerve , Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Anesthesia, Spinal/methods , Morphine/administration & dosage , Nerve Block/methods , Time Factors , Tramadol/administration & dosage , Pain Measurement , Urinary Retention/chemically induced , Quadriceps Muscle/drug effects , Acute Pain/drug therapy , Ropivacaine/administration & dosage , Analgesia/methods , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(6): 1901-1908, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1055148

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se comparar os efeitos fisiológicos, analgésicos e sobre a taxa de infusão de propofol, decorrentes da anestesia epidural com lidocaína, associada ao tramadol ou à dexmedetomidina, em felinas submetidas à ovariosalpingohisterectomia (OSH). Para tal, 16 felinas hígidas foram pré-tratadas com acepromazina 0,08mg/kg/IM, utilizando-se propofol para a indução (dose-efeito) e manutenção anestésicas. Após indução, as gatas foram aleatoriamente distribuídas em dois grupos (n=8), designados: grupo lidocaína-tramadol (GLT), tratado com lidocaína (3,0mg/kg) associada ao tramadol (2,0mg/kg); e grupo lidocaína-dexmedetomidina (GLD), tratado com lidocaína (3,0mg/kg) associada à dexmedetomidina (2µg/kg), pela via epidural. Durante a OSH, a infusão de propofol foi aumentada ou reduzida, objetivando-se manutenção de plano anestésico cirúrgico. Foram avaliados os parâmetros: f, FC, SPO2, EtCO2, PAS, PAD, PAM, T°C, nos períodos pré (M1) e transoperatórios (M2 a M7); a taxa mínima de propofol necessária; o tempo de recuperação anestésica e a qualidade da analgesia pós-cirúrgica durante seis horas. Ambos os tratamentos garantiram baixas taxas mínimas de infusão de propofol, todavia o uso da dexmedetomidina resultou em bradicardia inicial, elevação da pressão arterial, maior tempo de recuperação e menor qualidade analgésica, quando comparada ao tramadol.(AU)


The aim of this study was to compare the physiological and analgesic effects and the minimum infusion rate of propofol of epidural anesthesia with lidocaine associated to tramadol or dexmedetomidine, in cats undergoing ovariosalpingohysterectomy (OSH). For this purpose, 16 healthy cats were pretreated with acepromazine (0.08mg kg -1 IM) and propofol was used for induction (dose-effect) and maintenance of anesthesia. After induction, the cats were assigned in two randomized groups (n= 8), named: Lidocaine-tramadol group (LTG), treated with lidocaine (3mg kg -1 ) associated to tramadol (2mg kg -1 ) and Lidocaine-dexmedetomidine group (LDG), treated with lidocaine (3mg kg -1 ) associated to dexmedetomidine (2g kg -1 ), by epidural route. During OSH, propofol infusion was increased or decreased, setting to maintain surgical anesthetic depth. The parameters f, HR, SPO 2 , EtCO 2 , SAP, DAP, MAP, T°C in the pre (M1) and trans-operative periods (M2 to M7); minimum infusion rate of propofol; time of anesthetic recovery and quality of postoperative analgesia during six-hour interval, were evaluated. Both protocols provided low minimum infusion rate of propofol. However, dexmedetomidine resulted in initial bradycardia, elevated blood pressure, longer recovery time, and lower analgesic quality when compared to tramadol.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cats , Tramadol/administration & dosage , Dexmedetomidine/administration & dosage , Anesthesia, Epidural/veterinary , Lidocaine/administration & dosage , Ovariectomy/veterinary , Propofol/administration & dosage , Salpingectomy/veterinary , Hysterectomy/veterinary
4.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(6): 561-568, nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057475

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: The primary aim of this study is to assess the effect of ultrasoung-guided erector spinae block on postoperative opioid consumption after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The secondary aims are to assess the effects of erector spinae plane block on intraoperative fentanyl need and postoperative pain scores. Methods: Patients between 18-70 years old, ASA I-II were included in the study and randomly allocated into two groups. In Group ESP, patients received bilateral US-ESP with 40 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine at the level of T7, while in Group Control, they received bilateral US-ESP with 40 ml of saline before the induction of anesthesia. Then a standard general anesthesia procedure was conducted in both groups. NRS scores at the postoperative 15th, 30th, 60th minutes, 12th and 24th hours, intraoperative fentanyl need and total postoperative tramadol consumption were recorded. Results: There were 21 patients in Group ESP and 20 patients in Group Control. Mean postoperative tramadol consumption was 100 ± 19.2 mg in Group ESP, while it was 143 ± 18.6 mg in Group Control (p < 0.001). The mean intraoperative fentanyl need was significantly lower in Group ESP (p = 0.022). NRS scores at the postoperative 15th, 30th min, 12th hour and 24th hour were significantly lower in ESP group (p < 0.05). According to repeated measures analysis, NRS score variation over time was significantly varied between two groups (F[1, 39] = 24.061, p < 0.0005). Conclusions: Bilateral US-ESP block provided significant reduction in postoperative opioid consumption, intraoperative fentanyl need and postoperative pain scores of patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: O objetivo primário deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito do bloqueio do plano do músculo eretor da espinha guiado por ultrassom (US-ESP) sobre o consumo de opioides no pós-operatório após colecistectomia laparoscópica. Os objetivos secundários foram avaliar os efeitos do bloqueio do plano eretor da espinha sobre a necessidade de fentanil no intraoperatório e nos escores de dor pós-operatória. Métodos: Pacientes entre 18 e 70 anos, ASA I-II, foram incluídos no estudo e alocados randomicamente em dois grupos. No Grupo ESP, os pacientes receberam o bloqueio bilateral US-ESP com 40 mL de bupivacaína a 0,25% no nível de T7, enquanto no Grupo Controle os pacientes receberam o bloqueio bilateral US-ESP com 40 mL de solução salina antes da indução da anestesia. Em seguida, um procedimento-padrão de anestesia geral foi feito em ambos os grupos. Os escores da NRS aos 15, 30 e 60 minutos e em 12 e 24 horas de pós-operatório, a necessidade de fentanil no intraoperatório e o consumo total de tramadol no pós-operatório foram registrados. Resultados: O grupo ESP foi constituído por 21 pacientes e o Grupo Controle por 20. O consumo médio de tramadol no pós-operatório foi de 100 ± 19,2 mg no Grupo ESP e de 143 ± 18,6 mg no grupo controle (p < 0,001). A necessidade média de fentanil no intraoperatório foi significativamente menor no grupo ESP (p = 0,022). Os escores da NRS aos 15, 30 e 60 minutos e em 12 e 24 horas de pós-operatório foram significativamente menores no grupo ESP (p < 0,05). De acordo com a análise de medidas repetidas, a variação do escore NRS ao longo do tempo foi estatisticamente significativa entre dois grupos (F [1,39] = 24,061, p < 0,0005). Conclusões: O bloqueio bilateral US-ESP reduziu de forma significativa o consumo de opioides no pós-operatório, a necessidade de fentanil no intraoperatório e os escores de dor no pós-operatório dos pacientes submetidos à colecistectomia laparoscópica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic/methods , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Nerve Block/methods , Time Factors , Tramadol/administration & dosage , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Fentanyl/administration & dosage , Double-Blind Method , Ultrasonography, Interventional , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Middle Aged
5.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1558-1564, set.-out. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038680

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to assess the effects of chemical restraint, general anesthesia and opioid treatment on hematological components in Cuniculus paca. Eight healthy, adult, captivity female animals , underwent three laparoscopic procedures with a 15-day interval were evaluated. After physical restraint, an association of ketamine (25mg/kg) and midazolam (0.5mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly for chemical restraint. Posteriorly, anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane; and randomly administered methadone (0.5mg/kg), tramadol (5mg/kg) or saline-placebo (0,1mL/kg) intramuscularly. After pharmacological restraint and in the final laparoscopy stage, venous blood samples were obtained for complete blood count, total plasma protein (TP), creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), sodium, potassium, chloride and ionized calcium analysis. During general anesthesia, hemoglobin, TP concentration and lymphocytes decreased (P=0.029; <0.001; 0.022 respectively), whereas the potassium levels increased (P=0.034). In conclusion, chemical restraint with ketamine/midazolam association causes a slight decrease in blood cellular components. Isoflurane anesthesia for laparoscopic procedure lead to decrease in hemoglobin, lymphocytes and protein concentrations, while potassium increased, without any influence from the tramadol or methadone treatment. However, these alterations were transient, and its hematologic values can collaborate in carrying out epidemiological, pathophysiological or case studies in the Cuniculus paca.(AU)


O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de contenção química, anestesia geral e tratamento com opiáceos nos parâmetros hematológicos em Cuniculus paca. Foram avaliados oito animais saudáveis, fêmeas, adultas, de cativeiro, que foram submetidas a três procedimentos laparoscópicos, com intervalo de 15 dias. Após a contenção física, uma associação de cetamina (25mg/kg) e midazolam (0,5mg/kg) foi administrada por via intramuscular para contenção química. Posteriormente, a anestesia foi induzida e mantida com isoflurano, e administrou-se aleatoriamente metadona (0,5mg/kg), tramadol (5mg/kg) ou placebo salina por via intramuscular. Após a contenção farmacológica e em estágio final da laparoscopia, foram obtidas amostras de sangue venoso para contagem sanguínea completa, proteína de plasma total (TP), creatinina, alanina aminotransferase (ALT), cálcio, sódio, potássio e cloreto ionizado. Durante a anestesia geral, a concentração de hemoglobina, TP e linfócitos diminuiu (P= 0,029;< 0,001; 0,022, respectivamente), enquanto os níveis de potássio aumentaram (P= 0,034). Em conclusão, a contenção química com associação de cetamina/midazolam promove uma ligeira diminuição dos componentes celulares do sangue. A anestesia com isoflavano para o procedimento laparoscópico levou a uma diminuição das concentrações de hemoglobina, linfócitos e proteínas, enquanto o potássio aumentou, sem qualquer influência do tratamento com tramadol ou metadona. No entanto, essas alterações foram transitórias, e os seus valores hematológicos obtidos podem colaborar na realização de estudos epidemiológicos, fisiopatológicos ou casuísticas para Cuniculus paca.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cuniculidae/surgery , Cuniculidae/blood , Anesthesia/veterinary , Anesthetics/blood , Tramadol/administration & dosage , Midazolam/administration & dosage , Isoflurane/administration & dosage , Ketamine/administration & dosage , Methadone/administration & dosage
6.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(3): 307-310, May-June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013412

ABSTRACT

Abstract Augmentation mammoplasty is the third most frequently performed esthetic surgical procedure worldwide. Breast augmentation with prosthetic implants requires the insertion of an implant under breast tissue, which causes severe pain due to tissue extension and surgical trauma to separated tissues. In this case series, we present the successful pain management of six patients with ultrasound-guided Erector Spinae Plane block after augmentation mammoplasty. In the operating room, all patients received standard monitoring. While the patients were sitting, the anesthesiologist performed bilateral ultrasound-guided erector spinae plane block at the level of T5. Bupivacaine (0.25%, 20 mL) was injected deep to the erector spinae muscle. Then, induction of anesthesia was performed with propofol, fentanyl, and rocuronium bromide. All patients received intravenous dexketoprofen trometamol for analgesia. The mean operation time was 72.5±6 min and none of the patients received additional fentanyl. The mean pain scores of the patients were 1, 2, 2, and 2 at the postoperative 5th, 30th, 60th and 120th minutes, respectively. At the postoperative 24th hour, the mean Numerical Rating Scale score was 1. The mean intravenous tramadol consumption was 70.8±15.3 mg in the first 24 h. None of the patients had any complications related to erector spinae plane block.


Resumo A mamoplastia de aumento é o terceiro procedimento cirúrgico estético mais feito em todo o mundo. A cirurgia com implantes protéticos requer a inserção de um implante sob o tecido mamário, o que causa dor intensa devido à extensão do tecido e trauma cirúrgico aos tecidos separados. Nesta série de casos, apresentamos o manejo bem-sucedido da dor em seis pacientes com bloqueio do plano eretor da espinha guiado por ultrassom (US-ESP) após mamoplastia de aumento. Na sala de cirurgia, todas as pacientes receberam monitoramento padrão. Enquanto as pacientes estavam sentadas, o anestesiologista fez o bloqueio US-ESP bilateral no nível de T5. Bupivacaína (0,25%, 20 mL) foi injetada entre os músculos romboide maior e eretor da espinha. Em seguida, a indução anestésica foi feita com propofol, fentanil e rocurônio. Todas as pacientes receberam dexcetoprofeno trometamol por via venosa para analgesia. O tempo médio de operação foi de 72,5 ± 6 minutos e nenhuma das pacientes recebeu fentanil adicional. Os escores médios de dor das pacientes foram 1, 2, 2 e 2 no 5°, 30°, 60° e 120° minutos de pós-operatório, respectivamente. No 24° dia de pós-operatório, o escore médio da Escala de Avaliação Numérica (NRS) foi 1. O consumo médio de tramadol foi de 40 ± 33,4 mg nas primeiras 24 horas. Nenhuma das pacientes apresentou complicações relacionadas ao bloqueio US-ESP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Breast Implantation/methods , Nerve Block/methods , Tramadol/administration & dosage , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , Paraspinal Muscles , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage
7.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(2): 262-269, Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990342

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY INTRODUCTION: Opioids interact with both innate and adaptive immune systems and have direct effects on opioid receptors located on immune cells. Research on this topic has provided evidence of the opioid influence on the immune response associated with surgical stress. The immunological effects of opioids are currently being investigated, particularly whether they influence the outcome of surgery or the underlying disease regarding important aspects like infection or cancer progression. This review addresses background research related to the influence of the opioid receptor on the immune system, the immunosuppressive effect associated with major opioids during the perioperative period, and their clinical relevance. The objective of the study was to review the effects of opioids on the immune system. Methods: A search strategy was conducted in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane databases using the terms "immunosuppression," "immune system," "surgical procedures," "analgesics," "opioids" and "perioperative care." Results: The immunosuppressive effect of opioids was identified over 30 years ago. They include signaling and acting directly through immune cells, including B and T lymphocytes, NK cells, monocytes, and macrophages, as well as activating the downstream pathways of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis leading to the production of immunosuppressive glucocorticoids in the peripheral and sympathetic nervous system.


RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO: Os opioides interagem com ambos os sistemas imunes, inato e adaptativo, através de efeitos diretos sobre os receptores dos opioides localizados nas células imunes. As pesquisas neste assunto têm fornecido evidência da influência dos opioides sobre a resposta imune associada ao estresse cirúrgico. Os efeitos imunológicos dos opioides estão sendo pesquisados na atualidade, principalmente se eles determinam o resultado da cirurgia ou doença consequente devido a fatos importantes como infecção ou progressão do câncer. Essa revisão tem como alvo ver antecedentes em pesquisa relativa à influência dos receptores dos opioides no sistema imunológico, o efeito imunossupressor associado com opioides maiores durante o período peri-operatório e sua importância clínica. O objectivo da pesquisa foi revisar os efeitos dos opioides no sistema imunológico. MÉTODOS: Uma estrategia de procura foi dirigida na mídia PubMed, e no cadastro de Embase e The Cochrane, usando os termos "imunosuppressão", "sistema imunológico", "procedimentos cirúrgicos", "analgésicos", "opioides" e "cuidado peri-operatório". RESULTADOS: O efeito imunosuppressor dos opioides foi identificado há mais de 30 anos. Os efeitos imunosupressores incluem sinalização e ação diretamente através das células imunes, mesmo com os linfócitos B e T, células NK, monócitos e macrófagos, também como ativando as vias de corrente do eixo hipotálamo- hipófise- adrenal (HPA) levando à produção de glucocorticoides imunossupresores no sistema nervoso periférico e simpático.


Subject(s)
Humans , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology , Immune System/drug effects , Tramadol/administration & dosage , Tramadol/pharmacology , Fentanyl/administration & dosage , Fentanyl/pharmacology , Adaptive Immunity/drug effects , Perioperative Period , Remifentanil/administration & dosage , Remifentanil/pharmacology , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Morphine/administration & dosage , Morphine/pharmacology
8.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(1): 35-41, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977411

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Postoperative pain control is important in terms of early recovery and rehabilitation in arthroscopic meniscectomy. For this purpose, we aimed to compare the effects of intraarticular tramadol, magnesium, and ketamine with combinations of pericapsular bupivacaine on postoperative pain and recovery in arthroscopic meniscectomy. Methods: Ninety patients who underwent arthroscopic meniscectomy were enrolled in the study. Group T was given tramadol, Group K was given ketamine, and Group M was given magnesium reconstituted intraarticularly, and all groups received periarticular bupivacaine. Comparisons were made in terms of the patients' postoperative Visual Analogue Scale scores with and without movement, need for additional analgesics, first analgesic time, mobilization times, adverse effects, and satisfaction with the analgesics. Results: The Visual Analogue Scale scores were lowest in Group T at 0 minutes, and were higher in the 15th and 30th minutes and 1st, 2nd, and 6th hours. Visual Analogue Scale values with movement were found to be high in Group M at 0 and 15 minutes, but they were found to be higher in group T in the 30th minute, 1st, 2nd and 6th hour. The groups were similar in terms of postoperative additional analgesic use, number of analgesic use, and satisfaction with analgesics; however, the first analgesic time was earlier in Group M, and the first mobilization time was earlier in Group K. Conclusion: Intraarticular ketamine enables early mobilization and less need for additional analgesics, it also provides a better analgesic effect in comparison with intraarticular tramadol and magnesium.


Resumo Objetivo: O controle da dor pós-operatória é importante para recuperação e reabilitação precoces em meniscectomia artroscópica. Portanto, nosso objetivo foi comparar os efeitos de tramadol, magnésio e cetamina administrados por via intra-articular em associação com bupivacaína pericapsular sobre a dor e a recuperação após meniscectomia artroscópica. Métodos: Noventa pacientes submetidos à meniscectomia artroscópica foram incluídos no estudo. O Grupo T recebeu tramadol, o Grupo K recebeu cetamina e o Grupo M recebeu magnésio em doses reconstituídas por via intra-articular e todos os grupos receberam bupivacaína por via periarticular. As avaliações foram feitas mediante comparação dos escores em escala visual analógica no pós-operatório dos pacientes em movimento e em repouso, necessidade de analgésicos adicionais, tempo até a primeira necessidade de analgésico, tempo de mobilização, efeitos adversos e satisfação com os analgésicos. Resultados: Os escores da escala visual analógica foram menores no minuto zero e maiores nos minutos 15 e 30 e nas horas 1, 2 e 6 no Grupo T. Os escores da escala visual analógica em movimento foram maiores nos minutos zero e 15 no Grupo M e maiores no minuto 30 e nas horas 1, 2 e 6 no Grupo T. Os escores dos grupos foram semelhantes em relação à necessidade de analgésico adicional no pós-operatório, ao consumo de analgésico e à satisfação com os analgésicos, mas os tempos até a primeira necessidade de analgesia e até a primeira mobilização foram mais curtos nos grupos M e K, respectivamente. Conclusão: A administração intra-articular de cetamina permite mobilização precoce e diminui a necessidade de analgésicos adicionais, além de proporcionar um melhor efeito analgésico em comparação com tramadol e magnésio por via intra-articular.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Arthroscopy , Tramadol/administration & dosage , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Meniscectomy/methods , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Ketamine/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Magnesium/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies , Drug Therapy, Combination , Injections, Intra-Articular , Middle Aged
9.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(5): 1477-1482, set.-out. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-947113

ABSTRACT

Os opioides são utilizados na medicina veterinária na analgesia dos animais, porém há restrição quanto ao uso desses fármacos em equinos, pois podem desencadear alterações gastrintestinais, mas a administração pela via epidural minimiza os efeitos adversos. Assim, oito equinos hígidos foram utilizados em três grupos experimentais, objetivando-se avaliar a influência no trânsito gastrintestinal da injeção epidural de morfina (0,2mg/kg), tramadol (1,0mg/kg) ou NaCl 0,9%. Para a avaliação do trânsito gastrintestinal, foi administrada a lignina purificada e enriquecida (Lipe®), pela via oral, a qual posteriormente foi analisada nas fezes. As fezes foram coletadas para investigação desse marcador, antes da epidural e em intervalos até totalizar 48 horas do início do experimento. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância (ANOVA) de uma via, com repetições múltiplas. As médias entre cada momento dos grupos e dos momentos dentro de cada grupo foram comparadas pelo teste de Student-Newman-Keuls (P≤0,05). A morfina ou o tramadol administrados pela via epidural não alteraram o tempo médio de retenção da fase líquida, a taxa de passagem e o tempo de trânsito do marcador utilizado. Diante de tais achados, conclui-se que a morfina ou o tramadol pela via epidural não alteram o trânsito gastrintestinal.(AU)


Opioids provide analgesia and are used in veterinary, however there is a restriction regarding the use of these drugs in horses, because may lead to ileus, but epidural opioids minimize those side effects. Eight healthy horses were used in three experimental groups, to evaluate the gastrointestinal influence after epidural morphine (0.2mg / kg), tramadol (1.0mg / kg) or NaCl 0.9%. Intestinal transit was evaluated with the administration of Lipe® (purified enriched isolated lignin) and later analyzed in the feces. Feces were collected before the epidural and at intervals up to 48 hours after the beginning of the experiment. The data were analyzed by a one-way analysis of variance or Friedman or Kruskal-Wallis and Student-Newman Keuls test as a post hoc. A value of P≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Epidural morphine or tramadol did not change the mean time for retention of the liquid phase, passage rate, and the transit time of the marker used. In conclusion, epidural morphine or tramadol does not change gastrointestinal transit.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Horses , Morphine/adverse effects , Tramadol/administration & dosage , Gastrointestinal Tract
10.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(12): 1565-1568, dic. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043140

ABSTRACT

Background There is a worrisome increase in opioid prescription worldwide. Their use and overuse may cause adverse outcomes. Aim To determine incidence and characteristics of opioid prescription at discharge at an emergency department (ED). Material and Methods A prospective observational study in a random sample of adult patients attended at an ED of a teaching hospital. We reviewed medical records prescriptions for each patient to collect information about drugs prescribed, reason and medical indication of use (doses and duration). Results A total of 1,001 patients aged 50 ± 20 years (61% women) were studied. Seven percent of patients received an opioid prescription at discharge from the ED, mainly to treat renal and back pain. The dose, duration of treatments or both were incompletely described in 54% of prescriptions. The dose of tramadol in drops was incomplete in 96% of prescriptions. Conclusions Seven percent of patients discharged from an ED received an opioid prescription, mainly to treat non-oncological acute pain. The lack of information detected in the prescriptions affected quality, safety and effectiveness of the treatment, especially when pharmaceutical formulations were drops.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Inappropriate Prescribing/statistics & numerical data , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Reference Values , Time Factors , Tramadol/administration & dosage , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Chile , Prospective Studies , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data
11.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 67(3): 231-237, Mar.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843392

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: Tramadol hydrochloride is a centrally-acting synthetic opioid analgesic binding to specific opioid receptors. It is used in the management of chronic pain and is recommended as first line drug in the treatment of postoperative or orthopedic injury induced acute pain. The present work is designed to prepare and evaluate mucoadhesive buccal film of tramadol hydrochloride as a novel form of prolonged analgesia for patients with orthopedic injuries. Methods: Buccal films of tramadol hydrochloride were prepared by solvent casting method. The prepared films were evaluated for the various evaluation parameters like thickness, surface pH, weight uniformity, content uniformity, folding endurance, swelling index, in vitro drug release study, in vitro test for mucoadhesion and in vivo studies (primary mucosal irritancy test and analgesic activity). Results: All the formulations exhibited good results for physicochemical characterizations. In in vitro drug release study the films exhibited controlled release more than 12 hours. The formulation BFT2 (containing chitosan and PVP K-90) showed no irritant effect on buccal mucosa and elicit the significant in vivo analgesic activity with 57.14% analgesia against that of standard (61.04%). It was concluded that the mucoadhesive films of tramadol hydrochloride can be effectively used to alleviate the severe pain of orthopedic injuries with prompt onset and prolonged action.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: O cloridrato de tramadol é um analgésico opioide de ação central que se liga a receptores opioides específicos. É usado no tratamento de dor crônica e recomendado como fármaco de primeira linha para o tratamento no pós-operatório ou em dor aguda induzida por lesão ortopédica. O presente estudo visa a preparar e avaliar o filme bucal mucoadesivo de cloridrato de tramadol como uma nova forma de analgesia prolongada para pacientes com lesões ortopédicas. Método: Filmes bucais de cloridrato de tramadol foram preparados pelo método de evaporação de solvente. Os filmes preparados foram avaliados para os vários parâmetros de avaliação, como espessura, pH da superfície, uniformidade do peso, uniformidade do conteúdo, resistência a dobras, índice de intumescimento, estudo de liberação da droga in vitro, teste in vitro para mucoadesão e estudos in vivo (teste de irritação da mucosa primária e atividade analgésica). Resultados: Todas as formulações apresentaram bons resultados para caracterizações físico-químicas. Em estudo de libertação de droga in vitro, os filmes exibiram liberação controlada por mais de 12 horas. A formulação de BFT2 (com quitosana e PVP K-90) não mostrou efeito irritante sobre a mucosa bucal e provocou uma atividade analgésica significativa in vivo com 57,14% de analgesia versus a do padrão (61,04%). Concluiu-se que os filmes mucoadesivos de cloridrato de tramadol podem ser usados eficazmente para aliviar a dor intensa de lesões ortopédicas com início rápido e ação prolongada.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Tramadol/administration & dosage , Adhesives , Drug Delivery Systems , Pain Management/methods , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Dosage Forms , Mouth Mucosa
12.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 66(1): 44-49, Jan.-Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-773490

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Tourniquet pain is one of the major obstacles for intravenous regional anesthesia. We aimed to compare tramadol and lornoxicam used in intravenous regional anesthesia as regards their effects on the quality of anesthesia, tourniquet pain and postoperative pain as well. METHODS: After the ethics committee approval 51 patients of ASA physical status I-II aged 18-65 years were enrolled. The patients were divided into three groups. Group P (n = 17) received 3 mg/kg 0.5% prilocaine; group PT (n = 17) 3 mg/kg 0.5% prilocaine + 2 mL (100 mg) tramadol and group PL (n = 17) 3 mg/kg 0.5% prilocaine + 2 mL (8 mg) lornoxicam for intravenous regional anesthesia. Sensory and motor block onset and recovery times were noted, as well as tourniquet pains and postoperative analgesic consumptions. RESULTS: Sensory block onset times in the groups PT and PL were shorter, whereas the corresponding recovery times were longer than those in the group P. Motor block onset times in the groups PT and PL were shorter than that in the group P, whereas recovery time in the group PL was longer than those in the groups P and PT. Tourniquet pain onset time was shortest in the group P and longest in the group PL. There was no difference regarding tourniquet pain among the groups. Group PL displayed the lowest analgesic consumption postoperatively. CONCLUSION: Adding tramadol and lornoxicam to prilocaine for intravenous regional anesthesia produces favorable effects on sensory and motor blockade. Postoperative analgesic consumption can be decreased by adding tramadol and lornoxicam to prilocaine in intravenous regional anesthesia.


JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A dor relacionada ao torniquete é um dos maiores obstáculos para a anestesia regional intravenosa (ARIV). Nosso objetivo foi comparar tramadol e lornoxicam usados em ARIV em relação aos seus efeitos sobre a qualidade da anestesia, dor relacionada ao torniquete e dor no pós-operatório. MÉTODOS: Após a aprovação do Comitê de Ética, 51 pacientes com estado físico ASA I-II entre 18-65 anos foram inscritos. Os pacientes foram divididos em três grupos. Grupo P (n = 17) recebeu 3 mg/kg de prilocaína a 0,5%; Grupo PT (n = 17) 3 mg/kg de prilocaína a 0,5% + 2 mL (100 mg) de tramadol e Grupo PL (n = 17) de 3 mg/kg de prilocaína a 0,5% + 2 mL (8 mg) de lornoxicam para ARIV. O início do bloqueio sensorial e motor e os tempos de recuperação foram registrados, bem como a dor relacionada ao torniquete e o consumo de analgésico no pós-operatório. RESULTADOS: Os tempos de início do bloqueio sensorial foram mais curtos nos grupos PT e PL, enquanto que os tempos de recuperação correspondentes foram mais longos do que os do Grupo P. Os tempos de início do bloqueio motor nos grupos PT e PL foram menores do que no Grupo P, enquanto que o tempo de recuperação do grupo PL foi maior do que os dos grupos P e PT. O tempo para início da dor relacionada ao torniquete foi menor no Grupo P e maior no Grupo PL. Não houve diferença em relação à dor relacionada ao torniquete entre os grupos. O Grupo PL apresentou o menor consumo de analgésicos no pós-operatório. CONCLUSÃO: A adição de tramadol e lornoxicam à prilocaína para ARIV produz efeitos favoráveis sobre o bloqueio sensorial e motor. O consumo de analgésicos no pós-operatório pode ser reduzido com a adição de tramadol e lornoxicam à prilocaína em ARIV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Tourniquets/adverse effects , Tramadol/administration & dosage , Piroxicam/analogs & derivatives , Anesthesia, Conduction/methods , Pain/ethnology , Pain/prevention & control , Prilocaine/administration & dosage , Anesthesia Recovery Period , Piroxicam/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Middle Aged
13.
Ann Card Anaesth ; 2015 Jul; 18(3): 352-360
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-162335

ABSTRACT

Background: Tapentadol is a relatively new analgesic. We decided to compare it with tramadol for their various effects after cardiac surgery. Setting: A study in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: Sixty adults undergoing cardiac surgery were divided into 2 groups of 30 each by computerized random allotment (Group X = tapentadol 50 mg oral and Group Y = tramadol 100 mg oral). Informed Consent and Institutional Ethics Committee approval were obtained. The patients were given either drug X or drug Y after extubation in this single blinded study, wherein the data collectors and analyzers were blinded to the study. All patients received oral paracetamol qds and either drug X or drug Y tds. The pain score was noted on a Visual Analog Scale before each drug dose, 3 h later and on coughing. Heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure were recorded before the drug dose and 3 h later. Postoperative nausea or vomiting (PONV), temperature, and modified Glasgow Coma Scale readings were recorded. The above readings were obtained for 6 doses (up to 48 h after extubation). Statistics: t‑test, Pearson Chi‑square test, Fisher exact test, and Mantel–Haenszel test were used for statistics. Results: Tapentadol group patients had significantly better analgesia 3 h after the drug and “on coughing” than tramadol group. The difference in their effects on blood creatinine levels, temperature, hemodynamics, oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate were not clinically significant. Tapentadol produced lesser drowsiness and lesser vomiting than tramadol. Conclusions: Tapentadol, due to its norepinephrine reuptake inhibition properties, in addition to mu agonist, is a better analgesic than tramadol and has lesser PONV.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Pain, Postoperative/etiology , Phenols/administration & dosage , Phenols/therapeutic use , Tramadol/administration & dosage , Tramadol/therapeutic use
14.
Acta méd. peru ; 32(2): 91-97, abr.-jun.2015. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LIPECS, LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-796563

ABSTRACT

Determinar el efecto sobre el dolor y el sistema nervioso de la interacción entre tramadol y diclofenaco, en dosis escalonadas. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron 60 ratones albinos, distribuidos en diez grupos; cuatro grupos fueron de interacción y recibieron VO tramadol 10 mg/Kg y diclofenaco en dosis escalonada (10, 15, 20 y 25 mg/Kg). Seis grupos recibieron VO tramadol, 10 mg/Kg; diclofenaco, 10 mg/Kg; diazepam, 25 mg/Kg; cafeína, 25 mg/Kg y agua destilada, 0,1 mL/10 g; este último grupo no recibió medicamentos. Las sustancias se administraron una hora antes de la inducción del dolor. Se emplearon la prueba de contorsiones abdominales, para evaluar el dolor, y la prueba de Irwin, para el sistema nervioso. Se evaluaron el porcentaje de inhibición de contorsiones abdominales, porcentaje de prolongación del periodo de latencia, número de contorsiones abdominales y período de latencia. Se aplicaron las pruebas ANOVA de una cola, Tukey y correlación de Pearson. Para la prueba de Irwin se aplicó la prueba de Fisher. Resultados. Los porcentajes de inhibición de las contorsiones abdominales fueron de 55,1%; 89,9%; 74,5% y 94,5% en los grupos de interacción 2, 4, 7 y 10, respectivamente, frente a 31,6% (tramadol), 19,4% (diclofenaco) y 4,8% (control). El período de latencia fue de 609,7; 891,2; 860,5 y 1100 segundos en los grupos de interacción 2, 4, 7 y 10, respectivamente, frente a 479,7 (tramadol), 281,8 (diclofenaco) y 475,7 segundos (control). La prueba de ANOVA demostró diferencias significativas (p < 0,05; IC 95%) con relación al porcentaje de inhibición de contorsiones y el periodo de latencia. La prueba de Irwin evidenció piloerección, sedación, aumento de la respiración, incoordinación motora y cola de Straub. Conclusiones. Se comprobó el efecto analgésico sinérgico de la coadministración de tramadol en dosis fija y diclofenaco en dosis escalonada...


Determine the effect on pain and nervous system of the interaction between tramadol and diclofenac, in escalating doses. Materials and methods. 60 albino mice, divided into ten groups were used; four groups were for interaction and they received tramadol VO 10 mg/Kg and diclofenac in staggered doses (10, 15, 20 and 25 mg/Kg). Six groups received tramadol 10 mg/Kg; diclofenac 10 mg/Kg; diazepam, 25 mg/ Kg; caffeine, 25 mg/Kg and distilled water, 0.1 mL/10 g; this last group received no medication. The substances were administered one hour before pain induction. Writhing test assessed the effect on pain and Irwin test evaluated the nervous system. The statistical validation of the writhing inhibition percentage, latency percentage, number of writhes and latency was performed using ANOVA one tail, Tukey and Pearson correlation. For Irwin test, Fisher's test was applied. Results. The percentage of writhing inhibition were 55.1%, 89.9%, 74.5% and 94.5% by interaction groups 2, 4, 7 and 10, respectively, versus 31.6% (tramadol), 19.4% (diclofenac) and 4.8% (control). The latency period was 609.7; 891.2; 860.5 and 1100 seconds by interaction groups 2, 4, 7 and 10, respectively, versus 479.7 (tramadol), 281.8 (diclofenac) and 475.7 seconds (control). ANOVA showed significant differences (p < 0.05; CI 95%) relative to the percent inhibition of contortions and the latency period. Irwin test showed piloerection, sedation, increased respiration, motor incoordination and Straub tail. Conclusions. Synergistic analgesic effect of co-administration of fixed dose tramadol and diclofenac dose escalation was found...


Subject(s)
Animals , Analgesics , Diclofenac/administration & dosage , Mice , Drug Synergism , Tramadol/administration & dosage , Epidemiology, Experimental , Prospective Studies
15.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 65(3): 186-190, May-Jun/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748921

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Tramadol is known as a central acting analgesic drug, used for the treatment of moderate to severe pain. Local analgesic effect has been demonstrated, in part due to local anesthetic-like effect, but other mechanisms remain unclear. The role of peripheral opioid receptors in the local analgesic effect is not known. In this study, we examined role of peripheral opioid receptors in the local analgesic effect of tramadol in the plantar incision model. METHODS: Young male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups: control, intraplantar tramadol, intravenous tramadol, intravenous naloxone-intraplantar tramadol, intraplantar naloxone-intraplantar tramadol, intravenous naloxone-intravenous tramadol, and intravenous naloxone. After receiving the assigned drugs (tramadol 5 mg, naloxone 200 µg or 0.9% NaCl), rats were submitted to plantar incision, and withdrawal thresholds after mechanical stimuli with von Frey filaments were assessed at baseline, 10, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min after incision. RESULTS: Plantar incision led to marked mechanical hyperalgesia during the whole period of observation in the control group, no mechanical hyperalgesia were observed in intraplantar tramadol group, intraplantar naloxone-intraplantar tramadol group and intravenous naloxone-intraplantar tramadol. In the intravenous tramadol group a late increase in withdrawal thresholds (after 45 min) was observed, the intravenous naloxone-intravenous tramadol group and intravenous naloxone remained hyperalgesic during the whole period. CONCLUSIONS: Tramadol presented an early local analgesic effect decreasing mechanical hyperalgesia induced by plantar incision. This analgesic effect was not mediated by peripheral opioid receptors. .


JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Tramadol é conhecido como um fármaco analgésico de ação central, usado para o tratamento de dor moderada a grave. O efeito analgésico local foi demonstrado, em parte devido ao efeito semelhante ao anestésico local, mas outros mecanismos permanecem obscuros. O papel dos receptores opioides periféricos no efeito analgésico local não é conhecido. Neste estudo, examinamos o papel dos receptores opioides periféricos no efeito analgésico local de tramadol em modelo de incisão plantar. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar, jovens e machos, foram divididos em sete grupos: controle, tramadol intraplantar, tramadol intravenoso, tramadol intraplantar-naloxona intravenosa, tramadol intraplantar-naloxona intraplantar, tramadol intravenoso-naloxona intravenosa e naloxona intravenosa. Após receber os medicamentos designados (5 mg de tramadol, 200 mg de naloxona ou NaCl a 0,9%, os ratos foram submetidos à incisão plantar e os limiares de retirada após estímulos mecânicos com filamentos de von Frey foram avaliados no início do estudo e nos minutos 10, 15, 30, 45 e 60 após a incisão. RESULTADOS: A incisão plantar levou à hiperalgesia mecânica acentuada durante todo o período de observação no grupo controle; hiperalgesia mecânica não foi observada nos grupos tramadol intraplantar, tramadol intraplantar-naloxona intraplantar e tramadol intraplantar-naloxona intravenosa. No grupo tramadol intravenoso, um aumento tardio do limiar de retirada (após 45 minutos) foi observado. Os grupos tramadol intravenoso-naloxona intravenosa e naloxona intravenosa permaneceram hiperalgésicos durante todo o período. CONCLUSÕES: Tramadol apresentou efeito analgésico local inicial e diminuiu a hiperalgesia mecânica induzida pela incisão plantar. Esse efeito analgésico não foi mediado por receptores opioides periféricos. .


JUSTIFICACIÓN Y OBJETIVOS: Al tramadol se le conoce como un medicamento analgésico de acción central usado para el tratamiento del dolor moderado a intenso. El efecto analgésico local quedó demostrado, en parte, a causa del efecto similar al del anestésico local, pero otros mecanismos permanecen sin clarificar. El rol de los receptores opiáceos periféricos en el efecto analgésico local no se conoce. En este estudio, examinamos el papel de los receptores opiáceos periféricos en el efecto analgésico local del tramadol en un modelo de incisión plantar. MÉTODOS: Ratones Wistar, jóvenes y machos, fueron divididos en 7 grupos: control, tramadol intraplantar, tramadol intravenoso, tramadol intraplantar-naloxona intravenosa, tramadol intraplantar-naloxona intraplantar, tramadol intravenoso-naloxona intravenosa, y naloxona intravenosa. Después de recibir los medicamentos designados (5 mg de tramadol, 200 µg de naloxona o NaCl al 0,9%), los ratones fueron sometidos a la incisión plantar, y los umbrales de retirada de la pata posteriores a los estímulos mecánicos con filamentos de von Frey fueron evaluados al inicio del estudio y en los minutos 10, 15, 30, 45 y 60 después de la incisión. RESULTADOS: La incisión plantar conllevó hiperalgesia mecánica acentuada durante todo el período de observación en el grupo control; la hiperalgesia mecánica no fue observada en los grupos tramadol intraplantar, tramadol intraplantar-naloxona intraplantar, y tramadol intraplantar-naloxona intravenosa. En el grupo tramadol intravenoso, fue observado un aumento tardío del umbral de retirada (después de 45 min); los grupos tramadol intravenoso-naloxona intravenosa y naloxona intravenosa permanecieron hiperalgésicos durante todo el período. CONCLUSIONES: El tramadol presentó un efecto analgésico local inicial, disminuyendo la hiperalgesia mecánica inducida por la incisión plantar. Ese efecto analgésico no fue mediado por receptores opiáceos periféricos. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Tramadol/pharmacology , Hyperalgesia/drug therapy , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology , Time Factors , Tramadol/administration & dosage , Rats, Wistar , Receptors, Opioid/drug effects , Receptors, Opioid/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Injections , Injections, Intravenous , Naloxone/administration & dosage , Naloxone/pharmacology
16.
IJPR-Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2015; 14 (1): 303-311
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-154891

ABSTRACT

Morphine and tramadol which have analgesic effects can be administered acutely or chronically. This study tried to investigate the effect of these drugs at various times by using different methods of administration [intraperitoneal, oral, acute and chronic]. Sixty adult female rats were divided into six groups. They received saline, morphine or tramadol [20 to 125 mg/Kg] daily for 15 days. A hot plate test was performed for the rats at the 1[st], 8[th] and 15[th] days. After drug withdrawal, the hot plate test was repeated at the 17[th], 19[th], and 22[nd] days. There was a significant correlation between the day, drug, group, and their interaction [P<0.001]. At 1[st] day [d1], both morphine, and tramadol caused an increase in the hot plate time comparing to the saline groups [P<0.001], while there was no correlation between drug administration methods of morphine and/or tramadol. At the 8[th] day [d8], morphine and tramadol led to the most powerful analgesic effect comparing to the other experimental days [P<0.001]. At the 15[th] day [d15], their effects diminished comparing to the d8. After drug withdrawal, analgesic effect of morphine, and tramadol disappeared. It can be concluded that the analgesic effect of morphine and tramadol increases with the repeated use of them. Thereafter, it may gradually decrease and reach to a level compatible to d1. The present data also indicated that although the analgesic effect of morphine and tramadol is dose-and-time dependent, but chronic exposure to them may not lead to altered nociceptive responses later in life


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Morphine/administration & dosage , Tramadol/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Time , Drug Administration Routes , Rats
17.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1359-1365, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-44329

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Postoperative ileus (POI) is common following bowel resection for radical cystectomy with ileal conduit (RCIC). We investigated perioperative factors associated with prolonged POI following RCIC, with specific focus on opioid-based analgesic dosage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From March 2007 to January 2013, 78 open RCICs and 26 robot-assisted RCICs performed for bladder carcinoma were identified with adjustment for age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiologists grade, and body mass index (BMI). Perioperative records including operative time, intraoperative fluid excess, estimated blood loss, lymph node yield, and opioid analgesic dose were obtained to assess their associations with time to passage of flatus, tolerable oral diet, and length of hospital stay (LOS). Prior to general anaesthesia, patients received epidural patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) consisted of fentanyl with its dose adjusted for BMI. Postoperatively, single intravenous injections of tramadol were applied according to patient desire. RESULTS: Multivariate analyses revealed cumulative dosages of both PCA fentanyl and tramadol injections as independent predictors of POI. According to surgical modality, linear regression analyses revealed cumulative dosages of PCA fentanyl and tramadol injections to be positively associated with time to first passage of flatus, tolerable diet, and LOS in the open RCIC group. In the robot-assisted RCIC group, only tramadol dose was associated with time to flatus and tolerable diet. Compared to open RCIC, robot-assisted RCIC yielded shorter days to diet and LOS; however, it failed to shorten days to first flatus. CONCLUSION: Reducing opioid-based analgesics shortens the duration of POI. The utilization of the robotic system may confer additional benefit.


Subject(s)
Aged , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Carcinoma/surgery , Cystectomy/adverse effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Humans , Ileus/epidemiology , Length of Stay , Linear Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Robotic Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Time Factors , Tramadol/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/surgery , Urinary Diversion/adverse effects
18.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1436-1441, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-44318

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Optimal analgesia in ambulatory urology patients still remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to examine if the pre-emptive use of intravenous tramadol can reduce pain after ureteroscopic lithotripsy in patients diagnosed with unilateral ureteral stones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective pilot cohort study included 74 patients diagnosed with unilateral ureteral stones who underwent ureteroscopic lithotripsy under general anesthesia in the Urology Clinic at the Clinical Center of Serbia from March to June 2012. All patients were randomly allocated to two groups: one group (38 patients) received intravenous infusion of tramadol 100 mg in 500 mL 0.9%NaCl one hour before the procedure, while the other group (36 patients) received 500 mL 0.9%NaCl at the same time. Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores were recorded once prior to surgery and two times after the surgery (1 h and 6 h, respectively). The patients were prescribed additional postoperative analgesia (diclofenac 75 mg i.m.) when required. Pre-emptive effects of tramadol were assessed measuring pain scores, VAS1 and VAS2, intraoperative fentanyl consumption, and postoperative analgesic requirement. RESULTS: The average VAS1 score in the tramadol group was significantly lower than that in the non-tramadol group. The difference in average VAS2 score values between the two groups was not statistically significant; however, there were more patients who experienced severe pain in the non-tramadol group (p<0.01). The number of patients that required postoperative analgesia was not statistically different between the groups. CONCLUSION: Pre-emptive tramadol did reduce early postoperative pain. The patients who received pre-emptive tramadol were less likely to experience severe post-operative pain.


Subject(s)
Adult , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Lithotripsy , Male , Middle Aged , Pain/prevention & control , Pain Measurement , Tramadol/administration & dosage , Ureteroscopy
19.
SJA-Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia. 2014; 8 (1): 11-16
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-138051

ABSTRACT

Under regional anesthesia, geriatric patients are prone to shivering induced perioperative complications that Anesthesiologists should prevent rather than treat. We investigated the prophylactic efficacy of oral tramadol 50 mg to prevent the perioperative shivering after transurethral resection of prostate [TURP] surgery under subarachnoid blockade [SAB]. Shivering is usually overlooked in patients undergoing urological surgery under spinal anesthesia and may result in morbidity, prolonged hospital stay and increased financial burden. Use of prophylactic measures to reduce shivering in geriatric patients who undergo urological procedures could circumvent this. Oral formulation of tramadol is a universally available cost-effective drug with the minimal side-effects. Prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. A total of 80 patients who were scheduled for TURP surgery under subarachnoid block were randomly selected. Group I and II [n = 40 each] received oral tramadol 50 mg and placebo tablet respectively. After achieving subarachnoid block, the shivering, body temperature [tympanic membrane, axillary and forehead], hemodynamic parameters and arterial saturation were recorded at regular intervals. T-test, analysis of variance test, Z-test and Fisher exact test were utilized while Statistical Product and Service Solutions, IBM, Chicago [SPSS statistics [version 16.0]], software was used for analysis. Incidence of shivering was significantly less in patients who received tramadol [7.5% vs. 40%; P < 0.01]. The use of tramadol was associated with clinically inconsequential side-effects. We conclude that the use of oral tramadol 50 mg is effective as a prophylactic agent to reduce the incidence, severity and duration of perioperative shivering in patients undergoing TURP surgery under SAB


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Tramadol/administration & dosage , Tramadol , Perioperative Care , Transurethral Resection of Prostate , Subarachnoid Space , Anesthesia, Conduction , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies
20.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 33(2): 236-240, fev. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-670960

ABSTRACT

Two protocols for chemical restraint in howler-redheads were evaluated. We used 12 healthy red howler monkeys, weighing 6.4±0.4 kg, which were fasted and without water six and two hours, respectively. The animals were divided into two groups that received intramuscular injection: TZ (n=6) which received tiletamine-zolazepam (Zoletil®) at a dose of 3.6mg/kg and CEMTRA (n=6) which received ketamine S (+), tramadol and midazolan (Cemtra®, pilot batch 001/10, Ouro Fino Saúde Animal Ltda, Cravinhos/SP, Brazil, comprising 100mg/ml of ketamine S (+), tramadol 20mg/ml and 10mg/ml of midazolam) in dose of 1ml of the association for each 10kg of body weight, equivalent doses of 10mg/kg, 1mg/kg and 2mg/kg, respectively. Prior to administration of drugs (M0) were evaluated: heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT), capillary refill time (CRT), systolic arterial pressure (SAP), hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2 ), presence of salivation, degree of muscle relaxation and sedation, Bispectral index (BIS) and Signal Quality BIS (SQI), interdigital pinch response and latency times, ambulation and total recovery (TRT). The parameters were reassessed M5, M10, M20, M30, M40 and M50 (5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 minutes after drug administration). In TZ animals were more responsive to the interdigital pinch over time. The animals of CEMTRA showed a higher degree of muscle relaxation and sedation. The RR of CEMTRA was lower after administration of treatment at all times in relation to M0. Among the groups RR of CEMTRA was lower compared to the TZ in M2 and M4. The total time of sedation and recovery was 48±4 min and 150.1±42.1 for the CEMTRA and 38±7 and 73.1±20.6 for the TZ. We conclude that both formulations are safe for containing chemical howler, and the CEMTRA showed better sedation and muscle relaxant.


Avaliaram-se dois protocolos para contenção química em bugios-ruivos. Para tal, foram utilizados 12 macacos bugios, hígidos, com peso médio de 6,4±0,4 kg, os quais foram submetidos a jejum alimentar e hídrico de seis e duas horas, respectivamente. Os animais foram alocados em dois grupos que receberam injeção via intramuscular: TZ (n=6), os quais receberam uma associação de tiletamina e zolazepam (Zoletil®) na dose de 3,6mg/kg e CEMTRA (n=6), que receberam cetamina S(+), midazolam e tramadol (Cemtra ®, lote piloto 001/10, Ouro Fino Saúde Animal Ltda., Cravinhos, SP-Brasil, constituído por 100mg/ml de cetamina S+, 20mg/ml de tramadol e 10mg/ml de midazolam) na dose de 1ml da associação para cada 10kg de peso corporal, correspondendo às doses de 10mg/kg, 1mg/kg e 2mg/kg, respectivamente. Anteriormente a administração dos fármacos (M0) foram avaliadas: frequência cardíaca (FC) e respiratória (f), temperatura retal (TR), tempo de preenchimento capilar (TPC), pressão arterial sistólica (PAS), saturação de oxigênio na hemoglobina (SpO2), presença de salivação, grau de miorrelaxamento e sedação, índice Bispectral (BIS) e Sinal de Qualidade do BIS (SQI), resposta ao pinçamento interdigital e tempos de latência, deambulação e de recuperação total (TRT). Os parâmetros foram reavaliados em M5, M10, M20, M30, M40 e M50 (5, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 minutos após a administração dos fármacos). No TZ os animais foram mais responsivos ao pinçamento interdigital ao longo dos tempos. Os animais do CEMTRA apresentaram maior grau de miorrelaxamento e de sedação. A f do CEMTRA foi menor após a administração do tratamento em todos os momentos em relação ao M0. Entre grupos a f do CEMTRA foi menor em relação ao TZ em M2 e M4. Os tempos totais de sedação e de recuperação foram de 48±4 e 150,1±42,1 min para o CEMTRA e de 38±7 e 73,1±20,6 para o TZ. Conclui-se que ambas as formulações são seguras para contenção química de bugios, sendo que o CEMTRA apresentou melhor sedação e miorrelaxamento.


Subject(s)
Animals , Alouatta/surgery , Balanced Anesthesia/veterinary , Animals, Wild/metabolism , Deep Sedation , Deep Sedation/veterinary , Ketamine/administration & dosage , Midazolam/administration & dosage , Tiletamine/administration & dosage , Tramadol/administration & dosage , Zolazepam/administration & dosage
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