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Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1718-1734, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922670


Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a popular modulatory technique for the noninvasive diagnosis and therapy of neurological and psychiatric diseases. Unfortunately, current modulation strategies are only modestly effective. The literature provides strong evidence that the modulatory effects of TMS vary depending on device components and stimulation protocols. These differential effects are important when designing precise modulatory strategies for clinical or research applications. Developments in TMS have been accompanied by advances in combining TMS with neuroimaging techniques, including electroencephalography, functional near-infrared spectroscopy, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography. Such studies appear particularly promising as they may not only allow us to probe affected brain areas during TMS but also seem to predict underlying research directions that may enable us to precisely target and remodel impaired cortices or circuits. However, few precise modulation strategies are available, and the long-term safety and efficacy of these strategies need to be confirmed. Here, we review the literature on possible technologies for precise modulation to highlight progress along with limitations with the goal of suggesting future directions for this field.

Brain/diagnostic imaging , Electroencephalography , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neuroimaging , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1609-1624, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922642


The causal mechanisms and treatment for the negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia are the main issues attracting the attention of psychiatrists over the last decade. The first part of this review summarizes the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, especially the negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction from the perspectives of genetics and epigenetics. The second part describes the novel medications and several advanced physical therapies (e.g., transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation) for the negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction that will optimize the therapeutic strategy for patients with schizophrenia in future.

Cognitive Dysfunction , Humans , Schizophrenia/therapy , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888505


Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a safe and non-invasive technique. In recent years, many studies have demonstrated that rTMS can improve cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and has potential as a therapeutic method for AD. However, the efficacy varies greatly with different rTMS treatment regimens, which is related to the frequency, type, location, duration, intensity and focusing power of stimulation. Recent studies have shown that high-frequency stimulation is superior to low-frequency stimulation; efficacy of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) is similar to that of conventional rTMS, but iTBS treatment session is shorter and might be more acceptable for AD patients; rTMS stimulation sites targeting AD-damaged brain regions or associated networks would be more effective; short-term intensive treatment combined with long-term maintenance treatment can gain long-term efficacy; dynamic adjustment of stimulus intensity combined with the degree of cognitive impairment can enhance the efficacy; functional connection based on functional magnetic resonance imaging may improve the focusing power of rTMS. In this article, we review the factors related to the efficacy of rTMS, to provide reference for feasible rTMS therapeutic regimens of AD.

Alzheimer Disease/therapy , Brain , Cognition , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888239


Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) as a noninvasive neuromodulation technique can improve the impairment of learning and memory caused by diseases, and the regulation of learning and memory depends on synaptic plasticity. TMS can affect plasticity of brain synaptic. This paper reviews the effects of TMS on synaptic plasticity from two aspects of structural and functional plasticity, and further reveals the mechanism of TMS from synaptic vesicles, neurotransmitters, synaptic associated proteins, brain derived neurotrophic factor and related pathways. Finally, it is found that TMS could affect neuronal morphology, glutamate receptor and neurotransmitter, and regulate the expression of synaptic associated proteins through the expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor, thus affecting the learning and memory function. This paper reviews the effects of TMS on learning, memory and plasticity of brain synaptic, which provides a reference for the study of the mechanism of TMS.

Brain , Humans , Learning , Neuronal Plasticity , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
Rev inf cient ; 100(5): 1-10, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1348801


Introducción: Recientemente se inició la formación de profesionales en una nueva modalidad de Programas Técnico Superior de Ciclo Corto, en la especialidad de Neurofisiología Clínica. Esto responde a la necesidad de la formación de profesionales de la salud en el estudio de las enfermedades neurológicas. La estimulación magnética transcraneal constituye una herramienta importante en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de estas enfermedades. Sin embargo, se carece de un programa para la formación de los estudiantes en el estudio y aplicación de esta técnica. Objetivo: Diseñar un programa de curso propio sobre generalidades de la estimulación magnética transcraneal, para estudiantes de primer año de Neurofisiología Clínica. Métodos: Se realizó una investigación didáctica metodológica utilizando los métodos empíricos y teóricos observación, histórico lógico, estudio documental y bibliográfico, dialéctico, análisis y síntesis, inducción y deducción. Resultados: Se propuso un programa para curso propio que se estructuró en siete temas, con carácter presencial y duración de 32 horas. Se presentaron los contenidos por temas, objetivos, conocimientos esenciales a adquirir, habilidades principales a dominar y sistema de evaluación. Conclusiones: La aplicación de este programa contribuye al desarrollo de habilidades y el desempeño exitoso de los profesionales en formación, en el campo del conocimiento de la técnica de estimulación magnética transcraneal para el diagnóstico y tratamiento de las enfermedades neurológicas(AU)

Introduction: Recently began the training of professionals in a new modality of short-cycle Higher Technical Programs, in the specialty of Clinical Neurophysiology. This responds to the need of training health professionals in the study of neurological diseases, whose incidence rates have increased in recent years. Transcranial magnetic stimulation is an important tool in the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. However, there is a lack of a program for the training of students in the study and application of this technique. Objective: Tto design an own course program on the generalities of transcranial magnetic stimulation, for first-year students of Clinical Neurophysiology. Method: A methodological didactic research was carried out using the empirical and theoretical methods, observation, logical historical, documentary and bibliographic study, dialectic, analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction. Results: A program for the course was proposed, structured in seven topics, with a face-to-face character and a duration of 32 hours. The contents were presented by topics, objectives, essential knowledge to acquire, main skills to master and an evaluation system. Conclusions: The application of this program contributes to the development of skills and the successful performance of professionals in training, in the field of knowledge of the transcranial magnetic stimulation technique for the diagnosis and treatment of neurological diseases(AU)

Introdução: Iniciou recentemente a formação de profissionais numa nova modalidade de Cursos Técnicos Superiores de Ciclo Curto, na especialidade de Neurofisiologia Clínica. Isso responde à necessidade de formação de profissionais de saúde no estudo das doenças neurológicas. A estimulação magnética transcraniana é uma ferramenta importante no diagnóstico e tratamento dessas doenças. No entanto, falta um programa de treinamento dos alunos no estudo e aplicação desta técnica. Objetivo: Desenhar um programa próprio sobre as generalidades da estimulação magnética transcraniana, para alunos do primeiro ano de Neurofisiologia Clínica. Método: Realizou-se uma investigação metodológica didática utilizando os métodos empírico e teórico de observação, histórico lógico, estudo documental e bibliográfico, dialética, análise e síntese, indução e dedução. Resultados: Foi proposto um programa de curso próprio, estruturado em sete temas, com caráter presencial e duração de 32 horas. Os conteúdos foram apresentados por tópicos, objetivos, conhecimentos essenciais a adquirir, competências principais a dominar e um sistema de avaliação. Conclusões: A aplicação deste programa contribui para o desenvolvimento de competências e o desempenho bem sucedido de profissionais em formação, no domínio do conhecimento da técnica de estimulação magnética transcraniana para o diagnóstico e tratamento de doenças neurológicas(AU)

Humans , Programs of Study , Allied Health Personnel , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation , Neurophysiology/education , Cross-Sectional Studies , Qualitative Research , Applied Research
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(3): e10010, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153525


We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in patients with post-stroke depression (PSD). Six relevant electronic databases (PubMed, CENTRAL, Embase, Web of Science, CINAHL, and PsycINFO) were searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared rTMS with control condition for PSD were included. The mean change in depression symptom scores was defined as the primary efficacy outcome. Secondary outcomes included the remission rate of depression, stroke recovery, and cognitive function recovery. In total, 7 RCTs with 351 participants were included. At post-treatment, rTMS was significantly more effective than the control condition, with a standardized mean difference (SMD) of -1.15 (95%CI: -1.62 to -0.69; P<0.001, I2=71%) and remission with an odds ratio (OR) of 3.46 (95%CI: 1.68 to 7.12; P<0.001; I2=11%). As for stroke recovery, rTMS was also better than the control condition (SMD=-0.67, 95%CI: -1.02 to -0.32; P<0.001). However, no significant difference was found for cognitive function recovery between the two groups (SMD=4.07, 95%CI: -1.41 to 9.55; P=0.15). To explore the potential moderators for the primary outcome, a series of subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed. The results implied that rTMS may be more effective in Asian samples than in North American samples (P=0.03). In conclusion, from the current evidence in this study, rTMS could be an effective treatment for patients with PSD. Further clinical studies with larger sample sizes and clearer subgroup definitions are needed to confirm these outcomes.

Humans , Stroke/complications , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome , Recovery of Function , Depression/etiology , Depression/therapy
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880402


Accidents or diseases may cause impairment or even loss of human motor function, among which stroke is a disease which is most likely to cause disability and seriously endangers social health. During recent years, as a new nerve regulation technology, non-invasive brain stimulation technology can achieve the application of nerve stimulation to the brain, induce and promote neuroplasticity and improve the excitability of cerebral cortex. Especially, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and transcranial magnetic stimulation(TMS) have shown high therapeutic potential in motor rehabilitation. This paper summarizes the mechanism and progress of the research and application of tDCS and TMS in the field of neurorehabilitation. Its technical challenges and future development trends are provided as well.

Brain , Humans , Stroke , Stroke Rehabilitation , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879202


Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation(rTMS) is a painless and non-invasive method for stimulation and modulation in the field of cognitive neuroscience research and clinical neurological regulation. In this paper, adult Wistar rats were divided into the rTMS group and control group randomly. Rats in the rTMS group were stimulated with 5 Hz rTMS for 14 days, while the rats in the control group did not accept any stimulation. Then, the behavior and local field potentials (LFPs) were recorded synchronously when the rats perform a working memory (WM) task with T-maze. Finally, the time-frequency distribution and coherence characteristics of the LFPs signal in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) during working memory task were analyzed. The results showed that the rats in the rTMS group needed less training days to reach the task correction criterion than the control group (

Animals , Memory, Short-Term , Neurons , Prefrontal Cortex , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876100


@#Objective. To determine the efficacy of rTMS in decreasing body mass index (BMI) versus sham stimulation among obese Filipino patients. Methodology. This was a single-center, randomized, sham-controlled, single-blind, parallel group trial. Participants were 15-65 years old with BMI ≥30 kg/m2 and weight stable for 6 weeks. Participants were randomized to receive real rTMS or sham stimulation. Each underwent 4 sessions of stimulation over 2 weeks. Anthropometrics, total caloric intake (TCI), and VAS score for appetite were taken at baseline, 2, 4, 6, and 12 weeks. Results. A total of 31 patients were randomized with 15 to the treatment and 14 to sham stimulation completing treatment, with 2 lost to follow-up. A significant decrease in BMI was noted after 4 weeks from the start of rTMS in the treatment group, (0.6±0.6, p-value=0.001), with weight change of -1.3±1.3 kg (p-value=0.009), but was no longer observed at 6 weeks onwards. No severe adverse effects were noted. Conclusion. rTMS to the DLPFC effectively decreased BMI (0.6±0.6) and weight (-1.3±1.3 kg) from baseline to 4 weeks. At 6-12 weeks after rTMS however, there was no longer a significant difference, indicating that 4 sessions of rTMS may not be enough to produce a prolonged effect on weight loss.

Weight Loss , Obesity , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785551


Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been known to improve the motor function through modulation of excitability in the cerebral cortex. However, most studies with rTMS were limited to post-stroke patients with mild to moderate motor impairments. The effect of rTMS on severe upper-limb motor impairment remains unclear. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of rTMS on the upper extremity function in post-stroke patients with severe upper-limb motor impairment. Subjects were divided into 3 groups, low-, high-frequency rTMS and control group were received stimulation 10 times for 2 weeks. The motor scale of Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) and cortical excitability on the unaffected hemisphere were measured before and after performing 10 rTMS sessions. The motor scale of upper extremity FMA (UE-FMA) and shoulder component of the UE-FMA were significantly improved in both low- and high-frequency rTMS groups. However, no significant improvement was observed in the wrist and hand components. No significant differences were noted in low- and high-frequency rTMS groups. The amplitude of motor evoked potential on the unaffected hemisphere showed a significant decrease in the low- and high-frequency stimulation groups. rTMS may be helpful in improving upper extremity motor function even in post-stroke patients with severe upper-limb motor impairment.

Cerebral Cortex , Evoked Potentials, Motor , Hand , Humans , Recovery of Function , Shoulder , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation , Upper Extremity , Wrist
Rev. ANACEM (Impresa) ; 14(1): 58-67, 2020. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1123594


Cuando la esquizofrenia no responde satisfactoriamente a tratamiento farmacológico, alcanzar una terapia efectiva para el paciente es una tarea bastante frustrante para el médico psiquiatra. Es en este contexto que la terapia electroconvulsiva y la estimulación magnética transcraneal repetitiva han tomado fuerza en la investigación clínica, a pesar de los grandes cuestionamientos sobre su efectividad y mala reputación. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura en las principales bases de datos disponibles. Concluyendo que ambas terapias demuestran ser herramientas útiles en el tratamiento de la esquizofrenia resistente a tratamiento farmacológico, así como también complementarias a los antipsicóticos

When schizophrenia does not respond satisfactorily to pharmacological treatment, achieving effective therapy for the patient is quite a frustrating task for the psychiatrist. It is in this context that electroconvulsive therapy and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation have gained strength in clinical research, despite huge questions about its success and bad reputation. A systematic review of the literature was conducted in the main available databases. Concluding that both specific therapies will be useful tools in the treatment of schizophrenia resistant to pharmacological treatment, as well as complementary to antipsychotics.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Schizophrenia/therapy , Electroconvulsive Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/adverse effects , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trial
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 41(5): 447-457, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039106


Objective: The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a highly connected cortical region that acts as a hub in major large-scale brain networks. Its dysfunction is associated with a number of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, autism, depression, substance use disorder (SUD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and anxiety disorders. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) studies targeting the mPFC indicate that it may be a useful therapeutic resource in psychiatry due to its selective modulation of this area and connected regions. Methods: This review examines six mPFC rTMS trials selected from 697 initial search results. We discuss the main results, technical and methodological details, safety, tolerability, and localization strategies. Results: Six different protocols were identified, including inhibitory (1 Hz) and excitatory (5, 10, and 20 Hz) frequencies applied therapeutically to patient populations diagnosed with major depressive disorder, OCD, autistic spectrum disorder, SUD, specific phobia, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In the OCD and acrophobia trials, rTMS significantly reduced symptoms compared to placebo. Conclusion: These protocols were considered safe and add interesting new evidence to the growing body of mPFC rTMS literature. However, the small number and low methodological quality of the studies indicate the need for further research.

Humans , Prefrontal Cortex/physiopathology , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation/methods , Mental Disorders/physiopathology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome
Rev. med. (Säo Paulo) ; 98(4): 279-289, jul.-ago. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1023539


Noninvasive brain stimulation therapies are a promising field for the development of new protocols for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. They are based on the stimulation of neural networks with the intent of modeling their synaptic activity to adequate levels. For this, it is necessary to precisely determine which networks are related to which brain functions, and the normal activation level of each of these networks, so that it is possible to direct the stimulation to the affected networks in order to induce the desired effects. These relationships are under intense investigation by the scientific community, and will contribute to the advancement of treatments by neurostimulation, with the emergence of increasingly accurate and effective protocols for different disorders. Currently, the most used techniques are Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, with the most common applications being for treating Major Depressive Disorder. The advancement of research in this field may determine new target networks for stimulation in the treatment of other disorders, extending the application of these techniques and also our knowledge about brain functioning.

As terapias biológicas não invasivas se apresentam como um campo promissor para o desenvolvimento de novos protocolos de tratamento de transtornos neuropsiquiátricos. Elas se baseiam na estimulação de redes neurais com intuito de modular sua atividade sináptica para níveis adequados. Para isso, é necessário a determinação precisa de quais redes estão relacionadas a quais funções cerebrais, e do nível de ativação normal de cada uma dessas redes, para que então seja possível direcionar a estimulação às redes afetadas a fim de induzir os efeitos desejados. Essas relações estão sob intensa investigação pela comunidade científica, e vão contribuir para o avanço dos tratamentos por neuroestimulação, com o surgimento de protocolos cada vez mais precisos e efetivos para diferentes transtornos. Atualmente, as técnicas mais utilizadas são a Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua e a Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana, sendo a aplicação mais comum no tratamento do Transtorno Depressivo Maior. O avanço das pesquisas possivelmente determinará novas redes alvo para estimulação no tratamento de outros transtornos, estendendo a aplicação dessas técnicas e também do nosso conhecimento sobre o funcionamento cerebral.

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation/standards , Implantable Neurostimulators , Neuropsychiatry , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/therapy
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 41(1): 70-81, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-985353


Objective: Noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), are increasingly being used to treat mental disorders, particularly major depression. The aim of this comprehensive review is to summarize the main advances, limitations, and perspectives of the field. Methods: We searched PubMed and other databases from inception to July 2017 for articles, particularly systematic reviews and meta-analyses, evaluating the use of NIBS in psychiatric disorders. Results: We reviewed the mechanisms of action, safety, tolerability, efficacy, and relevant clinical parameters of NIBS. Repetitive TMS is already an established technique for the treatment of depression, and there is theoretically room for further methodological development towards a high-end therapeutic intervention. In contrast, tDCS is a technically easier method and therefore potentially suitable for wider clinical use. However the evidence of its antidepressant efficacy is less sound, and a recent study found tDCS to be inferior to antidepressant pharmacotherapy. Clinical trials using rTMS for other mental disorders produced mixed findings, whereas tDCS use has not been sufficiently appraised. Conclusion: The most promising results of NIBS have been obtained for depression. These techniques excel in safety and tolerability, although their efficacy still warrants improvement.

Humans , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation/methods , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation/methods , Mental Disorders/therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic , Evidence-Based Medicine
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719562


OBJECTIVE: Dysphagia is a major complication of stroke and causes serious problems, such as lung aspiration. Previous reviews of dysphagia treatments for stroke were limited due to a dearth of available studies. More trials have been published recently warranting a re-examination of the evidence. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the effectiveness of interventions for dysphagia in adults following stroke. METHODS: The PRISMA Statement with a 27-item checklist was used as a general guide to conduct and report a quality systematic review. Five electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials published in English between 2008 and 2017 examining the effectiveness of dysphagia interventions following stroke. The search terms were entered by combining the keywords related to dysphagia, stroke, interventions, and randomized controlled trials. RESULTS: Fifteen articles were included; the most commonly used interventions were Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (4 articles), Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (4 articles), and Pharyngeal electrical stimulation (4 articles). CONCLUSION: This review provides evidence of the effectiveness of interventions for people with dysphagia following stroke, but there were some mixed results. The heterogeneity of the outcome measures as well as the mixed results highlight the need for further research.

Adult , Checklist , Deglutition Disorders , Electric Stimulation , Humans , Lung , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Population Characteristics , Stroke , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation