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1.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 129-137, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969815

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect of ubiquitin mutation at position 331 of tumor necrosis factor receptor related factor 6 (TRAF6) on the biological characteristics of colorectal cancer cells and its mechanism. Methods: lentivirus wild type (pCDH-3×FLAG-TRAF6) and mutation (pCDH-3×FLAG-TRAF6-331mut) of TRAF6 gene expression plasmid with green fluorescent protein tag were used to infect colorectal cancer cells SW480 and HCT116, respectively. The infection was observed by fluorescence microscope, and the expressions of TRAF6 and TRAF6-331mut in cells was detected by western blot. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and plate cloning test were used to detect the proliferation ability of colorectal cancer cells in TRAF6 group and TRAF6-331mut group, cell scratch test to detect cell migration, Transwell chamber test to detect cell migration and invasion, immunoprecipitation to detect the ubiquitination of TRAF6 and TRAF6-331mut with ubiquitinof lysine binding sites K48 and K63. Western blot was used to detect the effects of TRAF6 and TRAF6-331mut over expression on the nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and mitogen activated protein kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/activating protein-1(AP-1) signal pathway. Results: The successful infection of colorectal cancer cells was observed under fluorescence microscope. Western blot detection showed that TRAF6 and TRAF6-331mut were successfully expressed in colorectal cancer cells. The results of CCK-8 assay showed that on the fourth day, the absorbance values of HCT116 and SW480 cells in TRAF6-331mut group were 1.89±0.39 and 1.88±0.24 respectively, which were lower than those in TRAF6 group (2.09±0.12 and 2.17±0.45, P=0.036 and P=0.011, respectively). The results of plate colony formation assay showed that the number of clones of HCT116 and SW480 cells in TRAF6-331mut group was 120±14 and 85±14 respectively, which was lower than those in TRAF6 group (190±21 and 125±13, P=0.001 and P=0.002, respectively). The results of cell scratch test showed that after 48 hours, the percentage of wound healing distance of HCT116 and SW480 cells in TRAF6-331mut group was (31±12)% and (33±14)%, respectively, which was lower than those in TRAF6 group [(43±13)% and (43±7)%, P=0.005 and 0.009, respectively]. The results of Transwell migration assay showed that the migration numbers of HCT116 and SW480 cells in TRAF6-331mut group were significantly lower than those in TRAF6 group (P<0.001 and P<0.002, respectively). The results of Transwell invasion assay showed that the number of membrane penetration of HCT116 and SW480 cells in TRAF6-331mut group was significantly lower than those in TRAF6 group (P=0.008 and P=0.009, respectively). The results of immunoprecipitation detection showed that the ubiquitin protein of K48 chain pulled by TRAF6-331mut was lower than that of wild type TRAF6 in 293T cells co-transfected with K48 (0.57±0.19), and the ubiquitin protein of K63 chain pulled down by TRAF6-331mut in 293T cells co-transfected with K63 was lower than that of wild type TRAF6 (0.89±0.08, P<0.001). Western blot assay showed that the protein expression levels of NF-κB, p-NF-κB and p-AP-1 in TRAF6-331mut-HCT116 cells were 0.63±0.08, 0.42±0.08 and 0.60±0.07 respectively, which were lower than those in TRAF6-HCT116 cells (P=0.002, P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). The expression level of AP-1 protein in TRAF6-HCT116 cells was 0.89±0.06, compared with that in TRAF6-HCT116 cells. The difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The protein expression levels of NF-κB, p-NF-κB and p-AP-1 in TRAF6-331mut-SW480 cells were 0.50±0.06, 0.51±0.04, 0.48±0.02, respectively, which were lower than those in TRAF6-SW480 cells (all P<0.001). There was no significant difference in AP-1 protein expression between TRAF6-331mut-SW480 cells and TRAF6-SW480 cells. Conclusion: The ubiquitin site mutation of TRAF6 gene at 331 may prevent the binding of TRAF6 and ubiquitin lysine sites K48 and K63, and then affect the expressions of proteins related to downstream NF-κB and MAPK/AP-1 signal pathways, and inhibit the proliferation, migration and invasion of colorectal cancer cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Lysine/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6/metabolism , Transcription Factor AP-1/metabolism , Ubiquitin/metabolism
2.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 500-507, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982274

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To elucidate the renoprotective effect of resveratrol (RSV) on sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) signaling pathway and expression of its downstream molecules including activator protein 1 (AP-1) and transformation growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs).@*METHODS@#The rat GMCs line (HBZY-1) were cultured and randomly divided into 5 groups, including control, LPS (100 ng/mL), and 5, 10, 20 µmol/L RSV-treated groups. In addition, SphK1 inhibitor (SK-II) was used as positive control. GMCs were pretreated with RSV for 2 h and treated with LPS for another 24 h. GMCs proliferation was determined by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The proteins expression of SphK1, p-c-Jun and TGF-β1 in GMCs were detected by Western blot, and DNA-binding activity of AP-1 was performed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). The binding activity between RSV and SphK1 protein was detected by AutoDock Vina and visualized by Discovery Studio 2016.@*RESULTS@#LPS could obviously stimulate GMCs proliferation, elevate SphK1, p-c-Jun and TGF-β1 expression levels and increase the DNA-binding activity of AP-1 (P<0.05 or P<0.01), whereas these effects were significantly blocked by RSV pretreatment. It was also suggested that the effect of RSV was similar to SK-II (P>0.05). Moreover, RSV exhibited good binding affinity towards SphK1, with docking scores of -8.1 kcal/moL and formed hydrogen bonds with ASP-178 and LEU-268 in SphK1.@*CONCLUSION@#RSV inhibited LPS-induced GMCs proliferation and TGF-β1 expression, which may be independent of its hypoglycemic effect on preventing the development of mesangial cell fibrosis and closely related to the direct inhibition of SphK1 pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Mesangial Cells , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Transcription Factor AP-1 , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Cell Proliferation , DNA , Cells, Cultured
3.
Journal of Cancer Prevention ; : 183-191, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764310

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Abnormal upregulation of prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) is considered to be a key oncogenic event in the development and progression of inflammation-associated human colon cancer. It has been reported that 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), an enzyme catabolizing PGE₂, is ubiquitously downregulated in human colon cancer. 15-Deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostaglandin J₂ (15d-PGJ₂), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ ligand, has been shown to have anticarcinogenic activities. In this study, we investigate the effect of 15d-PGJ₂ on expression of 15-PGDH in human colon cancer HCT116 cells. METHODS: HCT116 cells were treated with 15d-PGJ₂ analysis. The expression of 15-PGDH in the treated cells was measured by Western blot analysis and RT-PCR. In addition, the cells were subjected to a 15-PGDH activity assay. To determine which transcription factor(s) and signaling pathway(s) are involved in 15d-PGJ₂-induced 15-PGDH expression, we performed a cDNA microarray analysis of 15d-PGJ₂-treated cells. The DNA binding activity of AP-1 was measured by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. To determine whether the AP-1 plays an important role in the 15d-PGJ₂-induced 15-PGDH expression, the cells were transfected with siRNA of c-Jun, a major subunit of AP-1. To elucidate the upstream signaling pathways involved in AP-1 activation by 15d-PGJ₂, we examined its effect on phosphorylation of Akt by Western blot analysis in the presence or absence of kinase inhibitor. RESULTS: 15d-PGJ₂ (10 μM) significantly upregulated 15-PGDH expression at the mRNA and protein levels in HCT-116 cells. 15-PGDH activity was also elevated by 15d-PGJ₂. We observed that genes encoding C/EBP delta, FOS-like antigen 1, c-Jun, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were most highly induced in the HCT116 cells following 15d-PGJ₂ treatment. 15d-PGJ₂ increased the DNA binding activity of AP-1. Moreover, transfection with specific siRNA against c-Jun significantly reduced 15-PGDH expression induced by 15d-PGJ₂. 15d-PGJ₂ activates Akt and a pharmacological inhibitor of Akt, LY294002, abrogated 15d-PGJ₂-induced 15-PGDH expression. We also observed that an inhibitor of HO-1, zinc protoporphyrin IX, also abrogated upregulation of 15-PGDH and down-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression induced by 15d-PGJ₂. CONCLUSIONS: These finding suggest that 15d-PGJ₂ upregulates the expression of 15-PGDH through AP-1 activation in colon cancer HCT116 cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blotting, Western , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Cyclooxygenase 2 , DNA , Down-Regulation , Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay , HCT116 Cells , Heme Oxygenase-1 , Heme , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Oxidoreductases , Peroxisomes , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , RNA, Messenger , RNA, Small Interfering , Transcription Factor AP-1 , Transfection , Up-Regulation , Zinc
4.
Journal of Cancer Prevention ; : 123-128, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764303

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in various cellular diseases. Excessive ROS can cause intracellular oxidative stress, resulting in a calcium imbalance and even aging. In this study, we evaluated the protective effect of esculetin on oxidative stress-induced aging in human HaCaT keratinocytes. METHODS: Human keratinocytes were pretreated with esculetin for 30 minutes and treated with H₂O₂. Then, the protective effects on oxidative stress-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 were detected by Flou-4-AM staining, reverse transcription-PCR, Western blotting, and quantitative fluorescence assay. RESULTS: Esculetin prevented H₂O₂-induced aging by inhibiting MMP-1 mRNA, protein, and activity levels. In addition, esculetin decreased abnormal levels of phospho-MEK1, phospho-ERK1/2, phospho-SEK1, phospho-JNK1/2, c-Fos, and phospho-c-Jun and inhibited activator protein 1 binding activity. CONCLUSIONS: Esculetin prevented excessive levels of intracellular calcium and reduced the expression levels of aging-related proteins.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aging , Blotting, Western , Calcium , Fluorescence , Hydrogen Peroxide , Hydrogen , Keratinocytes , Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species , RNA, Messenger , Skin , Transcription Factor AP-1
5.
Journal of Cancer Prevention ; : 37-43, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740091

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress occurs in white adipose tissue and dysregulates the expression of adipokines secreted from adipocytes. Since adipokines influence inflammation, supplementation with antioxidants might be beneficial for preventing oxidative stress-mediated inflammation in adipocytes and inflammation-associated complications. β-Carotene is the most prominent antioxidant carotenoid and scavenges reactive oxygen species in various tissues. The purpose of this study was to determine whether β-carotene regulates the expression of adipokines, such as adiponectin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with glucose/glucose oxidase (G/GO). METHODS: 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cultured with or without β-carotene and treated with G/GO, which produces H2O2. mRNA and protein levels in the medium were determined by a real-time PCR and an ELISA. DNA binding activities of transcription factors were assessed using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. RESULTS: G/GO treatment increased DNA binding affinities of redox-sensitive transcription factors, such as NF-κB, activator protein-1 (AP-1), and STAT3. G/GO treatment reduced the expression of adiponectin and increased the expression of MCP-1 and RANTES. G/GO-induced activations of NF-κB, AP-1, and STAT3 were inhibited by β-carotene. G/GO-induced dysregulation of adiponectin, MCP-1, and RANTES were significantly recovered by treatment with β-carotene. CONCLUSIONS: β-Carotene inhibits oxidative stress-induced inflammation by suppressing pro-inflammatory adipokines MCP-1 and RANTES, and by enhancing adiponectin in adipocytes. β-Carotene may be beneficial for preventing oxidative stress-mediated inflammation, which is related to adipokine dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Adipocytes , Adipokines , Adiponectin , Adipose Tissue, White , Antioxidants , beta Carotene , Chemokine CCL2 , Chemokine CCL5 , DNA , Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Inflammation , Oxidative Stress , Oxidoreductases , Reactive Oxygen Species , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger , Transcription Factor AP-1 , Transcription Factors
6.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 41-52, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773640

ABSTRACT

The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effects of puerarin on angiotensin II-induced cardiac fibroblast proliferation and to explore the molecular mechanisms of action. Considering the role of HO in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activation, we hypothesized that modulating catalase activity would be a potential target in regulating the redox-sensitive pathways. Our results showed that the activation of Rac1 was dependent on the levels of intracellular HO. Puerarin blocked the phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK)1/2, abolished activator protein (AP)-1 binding activity, and eventually attenuated cardiac fibroblast proliferation through the inhibition of HO-dependent Rac1 activation. Further studies revealed that angiotensin II treatment resulted in decreased catalase protein expression and enzyme activity, which was disrupted by puerarin via the upregulation of catalase protein expression at the transcriptional level and the prolonged protein degradation. These findings indicated that the anti-proliferation mechanism of puerarin was mainly through blocking angiontensin II-triggered downregulation of catalase expression and HO-dependent Rac1 activation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Angiotensin II , Pharmacology , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers , Pharmacology , Animals, Newborn , Catalase , Genetics , Metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases , Metabolism , Fibroblasts , Gene Expression Regulation , Heart , Hydrogen Peroxide , Metabolism , Pharmacology , Isoflavones , Pharmacology , Myocardium , Cell Biology , Metabolism , NADPH Oxidases , Metabolism , Neuropeptides , Metabolism , Signal Transduction , Transcription Factor AP-1 , Metabolism , Transcriptional Activation , rac1 GTP-Binding Protein , Metabolism
7.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 645-652, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719028

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adiponectin, an adipokine secreted from adipocytes, affects energy metabolism and also shows anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. Recent studies have reported that adiponectin plays a role in regulating skin inflammation. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of adiponectin on the expression of filaggrin (FLG) in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs). METHODS: NHEKs were serum-starved for 6h before being treated with adiponectin. Afterward, cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. We also treated with calcium, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-13 to provide positive and negative comparative controls, respectively. Gene mRNA expression was quantified using real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and protein expression was evaluated using Western blot. To evaluate the relationship among mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), activator protein 1 (AP-1), and FLG, we also treated cells with inhibitors for MAPKs JNK, p38, and ERK1/2. RESULTS: FLG and FLG-2 mRNA expression in NHEKs significantly increased after treatment with 10 µg/ml adiponectin. Adiponectin also restored FLG and FLG-2 mRNA expression that was otherwise inhibited by treatment with IL-4 and IL-13. Adiponectin induced FLG expression via AP-1 and MAPK signaling. CONCLUSION: Adiponectin positively regulated the expression of FLG and could be useful as a therapeutic agent to control diseases related to disrupted skin barrier function.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adipocytes , Adipokines , Adiponectin , Blotting, Western , Calcium , Cell Differentiation , Cell Survival , Energy Metabolism , Inflammation , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-4 , Interleukins , Keratinocytes , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , RNA, Messenger , Skin , Transcription Factor AP-1
8.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 41-52, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812430

ABSTRACT

The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effects of puerarin on angiotensin II-induced cardiac fibroblast proliferation and to explore the molecular mechanisms of action. Considering the role of HO in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activation, we hypothesized that modulating catalase activity would be a potential target in regulating the redox-sensitive pathways. Our results showed that the activation of Rac1 was dependent on the levels of intracellular HO. Puerarin blocked the phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK)1/2, abolished activator protein (AP)-1 binding activity, and eventually attenuated cardiac fibroblast proliferation through the inhibition of HO-dependent Rac1 activation. Further studies revealed that angiotensin II treatment resulted in decreased catalase protein expression and enzyme activity, which was disrupted by puerarin via the upregulation of catalase protein expression at the transcriptional level and the prolonged protein degradation. These findings indicated that the anti-proliferation mechanism of puerarin was mainly through blocking angiontensin II-triggered downregulation of catalase expression and HO-dependent Rac1 activation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Angiotensin II , Pharmacology , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers , Pharmacology , Animals, Newborn , Catalase , Genetics , Metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases , Metabolism , Fibroblasts , Gene Expression Regulation , Heart , Hydrogen Peroxide , Metabolism , Pharmacology , Isoflavones , Pharmacology , Myocardium , Cell Biology , Metabolism , NADPH Oxidases , Metabolism , Neuropeptides , Metabolism , Signal Transduction , Transcription Factor AP-1 , Metabolism , Transcriptional Activation , rac1 GTP-Binding Protein , Metabolism
9.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 21-27, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713701

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The exact mechanism regulating fibronectin (FN) expression in breast cancer cells has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the pharmacological mechanism of berberine (BBR) with respect to FN expression in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. METHODS: The clinical significance of FN mRNA expression was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier plotter database (http://kmplot.com/breast). FN mRNA and protein expression levels were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. RESULTS: Using publicly available clinical data, we observed that high FN expression was associated with poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer. FN mRNA and protein expression was increased in TNBC cells compared with non-TNBC cells. As expected, recombinant human FN significantly induced cell spreading and adhesion in MDA-MB231 TNBC cells. We also investigated the regulatory mechanism underlying FN expression. Basal levels of FN mRNA and protein expression were downregulated by a specific activator protein-1 (AP-1) inhibitor, SR11302. Interestingly, FN expression in TNBC cells was dose-dependently decreased by BBR treatment. The level of c-Jun phosphorylation was also decreased by BBR treatment. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that FN expression is regulated via an AP-1–dependent mechanism, and that BBR suppresses FN expression in TNBC cells through inhibition of AP-1 activity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Berberine , Blotting, Western , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Cell Adhesion , Fibronectins , Phosphorylation , Prognosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger , Transcription Factor AP-1 , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
10.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 28-36, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713700

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is involved in the pathology of numerous diseases including atherosclerosis, diabetes, obesity, and cancer. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a significant role in tissue remodeling related to various processes such as morphogenesis, angiogenesis, tissue repair, invasion, and metastasis. We investigated the effects of PPARγ on MMP expression and invasion in breast cancer cells. METHODS: MCF-7 cells were cultured and then cell viability was monitored in an MTT assay. Western blotting, gelatin zymography, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and luciferase assays were performed to investigate the effect of the synthetic PPARγ ligand troglitazone on MMP expression. Transcription factor DNA binding was analyzed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. A Matrigel invasion assay was used to assess the effects of troglitazone on MCF-7 cells. RESULTS: Troglitazone did not affect MCF-7 cell viability. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced MMP-9 expression and invasion in MCF-7 cell. However, these effects were decreased by troglitazone. TPA increased nuclear factor κB and activator protein-1 DNA binding, while troglitazone inhibited these effects. The selective PPARγ antagonist GW9662 reversed MMP-9 inhibition by troglitazone in TPA-treated MCF-7 cells. CONCLUSION: Troglitazone inhibited nuclear factor κB and activator protein-1-mediated MMP-9 expression and invasion of MCF-7 cells through a PPARγ-dependent mechanism.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , Blotting, Western , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Cell Survival , DNA , Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay , Gelatin , Luciferases , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Matrix Metalloproteinases , MCF-7 Cells , Morphogenesis , Neoplasm Metastasis , NF-kappa B , Obesity , Pathology , Peroxisomes , PPAR gamma , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Transcription Factor AP-1 , Transcription Factors
11.
The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology ; : 345-352, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727982

ABSTRACT

Since previous studies have reported that hydroquinone (HQ) exerted immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory activity, various HQ derivatives have been synthesized and their biological activities investigated. In this study, we explored the anti-inflammatory activity of JS-III-49, a novel HQ derivative, in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. JS-III-49 suppressed the production of the inflammatory mediators nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and down-regulated the mRNA expression of the inflammatory enzymes cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) as well as the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1b without cytotoxicity in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. JS-III-49 inhibited nuclear translocation of the NF-kB transcription factors p65 and p50 by directly targeting Akt, an upstream kinase of the NF-kB pathway, in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. However, JS-III-49 did not directly inhibit the kinase activities of Src and Syk, which are upstream kinases of Akt, in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, JS-III-49 suppressed the nuclear translocation of c-Fos, one of the components of AP-1, by specifically targeting p38, an upstream mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in the AP-1 pathway in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that JS-III-49 plays an anti-inflammatory role in LPS-stimulated macrophages by targeting Akt and p38 in the NF-kB and AP-1 pathways, respectively.


Subject(s)
Cyclooxygenase 2 , Cytokines , Dinoprostone , Interleukin-6 , Macrophages , NF-kappa B , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Phosphotransferases , Protein Kinases , RNA, Messenger , Transcription Factor AP-1 , Transcription Factors
12.
International Journal of Oral Biology ; : 117-121, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-201473

ABSTRACT

We have previously shown that the specific phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 (LY29), and its inactive analog LY303511 (LY30), inhibit a monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells; these results suggest the potential of LY30 as an anti-inflammatory drug. In this study, we determined the effects of LY30 on the production of various inflammatory cytokines in human macrophagic THP-1 cells which were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LY30 selectively suppressed the mRNA expression of IL-12 p40, TNF-α, and MCP-1 without affecting the expression of IL-1α, IL-6, and IL-8. Inhibition of the production of IL-12 and TNF-α by LY30 was also demonstrated using ELISA assays. In order to elucidate the mechanisms of the action of LY30, we examined the role played by the mitogen-activated protein kinases and the key transcription factors, AP-1 and NF-κB in LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells. The results revealed that LY30 inhibited LPS-induced activation of ERK, but not p38 or JNK. Furthermore, the AP-1 DNA binding activity was suppressed by LY30 based upon the dosage, whereas NF-κB DNA binding was not affected. These results suggest that LY30 selectively inhibits cytokine production in the LPS-stimulated macrophagic THP-1 cells by downregulating the activation of ERK and AP-1.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chemokine CCL2 , Cytokines , DNA , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Interleukin-12 , Interleukin-6 , Interleukin-8 , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase , RNA, Messenger , Transcription Factor AP-1 , Transcription Factors
13.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 470-475, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114058

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity of two abbreviated protocols (AP) of MRI in breast cancer screening of dense breast tissue. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study in 356 participants with dense breast tissue and negative mammography results. The study was approved by the Nanjing Medical University Ethics Committee. Patients were imaged with a full diagnostic protocol (FDP) of MRI. Two APs (AP-1 consisting of the first post-contrast subtracted [FAST] and maximum-intensity projection [MIP] images, and AP-2 consisting of AP-1 combined with diffusion-weighted imaging [DWI]) and FDP images were analyzed separately, and the sensitivities and specificities of breast cancer detection were calculated. RESULTS: Of the 356 women, 67 lesions were detected in 67 women (18.8%) by standard MR protocol, and histological examination revealed 14 malignant lesions and 53 benign lesions. The average interpretation time of AP-1 and AP-2 were 37 seconds and 54 seconds, respectively, while the average interpretation time of the FDP was 3 minutes and 25 seconds. The sensitivities of the AP-1, AP-2, and FDP were 92.9, 100, and 100%, respectively, and the specificities of the three MR protocols were 86.5, 95.0, and 96.8%, respectively. There was no significant difference among the three MR protocols in the diagnosis of breast cancer (p > 0.05). However, the specificity of AP-1 was significantly lower than that of AP-2 (p = 0.031) and FDP (p = 0.035), while there was no difference between AP-2 and FDP (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The AP may be efficient in the breast cancer screening of dense breast tissue. FAST and MIP images combined with DWI of MRI are helpful to improve the specificity of breast cancer detection.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Diagnosis , Ethics Committees , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mammography , Mass Screening , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Transcription Factor AP-1
14.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 234-239, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83457

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Metastatic cancers spread from the primary site of origin to other parts of the body. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is essential in metastatic cancers owing to its major role in cancer cell invasion. Crotonis fructus (CF), the mature fruits of Croton tiglium L., have been used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disturbance in Asia. In this study, the effect of the ethanol extract of CF (CFE) on MMP-9 activity and the invasion of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-treated MCF-7 cells was examined. METHODS: The cell viability was evaluated using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The expression of MMP-9 was examined by Western blotting, zymography, and real-time polymerase chain reaction. An electrophoretic mobility gel shift assay was performed to detect activator protein-1 (AP-1) DNA binding activity and cell invasiveness was measured by an in vitro Matrigel invasion assay. RESULTS: CFE significantly suppressed MMP-9 expression and activation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, CFE attenuated the TPA-induced activation of AP-1. CONCLUSION: The results indicated that the inhibitory effects of CFE against TPA-induced MMP-9 expression and MCF-7 cell invasion were dependent on the protein kinase C δ/p38/c-Jun N-terminal kinase/AP-1 pathway. Therefore, CFE could restrict breast cancer invasiveness owing to its ability to inhibit MMP-9 activity.


Subject(s)
Asia , Blotting, Western , Breast Neoplasms , Cell Survival , Croton , DNA , Ethanol , Fruit , In Vitro Techniques , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , MCF-7 Cells , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Protein Kinase C , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Transcription Factor AP-1
15.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 165-170, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-32628

ABSTRACT

Cordyceps bassiana is one of Cordyceps species with anti-oxidative, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-angiogenic, and anti-nociceptive activities. This mushroom has recently demonstrated to have an ability to reduce 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis symptoms in NC/Nga mice. In this study, we further examined phytochemical properties of this mushroom by column chromatography and HPLC analysis. By chromatographic separation and spectroscopic analysis, 8 compounds, such as 1,9-dimethylguanine (1), adenosine (2), uridine (3), nicotinamide (4), 3-methyluracil (5), 1,7-dimethylxanthine (6), nudifloric acid (7), and mannitol (8) were identified from 6 different fractions and 4 more subfractions. Through evaluation of their anti-inflammatory activities using reporter gene assay and mRNA analysis, compound 1 was found to block luciferase activity induced by NF-κB and AP-1, suppress the mRNA levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Therefore, our data strongly suggests that compound 1 acts as one of major principles in Cordyceps bassiana with anti-inflammatory and anti-atopic dermatitis activities.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Adenosine , Agaricales , Chromatography , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Cordyceps , Dermatitis , Dermatitis, Atopic , Fruit , Genes, Reporter , Luciferases , Mannitol , Niacinamide , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases , RNA, Messenger , Transcription Factor AP-1 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Uridine
16.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 116-124, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-220495

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: We investigated whether angiotensin III (Ang III) is involved in monocyte recruitment through regulation of the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in cultured human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2 cells). METHODS: We measured MCP-1 levels in HK-2 cells that had been treated with various concentrations of Ang III and Ang II type-1 (AT1) receptor antagonists at various time points. The phosphorylation states of p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases were measured in Ang III-treated cells to explore the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. MCP-1 levels in HK-2 cell-conditioned media were measured after pre-treatment with the transcription factor inhibitors curcumin or pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate. RESULTS: Ang III increased MCP-1 protein production in dose- and time-dependent manners in HK-2 cells, which was inhibited by the AT1 receptor blocker losartan. p38 MAPK activity increased significantly in HK-2 cells exposed to Ang III for 30 minutes, and was sustained at higher levels after 60 minutes (p < 0.05). Total phosphorylated JNK protein levels tended to increase 20 minutes after stimulation with Ang III. Pre-treatment with a p38 inhibitor, a JNK inhibitor, or curcumin significantly inhibited Ang III-induced MCP-1 production. CONCLUSIONS: Ang III increases MCP-1 synthesis via stimulation of intracellular p38 and JNK MAPK signaling activity and subsequent activated protein-1 transcriptional activity in HK-2 cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/pharmacology , Angiotensin III/pharmacology , Cell Line , Chemokine CCL2/metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/drug effects , Phosphorylation , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Time Factors , Transcription Factor AP-1/metabolism , Up-Regulation , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors
17.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 595-603, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-209974

ABSTRACT

(E)-3-Phenyl-1-(2-pyrrolyl)-2-propenone (PPP) is a pyrrole derivative of chalcone, in which the B-ring of chalcone linked to β-carbon is replaced by pyrrole group. While pyrrole has been studied for possible Src inhibition activity, chalcone, especially the substituents on the B-ring, has shown pharmaceutical, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant properties via inhibition of NF-κB activity. Our study is aimed to investigate whether this novel synthetic compound retains or enhances the pharmaceutically beneficial activities from the both structures. For this purpose, inflammatory responses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW264.7 cells were analyzed. Nitric oxide (NO) production, inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) mRNA expression, and the intracellular inflammatory signaling cascade were measured. Interestingly, PPP strongly inhibited NO release in a dose-dependent manner. To further investigate this anti-inflammatory activity, we identified molecular pathways by immunoblot analyses of nuclear fractions and whole cell lysates prepared from LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells with or without PPP pretreatment. The nuclear levels of p50, c-Jun, and c-Fos were significantly inhibited when cells were exposed to PPP. Moreover, according to the luciferase reporter gene assay after cotransfection with either TRIF or MyD88 in HEK293 cells, NF-κB-mediated luciferase activity dose-dependently diminished. Additionally, it was confirmed that PPP dampens the upstream signaling cascade of NF-κB and AP-1 activation. Thus, PPP inhibited Syk, Src, and TAK1 activities induced by LPS or induced by overexpression of these genes. Therefore, our results suggest that PPP displays anti-inflammatory activity via inhibition of Syk, Src, and TAK1 activity, which may be developed as a novel anti-inflammatory drug.


Subject(s)
Chalcone , Genes, Reporter , HEK293 Cells , Luciferases , Macrophages , Necrosis , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Phosphotransferases , RNA, Messenger , Transcription Factor AP-1
18.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : e206-2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-147099

ABSTRACT

Charged multivesicular body protein 5 (CHMP5) has a key role in multivesicular body biogenesis and a critical role in the downregulation of signaling pathways through receptor degradation. However, the role of CHMP5 in T-cell receptor (TCR)-mediated signaling has not been previously investigated. In this study, we utilized a short hairpin RNA-based RNA interference approach to investigate the functional role of CHMP5. Upon TCR stimulation, CHMP5-knockdown (CHMP5(KD)) Jurkat T cells exhibited activation of TCR downstream signaling molecules, such as PKCθ and IKKαβ, and resulted in the activation of nuclear factor-κB and the marked upregulation of TCR-induced gene expression. Moreover, we found that activator protein-1 and nuclear factor of activated T-cells transcriptional factors were markedly activated in CHMP5(KD) Jurkat cells in response to TCR stimulation, which led to a significant increase in interleukin-2 secretion. Biochemical studies revealed that CHMP5 endogenously forms high-molecular-weight complexes, including TCR molecules, and specifically interacts with TCRβ. Interestingly, flow cytometry analysis also revealed that CHMP5(KD) Jurkat T cells exhibit upregulation of TCR expression on the cell surface compared with control Jurkat T cells. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that CHMP5 might be involved in the homeostatic regulation of TCR on the cell surface, presumably through TCR recycling or degradation. Thus CHMP5 is implicated in TCR-mediated signaling.


Subject(s)
Humans , Down-Regulation , Flow Cytometry , Gene Expression , Interleukin-2 , Jurkat Cells , Multivesicular Bodies , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell , Recycling , RNA Interference , T-Lymphocytes , Transcription Factor AP-1 , Up-Regulation
19.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : e261-2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-117337

ABSTRACT

CTHRC1 (collagen triple-helix repeat-containing 1), a protein secreted during the tissue-repair process, is highly expressed in several malignant tumors, including pancreatic cancer. We recently showed that CTHRC1 has an important role in the progression and metastasis of pancreatic cancer. Although CTHRC1 secretion affects tumor cells, how it promotes tumorigenesis in the context of the microenvironment is largely unknown. Here we identified a novel role of CTHRC1 as a potent endothelial activator that promotes angiogenesis by recruiting bone marrow-derived cells to the tumor microenvironment during tumorigenesis. Recombinant CTHRC1 (rCTHRC1) enhanced endothelial cell (EC) proliferation, migration and capillary-like tube formation, which was consistent with the observed increases in neovascularization in vivo. Moreover, rCTHRC1 upregulated angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), a Tie2 receptor ligand, through ERK-dependent activation of AP-1 in ECs, resulting in recruitment of Tie2-expressing monocytes (TEMs) to CTHRC1-overexpressing tumor tissues. Treatment with a CTHRC1-neutralizing antibody-abrogated Ang-2 expression in the ECs in vitro. Moreover, administration of a CTHRC1-neutralizing antibody to a xenograft mouse model reduced the tumor burden and infiltration of TEMs in the tumor tissues, indicating that blocking the CTHRC1/Ang-2/TEM axis during angiogenesis inhibits tumorigenesis. Collectively, our findings support the hypothesis that CTHRC1 induction of the Ang-2/Tie2 axis mediates the recruitment of TEMs, which are important for tumorigenesis and can be targeted to achieve effective antitumor responses in pancreatic cancers.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Angiopoietin-2 , Carcinogenesis , Endothelial Cells , Heterografts , In Vitro Techniques , Monocytes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Receptor, TIE-2 , Transcription Factor AP-1 , Tumor Burden , Tumor Microenvironment
20.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 647-651, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-21850

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In the gastric mucosa of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-infected patients with gastritis or adenocarcinoma, proliferation of gastric epithelial cells is increased. Hyperproliferation is related to induction of oncogenes, such as β-catenin and c-myc. Even though transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1 are activated in H. pylori-infected cells, whether NF-κB or AP-1 regulates the expression of β-catenein or c-myc in H. pylori-infected cells has not been clarified. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether H. pylori-induced activation of NF-κB and AP-1 mediates the expression of oncogenes and hyperproliferation of gastric epithelial cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gastric epithelial AGS cells were transiently transfected with mutant genes for IκBα (MAD3) and c-Jun (TAM67) or treated with a specific NF-κB inhibitor caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) or a selective AP-1 inhibitor SR-11302 to suppress activation of NF-κB or AP-1, respecively. As reference cells, the control vector pcDNA was transfected to the cells. Wild-type cells or transfected cells were cultured with or without H. pylori. RESULTS: H. pylori induced activation of NF-κB and AP-1, cell proliferation, and expression of oncogenes (β-catenein, c-myc) in AGS cells, which was inhibited by transfection of MAD3 and TAM67. Wild-type cells and the cells transfected with pcDNA showed similar activities of NF-κB and AP-1, proliferation, and oncogene expression regardless of treatment with H. pylori. Both CAPE and SR-11302 inhibited cell proliferation and expression of oncogenes in H. pylori-infected cells. CONCLUSION: H. pylori-induced activation of NF-κB and AP-1 regulates transcription of oncogenes and mediates hyperproliferation in gastric epithelial cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blotting, Western , Caffeic Acids , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Gastric Mucosa/metabolism , Gastritis/pathology , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial , Helicobacter Infections/metabolism , Helicobacter pylori/pathogenicity , NF-kappa B/antagonists & inhibitors , Peptide Fragments , Phenylethyl Alcohol/analogs & derivatives , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun , Repressor Proteins , Transcription Factor AP-1/biosynthesis , Transcription Factors/metabolism , beta Catenin/metabolism
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