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1.
Clinics ; 68(6): 887-891, jun. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-676940

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The expression of transcription factors involved in early pituitary development, such as PROP1 and POU1F1, has been detected in pituitary adenoma tissues. In this study, we sought to characterize the transcriptional profiles of PROP1, POU1F1, and TBX19 in functioning and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas in an attempt to identify their roles in tumorigenesis and hormone hypersecretion. METHODS: RT-qPCR analyses were performed to assess the transcriptional pattern of PROP1, POU1F1, TBX19, and hormone-producing genes in tissue samples of corticotrophinomas (n = 10), somatotrophinomas (n = 8), and nonfunctioning adenomas (n = 6). RESULTS: Compared with normal pituitary tissue, POU1F1 was overexpressed in somatotrophinomas by 3-fold. PROP1 expression was 18-fold higher in corticotrophinomas, 10-fold higher in somatotrophinomas, and 3-fold higher in nonfunctioning adenomas. TBX19 expression was 27-fold higher in corticotrophinomas. Additionally, the level of TBX19 mRNA positively correlated with that of pro-opiomelanocortin (r = 0.49, p = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that PROP1 is overexpressed in pituitary adenomas, mainly in corticotrophinomas. Together with previously published data showing that patients who harbor PROP1 loss-of-function mutations present a progressive decline in corticotrope function, our results support a role for PROP1 in pituitary tumor development and in the maintenance of cell lineages committed to corticotrophic differentiation. .


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma/metabolism , Adenoma/metabolism , Homeodomain Proteins/metabolism , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , T-Box Domain Proteins/metabolism , Transcription Factor Pit-1/metabolism , ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma/genetics , ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma/pathology , Adenoma/genetics , Adenoma/pathology , Cell Differentiation , Homeodomain Proteins/genetics , Immunohistochemistry , Neoplasm Proteins/genetics , Pituitary Gland , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , T-Box Domain Proteins/genetics , Transcription Factor Pit-1/genetics , Transcription Factors/genetics , Transcription Factors/metabolism
2.
São Paulo; s.n; 2010. [86] p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-579193

ABSTRACT

Os craniofaringiomas são os tumores mais frequentes da região hipotálamohipofisária na faixa etária pediátrica. Apesar de serem histologicamente benignos, sua tendência infiltrativa e seu comportamento agressivo resultam em significante morbimortalidade. Histologicamente podem ser divididos em dois subtipos: adamantinomatosos e papilíferos. A patogênese dos craniofaringiomas é pouco compreendida. Mutações no gene CTNNB1, que codifica a proteína beta-catenina, são a única alteração molecular conhecida até o momento implicada na tumorigênese dos craniofaringiomas adamantinomatosos. Tais mutações afetam o sítio de degradação da beta-catenina, que passa a se acumular no citoplasma e no núcleo, ativando excessivamente a via de sinalização WNT, através da ligação aos fatores de transcrição da família LEF/TCF, levando a tumorigênese. Recentemente foi descoberto um novo mecanismo de determinação da linhagem celular hipofisária regulado pela beta-catenina, através do qual ela interage diretamente com o PROP1 para determinar a diferenciação celular hipofisária. De acordo com esse modelo, o complexo protéico PROP1/beta- catenina atua simultaneamente como repressor do HESX1 e ativador do PIT1, dependendo dos co-fatores associados. Pacientes com mutações germinativas inativadoras no PROP1 desenvolvem hipopituitarismo e podem apresentar aumento hipofisário com imagens de ressonância nuclear magnética (RNM) da região selar muitas vezes semelhantes àquelas dos craniofaringiomas, com hiperssinal em T1. Por outro lado, camundongos com expressão persistente do Prop1 exibem defeitos na regulação da proliferação celular hipofisária, incluindo cistos da bolsa de Rathke, hiperplasia adenomatosa e tumores, sugerindo que mutações com ganho de função no PROP1 também poderiam contribuir para a patogênese de tumores hipofisários em seres humanos. A semelhança entre as imagens de RNM dos pacientes com craniofaringiomas e daqueles com aumento hipofisário devido a mutações...


Craniopharyngiomas are the the commonest tumors to involve the hypothalamo-pituitary regions in childhood population. Histologically they are benign, and can be divided in two primary subtypes: the adamantinomatous and the papillary. Although histologically benign, their infiltrative tendency and aggressive behavior can result in great morbidity. The pathogenesis of craniopharyngiomas is poorly understood. To date, beta-catenin gene (CTNNB1) mutations have been identified only in the adamantinomatous subtype. These mutations affect the degradation target box of beta-catenin that accumulates in the cytoplasm and the nucleus increasing the transcriptional activity of WNT pathway through interaction with the transcription factors of LEF/TCF family, leading to tumorigenesis. Recently, an interaction between beta-catenin and PROP1 was described as a new mecanism for beta-catenindependent regulation of pituitary cell-lineage determination. According to this novel model, the PROP1/beta-catenin proteic complex would act as a binary switch to simultaneously repress the transcription factor HESX1 and to activate expression of transcription factor PIT1, depending on the associated cofactors. Patients with loss-of-function mutations in PROP1 present combined pituitary hormonal deficiency generally associated with pituitary enlargement and the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the sellar region in these patients sometimes resembles that of the craniopharyngiomas, with T1 hyperintense signal. On the other hand, transgenic mice with persistent Prop1 expression exhibit defects consistent with misregulation of pituitary cell proliferation, including adenomatous hyperplasia with formation of Rathke's cleft cysts and tumors suggesting that misregulation of PROP1 expression in human could contribute to pathogenesis of pituitary tumors. The similarity between the MRI images of craniopharyngiomas patients and that of patients with loss-of-function mutations in...


Subject(s)
beta Catenin , Craniopharyngioma , Transcription Factor Pit-1/genetics , Gene Expression , Mutation, Missense , Homeodomain Proteins/genetics , Sella Turcica/pathology
3.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 136(8): 996-1006, ago. 2008. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-495798

ABSTRACT

Background: Congenital hypopituitarism is an uncommon cause of hypophyseal insufficiency It is less common than growth hormone deficiency which has an incidence of 1:4.000 to 1:8.000 Uve newborns. Early diagnosis ofthis condition is important to prevent impairment of cognitive function, poor growth and alterations in metabolic profile in these patients. Aim: To report 23 patients diagnosed with congenital hypopituitarism. Material and methods: Retrospective review of clinical records of 23 patients (12 males) with congenital hypopituitarism, diagnosed during a 21 years period. In a group of 16 patients a molecular study was performed searching for mutations in HESX1, PROP-1 or POUF-1. Results: Short stature was the most frequent sign at the first evaluation, followed by neonatal hypoglycemia and presence of nistagmus, strabismus, atrophic optic nerve or malformations in the middle Une showed in CNS imaging, suggesting septo-optic-dysplasia. All male patients diagnosed during neonatal period, exhibited micropenis. CNS images showed isolated hypophyseal hypoplasia or associated to an ectopic neurohypophysis in most patients. No patient in the subgroup subjected to molecular analysis had any of the mutations in the searched genes. Conclusions: The diagnosis of hypopituitarism must be based on clinical grounds, speciaUy when hypoglycemia, prolonged jaundice, micropenis or midline alterations are found in the neonatal period.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Hypopituitarism/congenital , Hypopituitarism/genetics , Follow-Up Studies , Homeodomain Proteins/genetics , Hypopituitarism/diagnosis , Mutation , Retrospective Studies , Transcription Factor Pit-1/genetics , Transcription Factors/genetics
4.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 51(7): 1097-1103, out. 2007. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-470073

ABSTRACT

Combined Pituitary Hormone Deficiency (CPHD) is a prevalent disease in Neuroendocrinology services. The genetic form of CPHD may originate from mutations in pituitary transcription factor (PTF) genes and the pituitary image in these cases may give a clue of what PTF is most probably mutated: defects in LHX4 are usually associated with ectopic posterior pituitary (EPP); defects in LHX3, PIT1, and PROP1, with normally placed posterior pituitary (NPPP); HESX1 mutations are associated with both. OBJECTIVE: To identify mutations in PTF genes in patients with idiopathic hypopituitarism followed in our service, based on the presence or absence of EPP on sellar MRI. METHODS: Forty patients with idiopathic hypopituitarism (36 families, 9 consanguineous), followed in the Neuroendocrinology Outpatient Clinic of UNIFESP, Brazil, were submitted to sequencing analyses of PTF genes as follows: LHX3, HESX1, PIT1, and PROP1 were sequenced in patients with NPPP (26/40) and HESX1 and LHX4 in patients with EPP (14/40). RESULTS: We identified only PROP1 mutations in 9 out of 26 patients with CPHD and NPPP (35 percent). Since eight of them came from 4 consanguineous families, the prevalence of PROP1 mutations was higher when only consanguineous families were considered (44 percent, 4/9). At the end of the study, we decided to sequence PROP1 in patients with EPP, just to confirm that they were not candidates for PROP1 mutations. No patients with EPP had PROP1 or other PTF mutations. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with idiopathic CPHD and NPPP, born from consanguineous parents, are the strong candidates for PROP1 mutations. Other developmental gene(s) may be involved in the genesis of idiopathic hypopituitarism associated with EPP.


Deficiência Combinada de Hormônios Hipofisários (DCHH) é uma doença prevalente em todos os serviços de Neuroendocrinologia. A DCHH de origem genética pode resultar de mutações nos genes de fatores de transcrição hipofisários (FTH), e a ressonância magnética (RM) de sela desses pacientes pode indicar qual FTH tem maior probabilidade de estar mutado: mutações no LHX4 estão geralmente associadas a neuro-hipófise ectópica (NHE); mutações no LHX3, PIT1 e PROP1, a neuro-hipófise tópica (NHT); mutações no HESX1 podem estar associadas a NHE e NHT. OBJETIVO: Identificar mutações nos FTH em pacientes acompanhados em nosso serviço, portadores de hipopituitarismo idiopático, selecionando os genes a serem estudados de acordo com a presença ou ausência de NHE à RM sela. MÉTODOS: Os genes dos FTH foram seqüenciados em 40 pacientes com hipopituitarismo idiopático (36 famílias, 9 consangüíneas), acompanhados na unidade de Neuroendocrinologia da UNIFESP, SP, Brasil: LHX3, HESX1, PIT1 e PROP1 foram seqüenciados nos pacientes com NHT (26/40) e HESX1 e LHX4, nos pacientes com NHE (14/40). RESULTADOS: Somente mutações PROP1 foram identificadas em 9 de 26 pacientes (35 por cento) com NHT, 8 deles provenientes de 4 famílias consangüíneas (4/9, 44 por cento). Uma vez que mutações no PROP1 foram tão freqüentes, decidimos, ao final do estudo, seqüenciá-lo também nos pacientes com NHE. Nenhum paciente com NHE apresentou mutações no PROP1 ou em outro FTH. CONCLUSÃO: Mutações no gene PROP1 foram encontradas em 22,5 por cento (9/40) de todos os pacientes, em 35 por cento (9/26) dos pacientes com NHT e em 44 por cento (4/9) se considerarmos somente as famílias consangüíneas. Portanto, pacientes com DCHH idiopática e NHT, provenientes de famílias de pais consangüíneos, são os melhores candidatos a mutações PROP1.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Homeodomain Proteins/genetics , Hypopituitarism/genetics , Transcription Factor Pit-1/genetics , Transcription Factors/genetics , DNA Mutational Analysis , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Hypopituitarism/diagnosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mutation, Missense , Pituitary Hormones, Posterior/deficiency , Pituitary Hormones, Posterior/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA
5.
Genet. mol. res. (Online) ; 6(1): 222-237, 2007. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-456768

ABSTRACT

Sequence polymorphisms in the growth hormone (GH) gene and its transcriptional regulators, Pit-1 and Prop-1, were evaluated for associations with growth and carcass traits in two populations of Brangus bulls Chihuahuan Desert Rangeland Research Center (CDRRC, N = 248 from 14 sires) and a cooperating breeding program (COOP, N = 186 from 34 sires). Polymorphisms were SNP mutations in intron 4 (C/T) and exon V (C/G) in GH, A/G in exon VI in Pit-1, and A/G in exon III in Prop-1. In the COOP population, bulls of Pit-1 GG genotype had a significantly greater percentage of intramuscular fat than bulls of the AA or AG genotype, and bulls of the Prop-1 AA genotype had significantly greater scrotal circumference than bulls of AG or GG genotypes at ~365 days of age. Also, heterozygous genotypes for the two GH polymorphisms appeared advantageous for traits of muscularity and adiposity in the COOP population. The heterozygous genotype of GH intron 4 SNP was associated with advantages in weight gain, scrotal circumference, and fat thickness in the CDRRC population. The two GH polymorphisms accounted for ³27.7% of the variation in these traits in the CDRRC population; however, R2 was <5% in the COOP population. Based on haplotype analyses the two GH SNPs appeared to be in phase; the haplotype analyses also paralleled with the genotype analyses. Polymorphisms in GH and its transcriptional regulators appear to be predictors of growth and carcass traits in Brangus bulls, particularly those with heterozygous GH genotypes


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Cattle/genetics , DNA , Growth Hormone/genetics , Homeodomain Proteins/genetics , Quantitative Trait, Heritable , Transcription Factor Pit-1/genetics , Body Composition/genetics , Cattle/growth & development , Genotype , Haplotypes , Phenotype , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics
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