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1.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 67-74, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009355

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis of two children with unexplained psychomotor developmental delay and facial dysmorphisms suggestive of Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS).@*METHODS@#A boy and a girl suspected for CSS at the 980th Hospital of the People's Liberation Army Joint Service Support Force respectively in July 2019 and January 2021, and seven members from their families, were selected as the study subjects. Clinical data and family history of the children were collected, and detailed physical examination was carried out, in addition with laboratory and related auxiliary examinations. Potential variants and copy number variations (CNVs) were detected by whole exome sequencing (WES) and copy number variation sequencing (CNV-seq).@*RESULTS@#Child 1, an 8-month-old female, had featured microcephaly, atrial septal defect, curving of fifth finger/toe, and low limb muscle tone. Child 2 was a 2.5-year-old male with language delay, social impairment, dense hair but no curving of the fifth fingers. Genetic testing revealed that child 1 had loss of heterozygosity for exons 8 to 21 of the ARID1B gene, which was unreported previously. Family verification showed that both of her parents were of the wild type. Based on the guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) and American Society of Molecular Pathology (AMP), the variant was rated as pathogenic (PVS1+PS2+PM2-supporting). Child 2 was found to harbor a heterozygous c.4263-6 (IVS17) T>G variant of the ARID1B gene. Transcriptome sequencing confirmed that the variant can affect the normal splicing, resulting in retention of a 5 bp sequence in intron 17. Family verification showed that both of his parents were of the wild type. Based on the guidelines from the ACMG, the variant was rated as pathogenic (PS2+PM2-supporting+PP3+PS3).@*CONCLUSION@#WES and RNA-seq have confirmed the diagnosis of CSS in both children. Discovery of the novel variants has expanded the spectrum of pathogenic mutations underlying CSS, and provided a basis for the genetic counseling.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Abnormalities, Multiple/diagnosis , DNA Copy Number Variations , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Intellectual Disability/diagnosis , Micrognathism/genetics , Mutation , Transcription Factors/genetics
2.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 32-37, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009349

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the trinucleotide repeats of GCN (GCA, GCT, GCC, GCG) encoding Alanine in exon 3 of the PHOX2B gene among healthy individuals from southwest China and two patients with Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS).@*METHODS@#The number and sequence of the GCN repeats of the PHOX2B gene were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis, Sanger sequencing and cloning sequencing of 518 healthy individuals and two newborns with CCHS, respectively.@*RESULTS@#Among the 1036 alleles of the 518 healthy individuals, five alleles were identified, including (GCN)7, (GCN)13, (GCN)14, (GCN)15 and (GCN)20. The frequency of the (GCN)20 allele was the highest (94.79%). And five genotypes were identified, which included (GCN)7/(GCN)20, (GCN)13/(GCN)20, (GCN)14/(GCN)20, (GCN)15/(GCN)20, (GCN)20/(GCN)20. The homozygous genotypes were all (GCN)20/(GCN)20, and the carrier rate was 89.58%. Four GCN sequences of the (GCN)20 homozygous genotypes were identified among the 464 healthy individuals. The GCN repeat numbers in the exon 3 of the PHOX2B gene showed no significant difference between the expected and observed values, and had fulfilled the,Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The genotypes of the two CCHS patients were (GCN)20/(GCN)25 and (GCN)20/(GCN)30, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#It is important to determine the GCN repeats and genotypic data of the exon 3 of the PHOX2B gene among the healthy individuals. The number of GCN repeats in 518 healthy individuals was all below 20. The selection of appropriate methods can accurately detect the polyalanine repeat mutations (PARMs) of the PHOX2B gene, which is conducive to the early diagnosis, intervention and treatment of CCHS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Homeodomain Proteins/genetics , Hypoventilation/congenital , Mutation , Sleep Apnea, Central/genetics , Transcription Factors/genetics
3.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 58-63, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012425

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological and genetic features of epithelioid and spindle cell rhabdomysarcoma with EWSR1-TFCP2 or FUS-TFCP2 fusion. Methods: The clinical, morphological and immunohistochemical features of 14 cases of epithelioid and spindle cell rhabdomysarcoma with EWSR1-TFCP2 or FUS-TFCP2 fusion diagnosed from January 2019 to December 2022 in the Department of Pathology, Foshan Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Foshan, China were retrospectively analyzed. The cases were all subject to FISH or next generation sequencing for analysis of molecular genetic features. The literature was reviewed. Results: There were 5 males and 9 females, with the age at presentation ranging from 6 to 36 years (mean, 22 years). Tumors occurred in the head and neck (9 cases), pelvic region (2 cases), bladder (one case), right humerus (one case), and the abdominal wall, humerus and pubic at the same time (one case). Presenting symptoms varied by location but often included pain or discomfort. Most of the patients showed aggressive radiographic features with soft tissue extension. The tumors had a median size of 6.6 cm (range, 2-23 cm). The tumors were poorly defined and irregularly shaped. Microscopic examination showed diffuse proliferation of spindle or epithelioid cells. While morphologically high-grade tumors displayed obvious cytological atypia, a high mitotic count and tumor necrosis, low-grade tumors grew in sheets and fascicles composed of spindle, epithelioid cells with moderate or abundant amounts of eosinophilic cytoplasm, without pronounced cytological atypia. The tumor cells expressed Desmin, MyoD1, and Myogenin, as well as ALK, EMA, and CKpan. EWSR1/FUS-TFCP2 gene fusion was detected in 14 cases with next generation sequencing and confirmed by FISH. Six cases had EWSR1-TFCP2 fusions and 8 cases showed FUS-TFCP2 fusions. Follow-up information was available in 13 patients, ranged from 5 to 37 months. At the end of follow-up period, 7 patients died of the disease. Six patients were alive:two cases had local recurrences and metastases, two cases of recurrences, one case of metastasis and one case without recurrences and metastasis. Conclusions: Epithelioid and spindle cell rhabdomysarcomas with EWSR1-TFCP2 or FUS-TFCP2 fusion show a very aggressive clinical course, and more commonly occur in the head and neck. Their genetic hallmark is the presence of EWSR1/FUS-TFCP2 fusions. Familiarity with its clinicopathological characteristics is helpful in avoiding misdiagnoses.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Retrospective Studies , Transcription Factors/genetics , Rhabdomyosarcoma , RNA-Binding Protein EWS/genetics , China , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Protein FUS/genetics
4.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 52-57, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012424

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features and treatment of gastric alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing adenocarcinoma with SWI/SNF complex deletion. Methods: Four cases of gastric AFP-producing adenocarcinoma with SWI/SNF complex deletion diagnosed in Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University from January 2021 to December 2022 were collected, and their histomorphological characteristics, immunohistochemical (IHC), in situ hybridization of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA (EBER), next-generation sequencing results, clinicopathological features and treatment were summarized, and literature review was conducted. Results: Among the 4 patients, there were three males and one female. They presented with abdominal pain, belching and melena. Serum AFP was significantly elevated in three patients, and endoscopy showed ulcerative lesions. Microscopically, the tumor cells showed mainly diffuse flaky or nest-like growth and typical characteristics of hepatoid adenocarcinoma. In two cases there were adenoid growth, and the tumor cells in these areas possessed clear cytoplasm, suggesting enteroblastic differentiation. The tumor cell nuclei were pleomorphic with large nucleoli and brisk mitoses. The IHC results showed that the tumor cells expressed AFP, GPC3 and SALL4, and there was retained expression of broad-spectrum keratin (CKpan) and E-cadherin. IHC detection of SWI/SNF complex subunits, namely INI1 (SMARCB1), BRG1 (SMARCA4), BRM (SMARCA2), ARID1A protein was performed. In all four cases the hepatoid adenocarcinoma region and enteroblastic differentiation region showed SMARCA2 deletion, and one case with enteroblastic differentiation also showed ARID1A deletion. SMARCB1 and SMARCA4 deletions were not seen. All the four cases were diffusely positive for p53 protein, and the Ki-67 proliferation index was 80%-90%. There were no mismatch repair deletion detected; one cases showed HER2 was strongly positive (3+), and EBER was negative. None of the four cases had mutations in the SWI/SNF complex-related subunits detected by next-generation sequencing. Among the four patients, two underwent palliative surgery due to distant metastasis at the time of surgery, two underwent radical resection. Postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy was given to three patients. Conclusions: AFP-producing adenocarcinoma is a rare subtype of gastric cancer, which can be combined with SWI/SNF complex deletion, and the pathomorphological manifestations are different from the classical SWI/SNF complex deletion of undifferentiated carcinoma with rhabdoid phenotype.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Female , alpha-Fetoproteins , Stomach Neoplasms/genetics , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , DNA Helicases/genetics , Nuclear Proteins , Transcription Factors/genetics , Glypicans
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 53-62, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008079

ABSTRACT

Abiotic stresses substantially affect the growth and development of plants. Plants have evolved multiple strategies to cope with the environmental stresses, among which transcription factors play an important role in regulating the tolerance to abiotic stresses. Basic leucine zipper transcription factors (bZIP) are one of the largest gene families. The stability and activity of bZIP transcription factors could be regulated by different post-translational modifications (PTMs) in response to various intracellular or extracellular stresses. This paper introduces the structural feature and classification of bZIP transcription factors, followed by summarizing the PTMs of bZIP transcription factors, such as phosphorylation, ubiquitination and small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) modification, in response to abiotic stresses. In addition, future perspectives were prospected, which may facilitate cultivating excellent stress-resistant crop varieties by regulating the PTMs of bZIP transcription factors.


Subject(s)
Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors/genetics , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Phosphorylation , Transcription Factors/genetics , Stress, Physiological/genetics
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 35-52, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008078

ABSTRACT

WRKYs is a unique family of transcription factors (TFs) in plants, and belongs to the typical multifunctional regulator. It is involved in the regulation of multiple signaling pathways. This type of transcription factor is characterized to contain about 60 highly conservative amino acids as the WRKY domain, and usually also has the Cys2His2 or Cys2His-Cys zinc finger structure. WRKYs can directly bind to the W-box sequence ((T)(T) TGAC (C/T)) in the promoter region of the downstream target gene, and activate or inhibit the transcription of the target genes by interacting with the target protein. They may up-regulate the expression of stress-related genes through integrating signal pathways mediated by abscisic acid (ABA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus playing a vital role in regulating plant response to abiotic stresses. This review summarizes the advances in research on the structure and classification, regulatory approach of WRKYs, and the molecular mechanisms of WRKYs involved in response to drought and salt stresses, and prospects future research directions, with the aim to provide a theoretical support for the genetic improvement of crop in response to abiotic stresses.


Subject(s)
Transcription Factors/genetics , Abscisic Acid , Amino Acids , Droughts , Stress, Physiological/genetics
7.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 659-668, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010073

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The SMARCA4 mutation has been shown to account for at least 10% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the present, conventional radiotherapy and targeted therapy are difficult to improve outcomes due to the highly aggressive and refractory nature of SMARCA4-deficient NSCLC (SMARCA4-DNSCLC) and the absence of sensitive site mutations for targeted drug therapy, and chemotherapy combined with or without immunotherapy is the main treatment. Effective SMARCA4-DNSCLC therapeutic options, however, are still debatable. Our study aimed to investigate the efficacy and prognosis of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in combination with chemotherapy and chemotherapy in patients with stage III-IV SMARCA4-DNSCLC.@*METHODS@#46 patients with stage III-IV SMARCA4-DNSCLC were divided into two groups based on their treatment regimen: the chemotherapy group and the PD-1 ICIs plus chemotherapy group, and their clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. Efficacy assessment and survival analysis were performed in both groups, and the influencing factors for prognosis were explored for patients with SMARCA4-DNSCLC.@*RESULTS@#Male smokers are more likely to develop SMARCA4-DNSCLC. There was no significant difference in the objective response rate (76.5% vs 69.0%, P=0.836) between chemotherapy and the PD-1 ICIs plus chemotherapy or the disease control rate (100.0% vs 89.7%, P=0.286). The one-year overall survival rate in the group with PD-1 ICIs plus chemotherapy was 62.7%, and that of the chemotherapy group was 46.0%. The difference in median progression-free survival (PFS) between the PD-1 ICIs plus chemotherapy group and the chemotherapy group was statistically significant (9.3 mon vs 6.1 mon, P=0.048). The results of Cox regression analysis showed that treatment regimen and smoking history were independent influencing factors of PFS in patients with stage III-IV SMARCA4-DNSCLC, and family history was an individual influencing factor of overall survival in patients with stage III-IV SMARCA4-DNSCLC.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Treatment regimen may be a prognostic factor for patients with SMARCA4-DNSCLC, and patients with PD-1 ICIs plus chemotherapy may have a better prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , Prognosis , DNA Helicases/genetics , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Transcription Factors/genetics
8.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 1146-1149, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009266

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical characteristics and genetic etiology of a patient with mental retardation and ejaculatory dysfunction.@*METHODS@#A patient with mental retardation and ejaculatory dysfunction who was admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Air Force Military Medical University on November 18, 2021 was selected as the study subject. Clinical data of the patient were collected. Peripheral venous blood samples were collected from the patient and his parents. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was carried out for the patient, and the candidate variant was verified by Sanger sequencing and bioinformatic analysis.@*RESULTS@#The patient, a 26-year-old male, had manifested atypical mental retardation and ejaculatory dysfunction. WES revealed that he has harbored a heterozygous variant of the ARID1B gene, namely c.5776C>T (p.Arg1926X). Sanger sequencing verified that neither of his parents has carried the same variant. The variant has been recorded in the 1000 Genomes, ExAC, gnomAD and ClinVar databases. A search of the dbSNP database suggested that the variant has a population frequency of 0.000 4%. The variant was predicted as deleterious by online software including Mutation Taster, CADD, and MutPred. Analysis with Cluster Omega online software suggested that the amino acid encoded by the variant site was highly conserved among various species. Analysis with PyMOL software suggested that the variant may affect the function of the encoded protein. Based on the guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) and ClinGen, the variant was predicted to be pathogenic.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.5776C>T (p.Arg1926X) variant of the ARID1B gene probably underlay the mental retardation and ejaculatory dysfunction in this patient. Above finding has broadened the spectrum of the ARID1B gene variants and provided reference for the diagnosis and treatment of the patient.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Adult , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Transcription Factors/genetics , Computational Biology , Gene Frequency , Genomics , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5779-5789, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008775

ABSTRACT

This study aims to mine the transcription factors that affect the genuineness of Codonopsis pilosula in Shanxi based on the transcriptome data of C. pilosula samples collected from Shanxi and Gansu, and then analyze the gene expression patterns, which will provide a theoretical basis for the molecular assisted breeding of C. pilosula. Gene ontology(GO) functional annotation, conserved motif prediction, and gene expression pattern analysis were performed for the differential transcription factors predicted based on the transcriptome data of C. pilosula from different habitats. A total of 61 differentially expressed genes(DEGs) were screened out from the transcriptome data. Most of the DEGs belonged to AP2/ERF-ERF family, with the conserved motif of [2X]-[LG]-[3X]-T-[3X]-[AARAYDRAA]-[3X]-[RG]-[2X]-A-[2X]-[NFP]. Forty-three of the DEGs showed significantly higher gene expression in C. pilosula samples from Shanxi than in the samples from Gansu, including 11 genes in the AP2/ERF-ERF family, 5 genes in the NAC fa-mily, 1 gene in the bHLH family, and 2 genes in the RWP-RK family, while 18 transcription factors showed higher expression levels in the samples from Gansu. GO annotation predicted that most of the DEGs were enriched in GO terms related to transcriptional binding activity(103), metabolic process(26), and stress response(23). The expression of transcription factor genes, CpNAC92, CpNAC100, CpbHLH128, and CpRAP2-7 was higher in the samples from Shanxi and in the roots of C. pilosula. CpNAC92, CpbHLH128, and CpRAP2-7 responded to the low temperature, temperature difference, and iron stresses, while CpNAC100 only responded to low temperature and iron stresses. The screening and expression analysis of the specific transcription factors CpNAC92, CpNAC100, CpbHLH128, and CpRAP2-7 in C. pilosula in Shanxi laid a theoretical foundation for further research on the mechanism of genuineness formation of C. pilosula.


Subject(s)
Codonopsis/chemistry , Transcription Factors/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Transcriptome , Iron
10.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 388-393, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981968

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the association of ventricular septal defect (VSD) with rare variations in the promoter region of HAND2 gene, as well as related molecular mechanisms.@*METHODS@#Blood samples were collected from 349 children with VSD and 345 healthy controls. The target fragments were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced to identify the rare variation sites in the promoter region of the HAND2 gene. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to perform a functional analysis of the variation sites. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) was used to investigate related molecular mechanisms. TRANSFAC and JASPAR databases were used to predict transcription factors.@*RESULTS@#Sequencing revealed that three variation sites (g.173530852A>G, g.173531173A>G, and g.173531213C>G) were only observed in the promoter region of the HAND2 gene in 10 children with VSD, among whom 4 children had only one variation site. The dual-luciferase reporter assay revealed that g.173531213C>G reduced the transcriptional activity of the HAND2 gene promoter. EMSA and transcription factor prediction revealed that g.173531213C>G created a binding site for transcription factor.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The rare variation, g.173531213C>G, in the promoter region of the HAND2 gene participates in the development and progression of VSD possibly by affecting the binding of transcription factors.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Base Sequence , Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Transcription Factors/genetics
11.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 563-567, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981789

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a fetus with Cardiac-urogenital syndrome (CUGS).@*METHODS@#A fetus with congenital heart disease identified at the Maternal Fetal Medical Center for Fetal Heart Disease, Beijing Anzhen Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University in January 2019 was selected as the study subject. Clinical data of the fetus was collected. Copy number variation sequencing (CNV-seq) and trio-whole exome sequencing (trio-WES) were carried out for the fetus and its parents. Candidate variants were verified by Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#Detailed fetal echocardiographic examination had revealed hypoplastic aortic arch. The results of trio-WES revealed that the fetus has harbored a de novo splice variant of the MYRF gene (c.1792-2A>C), for which both parents were of the wild-type. Sanger sequencing confirmed the variant to be de novo. Based on the guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG), the variant was rated as likely pathogenic. CNV-seq has identified no chromosomal anomalies. And the fetus was diagnosed with Cardiac-urogenital syndrome.@*CONCLUSION@#The de novo splice variant of the MYRF gene probably underlay the abnormal phenotype in the fetus. Above finding has enriched the spectrum of MYRF gene variants.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , DNA Copy Number Variations , Fetal Diseases , Fetus/abnormalities , Heart Defects, Congenital/genetics , Mutation , Transcription Factors/genetics
12.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2897-2913, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981239

ABSTRACT

MADS-box gene family is a significant transcription factor family that plays a crucial role in regulating plant growth, development, signal transduction, and other processes. In order to study the characteristics of MADS-box gene family in Docynia delavayi (Franch.) Schneid. and its expression during different stages of seed germination, this study used seedlings at different stages of germination as materials and screened MADS-box transcription factors from the transcriptome database of D. delavayi using bioinformatics methods based on transcriptome sequencing. The physical and chemical properties, protein conservative motifs, phylogenetic evolution, and expression patterns of the MADS-box transcription factors were analyzed. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to verify the expression of MADS-box gene family members during different stages of seed germination in D. delavayi. The results showed that 81 genes of MADS-box gene family were identified from the transcriptome data of D. delavayi, with the molecular weight distribution ranged of 6 211.34-173 512.77 Da and the theoretical isoelectric point ranged from 5.21 to 10.97. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 81 genes could be divided into 15 subgroups, among which DdMADS27, DdMADS42, DdMADS45, DdMADS46, DdMADS53, DdMADS61, DdMADS76, DdMADS77 and DdMADS79 might be involved in the regulation of ovule development in D. delavayi. The combination of the transcriptome data and the qRT-PCR analysis results of D. delavayi seeds indicated that DdMADS25 and DdMADS42 might be involved in the regulation of seed development, and that DdMADS37 and DdMADS38 might have negative regulation effects on seed dormancy. Previous studies have reported that the MIKC* subgroup is mainly involved in regulating flower organ development. For the first time, we found that the transcription factors of the MIKC* subgroup exhibited a high expression level at the early stage of seed germination, so we speculated that the MIKC* subgroup played a regulatory role in the process of seed germination. To verify the accuracy of this speculation, we selected DdMADS60 and DdMADS75 from the MIKC* subgroup for qRT-PCR experiments, and the experimental results were consistent with the expression trend of transcriptome sequencing. This study provides a reference for further research on the biological function of D. delavayi MADS-box gene family from the perspective of molecular evolution.


Subject(s)
MADS Domain Proteins/metabolism , Phylogeny , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Genes, Plant , Transcription Factors/genetics , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling
13.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 269-278, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981004

ABSTRACT

DMRT, a gene family related to sexual determination, encodes a large group of transcription factors (DMRTs) with the double-sex and mab-3 (DM) domain (except for DMRT8), which is able to bind to and regulate DNAs. Current studies have shown that the DMRT gene family plays a critical role in the development of sexual organs (such as gender differentiation, gonadal development, germ cell development, etc.) as well as extrasexual organs (such as musculocartilage development, nervous system development, etc.). Additionally, it has been suggested that DMRTs may be involved in the cancer development and progression (such as prostate cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, etc.). This review summarizes the research progress about the mammalian DMRTs' structure, function and its critical role in cancer development, progression and therapy (mainly in human and mice), which suggests that DMRT gene could be a candidate gene in the study of tumor formation and therapeutic strategy.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Humans , Mice , Transcription Factors/genetics , Mammals/metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Neoplasms/genetics
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 566-585, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970392

ABSTRACT

WUSCHEL-related homebox (WOX) gene family is a type of plant specific transcription factor, and belongs to the homeobox (HB) transcription factor superfamily. WOX genes play an important role in plant development, such as stem cell regulation and reproductive progress, and have been identified in many plant species. However, the information of mungbean VrWOX genes is limited. In this study, we identified 42 VrWOX genes in mungbean genome using Arabidopsis AtWOX genes as BLAST queries. VrWOX genes are unevenly distributed on 11 mungbean chromosomes, and chromosome 7 contains the most VrWOX genes. VrWOX genes are classified into three subgroups, the ancient group, the intermediate group and the modern/WUSCHEL group, which contains 19, 12 and 11 VrWOX members, respectively. Intraspecific synteny analysis revealed 12 VrWOX duplicated gene pairs in mungbean. Mungbean and Arabidopsis thaliana have 15 orthologous genes, and mungbean and Phaseolus vulgaris have 22 orthologous genes, respectively. The gene structure and conserved motif are different among VrWOX genes, indicating their functional diversity. The promoter regions of VrWOX genes contain different number and type of cis-acting elements, and VrWOX genes show distinct expression levels in eight mungbean tissues. Our study investigated the bioinformation and expression profiles of VrWOX genes, and provided essential information for further functional characterization of VrWOX genes.


Subject(s)
Vigna/genetics , Fabaceae/genetics , Transcription Factors/genetics , Plants
15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 359-371, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970380

ABSTRACT

This study aims to develop an improved cell screening system for farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonists based on a dual luciferase reporter gene system. FXR response element (FXRE) fragments from FXR target genes were cloned and inserted into upstream of firefly luciferase (Luc) gene in the plasmid pGL4-luc2P-Hygro. In combination with the internal reference plasmid containing renilla luciferase, a dual luciferase reporter gene system was developed and used for high throughput screening of FXR agonists. After studying the effects of over-expression of RXR, mouse or human FXR, various FXRE fragments, and different ratio of FXR plasmid amount to reporter gene plasmid, induction efficiency of the screening system was optimized by the known FXR agonist GW4064, and Z factor for the system reached 0.83 under optimized conditions. In summary, an improved cell screening system based on double luciferase reporter gene detection system was developed to facilitate the discovery of FXR agonists, where a new enhanced FXRE element was formed by a superposition of multiple FXRE fragments from FXR target genes, instead of a superposition of traditional IR-1 (inverted repeats-1) fragments.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mice , Animals , Transcription Factors/genetics , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/genetics , Genes, Reporter , Luciferases/genetics
16.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 665-670, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985755

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate and elucidate the clinicopathological and prognostic characteristics of SMARCA4-deficient non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: The clinicopathological and prognostic data were collected in 127 patients with SMARCA4-deficient non-small cell lung cancer diagnosed in Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Shanghai, China from January 2020 to March 2022. The variation and expression of biomarkers related to treatment were retrospectively reviewed. Results: One hundred and twenty-seven patients were eligible for enrollment. Among them 120 patients (94.5%) were male and 7 cases (5.5%) were female, while the average age was 63 years (range 42-80 years). There were 41 cases (32.3%) of stage Ⅰ cancer, 23 cases (18.1%) of stage Ⅱ, 31 cases (24.4%) of stage Ⅲ and 32 cases (25.2%) of stage Ⅳ. SMARCA4 expression detected by immunohistochemistry was completely absent in 117 cases (92.1%) and partially absent in 10 cases (7.9%). PD-L1 immunohistochemical analyses were performed on 107 cases. PD-L1 was negative, weakly positive and strongly positive in 49.5% (53/107), 26.2% (28/107) and 24.3% (26/107) of the cases, respectively. Twenty-one cases showed gene alterations (21/104, 20.2%). The KRAS gene alternation (n=10) was most common. Mutant-type SMARCA4-deficient non-small cell lung cancer was more commonly detected in females, and was associated with positive lymph nodes and advanced clinical stage (P<0.01). Univariate survival analysis showed that advanced clinical stage was a poor prognosis factor, and vascular invasion was a poor predictor of progression-free survival in patients with surgical resection. Conclusions: SMARCA4-deficient non-small cell lung cancer is a rare tumor with poor prognosis, and often occurs in elderly male patients. However, SMARCA4-deficient non-small cell lung cancers with gene mutations are often seen in female patients. Vascular invasion is a prognostic factor for disease progression or recurrence in patients with resectable tumor. Early detection and access to treatment are important for improving patient survivals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , B7-H1 Antigen/metabolism , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , China , Prognosis , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , DNA Helicases/genetics , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Transcription Factors/genetics
17.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 503-517, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982571

ABSTRACT

Aldolase B (ALDOB), a glycolytic enzyme, is uniformly depleted in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) tissues. We previously showed that ALDOB inhibited proliferation through a mechanism independent of its enzymatic activity in ccRCC, but the mechanism was not unequivocally identified. We showed that the corepressor C-terminal-binding protein 2 (CtBP2) is a novel ALDOB-interacting protein in ccRCC. The CtBP2-to-ALDOB expression ratio in clinical samples was correlated with the expression of CtBP2 target genes and was associated with shorter survival. ALDOB inhibited CtBP2-mediated repression of multiple cell cycle inhibitor, proapoptotic, and epithelial marker genes. Furthermore, ALDOB overexpression decreased the proliferation and migration of ccRCC cells in an ALDOB-CtBP2 interaction-dependent manner. Mechanistically, our findings showed that ALDOB recruited acireductone dioxygenase 1, which catalyzes the synthesis of an endogenous inhibitor of CtBP2, 4-methylthio 2-oxobutyric acid. ALDOB functions as a scaffold to bring acireductone dioxygenase and CtBP2 in close proximity to potentiate acireductone dioxygenase-mediated inhibition of CtBP2, and this scaffolding effect was independent of ALDOB enzymatic activity. Moreover, increased ALDOB expression inhibited tumor growth in a xenograft model and decreased lung metastasis in vivo. Our findings reveal that ALDOB is a negative regulator of CtBP2 and inhibits tumor growth and metastasis in ccRCC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/genetics , Fructose-Bisphosphate Aldolase/metabolism , Co-Repressor Proteins/metabolism , Transcription Factors/genetics , Kidney Neoplasms/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
18.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 42-46, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970875

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for two patients from a family with BCL11A-related intellectual disability (BCL11A-ID).@*METHODS@#Clinical data of the proband and her family members was analyzed. Chromosomal karyotyping analysis, trio-whole exome sequencing (trio-WES) and copy number variation sequencing (CNV-seq) were carried out. For the suspected genetic variants, Sanger sequencing was used to verify, and pathogenicity assessment was conducted.@*RESULTS@#The proband and her mother both had intellectual and language impairment, and their fetal hemoglobin (HbF) was significantly elevated. A heterozygous c.1327_c.1328delTC (p.Ser443Hisfs*128) variant was found in exon 4 of the BCL11A gene by WES, which has resulted in truncated expression of the encoded protein, and Sanger sequencing has verified that the variant was inherited from the mother. The variant was not found in related databases. The variant was predicted as pathogenic according to the guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) (PVS1+PM2+PP1). No karyotypic abnormality was found in the proband, her parents and brother, and no pathogenic CNVs was found in the proband and her parents.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.1327_c.1328delTC (p.Ser443Hisfs*128) variant may underlay the BCL11A-ID in the proband and her mother. This de novo variant has expanded the mutational spectrum of the BCL11A gene.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Intellectual Disability/genetics , DNA Copy Number Variations , Pedigree , Mutation , Transcription Factors/genetics , Mothers , Repressor Proteins/genetics
19.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 333-337, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982063

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the correlation between single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of ARID5B gene and resistance to methotrexate (MTX) in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).@*METHODS@#A total of 144 children with ALL who were treated in General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University from January 2015 to November 2021 were enrolled and divided into MTX resistant group and non-MTX resistant group, with 72 cases in each group. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technology was used to measure the SNP of ARID5B gene in all children and analyze its correlation with MTX resistant.@*RESULTS@#There were no significant differences in the genotype and gene frequency of rs7923074, rs10821936, rs6479778, and rs2893881 between MTX resistant group and non-MTX resistant group (P>0.05). The frequency of C/C genotype in the MTX resistant group was significantly higher than that in the non-MTX resistant group, while the frequency of T/T genotype was opposite (P<0.05). The frequency of C allele in the MTX resistant group was significantly higher than that in the non-MTX resistant group, while the frequency of T allele was opposite (P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that ARID5B gene rs4948488 TT genotype and T allele frequency were risk factors for MTX resistant in ALL children (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The SNP of ARID5B gene is associated with MTX resistant in ALL children.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Gene Frequency , Genotype , Methotrexate , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/genetics , Transcription Factors/genetics , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm
20.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 1237-1243, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012399

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features, and molecular genetic alterations of metaplastic thymoma (MT). Methods: A total of ten MT cases, diagnosed from 2011 to 2021, were selected from the Department of Pathology of Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China for clinicopathological and immunohistochemical (IHC) examination and clinical follow-up. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), next-generation sequencing (NGS), and YAP1 C-terminus (YAP1-CT) IHC were performed to detect YAP1::MAML2 fusions. Results: There were four males and six females, ranging in age from 29 to 60 years (mean 50 years, median 54 years). Microscopically, all tumors showed a typical biphasic morphology consisting of epithelial components and gradually or abruptly transitioning spindle cell components. The two components were present in varying proportions in different cases. Immunophenotypically, the epithelial cells were diffusely positive for CKpan, CK5/6 and p63. The spindle cells were diffusely positive for vimentin and focally positive for EMA. TdT was negative in the background lymphocytes. Ki-67 proliferation index was less than 5%. YAP1 and MAML2 break-apart FISH analyses showed that all ten cases had narrow split signals with a distance of nearly 2 signal diameters and may be considered false-negative. Using YAP1::MAML2 fusion FISH assays, abnormal fusion signals were observed in all the ten cases. NGS demonstrated YAP1::MAML2 fusions in all eight cases with adequate nucleic acids; in two cases the fusions were detected by DNA sequencing and in eight cases by RNA sequencing. All ten cases of MT demonstrated loss of YAP1 C-terminal expression in epithelioid cells. Conclusions: MT is a rare and low-grade thymic tumor characterized by a biphasic pattern and YAP1::MAML2 fusions. Break-apart FISH assays may sometimes show false-negative results due to the proximity of YAP1 and MAML2, while YAP1 C-terminal IHC is a highly sensitive and specific marker for MT. Loss of YAP1 C-terminal expression can also be used to screen YAP1::MAML2 fusions for possible MT cases.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Thymoma/genetics , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Transcription Factors/genetics , Mutation , Thymus Neoplasms/genetics
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