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1.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 888-907, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010764

ABSTRACT

The testis is pivotal for male reproduction, and its progressive functional decline in aging is associated with infertility. However, the regulatory mechanism underlying primate testicular aging remains largely elusive. Here, we resolve the aging-related cellular and molecular alterations of primate testicular aging by establishing a single-nucleus transcriptomic atlas. Gene-expression patterns along the spermatogenesis trajectory revealed molecular programs associated with attrition of spermatogonial stem cell reservoir, disturbed meiosis and impaired spermiogenesis along the sequential continuum. Remarkably, Sertoli cell was identified as the cell type most susceptible to aging, given its deeply perturbed age-associated transcriptional profiles. Concomitantly, downregulation of the transcription factor Wilms' Tumor 1 (WT1), essential for Sertoli cell homeostasis, was associated with accelerated cellular senescence, disrupted tight junctions, and a compromised cell identity signature, which altogether may help create a hostile microenvironment for spermatogenesis. Collectively, our study depicts in-depth transcriptomic traits of non-human primate (NHP) testicular aging at single-cell resolution, providing potential diagnostic biomarkers and targets for therapeutic interventions against testicular aging and age-related male reproductive diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Testis , Sertoli Cells/metabolism , Transcriptome , Spermatogenesis/genetics , Primates , Aging/genetics , Stem Cells
2.
International Journal of Oral Science ; (4): 38-38, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010693

ABSTRACT

Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common benign tumour in the salivary gland and has high morphological complexity. However, the origin and intratumoral heterogeneity of PA are largely unknown. Here, we constructed a comprehensive atlas of PA at single-cell resolution and showed that PA exhibited five tumour subpopulations, three recapitulating the epithelial states of the normal parotid gland, and two PA-specific epithelial cell (PASE) populations unique to tumours. Then, six subgroups of PASE cells were identified, which varied in epithelium, bone, immune, metabolism, stemness and cell cycle signatures. Moreover, we revealed that CD36+ myoepithelial cells were the tumour-initiating cells (TICs) in PA, and were dominated by the PI3K-AKT pathway. Targeting the PI3K-AKT pathway significantly inhibited CD36+ myoepithelial cell-derived tumour spheres and the growth of PA organoids. Our results provide new insights into the diversity and origin of PA, offering an important clinical implication for targeting the PI3K-AKT signalling pathway in PA treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenoma, Pleomorphic/genetics , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Transcriptome , Myoepithelioma
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3772-3786, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007992

ABSTRACT

Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) is an essential part of the peripheral nervous system and the hub of the peripheral sensory afferent. The dynamic changes of neuronal cells and their gene expression during the development of dorsal root ganglion have been studied through single-cell RNAseq analysis, while the dynamic changes of non-neuronal cells have not been systematically studied. Using single cell RNA sequencing technology, we conducted a research on the non-neuronal cells in the dorsal root ganglia of rats at different developmental stage. In this study, primary cell suspension was obtained from using the dorsal root ganglions (DRGs, L4-L5) of ten 7-day-old rats and three 3-month-old rats. The 10×Genomics platform was used for single cell dissociation and RNA sequencing. Twenty cell subsets were acquired through cluster dimension reduction analysis, and the marker genes of different types of cells in DRG were identified according to previous researches about DRG single cell transcriptome sequencing. In order to find out the non-neuronal cell subsets with significant differences at different development stage, the cells were classified into different cell types according to markers collected from previous researches. We performed pseudotime analysis of 4 types Schwann cells. It was found that subtype Ⅱ Schwann cells emerged firstly, and then were subtype Ⅲ Schwann cells and subtype Ⅳ Schwann cells, while subtype Ⅰ Schwann cells existed during the whole development procedure. Pseudotime analysis indicated the essential genes influencing cell fate of different subtypes of Schwann cell in DRG, such as Ntrk2 and Pmp2, which affected cell fate of Schwann cells during the development period. GO analysis of differential expressed genes showed that the up-regulated genes, such as Cst3 and Spp1, were closely related to biological process of tissue homeostasis and multi-multicellular organism process. The down regulated key genes, such as Col3a1 and Col4a1, had close relationship with the progress of extracellular structure organization and negative regulation of cell adhesion. This suggested that the expression of genes enhancing cell homestasis increased, while the expression of related genes regulating ECM-receptor interaction pathway decreased during the development. The discovery provided valuable information and brand-new perspectives for the study on the physical and developmental mechanism of Schwann cell as well as the non-neuronal cell changes in DRG at different developmental stage. The differential gene expression results provided crucial references for the mechanism of somatosensory maturation during development.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Ganglia, Spinal/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Transcriptome , Neurons/metabolism , Schwann Cells/physiology
4.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2694-2705, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007701

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Previous studies have examined the bulk transcriptome of peripheral blood immune cells in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients experiencing immunological non-responsiveness. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of specific immune cell subtypes in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients who exhibit immunological non-responsiveness.@*METHODS@#A single-cell transcriptome sequencing of peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from both immunological responders (IRs) (CD4 + T-cell count >500) and immunological non-responders (INRs) (CD4 + T-cell count <300) was conducted. The transcriptomic profiles were used to identify distinct cell subpopulations, marker genes, and differentially expressed genes aiming to uncover potential genetic factors associated with immunological non-responsiveness.@*RESULTS@#Among the cellular subpopulations analyzed, the ratios of monocytes, CD16 + monocytes, and exhausted B cells demonstrated the most substantial differences between INRs and IRs, with fold changes of 39.79, 11.08, and 2.71, respectively. In contrast, the CD4 + T cell ratio was significantly decreased (0.39-fold change) in INRs compared with that in IRs. Similarly, the ratios of natural killer cells and terminal effector CD8 + T cells were also lower (0.37-fold and 0.27-fold, respectively) in the INRs group. In addition to several well-characterized immune cell-specific markers, we identified a set of 181 marker genes that were enriched in biological pathways associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication. Notably, ISG15 , IFITM3 , PLSCR1 , HLA-DQB1 , CCL3L1 , and DDX5 , which have been demonstrated to influence HIV replication through their interaction with viral proteins, emerged as significant monocyte marker genes. Furthermore, the differentially expressed genes in natural killer cells were also enriched in biological pathways associated with HIV replication.@*CONCLUSIONS@#We generated an atlas of immune cell transcriptomes in HIV-infected IRs and INRs. Host genes associated with HIV replication were identified as markers of, and were found to be differentially expressed in, different types of immune cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Transcriptome/genetics , HIV , HIV Infections/genetics , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Virus Replication , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism
5.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2974-2982, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007584

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is the biggest cause of gynecological cancer-related mortality because of its extremely metastatic nature. This study aimed to explore and evaluate the characteristics of candidate factors associated with the metastasis and progression of HGSOC.@*METHODS@#Transcriptomic data of HGSOC patients' samples collected from primary tumors and matched omental metastatic tumors were obtained from three independent studies in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were selected to evaluate the effects on the prognosis and progression of ovarian cancer using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Hub genes' immune landscapes were estimated by the Tumor Immune Estimation Resource (TIMER) database. Finally, using 25 HGSOC patients' cancer tissues and 10 normal fallopian tube tissues, immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to quantify the expression levels of hub genes associated with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stages.@*RESULTS@#Fourteen DEGs, ADIPOQ , ALPK2 , BARX1 , CD37 , CNR2 , COL5A3 , FABP4 , FAP , GPR68 , ITGBL1 , MOXD1 , PODNL1 , SFRP2 , and TRAF3IP3 , were upregulated in metastatic tumors in every database while CADPS , GATA4 , STAR , and TSPAN8 were downregulated. ALPK2 , FAP , SFRP2 , GATA4 , STAR , and TSPAN8 were selected as hub genes significantly associated with survival and recurrence. All hub genes were correlated with tumor microenvironment infiltration, especially cancer-associated fibroblasts and natural killer (NK) cells. Furthermore, the expression of FAP and SFRP2 was positively correlated with the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, and their increased protein expression levels in metastatic samples compared with primary tumor samples and normal tissues were confirmed by IHC ( P = 0.0002 and P = 0.0001, respectively).@*CONCLUSIONS@#This study describes screening for DEGs in HGSOC primary tumors and matched metastasis tumors using integrated bioinformatics analyses. We identified six hub genes that were correlated with the progression of HGSOC, particularly FAP and SFRP2 , which might provide effective targets to predict prognosis and provide novel insights into individual therapeutic strategies for HGSOC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Ovarian Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis , Gene Expression Profiling , Transcriptome , Tumor Microenvironment , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/therapeutic use , Tetraspanins/genetics , Protein Kinases , Integrin beta1/therapeutic use
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3015-3036, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981246

ABSTRACT

To explore the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to biosynthesis of active ingredients in wolfberry fruits of different varieties of Lycium barbarum L. and reveal the molecular mechanism of the differences of active ingredients, we utilized Illumina NovaSeq 6000 high-throughput sequencing technology to conduct transcriptome sequencing on the fruits of 'Ningqi No.1' and 'Ningqi No.7' during the green fruit stage, color turning stage and maturity stage. Subsequently, we compared the profiles of related gene expression in the fruits of the two varieties at different development stages. The results showed that a total of 811 818 178 clean reads were obtained, resulting in 121.76 Gb of valid data. There were 2 827, 2 552 and 2 311 DEGs obtained during the green fruit stage, color turning stage and maturity stage of 'Ningqi No. 1' and 'Ningqi No. 7', respectively, among which 2 153, 2 050 and 1 825 genes were annotated in six databases, including gene ontology (GO), Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) and clusters of orthologous groups of proteins (KOG). In GO database, 1 307, 865 and 624 DEGs of green fruit stage, color turning stage and maturity stage were found to be enriched in biological processes, cell components and molecular functions, respectively. In the KEGG database, the DEGs at three developmental stages were mainly concentrated in metabolic pathways, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and plant-pathogen interaction. In KOG database, 1 775, 1 751 and 1 541 DEGs were annotated at three developmental stages, respectively. Searching the annotated genes against the PubMed database revealed 18, 26 and 24 DEGs related to the synthesis of active ingredients were mined at the green fruit stage, color turning stage and maturity stage, respectively. These genes are involved in carotenoid, flavonoid, terpenoid, alkaloid, vitamin metabolic pathways, etc. Seven DEGs were verified by RT-qPCR, which showed consistent results with transcriptome sequencing. This study provides preliminary evidences for the differences in the content of active ingredients in different Lycium barbarum L. varieties from the transcriptional level. These evidences may facilitate further exploring the key genes for active ingredients biosynthesis in Lycium barbarum L. and analyzing their expression regulation mechanism.


Subject(s)
Flavonoids/metabolism , Fruit/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Lycium/metabolism , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Transcriptome
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2861-2873, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981237

ABSTRACT

Auto-inhibited Ca2+-ATPase (ACA) is one of the Ca2+-ATPase subfamilies that plays an important role in maintaining Ca2+ concentration balance in plant cells. To explore the function and gene expression pattern of the RcACA gene family in castor, bioinformatics analysis was used to identify the members of the RcACA gene family in castor. The basic physical and chemical properties, subcellular location, protein secondary and tertiary structure, conserved domain, conserved motif, gene structure, chromosome location and collinear relationship, as well as the evolutionary characteristics and promoter cis-acting elements were predicted and analyzed. The expression pattern of the RcACA gene under abiotic stress was analyzed by expression (fragments per kilobase of exon model per million mapped fragments, FPKM) in castor transcriptome data. The results showed that 8 RcACA gene family members were identified in castor, acidic proteins located in the plasma membrane. In the secondary structure of all proteins, the α-helix and random coil is more; the RcACA genes were clustered into three categories, and the design of the genes in the same category was similar to the conserved motif. Both of them had four typical domains, RcACA3-RcACA8 had a Ca2+-ATPase N-terminal autoinhibitory domain. The RcACA gene is mostly located on the long arm of the chromosome and has 2 pairs of collinear relationships. There are more light response elements but fewer hormone-induced elements located upstream of the RcACA coding region. Interspecific clustering showed that the evolution of ACA genes among species was conservative. Tissue expression pattern analysis showed that RcACA genes showed apparent tissue expression specificity, and most of the genes showed the highest expression level in male flowers. Expression analysis under abiotic stress showed that RcACA2-RcACA8 were up-regulated under high salt and drought stress, and RcACA1 was up-regulated at 0-24 h under low-temperature stress, indicating that RcACA genes positively responded to abiotic stresses. The above results provide a theoretical basis for exploring the role of the RcACA gene in castor growth, development and stress response.


Subject(s)
Genome, Plant , Stress, Physiological/genetics , Transcriptome , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
8.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1177-1187, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980908

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common syndrome associated with considerable mortality and healthcare costs. Up to now, the underlying pathogenesis of ischemic AKI remains incompletely understood, and specific strategies for early diagnosis and treatment of ischemic AKI are still lacking. Here, this study aimed to define the transcriptomic landscape of AKI patients through single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) analysis in kidneys.@*METHODS@#In this study, scRNA-seq technology was applied to kidneys from two ischemic AKI patients, and three human public scRNA-seq datasets were collected as controls. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and cell clusters of kidneys were determined. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis, as well as the ligand-receptor interaction between cells, were performed. We also validated several DEGs expression in kidneys from human ischemic AKI and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury induced AKI mice through immunohistochemistry staining.@*RESULTS@#15 distinct cell clusters were determined in kidney from subjects of ischemic AKI and control. The injured proximal tubules (PT) displayed a proapoptotic and proinflammatory phenotype. PT cells of ischemic AKI had up-regulation of novel pro-apoptotic genes including USP47 , RASSF4 , EBAG9 , IER3 , SASH1 , SEPTIN7 , and NUB1 , which have not been reported in ischemic AKI previously. Several hub genes were validated in kidneys from human AKI and renal I/R injury mice, respectively. Furthermore, PT highly expressed DEGs enriched in endoplasmic reticulum stress, autophagy, and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) signaling. DEGs overexpressed in other tubular cells were primarily enriched in nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor signaling, estrogen signaling, interleukin (IL)-12 signaling, and IL-17 signaling. Overexpressed genes in kidney-resident immune cells including macrophages, natural killer T (NKT) cells, monocytes, and dendritic cells were associated with leukocyte activation, chemotaxis, cell adhesion, and complement activation. In addition, the ligand-receptor interactions analysis revealed prominent communications between macrophages and monocytes with other cells in the process of ischemic AKI.@*CONCLUSION@#Together, this study reveals distinct cell-specific transcriptomic atlas of kidney in ischemic AKI patients, altered signaling pathways, and potential cell-cell crosstalk in the development of AKI. These data reveal new insights into the pathogenesis and potential therapeutic strategies in ischemic AKI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mice , Animals , Transcriptome/genetics , Ligands , Kidney/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Ischemia/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/metabolism
9.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 594-604, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009928

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To explore the mechanism of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) induce renal fibrosis.@*METHODS@#Renal fibroblast NRK-49F cells treated with and without TGF-β1 were subjected to RNA-seq analysis. DESeq2 was used for analysis. Differentially expressed genes were screened with the criteria of false discovery rate<0.05 and l o g 2 F C >1. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were performed for differentially expressed genes. Genes encoding transcription factors were further screened for differential expression genes. Then, the expression of these genes during renal fibrosis was verified using unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced mouse renal fibrosis model and a public gene expression dataset (GSE104954).@*RESULTS@#After TGF-β1 treatment for 6, 12 and 24 h, 552, 1209 and 1028 differentially expressed genes were identified, respectively. GO analysis indicated that these genes were significantly enriched in development, cell death, and cell migration. KEGG pathway analysis showed that in the early stage of TGF-β1 induction (TGF-β1 treatment for 6 h), the changes in Hippo, TGF-β and Wnt signaling pathways were observed, while in the late stage of TGF-β1 induction (TGF-β1 treatment for 24 h), the changes of extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, focal adhesion and adherens junction were mainly enriched. Among the 291 up-regulated differentially expressed genes treated with TGF-β1 for 6 h, 13 genes (Snai1, Irf8, Bhlhe40, Junb, Arid5a, Vdr, Lef1, Ahr, Foxo1, Myc, Tcf7, Foxc2, Glis1) encoded transcription factors. Validation in a cell model showed that TGF-β1 induced expression of 9 transcription factors (encoded by Snai1, Irf8, Bhlhe40, Junb, Arid5a, Vdr, Lef1, Myc, Tcf7), while the expression levels of the other 4 genes did not significantly change after TGF-β1 treatment. Validation results in UUO-induced mouse renal fibrosis model showed that Snai1, Irf8, Bhlhe40, Junb, Arid5a, Myc and Tcf7 were up-regulated after UUO, Vdr was down-regulated and there was no significant change in Lef1. Validation based on the GSE104954 dataset showed that IRF8 was significantly overexpressed in the renal tubulointerstitium of patients with diabetic nephropathy or IgA nephropathy, MYC was highly expressed in diabetic nephropathy, and the expressions of the other 7 genes were not significantly different compared with the control group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#TGF-β1 induces differentially expressed genes in renal fibroblasts, among which Irf8 and Myc were identified as potential targets of chronic kidney disease and renal fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Humans , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Diabetic Nephropathies/pathology , Transcriptome , Signal Transduction , Kidney , Ureteral Obstruction/pathology , Fibrosis , Interferon Regulatory Factors , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Transcription Factors/metabolism
10.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 1091-1096, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009191

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the mechanism of Haitongpi Prescription extract in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis based on transcriptome.@*METHODS@#Total of 12 SPF grade rats were divided into control group(group C), model group(group M), and Haitongpi prescription group(group HP). The knee osteoarthritis rat model was established using the Panicker method for group M and group HP, and group HP was intervened by local topical application of Haitongpi Prescription extract for 4 weeks. Total RNA from mouse knee cartilage was extracted and three sets of differential genes were obtained through sequencing.Differential genes were prediction and analysis through GO function and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis.@*RESULTS@#A total of 109 differentially expressed genes were identified in Group C versus Group M, while 118 differentially expressed genes were identified in Group M versus Group HP, resulting in a total of 28 genes. GO functional enrichment analysis showed that the mechanism of HP extract in treating knee osteoarthritis mainly involved immunoglobulin mediated immune response, immunoglobulin complexes, and antigen binding; KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed correlation with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling pathway, interleukin 17(IL-17) signaling pathway, and estrogen signaling pathway.@*CONCLUSION@#HP extract can exert therapeutic effects on knee osteoarthritis through mechanisms such as immunoglobulin mediated immune response, immunoglobulin complexes, and antigen binding, as well as signaling pathways such as TNF signaling pathway, IL-17 signaling pathway, and estrogen signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Mice , Rats , Animals , Osteoarthritis, Knee/genetics , Transcriptome , Interleukin-17 , Ointments , Estrogens , Immunoglobulins
11.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 778-783, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008899

ABSTRACT

Single-cell transcriptome sequencing (scRNA-seq) can resolve the expression characteristics of cells in tissues with single-cell precision, enabling researchers to quantify cellular heterogeneity within populations with higher resolution, revealing potentially heterogeneous cell populations and the dynamics of complex tissues. However, the presence of a large number of technical zeros in scRNA-seq data will have an impact on downstream analysis of cell clustering, differential genes, cell annotation, and pseudotime, hindering the discovery of meaningful biological signals. The main idea to solve this problem is to make use of the potential correlation between cells and genes, and to impute the technical zeros through the observed data. Based on this, this paper reviewed the basic methods of imputing technical zeros in the scRNA-seq data and discussed the advantages and disadvantages of the existing methods. Finally, recommendations and perspectives on the use and development of the method were provided.


Subject(s)
Cluster Analysis , Transcriptome
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5779-5789, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008775

ABSTRACT

This study aims to mine the transcription factors that affect the genuineness of Codonopsis pilosula in Shanxi based on the transcriptome data of C. pilosula samples collected from Shanxi and Gansu, and then analyze the gene expression patterns, which will provide a theoretical basis for the molecular assisted breeding of C. pilosula. Gene ontology(GO) functional annotation, conserved motif prediction, and gene expression pattern analysis were performed for the differential transcription factors predicted based on the transcriptome data of C. pilosula from different habitats. A total of 61 differentially expressed genes(DEGs) were screened out from the transcriptome data. Most of the DEGs belonged to AP2/ERF-ERF family, with the conserved motif of [2X]-[LG]-[3X]-T-[3X]-[AARAYDRAA]-[3X]-[RG]-[2X]-A-[2X]-[NFP]. Forty-three of the DEGs showed significantly higher gene expression in C. pilosula samples from Shanxi than in the samples from Gansu, including 11 genes in the AP2/ERF-ERF family, 5 genes in the NAC fa-mily, 1 gene in the bHLH family, and 2 genes in the RWP-RK family, while 18 transcription factors showed higher expression levels in the samples from Gansu. GO annotation predicted that most of the DEGs were enriched in GO terms related to transcriptional binding activity(103), metabolic process(26), and stress response(23). The expression of transcription factor genes, CpNAC92, CpNAC100, CpbHLH128, and CpRAP2-7 was higher in the samples from Shanxi and in the roots of C. pilosula. CpNAC92, CpbHLH128, and CpRAP2-7 responded to the low temperature, temperature difference, and iron stresses, while CpNAC100 only responded to low temperature and iron stresses. The screening and expression analysis of the specific transcription factors CpNAC92, CpNAC100, CpbHLH128, and CpRAP2-7 in C. pilosula in Shanxi laid a theoretical foundation for further research on the mechanism of genuineness formation of C. pilosula.


Subject(s)
Codonopsis/chemistry , Transcription Factors/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Transcriptome , Iron
13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5767-5778, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008774

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the molecular regulation mechanism of the differential accumulation of flavonoids in the leaves and roots of Sarcandra glabra. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(LC-MS) and high-throughput transcriptome sequencing(RNA-seq) were employed to screen out the flavonoid-related differential metabolites and differentially expressed genes(DEGs) encoding key metabolic enzymes. Eight DEGs were randomly selected for qRT-PCR verification. The results showed that a total of 37 flavonoid-related differential metabolites between the leaves and roots of S. glabra were obtained, including pinocembrin, phlorizin, na-ringenin, kaempferol, leucocyanidin, and 5-O-caffeoylshikimic acid. The transcriptome analysis predicted 36 DEGs associated with flavonoids in the leaves and roots of S. glabra, including 2 genes in the PAL pathway, 3 genes in the 4CL pathway, 2 genes in the CHS pathway, 4 genes in the CHI pathway, 2 genes in the FLS pathway, 1 gene in the DFR pathway, 1 gene in the CYP73A pathway, 1 gene in the CYP75B1 pathway, 3 genes in the PGT1 pathway, 6 genes in the HCT pathway, 2 genes in the C3'H pathway, 1 gene in the CCOAOMT pathway, 1 gene in the ANR pathway, 1 gene in the LAR pathway, 2 genes in the 3AT pathway, 1 gene in the BZ1 pathway, 2 genes in the IFTM7 pathway, and 1 gene in the CYP81E9 pathway. Six transcription factors, including C2H2, bHLH, and bZIP, were involved in regulating the differential accumulation of flavonoids in the leaves and roots of S. glabra. The qRT-PCR results showed that the up-or down-regulated expression of the 8 randomly selected enzyme genes involved in flavonoid synthesis in the leaves and roots of S. glabra was consistent with the transcriptome sequencing results. This study preliminarily analyzed the transcriptional regulation mechanism of differential accumulation of flavonoids in the leaves and roots of S. glabra, laying a foundation for further elucidating the regulatory effects of key enzyme genes and corresponding transcription factors on the accumulation of flavonoids in S. glabra.


Subject(s)
Metabolome , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Flavonoids , Gene Expression Profiling , Transcriptome , Transcription Factors/metabolism
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5759-5766, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008773

ABSTRACT

Paeonia veitchii and P. lactiflora are both original plants of the famous Chinese medicinal drug Paeoniae Radix Rubra in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. They have important medicinal value and great potential in the flower market. The selection of stable and reliable reference genes is a necessary prerequisite for molecular research on P. veitchii. In this study, two reference genes, Actin and GAPDH, were selected as candidate genes from the transcriptome data of P. veitchii. The expression levels of the two candidate genes in different tissues(phloem, xylem, stem, leaf, petiole, and ovary) and different growth stages(bud stage, flowering stage, and dormant stage) of P. veitchii were detected using real-time fluorescence quantitative technology(qRT-PCR). Then, the stability of the expression of the two reference genes was comprehensively analyzed using geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, ΔCT, and RefFinder. The results showed that the expression patterns of Actin and GAPDH were stable in different tissues and growth stages of P. veitchii. Furthermore, the expression levels of eight genes(Pv-TPS01, Pv-TPS02, Pv-CYP01, Pv-CYP02, Pv-CYP03, Pv-BAHD01, Pv-UGT01, and Pv-UGT02) in different tissues were further detected based on the transcriptome data of P. veitchii. The results showed that when Actin and GAPDH were used as reference genes, the expression trends of the eight genes in different tissues of P. veitchii were consistent, validating the reliability of Actin and GAPDH as reference genes for P. veitchii. In conclusion, this study finds that Actin and GAPDH can be used as reference genes for studying gene expression levels in different tissues and growth stages of P. veitchii.


Subject(s)
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Paeonia/genetics , Actins/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , Transcriptome , Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases/genetics , Reference Standards , Gene Expression Profiling/methods
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5519-5530, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008748

ABSTRACT

To explore the genetic diversity of Asarum sieboldii this study developed SSR markers based on transcriptome sequencing results and five populations of A.sieboldii from different regions were used as samples for genetic diversity assessment using software such as GenALEx 6.5, NTSYS 2.1, and Structure 2.3.4. The results showed that 16 SSR markers with high polymorphism and good repeatability were selected from the A.sieboldii transcriptome. Primers designed based on the flanking sequences of these markers successfully amplified 56 polymorphic fragments from 150 individual samples of the five A.sieboldii populations. On average, each primer amplified 3.5 polymorphic fragments, ranging from 2 to 8. The mean values of expected heterozygosity(H_e), Shannon's diversity index(I), Nei's gene diversity index(H), and the polymorphic information content(PIC) were 0.172, 0.281, 0.429, and 0.382, respectively. The mean population differentiation coefficient(F_(ST)) was 0.588, consistent with the analysis of molecular variance(AMOVA) results, which indicated greater genetic variation among A.sieboldii populations(69%) than that within populations(31%). The percentage of polymorphic loci(PPL) ranged from highest to lowest as SNJ>LN>SY>SZ>TB. Principal coordinate analysis(PCoA) and UPGMA clustering analysis further revealed genetic clustering of A.sieboldii individuals based on their geographical distribution, consistent with the results of the structure clustering analysis. In summary, the SSR markers developed from the transcriptome effectively assessed the genetic differentiation and population structure of natural A.sieboldii populations, revealing a relatively low genetic diversity in A.sieboldii, with genetic variation primarily observed at the population level and a correlation between population differentiation and geographic distance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Genetic Variation , Asarum , Transcriptome/genetics , Microsatellite Repeats/genetics , Phylogeny
16.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 15-31, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971466

ABSTRACT

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a significant role in maintaining tissue morphology and functions, and their precise regulatory effectiveness is closely related to expression patterns. However, the spatial expression patterns of lncRNAs in humans are poorly characterized. Here, we constructed five comprehensive transcriptomic atlases of human lncRNAs covering thousands of major tissue samples in normal and disease states. The lncRNA transcriptomes exhibited high consistency within the same tissues across resources, and even higher complexity in specialized tissues. Tissue-elevated (TE) lncRNAs were identified in each resource and robust TE lncRNAs were refined by integrative analysis. We detected 1 to 4684 robust TE lncRNAs across tissues; the highest number was in testis tissue, followed by brain tissue. Functional analyses of TE lncRNAs indicated important roles in corresponding tissue-related pathways. Moreover, we found that the expression features of robust TE lncRNAs made them be effective biomarkers to distinguish tissues; TE lncRNAs also tended to be associated with cancer, and exhibited differential expression or were correlated with patient survival. In summary, spatial classification of lncRNAs is the starting point for elucidating the function of lncRNAs in both maintenance of tissue morphology and progress of tissue-constricted diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gene Expression Profiling , Neoplasms/genetics , Organ Specificity , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Transcriptome
17.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 279-293, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982546

ABSTRACT

Aging poses a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, the leading cause of death in the aged population. However, the cell type-specific changes underlying cardiac aging are far from being clear. Here, we performed single-nucleus RNA-sequencing analysis of left ventricles from young and aged cynomolgus monkeys to define cell composition changes and transcriptomic alterations across different cell types associated with age. We found that aged cardiomyocytes underwent a dramatic loss in cell numbers and profound fluctuations in transcriptional profiles. Via transcription regulatory network analysis, we identified FOXP1, a core transcription factor in organ development, as a key downregulated factor in aged cardiomyocytes, concomitant with the dysregulation of FOXP1 target genes associated with heart function and cardiac diseases. Consistently, the deficiency of FOXP1 led to hypertrophic and senescent phenotypes in human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. Altogether, our findings depict the cellular and molecular landscape of ventricular aging at the single-cell resolution, and identify drivers for primate cardiac aging and potential targets for intervention against cardiac aging and associated diseases.


Subject(s)
Aged , Animals , Humans , Aging/genetics , Forkhead Transcription Factors/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Primates/metabolism , Repressor Proteins/metabolism , Transcriptome , Macaca fascicularis/metabolism
18.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 180-201, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982532

ABSTRACT

Progressive functional deterioration in the cochlea is associated with age-related hearing loss (ARHL). However, the cellular and molecular basis underlying cochlear aging remains largely unknown. Here, we established a dynamic single-cell transcriptomic landscape of mouse cochlear aging, in which we characterized aging-associated transcriptomic changes in 27 different cochlear cell types across five different time points. Overall, our analysis pinpoints loss of proteostasis and elevated apoptosis as the hallmark features of cochlear aging, highlights unexpected age-related transcriptional fluctuations in intermediate cells localized in the stria vascularis (SV) and demonstrates that upregulation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperon protein HSP90AA1 mitigates ER stress-induced damages associated with aging. Our work suggests that targeting unfolded protein response pathways may help alleviate aging-related SV atrophy and hence delay the progression of ARHL.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Transcriptome , Aging/metabolism , Cochlea , Stria Vascularis , Presbycusis
19.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 418-429, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982382

ABSTRACT

Efforts have been made to establish various human pluripotent stem cell lines. However, such methods have not yet been duplicated in non-human primate cells. Here, we introduce a multiplexed single-cell sequencing technique to profile the molecular features of monkey pluripotent stem cells in published culture conditions. The results demonstrate suboptimized maintenance of pluripotency and show that the selected signaling pathways for resetting human stem cells can also be interpreted for establishing monkey cell lines. Overall, this work legitimates the translation of novel human cell line culture conditions to monkey cells and provides guidance for exploring chemical cocktails for monkey stem cell line derivation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Haplorhini , Single-Cell Gene Expression Analysis , Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Cell Line , Signal Transduction , Cell Differentiation , Transcriptome
20.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 829-836, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982353

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#This study aims to investigate the genome-wide DNA methylation and transcriptome expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) with interstitial lung disease (ILD), and to analyze the effects of DNA methylation on Wnt/β-catenin and chemokine signaling pathways.@*METHODS@#PBMCs were collected from 19 patients with SSc (SSc group) and 18 healthy persons (control group). Among SSc patients, there were 10 patients with ILD (SSc with ILD subgroup) and 9 patients without ILD (SSc without ILD subgroup). The genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression level were analyzed by using Illumina 450K methylation chip and Illumina HT-12 v4.0 gene expression profiling chip. The effect of DNA methylation on Wnt/β-catenin and chemokine signal pathways was investigated.@*RESULTS@#Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis identified 71 hypermethylated CpG sites and 98 hypomethylated CpG sites in the SSc with ILD subgroup compared with the SSc without ILD subgroup. Transcriptome analysis distinguished 164 upregulated genes and 191 downregulated genes in the SSc with ILD subgroup as compared with the SSc without ILD subgroup. In PBMCs of the SSc group, 35 genes in Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway were hypomethylated, while frizzled-1 (FZD1), mitogen-activated protein kinase 9 (MAPK9), mothers against DPP homolog 2 (SMAD2), transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2), and wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 5B (WNT5B) mRNA expressions were upregulated as compared with the control group (all P<0.05). Compared with the SSc without ILD subgroup, the mRNA expressions of dickkopf homolog 2 (DKK2), FZD1, MAPK9 were upregulated in the SSc with ILD subgroup, but the differences were not statistically significant (all P>0.05). In PBMCs of the SSc group, 38 genes in chemokine signaling pathway were hypomethylated, while β-arrestin 1 (ARRB1), C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10), C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 16 (CXCL16), FGR, and neutrophil cytosolic factor 1C (NCF1C) mRNA expressions were upregulated as compared with the control group (all P<0.05). Compared with the SSc without ILD subgroup, the mRNA expressions of ARRB1, CXCL10, CXCL16 were upregulated in the SSc with ILD subgroup, but the differences were not statistically significant (all P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#There are differences in DNA methylation and transcriptome profiles between SSc with ILD and SSc without ILD. The expression levels of multiple genes in Wnt/β- catenin and chemokine signaling pathways are upregulated, which might be associatea with the pathogenesis of SSc.


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA Methylation , Transcriptome , beta Catenin , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Ligands , DNA , RNA, Messenger/genetics
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