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1.
International Journal of Oral Science ; (4): 9-9, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010722

ABSTRACT

Tumor progression is closely related to tumor tissue metabolism and reshaping of the microenvironment. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), a representative hypoxic tumor, has a heterogeneous internal metabolic environment. To clarify the relationship between different metabolic regions and the tumor immune microenvironment (TME) in OSCC, Single cell (SC) and spatial transcriptomics (ST) sequencing of OSCC tissues were performed. The proportion of TME in the ST data was obtained through SPOTlight deconvolution using SC and GSE103322 data. The metabolic activity of each spot was calculated using scMetabolism, and k-means clustering was used to classify all spots into hyper-, normal-, or hypometabolic regions. CD4T cell infiltration and TGF-β expression is higher in the hypermetabolic regions than in the others. Through CellPhoneDB and NicheNet cell-cell communication analysis, it was found that in the hypermetabolic region, fibroblasts can utilize the lactate produced by glycolysis of epithelial cells to transform into inflammatory cancer-associated fibroblasts (iCAFs), and the increased expression of HIF1A in iCAFs promotes the transcriptional expression of CXCL12. The secretion of CXCL12 recruits regulatory T cells (Tregs), leading to Treg infiltration and increased TGF-β secretion in the microenvironment and promotes the formation of a tumor immunosuppressive microenvironment. This study delineates the coordinate work axis of epithelial cells-iCAFs-Tregs in OSCC using SC, ST and TCGA bulk data, and highlights potential targets for therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/metabolism , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck , Mouth Neoplasms/metabolism , Immunosuppression Therapy , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Gene Expression Profiling , Tumor Microenvironment
2.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 15-20, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009217

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of bone cement containing recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor (rhbFGF) and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in percutaneous kyphoplasty(PKP)treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture(OVCF).@*METHODS@#A total of 103 OVCF patients who underwent PKP from January 2018 to January 2021 were retrospectively analyzed, including 40 males and 63 females, aged from 61 to 78 years old with an average of (65.72±3.29) years old. The injury mechanism included slipping 33 patients, falling 42 patients, and lifting injury 28 patients. The patients were divided into three groups according to the filling of bone cement. Calcium phosphate consisted of 34 patients, aged(65.1±3.3) years old, 14 males and 20 females, who were filled with calcium phosphate bone cement. rhBMP-2 consisted of 34 patients, aged (64.8±3.2) years old, 12 males and 22 females, who were filled with bone cement containing rhBMP-2. And rhbFGF+rhBMP-2 consisted of 35 patients, aged (65.1±3.6) years old, 14 males and 21 females, who were filled with bone cement containing rhbFGF and rhBMP-2. Oswestry disability index (ODI), bone mineral density, anterior edge loss height, anterior edge compression rate of injured vertebra, visual analog scale (VAS) of pain, and the incidence of refracture were compared between groups.@*RESULTS@#All patients were followed for 12 months. Postoperative ODI and VAS score of the three groups decreased (P<0.001), while bone mineral density increased (P<0.001), anterior edge loss height, anterior edge compression rate of injured vertebra decreased first and then slowly increased (P<0.001). ODI and VAS of group calcium phosphate after 1 months, 6 months, 12 months were lower than that of rhBMP-2 and group rhbFGF+rhBMP-2(P<0.05), bone mineral density after 6 months, 12 months was higher than that of rhBMP-2 and group calcium phosphate(P<0.05), and anterior edge loss height, anterior edge compression rate of injured vertebra of group rhbFGF+rhBMP-2 after 6 months and 12 months were lower than that of group rhBMP-2 and group calcium phosphate(P<0.05). There was no statistical difference in the incidence of re-fracture among the three groups (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Bone cement containing rhbFGF and rhBMP-2 could more effectively increase bone mineral density in patients with OVCF, obtain satisfactory clinical and radiological effects after operation, and significantly improve clinical symptoms.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Bone Cements/therapeutic use , Fractures, Compression/complications , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Fractures/complications , Osteoporotic Fractures/etiology , Kyphoplasty/adverse effects , Vertebroplasty/adverse effects , Calcium Phosphates/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Recombinant Proteins , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 , Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2
3.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1363-1374, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010626

ABSTRACT

Although sympathetic blockade is clinically used to treat pain, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We developed a localized microsympathectomy (mSYMPX), by cutting the grey rami entering the spinal nerves near the rodent lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG). In a chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy model, mSYMPX attenuated pain behaviors via DRG macrophages and the anti-inflammatory actions of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and its receptor TGF-βR1. Here, we examined the role of TGF-β in sympathetic-mediated radiculopathy produced by local inflammation of the DRG (LID). Mice showed mechanical hypersensitivity and transcriptional and protein upregulation of TGF-β1 and TGF-βR1 three days after LID. Microsympathectomy prevented mechanical hypersensitivity and further upregulated Tgfb1 and Tgfbr1. Intrathecal delivery of TGF-β1 rapidly relieved the LID-induced mechanical hypersensitivity, and TGF-βR1 antagonists rapidly unmasked the mechanical hypersensitivity after LID+mSYMPX. In situ hybridization showed that Tgfb1 was largely expressed in DRG macrophages, and Tgfbr1 in neurons. We suggest that TGF-β signaling is a general underlying mechanism of local sympathetic blockade.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Receptor, Transforming Growth Factor-beta Type I/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta/pharmacology , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Hyperalgesia/metabolism , Radiculopathy/metabolism , Pain/metabolism , Analgesics/pharmacology , Ganglia, Spinal/metabolism
4.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1486-1491, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010001

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the role of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in inducing the M2 macrophage polarization via regulating AMPK singling pathway.@*METHODS@#The expressions of M1 marker CD11c and M2 marker CD206 in macrophages of blank control group, LPS group, LPS+PRP group, and LPS+PRP+Compound C group were detected by flow cytometry. Western blot was used to observe the effects of PRP on the expression of AMPK-mTOR signaling pathway-related proteins at different times (12 h, 18 h and 24 h) after LPS treatment. RNA interference technology was used to silence the expression of AMPK in macrophages, and the expression of TGF-β protein was subsequently examined by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#LPS significantly reduced the expression of CD206 and increased the expression of CD11c (P <0.05). After the addition of PRP, the expression of CD206 was significantly increased (P <0.05), while the expression of CD11c was significantly decreased (P <0.05). Compared with LPS group, PRP treatment significantly increased the expressions of p-AMPK and p-ULK1 proteins at 12 h, 18 h and 24 h, while significantly decreased the expression of p-mTOR protein (P <0.05). After the addition of AMPK inhibitor Compound C, the expression of CD206 was significantly reduced (P <0.05) and the expression of CD11c was significantly increased compared with LPS+PRP group (P <0.05). After silencing the expression of AMPK in macrophages, the promotion effect of PRP on TGF-β was significantly reduced (P <0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#PRP can stimulate the transformation of macrophages to M2 type via AMPK signalling pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/pharmacology , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Macrophages/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Platelet-Rich Plasma/metabolism
5.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 646-652, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009930

ABSTRACT

Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is a group of cytokines with anti-inflammatory effects in the TGF family, which participates in the development of stress and depression-related mechanisms, and plays roles in the regulation of inflammatory response in depression and the recovery of various cytokine imbalances. The core symptoms of depression is associated with TGF-β level, and the psychological symptoms of depression are related to TGF-β gene polymorphism. Various antidepressants may up-regulate TGF-β level through the complex interaction between neurotransmitters and inflammatory factors, inhibiting inflammatory response and regulating cytokine imbalance to improve depressive symptoms. Studies have shown that recombinant TGF-β1 protein has beneficial effects in mouse depression models, indicating TGF-β1 might be a potential therapeutic target for depression and nasal sprays having the advantage of being fast acting delivery method. This article reviews the research progress on dynamic changes of TGF-β level before and after depression treatment and the application of TGF-β level as an indicator for the improvement of depressive symptoms. We provide ideas for the development of new antidepressants and for the evaluation of the treatment efficacy in depression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Depression , Cytokines , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Transforming Growth Factors
6.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 594-604, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009928

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To explore the mechanism of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) induce renal fibrosis.@*METHODS@#Renal fibroblast NRK-49F cells treated with and without TGF-β1 were subjected to RNA-seq analysis. DESeq2 was used for analysis. Differentially expressed genes were screened with the criteria of false discovery rate<0.05 and l o g 2 F C >1. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were performed for differentially expressed genes. Genes encoding transcription factors were further screened for differential expression genes. Then, the expression of these genes during renal fibrosis was verified using unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced mouse renal fibrosis model and a public gene expression dataset (GSE104954).@*RESULTS@#After TGF-β1 treatment for 6, 12 and 24 h, 552, 1209 and 1028 differentially expressed genes were identified, respectively. GO analysis indicated that these genes were significantly enriched in development, cell death, and cell migration. KEGG pathway analysis showed that in the early stage of TGF-β1 induction (TGF-β1 treatment for 6 h), the changes in Hippo, TGF-β and Wnt signaling pathways were observed, while in the late stage of TGF-β1 induction (TGF-β1 treatment for 24 h), the changes of extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, focal adhesion and adherens junction were mainly enriched. Among the 291 up-regulated differentially expressed genes treated with TGF-β1 for 6 h, 13 genes (Snai1, Irf8, Bhlhe40, Junb, Arid5a, Vdr, Lef1, Ahr, Foxo1, Myc, Tcf7, Foxc2, Glis1) encoded transcription factors. Validation in a cell model showed that TGF-β1 induced expression of 9 transcription factors (encoded by Snai1, Irf8, Bhlhe40, Junb, Arid5a, Vdr, Lef1, Myc, Tcf7), while the expression levels of the other 4 genes did not significantly change after TGF-β1 treatment. Validation results in UUO-induced mouse renal fibrosis model showed that Snai1, Irf8, Bhlhe40, Junb, Arid5a, Myc and Tcf7 were up-regulated after UUO, Vdr was down-regulated and there was no significant change in Lef1. Validation based on the GSE104954 dataset showed that IRF8 was significantly overexpressed in the renal tubulointerstitium of patients with diabetic nephropathy or IgA nephropathy, MYC was highly expressed in diabetic nephropathy, and the expressions of the other 7 genes were not significantly different compared with the control group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#TGF-β1 induces differentially expressed genes in renal fibroblasts, among which Irf8 and Myc were identified as potential targets of chronic kidney disease and renal fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Humans , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Diabetic Nephropathies/pathology , Transcriptome , Signal Transduction , Kidney , Ureteral Obstruction/pathology , Fibrosis , Interferon Regulatory Factors , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Transcription Factors/metabolism
7.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 1063-1068, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009455

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the effect of formononetin on immunity of mice with transplanted H22 hepatocarcinoma. Methods Male C57BL/6 mice were subcutaneously inoculated with H22 cells (4×105) to establish a tumor-bearing mouse model. The mice were treated with formononetin [10 mg/(kg.d)] or [50 mg/(kg.d)] for 28 days, and then the tumor inhibition rate was calculated. Carrilizumab was used as a positive control drug. The expressions of CD8, granzyme B and forkbox transcription factor 3 (FOXP3) in HCC tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemical staining. The mRNA and protein expression of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligand 1 (PD-L1) in HCC tissues were detected by real-time PCR or Western blot analysis, respectively. The serum levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) were detected by ELISA. Results Formononetin increased the tumor inhibition rate and the positive rate of CD8 and granzyme B staining in tumor-bearing mice. There was no significant difference in the positive rate of FOXP3 staining in tumor tissues of mice in each group. Formononetin decreased the levels of IL-10 and TGF-β in serum of tumor-bearing mice, and decreased the relative expression of mRNA and protein of PD-1 and PD-L1 in tumor tissue of tumor-bearing mice. Conclusion Formononetin can activate CD8+ T cells and reduce the release of immunosuppressive factors in regulatory T cells by blocking PD-1/PD-L1 pathway and play an antitumor role.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Mice , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Interleukin-10/genetics , B7-H1 Antigen , Granzymes/genetics , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Transforming Growth Factor beta/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Forkhead Transcription Factors/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor
8.
Chinese Medical Sciences Journal ; (4): 206-217, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008986

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the effects and mechanisms of a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription, "Fang-gan Decoction" (FGD), in protecting against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-induced lung and intestinal injuries in vitro and in vivo.Methods Female BALB/c mice and three cell lines pretreated with FGD were stimulated with recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (spike protein). Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and pathologic scoring of tissues, cell permeability and viability, and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression in the lung and colon were detected. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed to detect the levels of inflammatory factors in serum and cell supernatant. The expression of NF-κB p65, p-NF-κB p65, p-IκBα, p-Smad2/3, TGF-β1, Caspase3, and Bcl-2 was evaluated by Western blotting.Results FGD protected against the damage to the lung and colon caused by the spike protein in vivo and in vitro according to the pathologic score and cell permeability and viability (P<0.05). FGD up-regulated ACE2 expression, which was reduced by the spike protein in the lung and colon, significantly improved the deregulation of inflammatory markers caused by the spike protein, and regulated the activity of TGF-β/Smads and NF-κB signaling.Conclusion Traditional Chinese medicine has a protective effect on lung and intestinal tissue injury stimulated by the spike protein through possible regulatory functions of the NF-κB and TGF-β1/Smad pathways with tissue type specificity.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Female , Humans , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/pharmacology , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/pharmacology , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Lung , Antineoplastic Agents , Transforming Growth Factor beta/pharmacology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Colon
9.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 666-670, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982114

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the expression and significance of regulatory T cells (Tregs), FoxP3 and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in different phase of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).@*METHODS@#Peripheral blood of 73 CML patients in Department of Hematology, Heze Municipal Hospital from March 2018 to March 2021 were collected. According to patient's period in CML, they were divided into ND CML group (newly diagnosed), CP CML group (chronic period), and BP CML group (blast phase). The percentage of Tregs, expression level of FoxP3 mRNA and TGF-β were detected by flow cytometry, RT-qPCR, and ELISA, respecitively. The roles of above indices in clinical pathogenesis of patients with CML were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The proportion of Treg in the ND CML group was slightly higher than the CP CML group, but the difference was not statistically significant (P =0.695), while the BP CML group was significantly higher than the other two groups (P =0.008, P <0.001). The expression levels of FoxP3 mRNA in ND CML group, CP CML group and BP CML group were 11.61±2.21, 6.46±1.35 and 8.54±2.13, respectively. Significant difference in FoxP3 mRNA levels was observed among patients in different phases of CML (F =55.199, P <0.001). The expression levels of FoxP3 mRNA both in ND CML group and BP CML group were significantly higher than that in CP CML group (P <0.001), and the ND CML group was the highest (P <0.001). However, the expression levels of TGF-β in different phases of CML showed no statistical differences (H =0.634, P =0.728).@*CONCLUSION@#The abnormal distribution of Treg subset in different phases of CML and the significant increase of the expression level of FoxP3 mRNA in the new onset and blast phase of CML suggest that Tregs may promote the occurrence and progression of CML through immune regulation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blast Crisis/metabolism , Forkhead Transcription Factors/metabolism , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism
10.
Chinese Journal of Stomatology ; (12): 575-583, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986113

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R) inhibitor pexidartinib (PLX3397) on the senescence of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods: BMDM were isolated and cultured from femurs and tibiae of 10 male C57BL/6 mice aged 6-8 weeks (obtained from Laboratory Animal Center of Guizhou Medical University). They were divided into blank control group, LPS group (treated with 1 μg/ml LPS for 24 h) as well as low, medium and high concentration PLX3397 pretreatment groups (treated with 100, 500 and 1 000 nmol/L PLX3397 for 4 h respectively followed by 1 μg/ml LPS for 24 h). The corresponding markers of macrophages were detected by flow cytometry. Cell viability was detected by cell counting kit-8 and cellular senescence was detected by senescence-associated-β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining. Meanwhile, protein expressions of cycle-dependent kinase inhibitor p16, p21 and CSF-1R were detected by Western blotting, and the expressions of p16 and p21 were detected by intracellular immunofluorescence. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to investigate the mRNA levels of senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) genes including interleukin (IL), IL-1β, chemokine-1/10 (CXCL-1/10), matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Results: The rate of SA-β-gal positive staining in medium and high concentration PLX3397 pretreatment groups [(39.33±4.93)% and (36.33±3.06)% respectively] were significantly downregulated compared with LPS group [(52.00±3.00)%] (P=0.020, P=0.005). The expression of CSF-1R protein in low, medium and high concentration PLX3397 pretreatment groups were (0.74±0.18, 0.61±0.07, 0.54±0.06), all of which were significantly lower than that in LPS group (1.16±0.08) (P=0.013, P=0.002, P<0.001). The expression levels of CSF-1R mRNA in low, medium and high concentration PLX3397 pretreatment groups (1.04±0.06, 0.90±0.05, 1.18±0.08) showed similar trend (2.90±0.25) (P<0.001). The average fluorescence intensity of p16 in all PLX3397 pretreatment groups were 49.76±3.65, 48.21±1.72, 47.99±1.26 respectively, which were significantly lower than that in LPS group (66.88±5.85) (P=0.001, P<0.001, P<0.001). The average fluorescence intensity of p21 in medium and high concentration PLX3397 pretreatment groups were (34.43±3.62, 30.13±0.86), significantly lower than that in LPS group (46.82±5.33) (P=0.043, P=0.007). The expression of p16 protein in low, medium and high concentration PLX3397 pretreatment groups (0.56±0.04, 0.55±0.04, 0.35±0.19) were significantly lower than that in LPS group (0.98±0.10) (P=0.003, P=0.002, P<0.001), as well the expression of p21 protein (0.69±0.20, 0.42±0.08, 0.26±0.14) (P=0.032, P=0.002, P<0.001). According to the results of RT-qPCR, the expressions of IL-6, IL-1β, CXCL-1, CXCL-10 and MMP-8 in PLX3397 pretreatment groups were significantly lower than those in LPS group (P<0.001), while the expression of TGF-β increased (P<0.001). Conclusions: LPS could induce the cell senescence, increase the secretion of SASP and aggravate local inflammation by activating the CSF-1R on the cell surface of bone marrow-derived macrophages. CSF-1R inhibitor PLX3397 might attenuate CSF-1R activation associated with LPS and inhibit the senescence of bone marrow-derived macrophages induced by LPS.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Male , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 8/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Macrophages , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
11.
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 272-277, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982731

ABSTRACT

Objective:To prepare PLGA nanoparticles loaded with Der f 1/IGF-1(Der f 1/IGF-1 NPs) and investigate their role in promoting the formation of Treg cells. Methods:NPs coated with Der f 1/IGF-1 were prepared by double emulsion method and their physicochemical properties and cumulative release rate in vitro were analyzed. After pretreatment, BMDC was divided into Saline group, Blank NPs group, Der f 1/IGF-1 group and Der f 1/IGF-1 NPs group. Determination of the expression of IL-10 and TGF-β in BMDC by ELISA. The number of Treg cells was detected by flow cytometry. Results:The results showed that Der f 1/IGF-1 NPs were spherical structures, with good dispersion, particle size less than 200 nm, negative charge and stable slow-release effect of Zeta potential. After BMDC pretreatment, the expression levels of TGF-β and IL-10 in BMDC cells in the Der f 1/IGF-1 NPs group were significantly increased compared with the Blank NPs group, and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.001). After co-culture with CD4+ T cells, the proportion of Treg cells produced in the Der f 1/IGF-1 NPs group was significantly increased, and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.001). Conclusion:Der f 1/IGF-1 NPs can induce Treg cell generation in vitro. This study provides a new and more effective method for the reconstruction of immune tolerance dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Humans , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/metabolism , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Particle Size , Drug Carriers/chemistry
12.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 527-539, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982722

ABSTRACT

Activated fibroblasts and M2-polarized macrophages may contribute to the progression of pulmonary fibrosis by forming a positive feedback loop. This study was aimed to investigate whether fibroblasts and macrophages form this loop by secreting SDF-1 and TGF-β and the impacts of neotuberostemonine (NTS) and tuberostemonine (TS). Mice were intratracheally injected with 3 U·kg-1 bleomycin and orally administered with 30 mg·kg-1 NTS or TS. Primary pulmonary fibroblasts (PFBs) and MH-S cells (alveolar macrophages) were used in vitro. The animal experiments showed that NTS and TS improved fibrosis related indicators, inhibited fibroblast activation and macrophage M2 polarization, and reduced the levels of TGF-β and SDF-1 in alveolar lavage fluid. Cell experiments showed that TGF-β1 may activated fibroblasts into myofibroblasts secreting SDF-1 by activating the PI3K/AKT/HIF-1α and PI3K/PAK/RAF/ERK/HIF-1α pathways. It was also found for the first time that SDF-1 was able to directly polarize macrophages into M2 phenotype secreting TGF-β through the same pathways as mentioned above. Moreover, the results of the cell coculture confirmed that fibroblasts and macrophages actually developed a feedback loop to promote fibrosis, and the secretion of TGF-β and SDF-1 was crucial for maintaining this loop. NTS and TS may disturb this loop through inhibiting both the PI3K/AKT/HIF-1α and PI3K/PAK/RAF/ERK/HIF-1α pathways to improve pulmonary fibrosis. NTS and TS are stereoisomeric alkaloids with pyrrole[1,2-a]azapine skeleton, and their effect on improving pulmonary fibrosis may be largely attributed to their parent nucleus. Moreover, this study found that inhibition of both the AKT and ERK pathways is essential for maximizing the improvement of pulmonary fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta/pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Fibroblasts , Macrophages/metabolism
13.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 316-324, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982269

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of amygdalin on liver fibrosis in a liver fibrosis mouse model, and the underlying mechanisms were partly dissected in vivo and in vitro.@*METHODS@#Thirty-two male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups, including control, model, low- and high-dose amygdalin-treated groups, 8 mice in each group. Except the control group, mice in the other groups were injected intraperitoneally with 10% carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-olive oil solution 3 times a week for 6 weeks to induce liver fibrosis. At the first 3 weeks, amygdalin (1.35 and 2.7 mg/kg body weight) were administered by gavage once a day. Mice in the control group received equal quantities of subcutaneous olive oil and intragastric water from the fourth week. At the end of 6 weeks, liver tissue samples were harvested to detect the content of hydroxyproline (Hyp). Hematoxylin and eosin and Sirius red staining were used to observe the inflammation and fibrosis of liver tissue. The expressions of collagen I (Col-I), alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), CD31 and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling pathway were observed by immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, respectively. The activation models of hepatic stellate cells, JS-1 and LX-2 cells induced by TGF-β1 were used in vitro with or without different concentrations of amygdalin (0.1, 1, 10 µmol/L). LSECs. The effect of different concentrations of amygdalin on the expressions of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) dedifferentiation markers CD31 and CD44 were observed.@*RESULTS@#High-dose of amygdalin significantly reduced the Hyp content and percentage of collagen positive area, and decreased the mRNA and protein expressions of Col-I, α-SMA, CD31 and p-Smad2/3 in liver tissues of mice compared to the model group (P<0.01). Amygdalin down-regulated the expressions of Col-I and α-SMA in JS-1 and LX-2 cells, and TGFβ R1, TGFβ R2 and p-Smad2/3 in LX-2 cells compared to the model group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Moreover, 1 and 10 µmol/L amygdalin inhibited the mRNA and protein expressions of CD31 in LSECs and increased CD44 expression compared to the model group (P<0.05 or P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Amygdalin can dramatically alleviate liver fibrosis induced by CCl4 in mice and inhibit TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway, consequently suppressing HSCs activation and LSECs dedifferentiation to improve angiogenesis.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Mice , Animals , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Amygdalin/therapeutic use , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Olive Oil/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , Smad Proteins/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Liver , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Collagen Type I/metabolism , Carbon Tetrachloride , Hepatic Stellate Cells
14.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 303-310, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981869

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effect of insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 2 (IGF2BP2) on the proliferation, migration and tumor immune microenvironment of colorectal cancer cells and its possible molecular mechanism. Methods The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database was used to analyze the expression levels of IGF2BP2 and MYC in colorectal cancer and adjacent tissues. The expression of IGF2BP2 in HCT-116 and SW480 human colorectal cancer cells was silenced by RNA interference (RNAi), and the silencing effect was detected by quantitative real-time PCR. After knocking down IGF2BP2, colony formation assay, CCK-8 assay and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay were employed to detect cell colony formation and proliferation ability. TranswellTM assay was used to detect cell migration ability. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression of IGF2BP2, MYC, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and interleukin-10 (IL-10). The protein expression of IGF2BP2 and MYC was detected by western blot. The binding ability of IGF2BP2 and MYC in HCT-116 cells was detected by quantitative real-time PCR after RNA immunoprecipitation. Results The results of TCGA database showed that the expression of IGF2BP2 and MYC in colorectal cancer tissues was significantly higher than that in adjacent tissues, and the survival time of colorectal cancer patients with high expression of IGF2BP2 was shorter. After silencing IGF2BP2, the viability, proliferation and migration of HCT-116 and SW480 cells were decreased. The mRNA expression of MYC, TGF-β and IL-10 in IGF2BP2 knockdown group was significantly decreased, while the expression of TNF-α mRNA was increased. The expression of MYC protein and the stability of MYC mRNA were significantly decreased. RIP-qPCR results showed that IGF2BP2 could bind to MYC mRNA. Conclusion Knockdown of IGF2BP2 inhibits colorectal cancer cell proliferation, migration and promotes tumor immunity by down-regulating MYC expression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement/genetics , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Colorectal Neoplasms/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Interleukin-10/metabolism , RNA, Messenger , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta/genetics , Tumor Microenvironment/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc/metabolism
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2630-2638, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981367

ABSTRACT

Diabetic kidney disease is an important microvascular complication of diabetes and the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Its pathological characteristics mainly include epithelial mesenchymal transition(EMT) in glomerulus, podocyte apoptosis and autophagy, and damage of glomerular filtration barrier. Transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β)/Smad signaling pathway is specifically regulated by a variety of mechanisms, and is a classic pathway involved in physiological activities such as apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation. At present, many studies have found that TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway plays a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease. Traditional Chinese medicine has significant advantages in the treatment of diabetic kidney disease for its multi-component, multi-target and multi-pathway characteristics, and some traditional Chinese medicine extracts, traditional Chinese medicines and traditional Chinese medicine compound prescription improve the renal injury of diabetic kidney disease by regulating TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. This study clarified the mechanism of TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway in diabetic kidney disease by expounding the relationship between the key targets of the pathway and diabetic kidney disease, and summarized the research progress of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of diabetic kidney disease by interfering with TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway in recent years, to provide reference for drug research and clinical treatment of diabetic kidney disease in the future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetic Nephropathies/genetics , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Kidney/pathology , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Smad Proteins/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/genetics
16.
West China Journal of Stomatology ; (6): 140-148, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981105

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the effect of recombinant human fibroblast growth factor 21 (rhFGF21) on the proliferation and mineralization of cementoblasts and its mechanism.@*METHODS@#Hematoxylin eosin, immunohistochemical staining, and immunofluorescence were used to detect the expression and distribution of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in rat periodontal tissues and cementoblasts (OCCM-30), separately. Cell Counting Kit-8 was used to detect the proliferation of OCCM-30 under treatment with rhFGF21. Alkaline phosphatase staining and Alizarin Red staining were used to detect the mineralization state of OCCM-30 after 3 and 7 days of mineralization induction. The transcription and protein expression of the osteogenic-related genes Runx2 and Osterix were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot analysis. The expression levels of genes of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway in OCCM-30 were detected through PCR array analysis.@*RESULTS@#FGF21 was expressed in rat periodontal tissues and OCCM-30. Although rhFGF21 had no significant effect on the proliferation of OCCM-30, treatment with 50 ng/mL rhFGF21 could promote the mineralization of OCCM-30 cells after 7 days of mineralization induction. The transcriptional levels of Runx2 and Osterix increased significantly at 3 days of mineralization induction and decreased at 5 days of mineralization induction. Western blot analysis showed that the protein expression levels of Runx2 and Osterix increased during mineralization induction. rhFGF21 up-regulated Bmpr1b protein expression in cells.@*CONCLUSIONS@#rhFGF21 can promote the mineralization ability of OCCM-30. This effect is related to the activation of the TGFβ/BMP signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rats , Animals , Dental Cementum , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit/metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Bone Morphogenetic Proteins/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta/pharmacology
17.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 47-61, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971646

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Huangqi Decoction (HQD), a classical traditional Chinese medicine formula, has been used as a valid treatment for alleviating liver fibrosis; however, the underlying molecular mechanism is still unknown. Although our previous studies showed that microRNA-663a (miR-663a) suppresses the proliferation and activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and the transforming growth factor-β/small mothers against decapentaplegic (TGF-β/Smad) pathway, whether long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in HSC activation via the miR-663a/TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway has not yet reported. The present study aimed to investigate the roles of lncRNA lnc-C18orf26-1 in the activation of HSCs and the mechanism by which HQD inhibits hepatic fibrosis.@*METHODS@#The expression levels of lnc-C18orf26-1, miR-663a and related genes were measured by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. HSCs were transfected with the miR-663a mimic or inhibitor and lnc-C18orf26-1 small interfering RNAs. The water-soluble tetrazolium salt-1 assay was used to assess the proliferation rate of HSCs. Changes in lncRNA expression were evaluated in miR-663a-overexpressing HSCs by using microarray to identify miR-663a-regulated lncRNAs. RNA hybrid was used to predict the potential miR-663a binding sites on lncRNAs. Luciferase reporter assays further confirmed the interaction between miR-663a and the lncRNA. The expression levels of collagen α-2(I) chain (COL1A2), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway-related proteins were determined using Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Lnc-C18orf26-1 was upregulated in TGF-β1-activated HSCs and competitively bound to miR-663a. Knockdown of lnc-C18orf26-1 inhibited HSC proliferation and activation, downregulated TGF-β1-stimulated α-SMA and COL1A2 expression, and inhibited the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway. HQD suppressed the proliferation and activation of HSCs. HQD increased miR-663a expression and decreased lnc-C18orf26-1 expression in HSCs. Further studies showed that HQD inhibited the expression of COL1A2, α-SMA, TGF-β1, TGF-β type I receptor (TGF-βRI) and phosphorylated Smad2 (p-Smad2) in HSCs, and these effects were reversed by miR-663a inhibitor treatment.@*CONCLUSION@#Our study identified lnc-C18orf26-1 and miR-663a as promising therapeutic targets for hepatic fibrosis. HQD inhibits HSC proliferation and activation at least partially by regulating the lnc-C18orf26-1/miR-663a/TGF-β1/TGF-βRI/p-Smad2 axis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Transforming Growth Factor beta/pharmacology , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , MicroRNAs/genetics , Hepatic Stellate Cells/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Transforming Growth Factors/pharmacology
18.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 308-316, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971530

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the correlation of inducible co-stimulatory molecules (ICOS) with mesenteric vascular endothelial- mesenchymal transition (EndMT) and sclerosis in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).@*METHODS@#Twenty 4-week-old WKY rats and 20 SHRs of the same strain were both randomly divided into 4 groups for observation at 4, 6, 10 and 30 weeks of age. ICOS expression frequency in rat spleen CD4+T cells was analyzed using flow cytometry, and the expressions of ICOS, VE-cad, α-SMA and Col3 mRNA in rat mesentery were detected by RT-PCR. The distributions of ICOS, IL-17A and TGF-β in rat mesentery were detected by immunohistochemistry. The levels of IL-17A and TGF-β in rat plasma were measured using ELISA. The morphological changes of rat mesenteric vessels were observed with Masson staining. Spearman or Pearson correlation analyses were used to evaluate the correlation between ICOS expression and the expressions of the markers of vascular EndMT and sclerosis.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control WKY rats, the SHRs began to show significantly increased systolic blood pressure and ICOS expression frequency on CD4+T cells at 6 weeks of age (P < 0.05). In the SHRs, the mRNA and protein expressions of ICOS, α-SMA, Col3, IL-17A and TGF-β in the mesentery were significantly higher than those in control group (P < 0.05), while the mRNA and protein expressions of VE-cad started to reduce significantly at 10 weeks of age (P < 0.05). The plasma levels of IL-17A and TGF-β were significantly increased in SHRs since 6 weeks of age (P < 0.05) with progressive worsening of mesenteric vascular sclerosis (P < 0.05). ICOS mRNA and protein expression levels in the mesenteric tissues of SHRs began to show positive correlations with α-SMA and Col3 expression levels and the severity of vascular sclerosis at 6 weeks of age (P < 0.05) and a negative correlation with VE-cad expression level at 10 weeks (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#ICOS play an important pathogenic role in EndMT and sclerosis of mesenteric vessels in essential hypertension by mediating related immune responses.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Rats, Inbred SHR , Rats, Inbred WKY , Hypertension , Interleukin-17 , Sclerosis/pathology , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Mesentery/pathology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Blood Pressure
19.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 132-140, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971162

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the influence of autologous adipose stem cell matrix gel on wound healing and scar hyperplasia of full-thickness skin defects in rabbit ears, and to analyze the related mechanism. Methods: Experimental research methods were adopted. The complete fat pads on the back of 42 male New Zealand white rabbits aged 2 to 3 months were cut to prepare adipose stem cell matrix gel, and a full-thickness skin defect wound was established on the ventral side of each ear of each rabbit. The left ear wounds were included in adipose stem cell matrix gel group (hereinafter referred to as matrix gel group), and the right ear wounds were included in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) group, which were injected with autologous adipose stem cell matrix gel and PBS, respectively. The wound healing rate was calculated on post injury day (PID) 7, 14, and 21, and the Vancouver scar scale (VSS) scoring of scar tissue formed on the wound (hereinafter referred to as scar tissue) was performed in post wound healing month (PWHM) 1, 2, 3, and 4. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was performed to observe and measure the histopathological changes of wound on PID 7, 14, and 21 and the dermal thickness of scar tissue in PWHM 1, 2, 3, and 4. Masson staining was performed to observe the collagen distribution in wound tissue on PID 7, 14, and 21 and scar tissue in PWHM 1, 2, 3, and 4, and the collagen volume fraction (CVF) was calculated. The microvessel count (MVC) in wound tissue on PID 7, 14, and 21 and the expressions of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and α smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in scar tissue in PWHM 1, 2, 3, and 4 were detected by immunohistochemical method, and the correlation between the expression of α-SMA and that of TGF-β1 in scar tissue in matrix gel group was analyzed. The expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in wound tissue were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on PID 7, 14, and 21. The number of samples at each time point in each group was 6. Data were statistically analyzed with analysis of variance for repeated measurement, analysis of variance for factorial design, paired sample t test, least significant difference test, and Pearson correlation analysis. Results: On PID 7, the wound healing rate in matrix gel group was (10.3±1.7)%, which was close to (8.5±2.1)% in PBS group (P>0.05). On PID 14 and 21, the wound healing rates in matrix gel group were (75.5±7.0)% and (98.7±0.8)%, respectively, which were significantly higher than (52.7±6.7)% and (90.5±1.7)% in PBS group (with t values of 5.79 and 10.37, respectively, P<0.05). In PWHM 1, 2, 3, and 4, the VSS score of scar tissue in matrix gel group was significantly lower than that in PBS group (with t values of -5.00, -2.86, -3.31, and -4.45, respectively, P<0.05). Compared with the previous time point within the group, the VSS score of scar tissue at each time point after wound healing in the two groups was significantly increased (P<0.05), except for PWHM 4 in matrix gel group (P>0.05). On PID 7, the granulation tissue regeneration and epithelialization degree of the wounds between the two groups were similar. On PID 14 and 21, the numbers of fibroblasts, capillaries, and epithelial cell layers in wound tissue of matrix gel group were significantly more than those in PBS group. In PWHM 1, 2, 3, and 4, the dermal thickness of scar tissue in matrix gel group was significantly thinner than that in PBS group (with t values of -4.08, -5.52, -6.18, and -6.30, respectively, P<0.05). Compared with the previous time point within the group, the dermal thickness of scar tissue in the two groups thickened significantly at each time point after wound healing (P<0.05). Compared with those in PBS group, the collagen distribution in wound tissue in matrix gel group was more regular and the CVF was significantly increased on PID 14 and 21 (with t values of 3.98 and 3.19, respectively, P<0.05), and the collagen distribution in scar tissue was also more regular in PWHM 1, 2, 3, and 4, but the CVF was significantly decreased (with t values of -7.38, -4.20, -4.10, and -4.65, respectively, P<0.05). Compared with the previous time point within the group, the CVFs in wound tissue at each time point after injury and scar tissue at each time point after wound healing in the two groups were significantly increased (P<0.05), except for PWHM 1 in matrix gel group (P>0.05). On PID 14 and 21, the MVC in wound tissue in matrix gel group was significantly higher than that in PBS group (with t values of 4.33 and 10.10, respectively, P<0.05). Compared with the previous time point within the group, the MVC of wound at each time point after injury in the two groups was increased significantly (P<0.05), except for PID 21 in PBS group (P>0.05). In PWHM 1, 2, 3, and 4, the expressions of TGF-β1 and α-SMA in scar tissue in matrix gel group were significantly lower than those in PBS group (with t values of -2.83, -5.46, -5.61, -8.63, -10.11, -5.79, -8.08, and -11.96, respectively, P<0.05). Compared with the previous time point within the group, the expressions of TGF-β1 and α-SMA in scar tissue in the two groups were increased significantly at each time point after wound healing (P<0.05), except for the α-SMA expression in matrix gel group in PWHM 4 (P>0.05). There was a significantly positive correlation between the expression of α-SMA and that of TGF-β1 in scar tissue in matrix gel group (r=0.92, P<0.05). On PID 14 and 21, the expressions of VEGF (with t values of 6.14 and 6.75, respectively, P<0.05) and EGF (with t values of 8.17 and 5.85, respectively, P<0.05) in wound tissue in matrix gel group were significantly higher than those in PBS group. Compared with the previous time point within the group, the expression of VEGF of wound at each time point after injury in the two groups was increased significantly (P<0.05), and the expression of EGF was decreased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusions: Adipose stem cell matrix gel may significantly promote the wound healing of full-thickness skin defects in rabbit ears by promoting collagen deposition and expressions of VEGF and EGF in wound tissue, and may further inhibit the scar hyperplasia after wound healing by inhibiting collagen deposition and expressions of TGF-β1 and α-SMA in scar tissue.


Subject(s)
Male , Rabbits , Animals , Cicatrix , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Epidermal Growth Factor , Hyperplasia , Wound Healing , Stem Cells , Transforming Growth Factor beta
20.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 1252-1259, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010349

ABSTRACT

As a crucial regulatory molecule in the context of vascular stenosis, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), plays a pivotal role in its initiation and progression. TGF-β, a member of the TGF-β superfamily, can bind to the TGF-β receptor and transduce extracellular to intracellular signals through canonical Smad dependent or noncanonical signaling pathways to regulate cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Restenosis remains one of the most challenging problems in cardiac, cerebral, and peripheral vascular disease worldwide. The mechanisms for occurrence and development of restenosis are diverse and complex. The TGF-β pathway exhibits diversity across various cell types. Hence, clarifying the specific roles of TGF-β within different cell types and its precise impact on vascular stenosis provides strategies for future research in the field of stenosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Constriction, Pathologic , Signal Transduction , Cell Differentiation , Vascular Diseases , Transforming Growth Factors , Transforming Growth Factor beta1
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