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1.
J. appl. oral sci ; 29: e20201092, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340095

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective This study sought to compare the biocompatibility of a three-dimensional (3D)-printed titanium implant with a conventional machined titanium product, as well as the effect of such implant applied with recombinant human Bone Morphogenetic Protein Type 2 (rhBMP-2) for guided bone regeneration. Methodology Disk-shaped titanium specimens fabricated either by the conventional machining technique or by the 3D-printing technique were compared by MC3T3-E1 cells cytotoxicity assay. New bone formation was evaluated using a rapid prototype titanium cap applied to the calvaria of 10 rabbits, which were divided into two groups: one including an atelopeptide collagen plug on one side of the cap (group I) and the other including a plug with rhBMP-2 on the other side (group II). At six and 12 weeks after euthanasia, rabbits calvaria underwent morphometric analysis through radiological and histological examination. Results Through the cytotoxicity assay, we identified a significantly higher number of MC3T3-E1 cells in the 3D-printed specimen when compared to the machined specimen after 48 hours of culture. Moreover, morphometric analysis indicated significantly greater bone formation at week 12 on the side where rhBMP-2 was applied when evaluating the upper portion immediately below the cap. Conclusion The results suggest that 3D-printed titanium implant applied with rhBMP-2 enables new bone formation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Osteogenesis , Titanium , Rabbits , Skull/surgery , Bone Regeneration , Recombinant Proteins , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 , Printing, Three-Dimensional
2.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(3): e9206, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153519

ABSTRACT

Renal fibrosis is one of the most significant pathological changes after ureteral obstruction. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway plays essential roles in kidney fibrosis regulation. The aims of the present study were to investigate effects of microRNA-302b (miR-302b) on renal fibrosis, and interaction between miR-302b and TGF-β signaling pathway in murine unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model. Microarray dataset GSE42716 was downloaded by retrieving Gene Expression Omnibus database. In accordance with bioinformatics analysis results, miR-302b was significantly down-regulated in UUO mouse kidney tissue and TGF-β1-treated HK-2 cells. Masson's trichrome staining showed that miR-302b mimics decreased renal fibrosis induced by UUO. The increased mRNA expression of collagen I and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and decreased expression of E-cadherin were reversed by miR-302b mimics. In addition, miR-302b up-regulation also inhibited TGF-β1-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of HK-2 cells by restoring E-cadherin expression and decreasing α-SMA expression. miR-302b mimics suppressed both luciferase activity and protein expression of TGF-βR2. However, miR-302b inhibitor increased TGF-βR2 luciferase activity and protein expression. Meanwhile, miR-302b mimics inhibited TGF-βR2 mRNA expression and decreased Smad2 and Smad3 phosphorylation in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, over-expression of TGF-βR2 restored the miR-302b-induced decrease of collagen I and α-SMA expression. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that miR-302b attenuated renal fibrosis by targeting TGF-βR2 to suppress TGF-β/Smad signaling activation. Our findings showed that elevating renal miR-302b levels may be a novel therapeutic strategy for preventing renal fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rats , Ureteral Obstruction/pathology , Signal Transduction , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , MicroRNAs/genetics , Smad Proteins , Kidney Diseases/genetics , Fibrosis , Cell Line , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Kidney/pathology , Kidney Diseases/pathology
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(8): e11184, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285676

ABSTRACT

Hypertrophic scar (HS) formation is a common complication that develops after skin injury; however, there are few effective and specific therapeutic approaches for HS. Emodin has previously been reported to inhibit mechanical stress-induced HS inflammation. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effects of emodin on HS formation. First, we conducted in vitro assays that revealed that emodin inhibited M1 and M2 polarization in rat macrophages. We subsequently established a combined rat model of tail HS and dorsal subcutaneous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponge-induced wounds. Rats were treated with emodin or vehicle (DMEM). Tail scar specimens were harvested at 14, 28, and 42 days post-incision and subjected to H&E staining and Masson's trichrome staining. Histopathological analyses confirmed that emodin attenuated HS formation and fibrosis. Macrophages were separated from wound cells collected from the PVA sponge at 3 and 7 days after implantation. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that emodin suppressed in vivo macrophage recruitment and polarization at the wound site. Finally, we explored the molecular mechanisms of emodin in modulating macrophage polarization by evaluating the expression levels of selected effectors of the Notch and TGF-β pathways in macrophages isolated from PVA sponges. Western blot and qPCR assays showed that Notch1, Notch4, Hes1, TGF-β, and Smad3 were downregulated in response to emodin treatment. Taken together, our findings suggested that emodin attenuated HS formation and fibrosis by suppressing macrophage polarization, which is associated with the inhibition of the Notch and TGF-β pathways in macrophages.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Emodin/pharmacology , Cicatrix, Hypertrophic/pathology , Cicatrix, Hypertrophic/drug therapy , Signal Transduction , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Macrophages
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0744-2020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155546

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Suckling by schistosomotic mice improves anti-ovalbumin (OA) antibody production, while delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) remains unaffected. This property of milk from schistosomotic mice was investigated in IL-12/IL-23-deficient mice (IL-12p40KO). METHODS We compared anti-OA DTH, IgG2a and cytokines in wild-type and IL-12p40KO mice suckled by infected (SIM) or non-infected (CONTROL) mothers. RESULTS SIM mice showed similar intensity and eosinophils in the DTH, which was abolished in IL-12p40KO and IL-12p40KO-SIM mice. In IL-12p40KO-SIM, IgG2a and TGF-β levels were higher, but IL-6 levels were lower. CONCLUSIONS Milk from schistosomotic mothers may evoke IgG2a without eliciting DTH in IL-12/IL-23 deficiencies, by changing TGF-β/IL-6 levels.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Schistosoma mansoni , Interleukin-12 , Immunoglobulin G , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Interleukin-23 , Mice , Mothers
5.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(2): e9017, 2021. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142574

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-cancer effect of melittin on growth, migration, invasion, and apoptosis of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. This study also explored the potential anti-cancer mechanism of melittin in NSCLC cells. The results demonstrated that melittin suppressed growth, migration, and invasion, and induced apoptosis of NSCLC cells in vitro. Melittin increased pro-apoptotic caspase-3 and Apaf-1 gene expression. Melittin inhibited tumor growth factor (TGF)-β expression and phosphorylated ERK/total ERK (pERK/tERK) in NSCLC cells. However, TGF-β overexpression (pTGF-β) abolished melittin-decreased TGF-β expression and pERK/tERK in NSCLC cells. Treatment with melittin suppressed tumor growth and prolonged mouse survival during the 120-day observation in vivo. Treatment with melittin increased TUNEL-positive cells and decreased expression levels of TGF-β and ERK in tumor tissue compared to the control group. In conclusion, the findings of this study indicated that melittin inhibited growth, migration, and invasion, and induced apoptosis of NSCLC cells through down-regulation of TGF-β-mediated ERK signaling pathway, suggesting melittin may be a promising anti-cancer agent for NSCLC therapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Apoptosis , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Melitten/pharmacology , Down-Regulation , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Cell Movement , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Caspase 3 , Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1 , Neoplasm Invasiveness
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921710

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the mechanism of fresh Phragmitis Rhizoma against chronic bronchitis airway inflammation. The SD rats of SPF grade were divided into control group, model group, Guilongkechuanning group(GLKCN, 1.125 g·kg~(-1)), high-dose fresh Phragmitis Rhizoma group(LG-HD, 15 g·kg~(-1)), and low-dose fresh Phragmitis Rhizoma group(LG-LD, 7.5 g·kg~(-1)). The chronic bronchitis models of rats in other groups except the control group were induced by the modified smoking method. From the 15 th day of modeling, the rats were given corresponding agents by gavage for 20 consecutive days. After the last administration, the rats were sacrificed for sample collection. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was employed to detect serum transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β) and interleukin-6(IL-6) levels. The protein expression of TGF-β, IL-1β and IL-6 in lung tissue was detected by immunohistochemical method. Masson staining was performed to detect collagen fibers and muscle fibers in lung tissue, and HE staining to detect the pathological changes of lung tissue. Human bronchial epithelial(16 HBE) cells were cultured in vitro, and CCK-8(cell counting kit-8) method was used to detect the cytotoxicity of cigarette smoke extract(CSE) and fresh Phragmitis Rhizoma. After the exposure of 16 HBE cells to 3.5% CSE and appropriate concentration(800, 400 μg·mL~(-1)) of fresh Phragmitis Rhizoma for 24 h, quantitative real-time PCR was conducted to determine the mRNA levels of TGF-β and IL-1β, and Western blot was employed to determine the protein levels of TGF-β and IL-6 in the cells. The rat model of chronic bronchitis induced by smoking was successfully established. Fresh Phragmitis Rhizoma reduced serum TGF-β and IL-6 levels, down-regulated the protein levels of TGF-β, IL-1β, and IL-6 in lung tissue, and alleviated pathological changes and fibrotic lesions in lung tissue. Moreover, it down-regulated the CSE-induced protein expression of TGF-β and IL-6 as well as the mRNA level of TGF-β in 16 HBE cells. These results indicated that fresh Phragmitis Rhizoma could prevent airway inflammation from chronic bronchitis and promote cell repair by inhibiting the TGF-β signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bronchitis, Chronic/genetics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Inflammation , Lung , Poaceae/chemistry , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rhizome , Signal Transduction , Transforming Growth Factor beta/genetics
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921557

ABSTRACT

Objective To determine whether the signaling activation of bone morphogenetic protein 2(BMP2)can induce myeloid-derived suppressor cells(MDSC)to secret transforming growth factor β(TGF-β),further enhancing the differentiation and infiltration of regulatory T lymphocytes(Treg)into tumor tissue. Methods The BMP2-induced mRNA and protein expression of TGF-β in MDSC was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA),respectively.The effect of BMP2-induced TGF-β secretion by MDSC on Treg differentiation was then determined by flow cytometry.Finally,we implanted the recombined human bone morphogenetic protein 2(rhBMP2)collagen gels into tumor-burdened mice to examine the role of BMP2 in Treg differentiation via MDSC-secreted TGF-β


Subject(s)
Animals , Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 , Cell Differentiation , Mice , Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells , Neoplasms , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Transforming Growth Factor beta
8.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1251-1256, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888547

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the expression of B lymphocyte-induced mature protein-1 (BLIMP-1) in regulatory T cells (Tregs) of children with aplastic anemia (AA), and analyze its correlation with the number of Tregs and the levels of inhibitory cytokines interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β in plasma.@*METHODS@#The peripheral blood samples of 10 newly diagnosed AA children and 10 healthy children were collected for experiment. qPCR was used to detect FOXP3 and PRDM1 mRNA expression levels. Flow cytometry was used to detect the proportion of Tregs, the expression of BLIMP-1 in Tregs, and the levels of cytokines such as IL-2, IL-17A, IL-6, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-10 and TGF-β in plasma. Pearson correlation model was used to evaluate the relationship between the expression of BLIMP-1 in Treg and the number of Tregs, as well as the levels of IL-10 and TGF-β in plasma.@*RESULTS@#Compared with control group, the proportion of Tregs in peripheral blood of AA children was decreased significantly (P<0.001); The plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines IL-2, IL-6 and IFN-γ in AA children were increased significantly (P=0.033, P=0.031, P=0.006), and IL-17A also was increased but the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.052), while anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β were significantly reduced (P=0.048, P=0.002). The relative expressions level of FOXP3 and PRDM1 mRNA in AA children were significantly lower than those in control group (P=0.037, P=0.016). The expression of BLIMP-1 protein in Tregs of AA children was significantly lower than that in control group (P<0.001). The expression level of BLIMP-1 protein in Tregs was positively correlated with the percentage of Tregs in lymphocytes (r=0.671, P=0.001), and was also positively correlated with the levels of IL-10 and TGF-β in plasma (r=0.500, P=0.029; r=0.486, P=0.030).@*CONCLUSION@#The expression of BLIMP-1 in Tregs of AA children is impaired, and the low expression of BLIMP-1 is related to the decrease of the number in Tregs and IL-10 and TGF-β expressions.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Aplastic , Child , Cytokines , Flow Cytometry , Forkhead Transcription Factors , Humans , Positive Regulatory Domain I-Binding Factor 1 , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Transforming Growth Factor beta
9.
Braz. dent. j ; 31(3): 290-297, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132302

ABSTRACT

Abstract Chloride intracellular channel-4 (CLIC4) is regulated by p53 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), it is linked to the increase of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), and myofibroblastic differentiation in skin carcinogenesis. This study analyzed the immunoexpression of CLIC4, p53, TGF-β, TNF-α, and α-SMA in 50 actinic cheilitis (AC) and 50 lower lip squamous cell carcinoma (LLSCC). AC and LLSCC immunoexpression were categorized as score 1 (<5% positive cells), 2 (5-50%) or 3 (>50%). For CLIC4, nuclear and cytoplasmic immunostaining of epithelial cells was considered individually. For morphologic analysis, the World Health Organization criteria were used to epithelial dysplasia grade of ACs, and Bryne grading of malignancy system was applied for LLSCC. Higher nuclear CLIC4 (CLIC4n) and TGF-β were observed in ACs with low-risk of transformation, while cytoplasmic CLIC4 (CLIC4c), p53 and TNF-α were higher in the high-risk cases (p<0.05). In LLSCCs, CLIC4c was higher in cases with lymph node metastasis, advanced clinical stages, and histological high-grade malignancy. p53 expression was higher in high-grade LLSCCs, whereas TGF-β decreased as the clinical stage and morphological grade progressed (p<0.05). ACs showed an increased expression of CLIC4n and TGF-β, while CLIC4c and α-SMA were higher in LLSCCs (p<0.0001). Both lesions showed negative correlation between CLIC4n and CLIC4c, while in LLSCCs, negative correlation was also verified between CLIC4c and p53, as well as CLIC4c and TGF-β (p<0.05). Change of CLIC4 from the nucleus to cytoplasm and alterations in p53, TGF-β, TNF-α, and α-SMA expression are involved in lip carcinogenesis.


Resumo O canal intracelular de cloreto 4 (CLIC4) é regulado pela p53 e fator de necrose tumoral α (TNF-α) e está relacionado ao aumento do fator de crescimento transformador β (TGF-β) e na diferenciação miofibroblástica na carcinogênese cutânea. Este estudo analisou a imunoexpressão de CLIC4, p53, TGF-β, TNF-α e α-SMA em 50 queilites actínicas (QA) e 50 carcinomas de células escamosas de lábio inferior (CCELI). A imunoexpressão da QA e CCELI foram categorizadas em escore 1 (<5% de células positivas), 2 (5-50%) ou 3 (>50%). Para CLIC4, a imunomarcação nuclear e citoplasmática das células epiteliais foi considerada separadamente. Para análise morfológica, foram utilizados os critérios da Organização Mundial da Saúde para a gradação das displasias epiteliais nas QAs, e o sistema de gradação de malignidade de Bryne foi utilizado para os casos de CCELIs. Alta imunoexpressão de CLIC4 nuclear (CLIC4n) e TGF-β foi observada em QA de baixo risco de transformação, enquanto CLIC4 citoplasmática (CLIC4c), p53 e TNF-α foram elevadas nos casos de alto risco (p<0.05). No CCELI, a imunoexpressão de CLIC4c foi maior em caos com metástase linfonodal, estágio clínico avançado e alto grau histológico de malignidade. A expressão de p53 foi elevada em CCELI de alto grau, enquanto o TGF-β diminuiu à medida que o estádio clínico e o grau morfológico progrediram (p<0.05). QAs exibiram uma elevada expressão de CLIC4n e TGF-β, enquanto o CLIC4c e α-SMA foram elevados em CCELIs (p<0.0001). Ambas as lesões mostraram correlação negativa entre CLIC4n e CLIC4c, enquanto nos CCELIs, também se verificou correlação negativa entre CLIC4c e p53, assim como entre CLIC4c e TGF-β (p<0.05). Alteração do CLIC4 do núcleo para o citoplasma e alterações na expressão de p53, TGF-β, TNF-α, e α-SMA estão envolvidas na carcinogênese labial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lip Neoplasms , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Chloride Channels , Myofibroblasts , Carcinogenesis , Lip
10.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 9(2): 86-92, abr. 30, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151843

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Lichen planus is one of the most common oral mucosal lesions. Transforming growth factor-ß (TGF- ß) has a marked effect on epithelial­mesenchymal transition and immune cells function. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) mediates T-lymphocyte homing and apoptosis of epithelial cells. Objetive: The present study was conducted in order to compare the expression of serum and salivary TGF- ß, VEGF, TNF-α between OLP patients and control individuals to investigate if saliva can be used as an alternative to serum for diagnostic purposes and for monitoring disease. Materials and Methods: 23 OLP patients and 23 control individuals were included to evaluate serum and salivary TGF-ß, VEGF, TNF-α using ELISA kits. Five milliliters of venous blood was collected and unstimulated saliva was collected by the spitting method. Results: Serum and salivary levels of TGF- ß, VEGF, TNF-α are higher in OLP patients compared to normal controls. Mean difference is higher in saliva than serum. Moreover, there was a significant difference in serum and salivary VEGF and TNF-α between symptomatic and asymptomatic groups. Conclusions: Saliva can be a used as a substitute for serum to evaluate levels of the assessed biomarkers.


Introducción: El liquen plano oral es una de las lesiones de la mucosa oral más comunes. El factor de crecimiento transformante ß (TGF-ß) tiene un efecto marcado sobre la transición epitelial-mesenquimal y la función de las células inmunes. El factor de crecimiento endotelial vascular (VEGF) es un regulador clave de la vasculogénesis y la angiogénesis. El factor de necrosis tumoral α (TNF-α) media la localización de los linfocitos T y la apoptosis de las células epiteliales. Objetivo: El presente estudio se realizó con el fin de comparar la expresión en suero y saliva de TGF-ß, VEGF, TNF-α entre pacientes con OLP y personas de control para investigar si la saliva se puede utilizar como alternativa al suero para fines de diagnóstico y monitoreo de la enfermedad. Material y Métodos: Se incluyeron 23 pacientes con OLP y 23 individuos control para evaluar los niéveles en suero y en saliva de TGF- ß, VEGF, TNF-α utilizando kits ELISA. Se recogieron cinco mililitros de sangre venosa y se recogió saliva no estimulada por el método de escupir. Resultado: Los niveles séricos y salivales de TGF-ß, VEGF, TNF-α son más altos en pacientes con OLP en comparación con los controles normales. La diferencia media es mayor en saliva que en suero. Además, hubo una diferencia significativa de VEGF y TNF-α en suero y saliva entre los grupos sintomáticos y asintomáticos. Conclusion: La saliva puede usarse como un sustituto del suero para evaluar los niveles de los biomarcadores estudiados


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Saliva/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Lichen Planus, Oral/diagnosis , Serum/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Egypt , Mouth Mucosa , Necrosis
11.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e014, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089383

ABSTRACT

Abstract Although dental implants and bone regenerative procedures are important approaches for the reestablishment of esthetics and function in young patients with a history of generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP), no predictable outcomes have been reported, and the host osteo-immunoinflammatory response may play a relevant role in this context. In view of the lack of molecular investigations into the bone tissue condition of young patients with periodontitis, the aim of this study was to evaluate the gene expression of bone-related factors in this population. Bone biopsies were obtained from the posterior mandible in 16 individuals previously diagnosed with GAP and on periodontal support therapy and from 17 periodontally healthy (PH) patients. The gene expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, receptor activator of the NF-κB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), osteocalcin (OC), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and type I collagen (COL-I), important biomarkers of bone turnover, was evaluated by qRT-PCR. Lower TGF-β and OPG mRNA levels were observed in GAP patients compared to PH individuals (p ≤ 0.05). There were no between-group differences in levels of TNF-α, BSP, RANKL, OC, or COL-I mRNA (p>0.05). In young adults, a history of periodontal disease can negatively modulate the gene expression of important bone-related factors in alveolar bone tissue. These molecular outcomes may contribute to the future development of therapeutic approaches to benefit bone healing in young patients with history of periodontitis via modulation of osteo-immuno-inflammatory biomarkers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Aggressive Periodontitis/genetics , Gene Expression , Aggressive Periodontitis/metabolism , Reference Values , Biomarkers , Osteocalcin/analysis , Osteocalcin/genetics , Single-Blind Method , Cross-Sectional Studies , Transforming Growth Factor beta/analysis , Transforming Growth Factor beta/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Statistics, Nonparametric , Collagen Type I/analysis , Collagen Type I/genetics , RANK Ligand/analysis , RANK Ligand/genetics , Osteoprotegerin/analysis , Osteoprotegerin/genetics , Integrin-Binding Sialoprotein/analysis , Integrin-Binding Sialoprotein/genetics , Alveolar Process/chemistry , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
12.
Clinics ; 75: e1868, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142771

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The present study was designed to explore the roles of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and Tumor growth factor-β (TGF-β) in the diagnosis and treatment of neonate bilirubin encephalopathy (BE). METHODS: A total of 128 BE neonates and 128 normal neonates were included. The serum samples of the BE children and controls were collected, and the levels of IL-1β and TGF-β were examined. Moreover, the correlation between the level of bilirubin and serum expression of IL-1β or TGF-β in BE patients was analyzed. Finally, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the diagnostic value of the cytokines. RESULTS: IL-1β and TGF-β levels were higher in the serum of BE patients than those in non-BE patients, and the expression of either IL-1β or TGF-β showed a strong positive correlation with the serum expression of bilirubin in BE patients. Moreover, the results of ROC analysis showed that either IL-1β or TGF-β could distinguish BE patients from healthy controls. CONCLUSION: IL-1β and TGF-β levels were upregulated in BE and might function as potential biomarkers or therapeutic targets for BE patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Child , Cytokines , Kernicterus , Biomarkers , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Interleukin-1beta
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811139

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is required for renal fibrosis, which is a characteristic of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Our previous study demonstrated that fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) prevented DN associated with the suppressing renal connective tissue growth factor expression, a key marker of renal fibrosis. Therefore, the effects of FGF21 on renal fibrosis in a DN mouse model and the underlying mechanisms were investigated in this study.METHODS: Type 1 diabetes mellitus was induced in C57BL/6J mice by intraperitoneal injections of multiple low doses of streptozotocin. Then, diabetic and non-diabetic mice were treated with or without FGF21 in the presence of pifithrin-α (p53 inhibitor) or 10-[4′-(N,N-Diethylamino)butyl]-2-chlorophenoxazine hydrochloride (10-DEBC) hydrochloride (Akt inhibitor) for 4 months.RESULTS: DN was diagnosed by renal dysfunction, hypertrophy, tubulointerstitial lesions, and glomerulosclerosis associated with severe fibrosis, all of which were prevented by FGF21. FGF21 also suppressed the diabetes-induced renal EMT in DN mice by negatively regulating transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)-induced nuclear translocation of Smad2/3, which is required for the transcription of multiple fibrotic genes. The mechanistic studies showed that FGF21 attenuated nuclear translocation of Smad2/3 by inhibiting renal activity of its conjugated protein p53, which carries Smad2/3 into the nucleus. Moreover pifithrin-α inhibited the FGF21-induced preventive effects on the renal EMT and subsequent renal fibrosis in DN mice. In addition, 10-DEBC also blocked FGF21-induced inhibition of renal p53 activity by phosphorylation of mouse double minute-2 homolog (MDM2).CONCLUSION: FGF21 prevents renal fibrosis via negative regulation of the TGF-β/Smad2/3-mediated EMT process by activation of the Akt/MDM2/p53 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Connective Tissue Growth Factor , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Nephropathies , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Fibroblast Growth Factors , Fibroblasts , Fibrosis , Hypertrophy , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Kidney , Mice , Phosphorylation , Streptozocin , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811137

ABSTRACT

Renal fibrosis is considered to be the final common outcome of chronic kidney disease. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have demonstrated protective effects against diabetic kidney disease. However, the anti-fibrotic effect of evogliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor, has not been studied. Here, we report the beneficial effects of evogliptin on unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced renal fibrosis in mice. Evogliptin attenuated UUO-induced renal atrophy and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting demonstrated that evogliptin treatment inhibits pro-fibrotic gene expressions and extracellular matrix production. In vitro findings showed that the beneficial effects of evogliptin on renal fibrosis are mediated by inhibition of the transforming growth factor-β/Smad3 signaling pathway. The present study demonstrates that evogliptin is protective against UUO-induced renal fibrosis, suggesting that its clinical applications could extend to the treatment of kidney disease of non-diabetic origin.


Subject(s)
Animals , Atrophy , Blotting, Western , Diabetic Nephropathies , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors , Extracellular Matrix , Fibrosis , Gene Expression , Immunohistochemistry , In Vitro Techniques , Kidney Diseases , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Mice , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Ureter , Ureteral Obstruction
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827367

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To evaluate the repairing ability of nano-pearl powder bone substitute in rabbit with defect of distal femur bone.@*METHODS@#Thirty-two New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: a nano-pearl powder/recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2)/hyaluronic acid group, a nano-pearl powder/hyaluronic acid group, a nano-pearl powder group and a blank control group (=8 in each group). A defect with the diameter of 7 mm and height of 10 mm was prepared at the distal femoral metaphysis line of the rabbit.Different bone substitutes were planted, and the effect of repair was evaluated by macroscopic observation, imaging examination, and histopathological examination.@*RESULTS@#The results of imageology showed that: the bone repairing effect in the nano-pearl powder/rhBMP-2/hyaluronic acid group was better than that in the pure pearl powder group and the nano-pearl powder/hyaluronic acid group, and which in the 3 experimental groups was better than that in the blank control group; The results of histology showed that: at the 4th, 8th and 12th weeks after the modeling operation, the speed of bone repair in the nano-pearl powder/rhBMP-2/hyaluronic acid group was faster than that in the pure pearl powder group and the nano-pearl powder/hyaluronic acid group, and which in the blank control group was far slower than that in the 3 experimental groups. The results of immunohistochemistry staining for osteocalcin antibody showed that: the osteogenic effect in the nano-pearl powder/rhBMP-2/hyaluronic acid group was better than that in the pure pearl powder group and the nano-pearl powder/hyaluronic acid group (both 0.05); however, there was significant difference between the pure pearl powder group and the blank control group (0.05), but the osteogenic effect in the nano-pearl powder/hyaluronic acid group was better than that in the pure pearl powder group and the blank control group (both <0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Nano-pearl powder and its bone substitute can promote the repair of bone defect, and the nano-pearl powder which contains rhBMP-2 has better osteogenic and repairing effect on defect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 , Bone Substitutes , Collagen , Femur , Humans , Osteogenesis , Powders , Rabbits , Recombinant Proteins , Transforming Growth Factor beta
16.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 499-505, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827037

ABSTRACT

The transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) family. TAK1 plays important roles in many biological functions. Cardiac hypertrophy can be identified as physiological or pathological myocardial hypertrophy. TAK1 not only participates in the development of normal myocardium, but also plays an important role in regulating the occurrence and development of pathological myocardial hypertrophy. Angiotensin II (Ang II) or pressure overload induces pathological cardiac hypertrophy through different ways, such as hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)-mediated transcriptional expression of TAK1, or transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-, thyroid hormone-, ubiquitin protease-mediated TAK1 phosphorylation or ubiquitination. This article reviews the role of TAK1 in the occurrence and development of pathological myocardial hypertrophy and discusses the potential of TAK1 as an important target for the prevention and treatment of clinical myocardial hypertrophy.


Subject(s)
Cardiomegaly , Humans , MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases , Genetics , Myocardium , Phosphorylation , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Transforming Growth Factor beta1
17.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 35(4): 261-263, dic. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092702

ABSTRACT

La fibrosis pulmonar idiopática (FPI) es una forma específica de neumonía intersticial idiopática, de tipo fibrosante crónica y progresiva, con patrón radiológico y/o histológico de neumonía intersticial usual (NIU). Su patogenia es compleja, el modelo más aceptado actualmente es basado en las células epiteliales alveolares, aberrantemente activadas que conducen a la proliferación de fibroblastos y su diferenciación a miofibroblastos que depositan matriz extracelular y destruyen irreversiblemente la arquitectura pulmonar. No existe un claro factor inicial que explique la activación y posterior mantención del mecanismo de la fibrosis. El factor de crecimiento transformante beta (TGF-β) liberado por las células epiteliales alveolares se ha implicado como unos de los principales conductores de la inducción y proliferación de fibroblastos alterados que persiste mucho tiempo después de la estimulación inicial, lo que explicaría en gran parte el comportamiento clínico progresivo y crónico.


Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a specific form of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, of chronic and progressive fibrosing type, with radiological and / or histological pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). Its pathogenesis is complex, the most accepted model currently is based on the fact that the alveolar epithelial cells, aberrantly activated, lead to the proliferation of fibroblasts and their differentiation to myofibroblasts that deposit extracellular matrix and irreversibly destroy the pulmonary architecture. There is no clear initial trigger that explains the activation and subsequent maintenance of the fibrosis mechanism. The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), released by the alveolar epithelial cells, has been implicated as one of the main drivers of the induction and proliferation of altered fibroblasts that persists long after the initial stimulation, which would largely explain progressive and chronic clinical behavior.


Subject(s)
Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/physiopathology , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Extracellular Matrix , Alveolar Epithelial Cells
18.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(5): 536-544, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038502

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Thyroid cancer has been rapidly increasing in prevalence among humans in last 2 decades and is the most prevalent endocrine malignancy. Overall, thyroid-cancer patients have good rates of long-term survival, but a small percentage present poor outcome. Thyroid cancer aggressiveness is essentially related with thyroid follicular cell loss of differentiation and metastasis. The discovery of oncogenes that drive thyroid cancer (such as RET, RAS, and BRAF), and are aligned in the MAPK/ERK pathway has led to a new perspective of thyroid oncogenesis. The uncovering of additional oncogene-modulated signaling pathways revealed an intricate and active signaling cross-talk. Among these, microRNAs, which are a class of small, noncoding RNAs, expanded this cross-talk by modulating several components of the oncogenic network - thus establishing a new layer of regulation. In this context, TGFβ signaling plays an important role in cancer as a dual factor: it can exert an antimitogenic effect in normal thyroid follicular cells, and promote epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, cell migration, and invasion in cancer cells. In this review, we explore how microRNAs influence the loss of thyroid differentiation and the increase in aggressiveness of thyroid cancers by regulating the dual function of TGFβ. This review provides directions for future research to encourage the development of new strategies and molecular approaches that can improve the treatment of aggressive thyroid cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Gland/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Thyroid Neoplasms/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic , Disease Progression , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neoplasm Metastasis
19.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(3): 388-393, Mar. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003032

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVES: We examined the effects of tadalafil, one of the phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors, in a rat model of with partial and complete unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). METHODS: The rats were divided into 5 groups: sham (n=6), partial unilateral ureteral obstruction (PUUO, n=6), PUUO with tadalafil treatment (PUUO+T; Cialis, 10 mg/72 h, intragastric; Lilly, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA), complete unilateral ureteral obstruction (CUUO, n=6), and CUUO with tadalafil treatment (CUUO+T). RESULTS: Fifteen days after the UUO, the ureter presented changes in the layers of urothelium and significant infiltration of inflammatory cells in the PUUO and CUUO groups. Compared with the sham, PUUO and CUUO groups had severe increased inflammatory cell infiltration. The urothelial epithelium exhibited cell degeneration and loss because of the swollen, atrophic, and denuded epithelial cells in the PUUO and CUUO groups. In the PUUO+T and CUUO+T groups, the urothelium revealed less epithelial cell degeneration and loss. The expressions of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) exhibited up-regulation in the PUUO and CUUO groups. The expression of TGF-β decreased positively correlated with that of α-SMA in the tadalafil therapy groups, PUUO+T and CUUO+T. CONCLUSION: The phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor's tadalafil reduced expressions of α-SMA and TGF-β in the obstructed ureters, measured by biochemical examinations. In addition, tadalafil decreased urothelium degeneration due to the decreased epithelial cell loss and inflammatory cell infiltration. Our results show that tadalafil prevents or slows down the onset of ureter inflammation and urothelial degeneration in rats with UUO.


RESUMO OBJETIVOS: Examinamos os efeitos do tadalafil em um dos inibidores da fosfodiesterase tipo 5 (PDE5) em um modelo de rato com obstrução ureteral unilateral parcial e completa (UUO). MÉTODOS: Os ratos foram divididos em cinco grupos: sham (n = 6), obstrução ureteral unilateral parcial (PUUO, n = 6), PUUO com tadalafil (PUUO T; Cialis, 10 mg/72 h, intragástrica; Lilly, Indianapolis, Indiana, EUA), completa obstrução ureteral unilateral (CUUO, n = 6) e CUUO com tratamento com tadalafil (CUUO T). RESULTADOS: Quinze dias após a UUO, o ureter apresentou alterações nas camadas de urotélio e infiltração significativa de células inflamatórias nos grupos PUUO e CUUO. Em comparação com os grupos sham, PUUO e CUUO, houve um aumento grave da infiltração de células inflamatórias. O epitélio urotelial exibiu degeneração e perda celular devido às células epiteliais inchadas, atróficas e desnudas nos grupos PUUO e CUUO. Nos grupos PUUO T e CUUO T, o urotélio revelou menor degeneração e perda de células epiteliais. Nós mostramos que a expressão da actina do músculo liso-α (α-SMA) e do fator de crescimento transformador-β (TGF-β) foram exibidas como sub-regulação nos grupos PUUO e CUUO. A expressão do TGF-β foi diminuída positivamente correlacionada com a da α-SMA nos grupos de terapia com tadalafil, PUUO T e CUUO T. CONCLUSÃO: O tadalafil do inibidor da fosfodiesterase tipo 5 reduziu as expressões α-SMA e TGF-β nos ureteres obstruídos, medidos por exames bioquímicos. Além disso, o tadalafil diminuiu a degeneração do urotélio devido à diminuição da perda de células epiteliais e da infiltração de células inflamatórias. Nossos resultados mostram que o tadalafil previne ou retarda o início da inflamação do ureter e degeneração urotelial em ratos com UUO.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Ureteral Obstruction/pathology , Ureteral Obstruction/drug therapy , Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Tadalafil/pharmacology , Reference Values , Ureter/drug effects , Ureter/pathology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Up-Regulation , Reproducibility of Results , Transforming Growth Factor beta/analysis , Actins/analysis , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/prevention & control
20.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(1): e7784, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974264

ABSTRACT

Myelofibrosis (MF) is characterized by increased circulating hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs), abnormal cytokine levels, and the survival advantage of neoplastic progenitors over their normal counterparts, which leads to progressive disappearance of polyclonal hematopoiesis. CD47 is a surface glycoprotein with many functions, such as acting as a phagocytosis inhibitor of the expressing cell, that is increased in normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells mobilized into the blood and several human cancer-initiating cells, such as in acute myeloid leukemia. We compared CD47 expression in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells of patients with MF and controls and found it to be decreased in progenitors of MF. Exposure of control HPCs to the cytokines transforming growth factor β and stromal-derived factor 1, which are important regulators of hematopoietic stem cell cycling and are overexpressed in patients with MF, did not modulate CD47 expression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/metabolism , CD47 Antigen/metabolism , Primary Myelofibrosis/metabolism , Case-Control Studies , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Chemokine CXCL12/metabolism , Primary Myelofibrosis/genetics
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