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1.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(3): e9206, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153519

ABSTRACT

Renal fibrosis is one of the most significant pathological changes after ureteral obstruction. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway plays essential roles in kidney fibrosis regulation. The aims of the present study were to investigate effects of microRNA-302b (miR-302b) on renal fibrosis, and interaction between miR-302b and TGF-β signaling pathway in murine unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model. Microarray dataset GSE42716 was downloaded by retrieving Gene Expression Omnibus database. In accordance with bioinformatics analysis results, miR-302b was significantly down-regulated in UUO mouse kidney tissue and TGF-β1-treated HK-2 cells. Masson's trichrome staining showed that miR-302b mimics decreased renal fibrosis induced by UUO. The increased mRNA expression of collagen I and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and decreased expression of E-cadherin were reversed by miR-302b mimics. In addition, miR-302b up-regulation also inhibited TGF-β1-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of HK-2 cells by restoring E-cadherin expression and decreasing α-SMA expression. miR-302b mimics suppressed both luciferase activity and protein expression of TGF-βR2. However, miR-302b inhibitor increased TGF-βR2 luciferase activity and protein expression. Meanwhile, miR-302b mimics inhibited TGF-βR2 mRNA expression and decreased Smad2 and Smad3 phosphorylation in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, over-expression of TGF-βR2 restored the miR-302b-induced decrease of collagen I and α-SMA expression. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that miR-302b attenuated renal fibrosis by targeting TGF-βR2 to suppress TGF-β/Smad signaling activation. Our findings showed that elevating renal miR-302b levels may be a novel therapeutic strategy for preventing renal fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rats , Ureteral Obstruction/pathology , Signal Transduction , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , MicroRNAs/genetics , Smad Proteins , Kidney Diseases/genetics , Fibrosis , Cell Line , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Kidney/pathology , Kidney Diseases/pathology
2.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(2): e9017, 2021. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142574

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-cancer effect of melittin on growth, migration, invasion, and apoptosis of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. This study also explored the potential anti-cancer mechanism of melittin in NSCLC cells. The results demonstrated that melittin suppressed growth, migration, and invasion, and induced apoptosis of NSCLC cells in vitro. Melittin increased pro-apoptotic caspase-3 and Apaf-1 gene expression. Melittin inhibited tumor growth factor (TGF)-β expression and phosphorylated ERK/total ERK (pERK/tERK) in NSCLC cells. However, TGF-β overexpression (pTGF-β) abolished melittin-decreased TGF-β expression and pERK/tERK in NSCLC cells. Treatment with melittin suppressed tumor growth and prolonged mouse survival during the 120-day observation in vivo. Treatment with melittin increased TUNEL-positive cells and decreased expression levels of TGF-β and ERK in tumor tissue compared to the control group. In conclusion, the findings of this study indicated that melittin inhibited growth, migration, and invasion, and induced apoptosis of NSCLC cells through down-regulation of TGF-β-mediated ERK signaling pathway, suggesting melittin may be a promising anti-cancer agent for NSCLC therapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Apoptosis , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Melitten/pharmacology , Down-Regulation , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Cell Movement , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Caspase 3 , Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1 , Neoplasm Invasiveness
3.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(5): 536-544, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038502

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Thyroid cancer has been rapidly increasing in prevalence among humans in last 2 decades and is the most prevalent endocrine malignancy. Overall, thyroid-cancer patients have good rates of long-term survival, but a small percentage present poor outcome. Thyroid cancer aggressiveness is essentially related with thyroid follicular cell loss of differentiation and metastasis. The discovery of oncogenes that drive thyroid cancer (such as RET, RAS, and BRAF), and are aligned in the MAPK/ERK pathway has led to a new perspective of thyroid oncogenesis. The uncovering of additional oncogene-modulated signaling pathways revealed an intricate and active signaling cross-talk. Among these, microRNAs, which are a class of small, noncoding RNAs, expanded this cross-talk by modulating several components of the oncogenic network - thus establishing a new layer of regulation. In this context, TGFβ signaling plays an important role in cancer as a dual factor: it can exert an antimitogenic effect in normal thyroid follicular cells, and promote epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, cell migration, and invasion in cancer cells. In this review, we explore how microRNAs influence the loss of thyroid differentiation and the increase in aggressiveness of thyroid cancers by regulating the dual function of TGFβ. This review provides directions for future research to encourage the development of new strategies and molecular approaches that can improve the treatment of aggressive thyroid cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Gland/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Thyroid Neoplasms/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic , Disease Progression , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neoplasm Metastasis
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(1): e7784, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974264

ABSTRACT

Myelofibrosis (MF) is characterized by increased circulating hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs), abnormal cytokine levels, and the survival advantage of neoplastic progenitors over their normal counterparts, which leads to progressive disappearance of polyclonal hematopoiesis. CD47 is a surface glycoprotein with many functions, such as acting as a phagocytosis inhibitor of the expressing cell, that is increased in normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells mobilized into the blood and several human cancer-initiating cells, such as in acute myeloid leukemia. We compared CD47 expression in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells of patients with MF and controls and found it to be decreased in progenitors of MF. Exposure of control HPCs to the cytokines transforming growth factor β and stromal-derived factor 1, which are important regulators of hematopoietic stem cell cycling and are overexpressed in patients with MF, did not modulate CD47 expression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/metabolism , CD47 Antigen/metabolism , Primary Myelofibrosis/metabolism , Case-Control Studies , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Chemokine CXCL12/metabolism , Primary Myelofibrosis/genetics
5.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(8): e7334, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951739

ABSTRACT

Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) causes significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. A decreased number of regulatory T (Treg) cells is associated with the pathogenesis of PIH. The programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway is critical to normal pregnancy (NP) by promoting Treg cell development. However, the relationship between PD-1/PD-L1 and Treg differentiation in PIH has not been fully elucidated. In this study, venous blood was obtained from 20 NP and 58 PIH patients. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from venous blood. The levels of Treg-related cytokines (TGF-β, IL-10, and IL-35) in serum and PBMCs were measured by ELISA. The percentage of Treg cells in PBMCs was assessed by flow cytometry. The mRNA levels of Treg-specific transcription factor Foxp3 in PBMCs, and PD-1 and PD-L1 in Treg cells were detected by qRT-PCR. The protein levels of PD-1 and PD-L1 in Treg cells were evaluated by western blot. The serum levels of TGF-β, IL-10, IL-35, and Foxp3 mRNA expression and CD4+CD25+ Treg cell percentage in PBMCs were decreased in PIH. Furthermore, a significant increase of PD-1 in Treg cells was found in PIH compared with NP. In addition, PD-L1 Fc, an activator of PD-1/PD-L1 pathway, increased Treg cell percentage, enhanced Foxp3 mRNA expression, and elevated levels of TGF-β, IL-10, and IL-35 in PBMCs. However, anti-PD-L1 mAb exerted a reverse effect. These findings revealed that PD-L1 Fc had a favorable effect on Treg cell differentiation, indicating a potential therapeutic value of PD-1/PD-L1 pathway for PIH treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/chemistry , Interleukins/metabolism , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Apoptosis , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/metabolism , B7-H1 Antigen/metabolism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Case-Control Studies , Blotting, Western , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
6.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 10(3): 449-454, dic. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-840994

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la radiación ultravioleta (UV) B sobre la expresión del factor de crecimiento transformante (TGF) ß1 por fibroblastos de mucosa oral, con el objetivo de dilucidar si este tipo celular puede contribuir a la expresión de TGFß1 en bermellón labial sobreexpuesto a la radiación UV. Se obtuvieron cultivos primarios de fibroblastos desde explantes de mucosa bucal, los que fueron irradiados con una dosis única de luz UVB (60 mJ/cm2). Se midió proliferación celular con el método MTT, y la expresión de TGFß1, a nivel de ARN mensajero (normalizado a GAPDH) por RT-PCR y a nivel de proteína mediante inmunofluorescencia. Se observó una disminución de la proliferación celular de los fibroblastos de mucosa oral a las 24 hrs post-irradiación en relación a los fibroblastos no irradiados (P<0,05, Mann Whitney). No se encontraron diferencias entre los fibroblastos control y los irradiados en la expresión de TGFß-1 ni a nivel de mensajero (0,5 y 6 h post-irradiación), ni de proteína (24 h post-irradiación). Los resultados sugieren que los fibroblastos de mucosa oral presentan una disminución de su proliferación en respuesta a una dosis única de radiación UVB, sin que se afecte la expresión de TGFß-1, la que fue similar a los fibroblastos no irradiados. Esto sugiere que los fibroblastos contribuirían a la producción de TGFß-1 en respuesta a la exposición crónica a UVB del bermellón labial.


The objective of this study was to characterize the effect of Ultraviolet (UV) B irradiation on the expression of transforming growth factor (TGF) ß1 by oral mucosa fibroblasts, in order to assess if these cells contribute to the production of TGFß-1 in UV-irradiated lip vermillion. Primary cultures of fibroblasts were obtained from oral mucosa explants, and were irradiated with a single dose of UVB light (60 mJ/cm2). The effects of UVB radiation on cell proliferation was evaluated by the MTT method. The effects of UVB on the expression of TGF-ß1 was analyzed by RT-PCR (normalized to GAPDH) and by immunofluorescence. The results showed a decrease in the proliferation of UVB-irradiated fibroblasts as compared to controls at 24h post-irradiation (p<0.05). No variations in the expression of TGFß1, both at the mRNA and protein level, were observed between control and UVB-irradiated fibroblasts during the first 24 h after irradiation. Oral mucosa fibroblasts have reduced proliferation in response to a single dose of UVB, but their expression of TGFß1 was not affected. This suggests that oral mucosa fibroblasts may contribute to the production of TGFß1 in the lip vermillion independent of UVB exposure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mouth Mucosa/metabolism , Mouth Mucosa/radiation effects , Transforming Growth Factor beta/radiation effects , Ultraviolet Rays , Cell Proliferation , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism
7.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(5): 314-319, May 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-783800

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT PURPOSE : To evaluate the effects of platelet rich plasma (PRP) on the healing of fascia wherein peritonitis has been created. METHODS: Twenty eight Wistar Albino rats were divided into four groups. Only a primary fascial repair following laparotomy was performed on Group 1, a primary fascial repair performed and PRP treatment applied following laparotomy on Group 2, and a fecal peritonitis created following laparotomy and a primary fascial repair carried out on Group 3. A fecal peritonitis was created following laparotomy and primary fascial repair and PRP treatment on the fascia was carried out on Group 4. RESULTS: TNF-α was found to be significantly lower in the control group (Group 1). It was detected at the highest level in the group in which fecal peritonitis was created and PRP applied (Group 4). TGF-β was determined as being significantly higher only in Group 4. Histopathologically, the differences between the groups in terms of cell infiltration and collagen deposition were not found to be significant. CONCLUSION: When platelet rich plasma was given histologically and biochemicaly as wound healing parameters cellular infiltration, collagen accumulation, and tissue hydroxyiproline levels were not increased but neovascularization, fibroblast activation and TNF Alfa levels were increased and PRP accelerated wound healing.


Subject(s)
Animals , Peritonitis/complications , Wound Healing , Platelet-Rich Plasma , Fascia/physiology , Peritonitis/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Random Allocation , Transforming Growth Factor beta/analysis , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Collagen/drug effects , Collagen/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Gelatinases/metabolism , Neovascularization, Physiologic , Models, Animal , Fascia/blood supply , Hydroxyproline/analysis , Hydroxyproline/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism
8.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 20(1): 66-73, Jan-Feb/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741440

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine by means of a systematic review the best treatment, whether interproximal wear or incisor extraction, to correct anterior lower crowding in Class I patients in permanent dentition. METHODS: A literature review was conducted using MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science to retrieve studies published between January 1950 and October 2013. In selecting the sample, the following inclusion criteria were applied: studies involving interproximal wear and/or extraction of mandibular incisors, as well as Class I cases with anterior lower crowding in permanent dentition. RESULTS: Out of a total of 943 articles found after excluding duplicates, 925 were excluded after abstract analysis. After full articles were read, 13 were excluded by the eligibility criteria and one due to methodological quality; therefore, only fours articles remained: two retrospective and two randomized prospective studies. Data were collected, analyzed and organized in tables. CONCLUSION: Both interproximal wear and mandibular incisor extraction are effective in treating Class I malocclusion in permanent dentition with moderate anterior lower crowding and pleasant facial profile. There is scant evidence to determine the best treatment option for each case. Clinical decision should be made on an individual basis by taking into account dental characteristics, crowding, dental and oral health, patient's expectations and the use of set-up models. .


OBJETIVO: determinar, por meio de uma revisão sistemática, o melhor tratamento entre desgastes interproximais e extração de incisivos para a correção de apinhamento anteroinferior em pacientes Classe I com dentição permanente. MÉTODOS: foram feitas buscas nas bases de dados eletrônicas MEDLINE, Scopus e Web of Science por artigos publicados de janeiro de 1950 até outubro de 2013. Os critérios de inclusão foram estudos que abordassem tratamentos com desgastes interproximais e/ou extração de incisivos inferiores, de casos Classe I com apinhamento anteroinferior na dentição permanente. RESULTADOS: dos 943 artigos encontrados após a remoção dos duplicados, 925 foram excluídos após a leitura dos resumos. Após leitura dos artigos completos, 13 foram excluídos pelos critérios de eligibilidade e um pela qualidade metodológica, restando quatro artigos, sendo dois retrospectivos e dois prospectivos randomizados. Os dados foram coletados, analisados e organizados em tabelas. CONCLUSÕES: tanto o desgaste interproximal quanto a extração de incisivo inferior são tratamentos eficazes em Classe I na dentição permanente, com apinhamento anteroinferior moderado e perfil facial agradável. Há fracas evidências para determinar a escolha do melhor tratamento para cada caso. A decisão clínica deve ser tomada em bases individuais, considerando as características anatômicas dentárias, da severidade do apinhamento, condições de saúde dentária e bucal, expectativas dos pacientes e ensaio em modelos (set-up). .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena/physiology , Myocardium/pathology , Obesity/pathology , Blotting, Western , Fibrosis , Heart/embryology , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Myocardium/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism , Phosphorylation , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sheep , Signal Transduction , /metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , /metabolism
9.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 78(1): 1-5, Jan-Feb/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741170

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To determine the efficacy of tranilast as an adjunctive therapy in conjunctival autograft. Methods: Twenty-nine patients were randomly allocated to the Tranilast Group (n=15) or the Control Group (n=14). The Tranilast Group received a subconjunctival injection of 0.5% tranilast 30 days prior to surgery. Conjunctival autograft was performed in both groups using fibrin sealant and 0.02% subconjunctival mitomycin C at the end of the surgery. After the resection of the pterygium, immunohistochemistry was performed with 100 cells to identify epithelial cells positive for transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Subjective symptoms were evaluated using a 5-point scale, and the recurrence rate was assessed. Results: Both groups showed improvements in their symptoms and similar clinical results. Compared with the Control Group, the Tranilast Group failed to show a decreased recurrence rate (p=0.59). However, the number of epithelial cells expressing TGF-β was lower in the Tranilast Group (5 cells; 95% CI: 2.56-13.15; Control Group, 16 cells, 95% CI: 11.53-24.76; p=0.01). Minimal but reversible complications, including glaucoma secondary to corticosteroids and granuloma, occurred during the study. Conclusion: Tranilast was effective in decreasing the number of pterygium epithelial cells expressing TGF-β. .


Objetivo: Determinar a eficácia do tranilast, como terapia auxiliar no transplante autólogo de conjuntiva. Métodos: Vinte e nove pacientes foram randomizados em dois grupos: Grupo Tratado (15) e Grupo Controle (14). Trinta dias antes da cirurgia, o Grupo Tratado recebeu uma injeção subconjuntival de tranilast a 0,5%. O transplante autólogo de conjuntiva foi realizado em ambos os grupos, usando-se a cola de fibrina e a mitomicina 0,02% subconjuntival, ao final da cirurgia. Cada paciente foi examinado por 12 meses de acompanhamento. A imuno-histoquímica foi realizada, mediante um total de 100 células, a fim de que se contassem as células epiteliais positivas, para o fator de crescimento transformador beta (TGF-β), após a cirurgia do pterígio. Os sintomas subjetivos foram avaliados usando-se uma escala de cinco pontos, e a taxa de recorrência foi avaliada. Resultados: Os 2 grupos apresentaram melhora dos sintomas e com resultados clínicos similares. Quando comparado com o Grupo Controle, o Grupo Tratado falhou em mostrar uma diminuição da taxa de recorrência (p=0,59). Entretanto o número de células epiteliais expressando o TGF-β foi menor no Grupo Tratado (5 células; 95% CI=2,56-13,15; Grupo Controle, 16 células; 95% CI: 11,53-24,76, p=0,01). Complicações mínimas, mas reversíveis, ocorreram durante o estudo, incluindo glaucoma secundário ao uso de corticoide e granuloma. Conclusão: O tranilast foi efetivo em diminuir o número células epiteliais do pterígio expressando o TGF-β. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Conjunctiva/transplantation , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Pterygium/drug therapy , Pterygium/surgery , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , ortho-Aminobenzoates/administration & dosage , Autografts , Conjunctiva/drug effects , Conjunctiva/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Follow-Up Studies , Fibrin Tissue Adhesive/therapeutic use , Injections, Intraocular , Mitomycin/therapeutic use , Postoperative Period , Preoperative Care , Prospective Studies , Pterygium/metabolism , Pterygium/prevention & control , Recurrence , Secondary Prevention/methods , Transplantation, Autologous , Treatment Outcome
10.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 143(1): 96-100, ene. 2015.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-742556

ABSTRACT

After years of discussion by the Chilean legislature, the Law Nº 20.584, which regulates health care related rights and duties of people, entered into force in Chile in October 2012. This bill represents an important step in the recognition and protection of health care related rights, welfare, dignity and duties of persons. It also intends to protect potential participants in clinical research. However such protective measures include explicit prohibitions such as the review of clinical records or the inclusion of people with mental or psychological handicaps as research participants. We herein discuss the implications of this law in medical research.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Gene Expression Regulation , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Glomerulonephritis/metabolism , Hypertension/pathology , Kidney Glomerulus/metabolism , Kidney Tubules/metabolism , Kidney/injuries , Kidney/metabolism , Rats, Inbred WKY , Time Factors , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Ureter/pathology
11.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1530-1537, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-177073

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The expression of nerve growth factor-beta (NGF-beta) is related to cardiac nerve sprouting and sympathetic hyper innervation. We investigated the changes of plasma levels of NGF-beta and the relationship to follow-up heart rate variability (HRV) after radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) of atrial fibrillation (AF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 147 patients with AF (117 men, 55.8+/-11.5 years, 106 paroxysmal AF) who underwent RFCA. The plasma levels of NGF-beta were quantified using double sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method before (NGF-beta(pre)) and 1 hour after RFCA (NGF-beta(post-1hr)). HRV at pre-procedure (HRV(pre)), 3 months (HRV(post-3mo)), and 1 year post-procedure (HRV(post-1yr)) were analyzed and compared with plasma levels of NGF-beta. RESULTS: 1) The plasma levels of NGF-beta significantly increased after RFCA (20.05+/-11.09 pg/mL vs. 29.60+/-19.43 pg/mL, p18 pg/mL, low frequency components (LF)/high-frequency components (HF) (p=0.003) and the number of atrial premature contractions (APCs, p=0.045) in HRV(post-3mo) were significantly higher than those with < or =18 pg/mL. 3) The LF/HF at HRV(post-3mo) was linearly associated with the NGF-beta(pre) (B=4.240, 95% CI 1.114-7.336, p=0.008) and the NGF-beta(post-1hr) (B=7.617, 95% CI 2.106-13.127, p=0.007). 4) Both NGF-beta(pre) (OR=1.159, 95% CI 1.045-1.286, p=0.005) and NGF-beta(post-1hr) (OR=1.098, 95% CI 1.030-1.170, p=0.004) were independent predictors for the increase of LF/HF at HRV(post-3mo). CONCLUSION: AF catheter ablation increases plasma level of NGF-beta, and high plasma levels of NGF-beta(pre) was associated with higher sympathetic nerve activity and higher frequency of APCs in HRV(post-3mo).


Subject(s)
Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/physiopathology , Catheter Ablation/methods , Female , Heart Rate , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nerve Growth Factor , Nerve Growth Factors , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Treatment Outcome
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(8): 655-661, 08/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-716268

ABSTRACT

Immune response plays an important role in the development of hepatic fibrosis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of quercetin on hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis induced by immunological mechanism. In the acute hepatitis model, quercetin (2.5 mg/kg) was injected iv into mice 30 min after concanavalin A (Con A) challenge. Mice were sacrificed 4 or 24 h after Con A injection, and aminotransferase tests and histopathological sections were performed. Treatment with quercetin significantly decreased the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Consistent with this observation, treatment with quercetin markedly attenuated the pathologic changes in the liver. A hepatic fibrosis model was also generated in mice by Con A challenge once a week for 6 consecutive weeks. Mice in the experimental group were treated with daily iv injections of quercetin (0.5 mg/kg). Histopathological analyses revealed that treatment with quercetin markedly decreased collagen deposition, pseudolobuli development, and hepatic stellate cells activation. We also examined the effects of quercetin on the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) pathways by immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). NF-κB and TGF-β production was decreased after treatment with quercetin, indicating that the antifibrotic effect of quercetin is associated with its ability to modulate NF-κB and TGF-β production. These results suggest that quercetin may be an effective therapeutic strategy in the treatment of patients with liver damage and fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Hepatitis/drug therapy , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , Quercetin/pharmacology , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Concanavalin A , Collagen/analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Hepatic Stellate Cells/drug effects , Hepatic Stellate Cells/metabolism , Liposomes , Liver Cirrhosis/chemically induced , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mitogens , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism
13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 46(9): 739-745, 19/set. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-686570

ABSTRACT

Liver cirrhosis is one of the most common diseases of Chinese patients. Herein, we report the high expression of a newly identified histone 3 lysine 4 demethylase, retinoblastoma binding protein 2 (RBP2), and its role in liver cirrhosis in humans. The siRNA knockdown of RBP2 expression in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) reduced levels of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and vimentin and decreased the proliferation of HSCs; and overexpression of RBP2 increased α-SMA and vimentin levels. Treatment with transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) upregulated the expression of RBP2, α-SMA, and vimentin, and the siRNA knockdown of RBP2 expression attenuated TGF-β-mediated upregulation of α-SMA and vimentin expression and HSC proliferation. Furthermore, RBP2 was highly expressed in cirrhotic rat livers. Therefore, RBP2 may participate in the pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis by regulating the expression of α-SMA and vimentin. RBP2 may be a useful marker for the diagnosis and treatment of liver cirrhosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Actins/metabolism , Hepatic Stellate Cells/metabolism , Histone Demethylases/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , /metabolism , Vimentin/metabolism , Blotting, Western , Cell Proliferation , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Expression , Gene Knockdown Techniques , Rats, Wistar , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism
14.
Clinics ; 67(12): 1455-1461, Dec. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-660475

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: During the neonatal and infancy periods, some chronic liver diseases may lead to progressive hepatic fibrosis, which is a condition that can ultimately result in the loss of organ function and severe portal hypertension necessitating hepatic transplantation. In a previous report, pharmacological interventions were demonstrated to modulate hepatic fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation in young rats. The administration of pentoxifylline or prednisolone, or the combination of both, resulted in reduced fibrogenesis in portal spaces. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the expression of transforming growth factor β and vascular endothelial growth factor after bile duct ligation in young rats and to assess the effect of those same drugs on cytokine expression. METHODS: In this experimental study, 80 young rats (21 or 22 days old) were submitted either to laparotomy and common bile duct ligation or to sham surgery. The animals were allocated into four groups according to surgical procedure, and the following treatments were administered: (1) common bile duct ligation + distilled water, (2) sham surgery + distilled water, (3) common bile duct ligation + pentoxifylline, or (4) common bile duct ligation + prednisolone. After 30 days, a hepatic fragment was collected from each animal for immunohistochemical analysis using monoclonal antibodies against transforming growth factor β and vascular endothelial growth factor. Digital morphometric and statistical analyses were performed. RESULTS: The administration of pentoxifylline reduced the transforming growth factor β-marked area and the amount of transforming growth factor β expressed in liver tissue. This effect was not observed after the administration of prednisolone. There was a significant reduction in vascular endothelial growth factor expression after the administration of either drug compared with the non-treatment group. CONCLUSIONS: The administration of pentoxifylline to cholestatic young rats resulted in the diminished expression of transforming growth factor β and vascular endothelial growth factor in liver tissue. The administration of steroids resulted in the diminished expression of vascular endothelial growth factor only. These pathways may be involved in hepatic fibrogenesis in young rats submitted to bile duct ligation and exposed to pentoxifylline or prednisolone.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Cholestasis/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental/prevention & control , Pentoxifylline/pharmacology , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Prednisolone/pharmacology , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Cholestasis/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Immunohistochemistry , Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental/etiology , Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental/metabolism , Liver/drug effects , Liver/metabolism , Random Allocation
15.
Clinics ; 67(9): 1039-1046, Sept. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-649383

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study sought to identify the relationship between fibroblast telomerase expression, myofibroblasts, and telomerase-mediated regulatory signals in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. METHODS: Thirty-four surgical lung biopsies, which had been obtained from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and histologically classified as usual interstitial pneumonia, were examined. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate fibroblast telomerase expression, myofibroblast α-smooth muscle actin expression and the tissue expression of inter leu kin-4, transforming growth factor-β, and basic fibroblast growth factor. The point-counting technique was used to quantify the expression of these markers in unaffected, collapsed, mural fibrosis, and honeycombing areas. The results were correlated to patient survival. RESULTS: Fibroblast telomerase expression and basic fibroblast growth factor tissue expression were higher in collapsed areas, whereas myofibroblast expression and interleukine-4 tissue expression were higher in areas of mural fibrosis. Transforming growth factor-β expression was higher in collapsed, mural fibrosis and honeycombing areas in comparison to unaffected areas. Positive correlations were found between basic fibroblast growth factor tissue expression and fibroblast telomerase expression and between interleukin-4 tissue expression and myofibroblast α-smooth muscle actin expression. Negative correlations were observed between interleukin-4 expression and basic fibroblast growth factor tissue expression in areas of mural fibrosis. Myofibroblast α-smooth muscle actin expression and interleukin-4 tissue expression in areas of mural fibrosis were negatively associated with patient survival. CONCLUSION: Fibroblast telomerase expression is higher in areas of early remodeling in lung tissues demonstrating typical interstitial pneumonia, whereas myofibroblast α-smooth muscle actin expression predominates in areas of late remodeling. These events seem to be regulated by basic fibroblast growth factor and interleukin-4 tissue expression, respectively.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Actins/metabolism , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Myofibroblasts/metabolism , Telomerase/metabolism , Biopsy , Biomarkers/metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Fibroblast Growth Factors/metabolism , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , /metabolism , Lung/pathology , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism
16.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 38(2): 230-234, Mar.-Apr. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-623337

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cyclosporine (CyA) nephrotoxicity is partly due to some oxidative stress. Ubiquinol, the reduced form of coenzyme Q10 (rCoQ10), has recently gained attention for its anti-oxidative potential. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of rCoQ10 on a CyA nephrotoxic rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (five animals each). Group 1 received a medium only. Group 2 received 30 mg/kg/day of CyA only. Group 3 received both the same dose of CyA and 600 mg/kg/day of rCoQ10. CyA and rCoQ10 were both given orally for four weeks. Systolic blood pressure (BP), daily urinary albumin secretion (u-Alb), serum creatinine (s-Cr) level, and super-oxide anion (SO) level in the renal tissue were measured and compared among those three groups. Immunohistochemistry using an antibody for the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) was also examined. RESULTS: BPs, u-Albs, s-Crs, and SO levels of groups 1, 2, and 3 were 114 ± 3, 132 ± 4, and 129 ± 5 mmHg, 2.6 ± 0.5, 42.1 ± 7.2, and 22.8 ± 3.4 micro-g/day, 1.1 ± 0.2, 1.7 ± 0.2, and 1.3 ± 0.2 mg/dl, and 224 ± 84, 1251 ± 138, and 512 ± 109 RLU/g kidney respectively. U-Albs, s-Crs, and SO levels were significantly ameliorated by rCoQ10. Micro-vacuolar changes and TGF-beta positive deposits in the proximal renal tubular cells of CyA group rats disappeared in those of CyA and rCoQ10 group rats. CONCLUSION: RCoQ10, an antioxidants, may have potential for preventing CyA nephrotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Cyclosporine/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Kidney Diseases/chemically induced , Micronutrients/administration & dosage , Ubiquinone/analogs & derivatives , Albuminuria/prevention & control , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Creatinine/blood , Dietary Supplements , Disease Models, Animal , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Ubiquinone/administration & dosage
17.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 26(3): 393-403, jul.-set. 2011.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-624521

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/Smad signaling pathway in aortic dissection patients and normal subjects has not been previously described. The present study was designed to evaluate the TGF-β/Smad signaling expressions in the patients with acute type A aortic dissection in comparison with those in the patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm and with coronary artery disease, and (or) the healthy subjects. METHODS: Consecutive surgical patients for acute type A aortic dissection (20 patients), aortic aneurysm (nine patients) or coronary artery disease (20 patients) were selected into this study. Blood samples (4 ml) were obtained from the right radial arterial indwelling catheter after systemic heparinization prior to the start of cardiopulmonary bypass in the operating room. Twenty-one young healthy volunteers without underlying health issues who donated forearm venous blood samples (4 ml) were taken as control. The surgical specimens of the aortic tissues were obtained immediately after they were severed during the operations of the replacement of the aorta in the patients with aortic dissection or aortic aneurysm. In patients receiving coronary artery bypass grafting, the tiny aortic tissues were taken when the punch holes of the proximal anastomosis on the anterior wall of the ascending aorta were made. The aortic tissues were for RNA, protein, or supernatant preparations until detection of TGF-β1 mRNA by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, of TGF-β1, TGF-β receptor I, Smad2/3, Smad4 and Smad7 by Western blot, and of TGF-β1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. In particular, the linear correlations of the relative grayscales between different proteins of each group, and those correlations between the quantitative TGF-β1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the time interval from the onset to surgery or the maximal dimensions of the ...


OBJETIVOS: Fator transformador de crescimento (TGF) -β/ Smad como via de sinalização em casos de dissecção aórtica e indivíduos normais não foi descrito anteriormente. O presente estudo foi elaborado para avaliar as expressões TGF-β/Smad como via de sinalização nos pacientes com dissecção aguda da aorta, em comparação com que nos pacientes com aneurisma da aorta torácica e com doença arterial coronariana, e (ou) com indivíduos saudáveis. MÉTODOS: Pacientes cirúrgicos consecutivos para o tipo A de dissecção aguda da aorta (20 pacientes), aneurisma da aorta (nove pacientes) ou doença arterial coronária (20 pacientes) foram selecionados para este estudo. Amostras de sangue (4 ml) foram obtidas a partir do cateter arterial radial direito após heparinização sistêmica antes do início da circulação extracorpórea na sala de cirurgia. Vinte e um voluntários jovens e saudáveis, sem problemas de saúde subjacentes que doaram amostras de sangue venoso do antebraço (4 ml) foram tomados como controle. Os espécimes cirúrgicos de tecidos aórtico foram obtidos imediatamente após terem sido cortados durante as operações da substituição da aorta nos pacientes com dissecção aórtica ou aneurisma da aorta. Em pacientes que foram submetidos à cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica, os tecidos da aorta minúsculos foram obtidos quando os orifícios da anastomose proximal na parede anterior da aorta ascendente foram feitos. Os tecidos da aorta foram para a RNA, proteínas ou preparações sobrenadantes até a detecção de TGF-β1 mRNA pela reação de transcrição reversa quantitativa em tempo real em cadeia da polimerase, de TGF-β1, receptor I de TGF-β, Smad2/3, Smad4 e Smad7 por Western Blot, e de TGF-β1 pelo teste de ELISA, respectivamente. Em particular, as correlações lineares dos tons de cinza relativo entre diferentes proteínas de cada grupo, e aquelas correlações entre os quantitativos TGF-β1 pelo teste de ELISA e o intervalo de ...


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aneurysm, Dissecting/metabolism , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/metabolism , Smad Proteins/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Acute Disease , Analysis of Variance , Blotting, Western , Biomarkers/analysis , Biomarkers/metabolism , Case-Control Studies , Coronary Artery Disease/metabolism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Signal Transduction/physiology , Smad Proteins/analysis , Transforming Growth Factor beta/analysis
18.
Indian J Cancer ; 2011 Jul-Sept; 48(3): 351-360
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-144494

ABSTRACT

One of the major signaling pathways that determine the tumor aggression and patient outcome in pancreatic cancer is the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß) pathway. It is inactivated at various levels in pancreatic cancer and plays a dual role in tumor initiation and progression. The Smad family of proteins transduce signals from the TGF-ß superfamily ligands that regulate cell proliferation, differentiation and death through activation of receptor serine/threonine kinases. This review discusses the structure, function and regulation of various participating Smad family members, and their individual roles in determining the progression and outcome of pancreatic cancer patients, with a special emphasis on Smad4.


Subject(s)
Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , DNA-Binding Proteins/chemistry , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Pancreatic Neoplasms/genetics , Pancreatic Neoplasms/metabolism , Pancreatic Neoplasms/pathology , Phosphorylation , Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta/genetics , Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Smad4 Protein/chemistry , Smad4 Protein/genetics , Smad4 Protein/metabolism , Smad6 Protein/genetics , Smad6 Protein/metabolism , Smad7 Protein/genetics , Smad7 Protein/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta/genetics , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism
19.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 44(5): 460-468, May 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-586504

ABSTRACT

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with inflammatory cell reactions, tissue destruction and lung remodeling. Many signaling pathways for these phenomena are still to be identified. We developed a mouse model of COPD to evaluate some pathophysiological mechanisms acting during the initial stage of the disease. Forty-seven 6- to 8-week-old female C57/BL6 mice (approximately 22 g) were exposed for 2 months to cigarette smoke and/or residual oil fly ash (ROFA), a concentrate of air pollution. We measured lung mechanics, airspace enlargement, airway wall thickness, epithelial cell profile, elastic and collagen fiber deposition, and by immunohistochemistry transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), macrophage elastase (MMP12), neutrophils and macrophages. We observed regional airspace enlargements near terminal bronchioles associated with the exposure to smoke or ROFA. There were also increases in airway resistance and thickening of airway walls in animals exposed to smoke. In the epithelium, we noted a decrease in the ciliated cell area of animals exposed to smoke and an increase in the total cell area associated with exposure to both smoke and ROFA. There was also an increase in the expression of TGF-β1 both in the airways and parenchyma of animals exposed to smoke. However, we could not detect inflammatory cell recruitment, increases in MMP12 or elastic and collagen fiber deposition. After 2 months of exposure to cigarette smoke and/or ROFA, mice developed regional airspace enlargements and airway epithelium remodeling, although no inflammation or increases in fiber deposition were detected. Some of these phenomena may have been mediated by TGF-β1.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Airway Remodeling/physiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Respiratory Mucosa/physiopathology , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Arterioles/pathology , Collagen/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Immunohistochemistry , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/pathology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/etiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/pathology , Respiratory Mucosa/pathology , Time Factors , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism
20.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 43(11): 1109-1115, Nov. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-564141

ABSTRACT

HTLV-1 Tax expression exerts an inhibitory effect on the Foxp3 transcription factor in CD4+CD25+ T-regulatory cells (Treg). For a better understanding of the role of Tax mRNA in the gene expression of cellular markers we measured Tax, Foxp3, CTLA-4, GITR, TGF-β, and IL-10 mRNA in Treg cells of 50 patients with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP; 27 women and 23 men; mean age: 56.7 years). The control group consisted of 23 non-infected subjects (12 women and 11 men) with a mean age of 51.3 years. Real-time PCR was used to measure mRNA of Tax proteins and several cellular markers of Treg function. Determinations revealed a high level of Tax mRNA in HAM/TSP (124.35 copies/100 CD4+CD25+ T cells). Foxp3, GITR, and CTLA-4 mRNA levels were lower in HAM/TSP patients (mean ± SD, 22.07 ± 0.78, 9.63 ± 0.36, and 4.54 ± 0.39, respectively) than in non-infected controls (47.15 ± 12.94, 22.14 ± 1.91, and 21.07 ± 2.31). Both groups had similar levels of TGF-β and IL-10. An inverse relationship was found between Tax levels and Foxp3, CTLA-4, and GITR levels. Conversely, there was a direct correlation between levels of Foxp3, GITR, and CTLA-4. Disease severity and evolution time did not correlate with Tax or Foxp3 levels. The present results suggest that Tax and Foxp3 mRNA vary with the same degree of disease severity in HAM/TSP patients. Tax fluctuations may affect CTLA-4 and GITR expression via the Foxp3 pathway, causing virus-induced dysfunction of CD4+CD25+ T cells in HAM/TSP patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , /metabolism , Forkhead Transcription Factors/metabolism , Gene Products, tax/metabolism , Glucocorticoid-Induced TNFR-Related Protein/metabolism , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 , Paraparesis, Tropical Spastic/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/metabolism , Case-Control Studies , /blood , Forkhead Transcription Factors/blood , Gene Products, tax/blood , Glucocorticoid-Induced TNFR-Related Protein/blood , Paraparesis, Tropical Spastic/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Transforming Growth Factor beta/blood , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism
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