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1.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(2): 314-320, Mar.-Apr. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388003

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Our goal was to evaluate the modulation of the synovial fluid cells (SFC) from patients with and without osteoarthritis (OA) by bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4), Smad-3 and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β). Methods Synovial fluid was collected from patients submitted to knee arthroscopy or replacement and were centrifuged to isolate cells from the fluid. Cells were cultured for 21 days and characterized as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) according to the criteria of the International Society of Cell Therapy. Then, we performed an [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay (MTT) assay after exposing cells with and without OA to TGF-β, Smad3 and BMP-4 pathway inhibitors and to different concentrations of BMP4. Results Exposure to the TGF-β, Smad3 and BMP-4 inhibitors modifies the mitochondrial activity of the SFCs. The activity of the SFCs is modified by influences of increasing concentrations of BMP4, but there is no difference in cellular activity between patients with and without OA. Conclusion TGF-β, Smad3 and BMP-4 modulate the activity of SFCs from patients with and without knee OA.


Resumo Objetivo Nosso objetivo foi avaliar a modulação das células do líquido sinovial (SFCs, na sigla em inglês) de pacientes com e sem osteoartrite (OA) por proteína morfogenética óssea 4 (BMP-4), Smad3 e transformador do fator de crescimento β (TGF-β). Métodos O do líquido sinovial foi coletado de pacientes submetidos a artroscopia ou artroplastia do joelho, e centrifugados para isolar as células do liquido sinovial. As células foram cultivadas por 21 dias e caracterizadas como células-tronco mesenquimais (MSCs, na sigla em inglês) de acordo com os critérios da International Society of Cell Therapy. Em seguida, realizamos um ensaio de brometo de 3-4,5-dimetil-tiazol-2-il-2,5difeniltetrazólio (MTT) depois de expor células com e sem OA para TGF-β, inibidores de via Smad3 e BMP-4 e para diferentes concentrações de BMP-4. Resultados A exposição aos inibidores TGF-β, Smad3 e BMP-4 modifica a atividade mitocondrial das SFCs. A atividade das SFCs é modificada por influências sobre o aumento das concentrações de BMP-4, mas não há diferença na atividade celular entre pacientes com e sem OA. Conclusão TGF-β, Smad3 e BMP-4 modulam a atividade das SFCs de pacientes com e sem OA do joelho.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Osteoarthritis , Synovial Fluid , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Mesenchymal Stem Cells
2.
Acta cir. bras ; 37(2): e370201, 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374072

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To evaluate fibrosis formation and number of macrophages in capsules formed around textured implants without and with mesh coverage. Methods: Fibrosis was analyzed through transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-ß1) immunomarker expression and the number of macrophages through CD68 percentage of cells in magnified field. Sixty female Wistar rats were distributed into two groups of 30 rats (unmeshed and meshed). Each group was then subdivided into two subgroups for postoperative evaluation after 30 and 90 days. The p value was adjusted by Bonferroni lower than 0.012. Results: No difference was observed in fibrosis between meshed and unmeshed groups (30 days p = 0.436; 90 days p = 0.079) and from 30 to 90 days in the unmeshed group (p = 0.426). The meshed group showed higher fibrosis on the 90th day (p = 0.001). The number of macrophages was similar between groups without and with mesh coverage (30 days p = 0.218; 90 days p = 0.044), and similar between subgroups 30 and 90 days (unmeshed p = 0.085; meshed p = 0.059). Conclusions: In the meshed group, fibrosis formation was higher at 90 days and the mesh-covered implants produced capsules similar to microtextured ones when analyzing macrophages. Due to these characteristics, mesh coating did not seem to significantly affect the local fibrosis formation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Surgical Mesh/veterinary , Fibrosis/veterinary , Antigens, CD/analysis , Breast Implants/veterinary , Breast Implantation/instrumentation , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/analysis , Rats, Wistar/surgery
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936356

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To develop a convenient method for rapid purification of fresh Pheretima proteins and assess the inhibitory effect of these proteins against pulmonary fibrosis.@*METHODS@#The crude extract of fresh Pheretima was obtained by freeze-drying method and then purified by size exclusion chromatography. The composition of the purified proteins was analyzed by mass spectrometry. MRC-5 cells were treated with 5 ng/mL TGF-β1 alone (model group) or in combination with SB431542 (2 μmol/L) or the purified proteins (13.125 μg/mL), and the cytotoxicity of purified proteins and their inhibitory effects on cell proliferation were detected with CCK8 assay. Flow cytometry was used to detect the changes in cell apoptosis, and the cellular expressions of α-SMA, Vimentin, E-cadherin, collagen I, Smad2/3 and P-Smad2/3 were detected using RT-PCR and Western blotting. In the animal experiment, adult male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to intratracheal instillation of bleomycin followed by treatment with the purified proteins (5 mg/mL) for 21 days, after which HE and Masson staining was used to observe the pathological changes in the lung tissue of the mice.@*RESULTS@#We successfully obtained purified proteins from fresh Pheretima protein by size exclusion chromatography. Treatment with the purified proteins significantly inhibited TGF-β1-induced proliferation of MRC-5 cells (P < 0.01), reduced the cellular expressions of α-SMA, Vimentin and collagen I (P < 0.001 or P < 0.01), increased the expression of E-cadherin (P < 0.01), and inhibited the expressions of Smad2/3 and P-Smad2/3 (P < 0.001 or P < 0.01). In male C57BL/6 mice models of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, treatment with the purified proteins obviously reduced the number of inflammatory cells and fibrotic area in the lungs.@*CONCLUSION@#The purified proteins from fresh Pheretima obtained by size exclusion chromatography can inhibit pulmonary fibrosis in mice by regulating the TGF-β/ Smad pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biological Products/pharmacology , Bleomycin/adverse effects , Cadherins/metabolism , Collagen Type I , Lung/pathology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Oligochaeta/chemistry , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Vimentin/metabolism
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936331

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of pirfenidone for reducing urethral stricture following urethral injury in rats and explore the possible mechanism.@*METHODS@#Thirty male SD rats were randomly assigned into negative control group, positive control group and pirfenidone group (n=10). In pirfenidone and positive control groups, the rats were subjected to incision of the posterior urethral cavernous body followed by daily intraperitoneal injection of pirfenidone (100 mg/kg) and an equivalent volume of solvent, respectively. The rats in the negative control group were given intraperitoneal injections of solvent without urethral injury. At two weeks after modeling, retrograde urethrography was performed for observing urethral stricture, and the injured urethral tissues were harvested for HE staining, Masson staining, immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting for detecting the protein expressions of α-SMA and TGF-β1. The mRNA expressions of the inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β were detected using qRT-PCR.@*RESULTS@#The body weight of the rats in pirfenidone group was significantly decreased compared with that in the other two groups (P < 0.05). Retrograde urethrography showed significant narrowing of the urethra in the positive control group but not in the pirfenidone group. HE staining of the injured urethral tissues showed obvious proliferation of urethral epithelial cells with narrow urethral cavity and increased inflammatory cells in positive control group. The pathological findings of the urethra were similar between pirfenidone group and the negative control group. Masson staining revealed obviously reduced collagen fibers and regular arrangement of the fibers in pirfenidone group as compared to the positive control group. Compared with those in the negative control group, the expressions of α-SMA and TGF-β1 were significantly increased in the positive control group, and pirfenidone treatment significantly inhibited their expressions (P < 0.05 or 0.01). Pirfenidone also significantly inhibited the mRNA expressions of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in the injured urethral tissue (P < 0.05 or 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Pirfenidone can prevent urethral fibrosis and stricture after urethral injury possibly by inhibiting the TGF-β1 pathway and inflammatory response.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Male , Pyridones/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Solvents , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Urethral Stricture/pathology
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936309

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of TGF-β1 on Shh signaling pathway during the transformation of meningeal fibroblasts into myofibroblasts.@*METHODS@#Primary meningeal fibroblasts were isolated from neonatal (24 h) SD rats and purified using type Ⅳ collagenase. The isolated cells were treated with 10 ng/mL TGF-β1 alone or in combination with 20 μmol/L SB-431542 (a TGF-β1 receptor inhibitor) for 72 h, and the changes in proliferation and migration abilities of the fibroblasts were assessed with CCK-8 assay and cell scratch test. The expression of fibronectin (Fn) was detected with immunofluorescence assay, and Western blotting was performed to examine the expressions of Fn, α-SMA and Shh protein in the cells; the expression of Shh mRNA was detected with real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR.@*RESULTS@#TGF-β1 treatment obviously enhanced the proliferation and migration of primary meningeal fibroblasts (P < 0.05), and promoted the transformation of meningeal fibroblasts into myofibroblasts and the secretion of Fn (P < 0.05). TGF-β1 treatment also upregulated the expression of Shh at both protein and mRNA levels (P < 0.05). Treatment with SB-431542 partially blocked the effect of TGF-β1 on the transformation of meningeal fibroblasts (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#TGF-β1 can induce the transformation of meningeal fibroblasts into myofibroblasts by up-regulating Shh expression in Sonic Hedgehog signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Hedgehog Proteins , Myofibroblasts/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941012

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of inhibiting Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling on fibrous scar formation and functional outcome after ischemic brain injury.@*METHODS@#Adult SD rats were randomized into sham-operated group, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and reperfusion (I/R) group, I/R with intraventricular empty adenoviral vector (rAd-NC) injection group, and I/R with adenovirus-mediated Shh knockdown (rAd-ShShh) group. After the treatments, the neurological deficits of the rats were assessed, and the protein and mRNA expressions of fibronectin (Fn), α-SMA, and Shh in the ischemic hemisphere were detected with immunofluorescence assay and qPCR; TUNEL staining was used for detecting neural cell apoptosis. In the cell experiment, primary meningeal fibroblasts isolated from neonatal SD rats were pretreated for 24 h with TGF-β1 or TGF-β1 plus cyclopamine (CYC) before oxygen-glucose deprivation for 150 min followed by reoxygenation for 72 h (OGD/R). CCK-8 assay and scratch test were performed to examine the changes in cell proliferation and migration, and immunofluorescence assay, qPCR and Western blotting were used for detecting cell transformation and the expressions of Shh, α-SMA, and Fn.@*RESULTS@#Cerebral I/R injury significantly increased the protein and mRNA expressions of Shh, α-SMA, and Fn in the ischemic hemisphere of the rats, but their expression levels were significantly lowered by intraventricular injection of rAd-Shshh (P < 0.05), which obviously increased cell apoptosis in the ischemic hemisphere (P < 0.05) and improved modified mNSS and modified Bederson scores of the rats (P < 0.05). In the cell experiment, pretreatment with TGF-β1 and TGF-β1+CYC both increased the viability of the primary meningeal fibroblasts after OGD/R. TGF-β1 significantly enhanced the migration ability and induced obvious transformation of the exposed cells (P < 0.05), but these effects were significantly attenuated by co-treatment with CYC (P < 0.05). The expressions of Shh, α-SMA and Fn in the TGF-β1 group were all significantly higher in TGF-β1-treated cells (P < 0.05) and were obviously lowered by co-treatment with CYC (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Inhibition of Shh signaling may inhibit fibrous scar formation and functional recovery in rats after ischemic brain injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain Injuries , Cicatrix , Hedgehog Proteins , RNA, Messenger , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Transforming Growth Factor beta1
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935734

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect of asiaticoside for fibrosis in lung tissues of rats exposed to silica and to explore its possible mechanism. Methods: 144 SD male rats were randomly divided into control group, model group, positive drug control group, asiaticoside high-dose group, medium-dose group and low-dose group, each group included 24 rats. Rats in the control group were perfused with 1.0 ml of normal saline, and the other groups were given 1.0 ml 50 mg/ml SiO(2) suspension. Gavage of herbal was given from the next day after model establishment, once a day. Rats in the positive drug control group were administration with 30 mg/kg tetrandrine and rats in the low-dose group, medium-dose group and high-dose group were given 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg asiaticoside for fibrosis respectively. Rats in the control group and the model group were given 0.9% normal saline. The rats were sacrificed in on the 14th, 28th and 56th day after intragastric administration and collect the lung tissues to detect the content of hydroxyproline, TGF-β(1) and IL-18, observe the pathological changes of the lung tissues by HE and Masson staining and determine the expressions of Col-I, a-SMA, TGF-β in lung tissues by Western Blot. Results: On the 14th day, 28th day and 56th day after model establishment, the lung tissues of rats in the model group showed obvious inflammatory response and accumulation of collagen fibers, and the degree of inflammation and fibrosis increased with time. The intervention of asiaticoside could effectively inhibit the pathological changes of lung tissues. The contents of hydroxyproline, IL-18 and TGF-β1 in lung tissues of model group were higher than those in the control group (P<0.05) , while the level of hydroxyproline, IL-18 and TGF-β1 in asiaticoside groups were significantly decreased, and the difference was statistically signicant (P<0.05) . Compared with the control group, the expression levels of Col-I, TGF-β1and α-SMA in lung tissue of model group were increased (P<0.05) , while the expression level of Col-I, TGF-β1 and α-SMA were decreased after the intervention of asiaticoside, and the difference was statistically signicant (P<0.05) . Conclusion: Asiaticoside can inhibit the increase of Col-I, TGF-β1 and α-SMA content in the SiO(2)-induced lung tissues of rats, reduce the release of TGF-β1 and IL-18 inflammatory factors in lung tissue, and then inhibit the synthesis and deposition of extracellular matrix in rat lung tissue, and improve silicosis fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dust , Lung , Male , Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , Rats , Silicon Dioxide/adverse effects , Silicosis/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism
8.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 326-333, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935216

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the effects of dihydromyricetin (DMY) on the proliferation, apoptosis and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell KYSE150 and KYSE410. Methods: KYSE150 and KYSE410 cells were treated with different concentrations of DMY (0, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200 μmol/L) for 24 hours. The median inhibition concentration (IC50) values of KYSE150 and KYSE410 were detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) method. Then 0.5‰ dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was used as control group, dihydromyricetin (DMY), dihydromyricetin and transforming growth factor-β1 (DMY+ TGF-β1), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) were used as experimental group. Cell proliferation and apoptosis rates were measured by clonal formation and flow cytometry. Transwell invasion and wound healing assay were used to detect cell invasion and migration. The protein expression levels of Caspase-3, Caspase-9, Bcl-2, Bax, Smad2/3, phosphorylation-Smad2/3 (p-Smad2/3) and Vimentin were detected by western blot. Results: The IC50 values of DMY on KYSE410 and KYSE150 cells were 100.51 and 101.27 μmol/L. The clone formation numbers of KYSE150 and KYSE410 in DMY group [(0.53±0.03) and (0.31±0.03)] were lower than those in DMSO group [(1.00±0.10) and (1.00±0.05), P<0.05]. The apoptosis rates of KYSE150 and KYSE410 cells in DMY group [(1.84±0.22)% and (2.80±0.07)%] were higher than those in DMSO group [(1.00±0.18)% and (1.00±0.07)%, P<0.05]. The invasion numbers of KYSE150 and KYSE410 cells in DMY group [(0.42±0.03) and (0.29±0.05)] were lower than those in DMSO group [(1.00±0.08) and (1.00±0.05), P<0.05]. The migration rates of KYSE150 and KYSE410 cells in DMY group [(0.65±0.14)% and (0.40±0.17)%] were lower than those in DMSO group [(1.00±0.10)% and (1.00±0.08)%, P<0.05]. The clone formation numbers of KYSE150 and KYSE410 in TGF-β1 group [(1.01±0.08) and (0.99±0.25)] were higher than those in DMY+ TGF-β1 group [(0.73±0.10) and (0.58±0.05), P<0.05]. The apoptosis rates of KYSE150 and KYSE410 cells in TGF-β1 group [(0.81±0.14)% and (1.18±0.10)%] were lower than those in DMY+ TGF-β1 group [(1.38±0.22)% and (1.85±0.04)%, P<0.05]. The invasion numbers of KYSE150 and KYSE410 cells in TGF-β1 group [(1.19±0.11) and (1.39±0.11)] were higher than those in DMY+ TGF-β1 group [(0.93±0.09) and (0.93±0.05), P<0.05]. The migration rates of KYSE150 and KYSE410 cells in TGF-β1 group [(1.87±0.19)% and (1.32±0.04)%] were higher than those in DMY+ TGF-β1 group [(0.86±0.16)% and (0.77±0.12)%, P<0.05]. The protein expression levels of Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 in KYSE150 and KYSE410 cells in DMY group were higher than those in DMSO group, while the protein expression level of Bcl-2 was lower than that in DMSO group (P<0.05). The protein expression levels of p-Smad2/3, Smad2/3 and Vimentin in KYSE150 and KYSE410 cells in DMY group were lower than those in DMSO group (P<0.05). The protein expression levels of Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 in KYSE150 and KYSE410 cells in TGF-β1 group were lower than those in DMY+ TGF-β1 group, and the protein expression level of Bcl-2 was higher than that in DMY+ TGF-β1 group (P<0.05). The protein expression levels of Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 in KYSE150 and KYSE410 cells in DMY+ TGF-β1 group were lower than those in DMY group, and the protein expression level of Bcl-2 was higher than that in DMY group (P<0.05). The protein expression levels of p-Smad2/3, Smad2/3 and Vimentin in KYSE150 and KYSE410 cells in TGF-β1 group were higher than those in DMY+ TGF-β1 group (P<0.05). Conclusion: DMY can inhibit the proliferation and EMT of ESCC mediated by TGF-β1 and promote cell apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 9/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Dimethyl Sulfoxide/pharmacology , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Esophageal Neoplasms/metabolism , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma , Flavonols , Humans , Signal Transduction , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/pharmacology , Vimentin/metabolism , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/pharmacology
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928728

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the influence of serum levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on the therapeutic effect of high-dose cytarabine (HD-AraC) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML).@*METHODS@#98 patients with AML treated in our hospital from January 2019 to June 2020 were selected as the research subjects, all patients were treated with HD-AraC for 1 course of treatment every week. The effect of 2 groups were evaluated during after one course of treatment and divided into effective group and ineffective group, statistical table of baseline data was designed, the baseline data of 2 groups were counted in detail, the baseline data and serum levels of TGF-β1 and EGFR of 2 groups were compared, Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between the levels of serum TGF-β1, EGFR and the therapeutic effect of HD-AraC in patients with AML, the value of serum TGF-β1 and EGFR levels in predicting the therapeutic effect of HD-AraC in AML patients was analyzed based on ROC curve and decision curve.@*RESULTS@#After 1 course of treatment, among the 98 patients, 26 cases had complete remission, 38 cases had partially remission and 34 cases no remission, the total effective rate was 65.31% (64/98); after comparing data of 2 groups, Logistic regression analysis showed that the overexpression of serum EGFR before treatment might be a risk factor for the ineffective treatment of HD-AraC in AML patients (OR>1, P<0.05), overexpression of serum TGF-β1 before treatment might be a protective factor for the ineffective treatment of HD-AraC in AML patients (OR<1, P<0.05); the ROC curve results showed that the AUC of serum EGFR and TGF-β1 before treatment in predicting the risk of ineffective HD-AraC treatment in AML patients were >0.70, which had certain predictive value. The decision curve results showed that in the threshold range of 0.15-044, the prediction model combined with serum EGFR and TGF-β1 levels in predicting the net benefit rate of HD-AraC treatment in AML patients was better than that of serum EGFR or serum TGF-β1 alone.@*CONCLUSION@#The levels of serum TGF-β1 and EGFR affect the therapeutic effect of HD-AraC in patients with AML and increase the risk of ineffective treatment, serum TGF-β1 and EGFR can be used to predict the risk of ineffective HD-AraC treatment in AML patients, and the combined prediction of net benefit rate is higher.


Subject(s)
Cytarabine/therapeutic use , ErbB Receptors/blood , Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Remission Induction , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/blood
10.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 207-212, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928530

ABSTRACT

This study explored the usefulness of two-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE) in the early assessment of corpora cavernosa fibrosis (CCF). New Zealand male rabbits were randomly assigned to an experimental group or a control group. Recombinant human transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) was injected into the dorsal penis tissue of rabbits in the experimental group. Conventional ultrasound and 2D-SWE examinations were performed before and 20 days after injection. Penile histological analysis was performed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, sirius red staining, and immunohistochemistry. Measurement of 2D-SWE examination results was performed using shear wave elastography quantitative measurement (SWQ). Histological analysis outcomes were the proportion of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), collagen fibers (CFs), collagen type I (Col I), and collagen type III (Col III), as well as the SMCs/CFs ratio, measured by sirius red staining. Other histological analysis outcomes were the positive area proportion (PAP) of TGF-β1 (PAPT), fibronectin (PAPF), and Col III (PAPC), measured by immunohistochemistry. After recombinant human TGF-β1 injection, SWQ was higher in the experimental group than that in the control group (P < 0.001); however, there were no differences in conventional ultrasound results. There were significant differences in histological outcomes between the two groups (all P < 0.05). These results indicated that 2D-SWE was superior for identifying early histological changes in CCF.


Subject(s)
Animals , Elasticity Imaging Techniques/methods , Fibrosis , Male , Penis/pathology , Rabbits , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928157

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the effect of icariin(ICA) on mitochondrial dynamics in a rat model of chronic renal failure(CRF) and to investigate the molecular mechanism of ICA against renal interstitial fibrosis(RIF). CRF was induced in male Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats with 5/6(ablation and infarction, A/I) surgery(right kidney ablation and 2/3 infarction of the left kidney). Four weeks after surgery, the model rats were randomized into the following groups: 5/6(A/I) group, 5/6(A/I)+low-dose ICA group, and 5/6(A/I)+high-dose ICA group. Another 12 rats that received sham operation were randomly classified into 2 groups: sham group and sham+ICAH group. Eight weeks after treatment, the expression of collagen-Ⅰ(Col-Ⅰ), collagen-Ⅲ(Col-Ⅲ), mitochondrial dynamics-related proteins(p-Drp1 S616, p-Drp1 S637, Mfn1, Mfn2), and mitochondrial function-related proteins(TFAM, ATP6) in the remnant kidney tissues was detected by Western blot. The expression of α-smooth muscle actin(α-SMA) was examined by immunohistochemical(IHC) staining. The NRK-52 E cells, a rat proximal renal tubular epithelial cell line, were cultured in vitro and treated with ICA of different concentration. Cell viability was detected by CCK-8 assay. In NRK-52 E cells stimulated with 20 ng·mL~(-1) TGF-β1 for 24 h, the effect of ICA on fibronectin(Fn), connective tissue growth factor(CTGF), p-Drp1 S616, p-Drp1 S637, Mfn1, Mfn2, TFAM, and ATP6 was detected by Western blot, and the ATP content and the mitochondrial morphology were determined. The 20 ng·mL~(-1) TGF-β1-stimulated NRK-52 E cells were treated with or without 5 μmol·L~(-1) ICA+10 μmol·L~(-1) mitochondrial fusion promoter M1(MFP-M1) for 24 h and the expression of fibrosis markers Fn and CTGF was detected by Western blot. Western blot result showed that the levels of Col-Ⅰ, Col-Ⅲ, and p-Drp1 S616 were increased and the levels of p-Drp1 S637, Mfn1, Mfn2, TFAM, and ATP6 were decreased in 5/6(A/I) group compared with those in the sham group. The levels of Col-Ⅰ, Col-Ⅲ, and p-Drp1 S616 were significantly lower and the levels of p-Drp1 S637, Mfn1, Mfn2, TFAM, and ATP6 were significantly higher in ICA groups than that in 5/6(A/I) group. IHC staining demonstrated that for the expression of α-SMA in the renal interstitium was higher in the 5/6(A/I) group than in the sham group and that the expression in the ICA groups was significantly lower than that in the 5/6(A/I) group. Furthermore, the improvement in the fibrosis, mitochondrial dynamics, and mitochondrial function were particularly prominent in rats receiving the high dose of ICA. The in vitro experiment revealed that ICA dose-dependently inhibited the increase of Fn, CTGF, and p-Drp1 S616, increased p-Drp1 S637, Mfn1, Mfn2, TFAM, and ATP6, elevated ATP content, and improved mitochondrial morphology of NRK-52 E cells stimulated by TGF-β1. ICA combined with MFP-M1 further down-regulated the expression of Fn and CTGF in NRK-52 E cells stimulated by TGF-β1 compared with ICA alone. In conclusion, ICA attenuated RIF of CRF by improving mitochondrial dynamics.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate/pharmacology , Animals , Female , Fibrosis , Flavonoids , Humans , Infarction/pathology , Kidney , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Male , Mitochondrial Dynamics , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927956

ABSTRACT

The present study clarified the molecular mechanism of curcumol against liver fibrosis based on its effects on the autopha-gy and apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells. The hepatic stellate cells were divided into a blank control group, a transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β1)(10 ng·mL~(-1)) group, and low-(12.5 mg·L~(-1)), medium-(25 mg·L~(-1)), and high-dose(50 mg·L~(-1)) curcumol groups. The effect of curcumol on the viability of hepatic stellate cells induced by TGF-β1 was detected by the MTT assay kit. The apo-ptosis in each group was determined by flow cytometry. Real-time fluorescence-based quantitative PCR(RT-PCR) was employed for the detection of mRNA expression of α-smooth muscle actin(α-SMA), type Ⅰ collagen(collagen Ⅰ), and type Ⅲ collagen(collagen Ⅲ). Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of p62, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3(LC3), beclin1, B cell lymphoma 2(Bcl-2), and Bcl-2-associated X protein(Bax). Transmission electron microscopy(TEM) was used to observe cell morphology and autophagosome formation in each group. The autophagic flux was observed after cell infection with adenovirus under double fluorescence labeling. The cell viability assay revealed that compared with the TGF-β1 group, the curcumol groups showed significantly decreased cell viability. The apoptosis assay showed that the apoptosis rates of the curcumol groups were significantly higher than that of the TGF-β1 group. RT-PCR indicated that the mRNA expression of α-SMA, collagenⅠ, and collagen Ⅲ in the curcumol groups was significantly lower than that of the TGF-β1 group. Western blot showed that the expression of p62, LC3, beclin1, Bcl-2, and Bax in the curcumol groups was significantly different from that in the TGF-β1 group. As demonstrated by TEM, compared with the TGF-β1 group, the curcumol groups showed significantly increased autophagosomes. The detection of autophagic flow by the adenovirus under double fluorescence labeling showed that autolysosomes in the curcumol groups were significantly increased compared with those in the TGF-β1 group. Curcumol can induce the autophagy and apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells, which may be one of its anti-liver fibrosis mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Actins/metabolism , Apoptosis , Autophagy , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Humans , Liver/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Sesquiterpenes , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927682

ABSTRACT

Objective@#miR-663a has been reported to be downregulated by X-ray irradiation and participates in radiation-induced bystander effect via TGF-β1. The goal of this study was to explore the role of miR-663a during radiation-induced Epithelium-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT).@*Methods@#TGF-β1 or IR was used to induce EMT. After miR-663a transfection, cell migration and cell morphological changes were detected and the expression levels of miR-663a, TGF-β1, and EMT-related factors were quantified.@*Results@#Enhancement of cell migration and promotion of mesenchymal changes induced by either TGF-β1 or radiation were suppressed by miR-663a. Furthermore, both X-ray and carbon ion irradiation resulted in the upregulation of TGF-β1 and downregulation of miR-663a, while the silencing of TGF-β1 by miR-663a reversed the EMT process after radiation.@*Conclusion@#Our findings demonstrate an EMT-suppressing effect by miR-663a via TGF-β1 in radiation-induced EMT.


Subject(s)
Down-Regulation , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Epithelium/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/pharmacology
14.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 217-224, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927597

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Geniposide on hepatic fibrosis and activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and to explore possible underlying mechanism. Human HSCs (LX-2) were treated with 5 ng/mL transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), followed by co-culture with Geniposide at various concentrations (0, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 μmol/L). Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Then, LX-2 cells were divided into control, TGF-β1 (5 ng/mL) and TGF-β1 + Geniposide (20 μmol/L) groups, and the gene and protein expression of collagen I, fibronectin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), p-Smad2 and p-Smad3 was detected by qPCR and Western blot, respectively. BALB/c mice were treated with CCl4 (25%, 1 mL/kg) to generate a model of hepatic fibrosis (CCl4 group), and the control group and CCl4 + Geniposide group were administered with olive oil and CCl4 + 40 mg/kg Geniposide, respectively. After 4 weeks of treatment, the liver function and serum hepatic fibrosis indexes of mice were detected, histological observation was performed by HE and Masson staining, and α-SMA expression in the tissue was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Western blot was utilized for the determination of the protein expression of α-SMA, TGF-β1, p-Smad2 and p-Smad3. The results showed that Geniposide inhibited LX-2 cell proliferation. In addition, Geniposide significantly downregulated the gene and protein expression of collagen I, fibronectin and α-SMA and the expression of TGF-β1/Smad signaling-related proteins induced by TGF-β1 in vitro. Histological observations showed that Geniposide significantly inhibited CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis, HSC activation and expression of TGF-β1/Smad signaling-related proteins in mice. In summary, Geniposide prevents the hepatic fibrosis and HSC activation possibly through the inhibition of the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Collagen Type I/metabolism , Fibronectins , Hepatic Stellate Cells/pathology , Iridoids , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Mice , Signal Transduction , Smad Proteins/pharmacology , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism
15.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(3): 346-358, jun. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346469

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver tumor. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is an endocrine disruptor and a liver tumor promoter. Deregulation of thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis may play a significant role in early neoplastic transformation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between TH metabolism and the regulation of cell growth in an in vivo and in vitro model. We examined the role of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) on TH deiodinase expression and hepatocyte proliferation. An initiation (DEN)/promotion (HCB) tumor model from rat liver and HepG2 cells were used. We evaluated PCNA, p21, p27, SMAD2/3, TGF-β1, deiodinase 1 (D1), D3, protein expression levels; D1 and D3 mRNA expression; TH and TGF-β1, D1, D3, and GST-P protein levels in focal/non-focal areas. In vivo, HCB decreased triiodothyronine (T3) and D1 mRNA levels and increased thyroxine (T4) and D3 mRNA levels in liver from DEN+HCB vs. DEN group. HCB increased protein levels from D3, TGF-β1, and PCNA and decreased D1 in focal-areas. In vitro, HCB increased PCNA, pSMAD 2/3, and TGF-β1 protein levels and mRNA expression and decreased p21 and p27 protein levels. Exogenous T3 treatment prevent HCB induced molecular alterations related to hepatocyte proliferation whereas T4 did not have any effect. These effects were prevented by using a TGF-β1 receptor II inhibitor. Results suggest that alteration of TH homeostasis, through D1 function, play a key role in hepatocyte proliferation and that TGF-β1-SMAD pathway is involved in this process confirming their role in early neoplastic transformation in HCC.


Resumen El hepatocarcinoma (HCC) es un tumor hepático primario. El hexaclorobenceno (HCB) es un disruptor endocrino y un promotor de tumores hepáticos. La desregulación de la homeostasis de las hormonas tiroideas (HT) puede ser un proceso importante para la transformación neoplásica temprana. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar la relación entre el metabolismo de las HT y la regulación de la prolifera ción celular. Se utilizó un modelo tumoral de iniciación (DEN)/promoción (HCB) de hígado de rata (in vivo) (DEN/ HCB) y células HepG2 (in vitro). Evaluamos los niveles de PCNA, p21, p27, SMAD2/3, TGF-β1, D1, D3, ARNm de D1 y D3, HT y los niveles de TGF-β1, D1, D3 y GST-P en áreas focales/no focales. In vivo, HCB disminuyó los niveles de T3 y ARNm de la D1 y aumentó los niveles de T4 y ARNm de D3 del grupo DEN + HCB frente al grupo DEN. El HCB aumentó los niveles de D3, TGF-β1 y PCNA y disminuyó el D1 en las áreas focales. In vitro, HCB aumentó los niveles de PCNA, pSMAD 2/3 y TGF-β1 y la expresión de ARNm mientras que disminuyó los niveles de p21 y p27. El tratamiento con T3 exógeno previno las alteraciones moleculares relacionadas con la proliferación hepatocitaria. Estos efectos se evitaron utilizando un inhibidor del receptor II de TGF-β1. Los resultados sugieren que la alteración de la homeostasis de HT, a través de la D1 y la vía TGF-β1-SMAD, juega un papel clave en la proliferación celular y en las transformaciones neoplásicas tempranas en el HCC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Iodide Peroxidase/genetics , Liver Neoplasms , Cell Proliferation
16.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(2): 172-184, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248817

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Abnormalities involving the TGFB1 gene and its receptors are common in several types of cancer and often related to tumor progression. We investigated the role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the susceptibility to cancer, their impact on its features, as well as the role of mRNA expression of these genes in thyroid malignancy. Materials and methods: We genotyped TGFB1, TGFBR1, and TGFBR2 SNPs in 157 papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) patients and 200 healthy controls. Further, we investigated RNA samples of 47 PTC and 80 benign nodules, searching for differential mRNA expression. Results: SNPs rs1800472 and rs1800469 were associated with characteristics of PTC aggressiveness. Effect predictor software analysis of nonsynonymous SNP rs1800472 indicated increasing protein stability and post-translational changes. TGFB1 mRNA expression was upregulated in PTC and downregulated in benign samples, differentiating malignant from benign nodules (p<0.0001); PTC from goiter (p<0.0001); and PTC from FA (p<0.0001). TGFBR1 mRNA expression was upregulated in goiter and PTC, but downregulated in FA, distinguishing PTC from goiter (p=0.0049); PTC from FA (p<0.0001); and goiter from FA (p=0.0267). On the other hand, TGFBR2 was downregulated in all histological types analyzed and was not able to differentiate thyroid nodules. Conclusion: TGFB1 polymorphism rs1800472 may confer greater activity to TGF-β1 in the tumor microenvironment, favoring PTC aggressiveness. Evaluation of TGFB1 and TGFBR1 mRNA levels may be useful to identify malignancy in thyroid nodules.


Subject(s)
Thyroid Nodule/genetics , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/genetics , Receptor, Transforming Growth Factor-beta Type I/genetics , Receptor, Transforming Growth Factor-beta Type II/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Thyroid Neoplasms , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Tumor Microenvironment
17.
São Paulo; s.n; 2021. 52 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1348838

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O câncer de mama é a neoplasia mais comum em mulheres. A maioria deles é diagnosticada em estágios iniciais, quando o tratamento visa a cura. Mas apesar dos avanços no tratamento, metástases à distância podem ocorrer. A biópsia das lesões metastáticas é recomendada para confirmar o status do receptor de estrogênio (RE), receptor de progesterona (RP) e receptor do fator de crescimento epidérmico humano 2 (HER2), por ocorrerem discrepâncias nesses padrões entre tumores primários e metástases em até 40% dos casos. As células tumorais circulantes (CTCs) estão relacionadas às evoluções clínicas do câncer de mama e podem potencialmente desempenhar um papel substituto aos procedimentos invasivos de rebiópsia de metástase. A tecnologia ISET® (Isolation by SizE of Tumor Cells, Rarecells-Diagnostics, Paris, França) não é usualmente empregada para detectar CTCs em pacientes com câncer de mama, embora seja reconhecida como uma ferramenta útil em alguns outros tumores. Existem dados emergentes de que a caracterização da expressão proteica das CTC pode refinar seu valor prognóstico. Sabe-se que o fator de transformação de crescimento (TGF-ß) desempenha um papel na progressão e invasividade do câncer de mama. Objetivos: Comparar a expressão de RE, RP e HER2 em tumores primários, CTCs, metástases e avaliar a expressão do receptor TGF-ß tipo 1 (TGF-ß RI) em CTCs como fator prognóstico para sobrevida global. Metodologia: Estudo realizado no A.C.Camargo Cancer Center, Brasil. As amostras de sangue foram coletadas antes da biópsia guiada por tomografia computadorizada de lesões metastáticas suspeitas e processadas pela metodologia ISET®. Os níveis de expressão proteica das CTCs foram comparados aos de tumores primários e metástases e correlacionados aos resultados clínicos. Todos os dados clínicopatológicos foram obtidos dos prontuários médicos. Resultados: Dos 39 pacientes inicialmente incluídos, 27 tiveram tanto a biópsia de metástases quanto a coleta de sangue e foram considerados para análise. As taxas de concordância para a expressão de RE, RP e HER2 entre tumores primários e metástases foram altas. Não foi observada nenhuma perda de expressão de HER2 nas metástases e os tumores triplo negativos mantiveram o mesmo padrão em todas as metástases (p <0,0001). Quando as metástases e CTCs foram classificadas como triplo negativo (TN) ou não ­ TN, as CTCs determinaram alta especificidade (93%), acurácia (84,2%) e valor preditivo negativo (88%). A sobrevida global mediana de pacientes sem expressão de TGF-ß RI em CTCs foi de 42,6 x 20,8 meses para os positivos, clinicamente relevante, porém sem significância estatística (p> 0,05). Conclusões: No câncer de mama, o papel das CTCs detectadas pelo ISET® ainda não está estabelecido. Com este estudo, sugerimos que esta metodologia possa ser útil para avaliar metástases em casos de tumores não TN, assim como a expressão de TGF-ß RI em CTCs, o que pode impactar a sobrevida. Devido à limitação da amostra, estudos futuros devem se concentrar em subtipos específicos de câncer de mama, ampliando a coorte.


Introduction: Breast cancer (BC) is the most common neoplasm in women. Most of BC are diagnosed in early stages, when treatment aims cure. Despite advances in BC treatment, distant metastases may develop. Biopsy of metastatic lesions is recommended to confirm estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status, due to discrepancies in these patterns between primary tumors/metastasis in up to 40% of cases. Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) are related to breast cancer outcomes and could potentially play a role surrogating invasive procedures of metastasis rebiopsy. ISET® (Isolation by SizE of Tumor Cells, Rarecells-Diagnostics, Paris, France) technology is not currently employed to detect CTCs in breast cancer patients, although recognized as a useful tool in some other tumors. There are emerging data that characterization of CTC protein expression can refine its prognostic value. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß play a role in progression/invasiveness of BC. Objectives: To compare ER, PR and HER2 expression in primary tumors, CTCs, metastases and to evaluate TGF-ß type 1 receptor (TGF- ß RI) expression in CTCs as prognostic factor for overall survival. Methods: Study conducted at the A.C.Camargo Cancer Center, Brazil. Blood samples were processed in ISET® before computed tomography­guided biopsy of suspected metastatic lesions. Protein expression levels in CTCs were compared to those in primary tumors/metastases and correlated to clinical outcomes. All clinicopathological data were obtained from medical records. Results: From the 39 patients initially included, 27 had both biopsy of metastases and blood collection and were considered for analysis. Concordance rates for ER, PR and HER2 expression between primary tumors/metastases were high. No loss of HER2 expression at any metastasis site and retention of the same pattern in all triplenegative (TN) tumors (p <0.0001) were observed. When metastases/CTCs were classified as TN/non­TN, CTCs showed high specificity (93%), accuracy (84.2%) and negative predictive value (88%). The median overall survival of patients with no TGF-ß RI expression in CTCs was 42.6 x 20.8 months for positive ones, clinically relevant but not statistically significant (p>0.05). Conclusions: In BC, the role of CTCs detected by ISET® is not yet established. Here, we could suggest that this methodology may be useful to evaluate metastasis in non-TN cases as also TGF-ß RI expression in CTCs, which may impact survival. Due to sample limitation, future studies must focus on specific subtypes of BC, expanding the cohort.


Subject(s)
Female , Breast Neoplasms , ErbB Receptors , Neoplastic Cells, Circulating , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Receptors, Progesterone , Receptors, Estrogen , Survival Analysis , Transforming Growth Factor beta1
18.
São Paulo; s.n; 2021. 71 p. tab, ilus, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1353654

ABSTRACT

As glândulas salivares são estruturas formadas por um sistema de ductos e ácinos responsáveis por secretar saliva. Apesar de raros, os tumores de glândulas salivares compreendem um grupo heterogêneo de lesões, apresentando diferentes características histológicas, sendo de difícil classificação e comportamento clínico diverso. A identificação de novos marcadores moleculares tem sido alvo de pesquisas para melhor compreensão e classificação dessas neoplasias, visto que a avaliação da expressão gênica e suas vias envolvidas permite identificar genes associados à regulação que modula o desenvolvimento neoplásico. Assim, novos achados podem direcionar a aplicação de novas técnicas para o diagnóstico, prognóstico e tratamento terapêutico. Contudo, pouco se sabe sobre a via de sinalização TGFß em neoplasias mais comuns em glândulas salivares, como: Adenoma Pleomórfico (AP), Carcinoma Mucoepidermoide (CME) e Carcinoma Adenoide Cístico (CAC). Diante disso, torna-se necessário ampliar a pesquisa de genes associados para a determinação de um painel de marcadores e, deste modo, fornecer informações que possam contribuir com o diagnóstico dessas neoplasias. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a expressão gênica relacionada à via de sinalização TGFß por meio da técnica de RT-PCR em tempo real (qPCR) destacando os marcadores TGFß1, ITGB6, SMAD2, SMAD4, FBN1, LTBP1 e c-MYC. Para tanto, foram selecionadas 13 amostras de AP, 17 de CME e 13 de CAC, além de 10 amostras de glândulas salivares não neoplásicas provenientes de cirurgias realizadas no A.C.Camargo Cancer Center no período do ano 2000 a 2015 e fornecidas pelo Biobanco de Tumores. Os resultados indicam que em pacientes com AP há aumento da expressão dos genes TGFß1, LTPB1, c-MYC e FBN1, enquanto a expressão de SMAD2 diminui quando comparados às amostras não neoplásicas. Em pacientes com CME, foi observada expressão aumentada dos genes TGFß1, ITGB6, FBN1 e c-MYC enquanto a expressão dos genes SMAD2 e SMAD4 diminui ao serem comparados às amostras não neoplásicas. Nos pacientes com CAC, foi observada expressão aumentada em quase todos os genes avaliados. Na análise de clusterização hierárquica não foi possível classificar nas diferentes neoplasias de glândula salivar. Para a validação dos resultados de expressão gênica foi realizada uma meta-análise utilizando dados da literatura, sendo possível observar concordância nos valores de expressão dos genes ITGB6, LTBP1 e TGFß1 em amostras de CME e dos genes FBN1, ITGB6, LTBP1, c-MYC, SMAD2 e SMAD4 nas amostras de CAC. Comparando-se a expressão dos genes entre os três tipos de neoplasias estudados, foi observado aumento de expressão dos genes c-MYC, SMAD2 e SMAD4 nos casos de CAC e aumento da expressão do gene ITGB6 nos casos de CME. A análise de sobrevida demonstrou que, em pacientes com Carcinoma Mucoepidermoide foi observado que a ausência de linfonodo comprometido e ausência de recidiva estão associadas a melhor probabilidade de sobrevida global em 5 anos. Nossos resultados sugerem que a expressão diminuída dos genes SMAD2 e SMAD4 parece não interferir na regulação transcricional de c-MYC, especialmente no AP e CME. Considerando os genes ITGB6, TGFß1, LTBP1, FBN1 e c-MYC a expressão aumentada parece ser relevante para a regulação da via de sinalização no processo de tumorigênese. Sendo assim, este estudo contribui para um melhor entendimento da via de sinalização TGFß em neoplasias de glândulas salivares, além de fornecer informações para o desenvolvimento de potenciais marcadores biológicos para essas neoplasias.


Salivary glands are structures formed by a system of ducts and acini responsible for secreting saliva. Although rare, salivary gland tumors comprise a heterogeneous group of lesions, presenting different histological features, difficult classification, and diverse clinical behavior. Identification of new molecular markers has been the subject of researchers for better comprehension and classification of these tumors, since gene expression evaluation and their signaling pathways allow the identification of genes associated with regulation that modulated tumor development. Therefore, new findings can direct the application of new technologies for diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic treatment. However, little is known about the TGFß signaling pathway in the most common salivary gland tumors, such as: Pleomorphic adenoma (PA), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), and adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). In addition, it is necessary to expand research of genes and associated genes for determining a panel of markers and, thus, provide information that could be contribute with the diagnostic of these neoplasms. The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of genes associated with the TGFß signaling pathway by real-time RT-PCR (qPCR) highlighting the markers TGFß1, ITGB6, SMAD2, SMAD4, FBN1, LTBP1, and c-MYC. For this purpose, 13 PA samples, 17 MEC samples, 13 ACC samples, and histologically normal salivary glands samples were selected from surgeries performed at A.C.Camargo Cancer Center between 2000 and 2015. These samples were provided by Tumor Biobank. The results indicate that PA patients presented an increased TGFß1, LTPB1, c-MYC, and FBN1 gene expression whereas SMAD2 expression was decreased when compared to the normal samples. In MEC patients, increased expression of TGFß1, ITGB6, FBN1, and c-MYC genes was observed whereas SMAD2 and SMAD4 genes presented decreased expression. In ACC patients, increased expression in almost all genes was observed. In hierarchical clustering analysis it was not possible to classify the different salivary gland tumors. For the validation of the gene expression results it was carried out a meta-analysis using the literature date, being possible to observe an agreement in the expression values of the genes ITGB6, LTBP1 and TGFß1 in MEC samples and FBN1, ITGB6, LTBP1, c-MYC, SMAD2 and SMAD4 in ACC samples. Comparing gene expression among the three tumor types studied it was observed higher expression of c-MYC, SMAD2 and SMAD4 genes in ACC cases and higher expression of ITGB6 in MEC cases. Survival analysis demonstrated that, in MEC patients it was observed that absence of affected lymph nodes and absence of recurrence are associated with better overall survival in 5 years. Our results suggest that the decreased expression of SMAD2 and SMAD4 genes seems not to interfere with the transcriptional regulation of c-MYC, especially in PA and MEC. Considering ITGB6, TGFß1, LTBP1, FBN1 and c-MYC increased gene expression appears to be relevant for the regulation of the signaling pathway in tumorigenic process. Thus, this study contributes to a better understanding of TGFß signaling pathway in salivary gland tumors, apart from supplying information in development of potential biomarkers for these tumors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Salivary Gland Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid , Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic , Adenoma, Pleomorphic , Gene Expression Profiling , Transforming Growth Factor beta1
19.
Clinics ; 76: e2904, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350626

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the efficacy and potential molecular mechanism of Huangkui capsule in combination with leflunomide (HKL) for the treatment of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) METHODS: IgAN rat models were constructed by treating rats with bovine serum albumin, lipopolysaccharide, and tetrachloromethane. Th22 cells were isolated from the blood samples of patients with IgAN using a CD4+ T cell isolation kit. The expression levels of the components of the TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway, namely, TGF-β1, Smad2, Smad3, Smad4, and Smad7, were detected using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Cell proliferation was determined using the MTT assay, cell viability was determined using the WST 1 method, and the chemotaxis of Th22 cells was observed using the wound healing assay. Changes in the histology of the kidney tissues were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin staining. RESULTS: Compared with IgAN rats, the rats subjected to HKL treatment showed good improvement in kidney injuries, and the combined drug treatment performed much better than the single-drug treatment. In addition, following HKL treatment, the viability, proliferation, and chemotaxis of Th22 cells dramatically decreased (*p<0.05, **p<0.01, and ***p<0.001). In addition, CCL20, CCL22, and CCL27 levels decreased and the expression of the key components of the TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway was downregulated in IgAN rats and Th22 cells (*p<0.05, ***p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: By targeting the TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway, HKL treatment can improve kidney injury in IgAN rats as well as the excessive proliferation and metastasis of Th22 cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rats , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Smad3 Protein/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Leflunomide/pharmacology , Glomerulonephritis, IGA/metabolism , Glomerulonephritis, IGA/drug therapy , Signal Transduction , Kidney/metabolism
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878923

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to assess whether chrysin(ChR) can inhibit epithelial-mesenchymal transition(EMT) of type Ⅱ alveolar epithelial cell and produce anti-pulmonary fibrosis effect by regulating the NF-κB/Twist 1 signaling pathway. Sixty rats were randomly divided into the control group, the bleomycin(BLC) group, BLC+ChR(50 mg·kg~(-1)) group and BLC+ChR(100 mg·kg~(-1)) group, with 15 rats in each group. The pulmonary fibrosis model was induced by intratracheal injection of BLC(7 500 U·kg~(-1)). Rats were orally administered with different doses of ChR after BLC injection for 28 days. The cells were divided into control group, TGF-β1 group(5 ng·mL~(-1)), and TGF-β1+ChR(1, 10, 100 μmol·L~(-1)) groups. The type Ⅱ alveolar epithelial cells were treated with TGF-β1 for 24 h, and then treated with TGF-β1 for 48 h in the presence or absence of different doses of ChR(1, 10 and 100 μmol·L~(-1)). The morphological changes and collagen deposition in lung tissues were analyzed by HE staining, Masson staining and immunohistochemistry. The mRNA and protein expression levels of collagen Ⅰ, E-cadherin, zonula occludens-1(ZO-1), vimentin, alpha smooth muscle actin(α-SMA), inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B alpha(IκBα), nuclear factor-kappa B p65(NF-κB p65), phospho-NF-κB p65(p-p65) and Twist 1 in lung tissues and cells were detected by qPCR and Western blot, respectively. The animal experiment results showed that as compared with the BLC group, after administration of ChR for 28 days, bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats was significantly relieved, collagen Ⅰ expression in lung tissues was significantly reduced(P<0.05 or P<0.01), and EMT of alveolar epithelial cells was obviously inhibited [the expression levels of E-cadherin and ZO-1 were increased and the expression levels of vimentin and α-SMA were decreased(P<0.05 or P<0.01)], concomitantly with significantly reduced IκBα and p65 phosphorylation level in cytoplasm and decreased NF-κB p65 and Twist 1 expression in nucleus(P<0.05 or P<0.01). The cell experiment results showed that different doses of ChR(1, 10 and 100 μmol·L~(-1)) significantly reduced TGF-β1-induced collagen Ⅰ expression(P<0.05 or P<0.01), significantly inhibited EMT of type Ⅱ alveolar epithelial cells[the expression levels of E-cadherin and ZO-1 were increased and the expression levels of vimentin and α-SMA were decreased(P<0.05 or P<0.01)], and inhibited IκBα and p65 phosphorylation in cytoplasm and down-regulated NF-κB p65 and Twist 1 expression in nucleus induced by TGF-β1(P<0.05 or P<0.01). The results suggest that ChR can reverse EMT of type Ⅱ alveolar epithelial cell and alleviate pulmonary fibrosis in rats, and its mechanism may be associated with reducing IκBα phosphorylation and inhibiting NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and nuclear transfer, thus down-regulating Twist 1 expression.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Animals , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Flavonoids , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Rats , Signal Transduction , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/genetics
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