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1.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 47-61, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971646

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Huangqi Decoction (HQD), a classical traditional Chinese medicine formula, has been used as a valid treatment for alleviating liver fibrosis; however, the underlying molecular mechanism is still unknown. Although our previous studies showed that microRNA-663a (miR-663a) suppresses the proliferation and activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and the transforming growth factor-β/small mothers against decapentaplegic (TGF-β/Smad) pathway, whether long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in HSC activation via the miR-663a/TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway has not yet reported. The present study aimed to investigate the roles of lncRNA lnc-C18orf26-1 in the activation of HSCs and the mechanism by which HQD inhibits hepatic fibrosis.@*METHODS@#The expression levels of lnc-C18orf26-1, miR-663a and related genes were measured by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. HSCs were transfected with the miR-663a mimic or inhibitor and lnc-C18orf26-1 small interfering RNAs. The water-soluble tetrazolium salt-1 assay was used to assess the proliferation rate of HSCs. Changes in lncRNA expression were evaluated in miR-663a-overexpressing HSCs by using microarray to identify miR-663a-regulated lncRNAs. RNA hybrid was used to predict the potential miR-663a binding sites on lncRNAs. Luciferase reporter assays further confirmed the interaction between miR-663a and the lncRNA. The expression levels of collagen α-2(I) chain (COL1A2), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway-related proteins were determined using Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Lnc-C18orf26-1 was upregulated in TGF-β1-activated HSCs and competitively bound to miR-663a. Knockdown of lnc-C18orf26-1 inhibited HSC proliferation and activation, downregulated TGF-β1-stimulated α-SMA and COL1A2 expression, and inhibited the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway. HQD suppressed the proliferation and activation of HSCs. HQD increased miR-663a expression and decreased lnc-C18orf26-1 expression in HSCs. Further studies showed that HQD inhibited the expression of COL1A2, α-SMA, TGF-β1, TGF-β type I receptor (TGF-βRI) and phosphorylated Smad2 (p-Smad2) in HSCs, and these effects were reversed by miR-663a inhibitor treatment.@*CONCLUSION@#Our study identified lnc-C18orf26-1 and miR-663a as promising therapeutic targets for hepatic fibrosis. HQD inhibits HSC proliferation and activation at least partially by regulating the lnc-C18orf26-1/miR-663a/TGF-β1/TGF-βRI/p-Smad2 axis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Transforming Growth Factor beta/pharmacology , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , MicroRNAs/genetics , Hepatic Stellate Cells/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Transforming Growth Factors/pharmacology
2.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 119-126, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971326

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study effects of Shenmai Injection on hypertensive heart failure and its mechanism for inhibiting myocardial fibrosis.@*METHODS@#Salt-sensitive (Dahl/SS) rats were fed with normal diet (0.3% NaCl) and the high-salt diet (8% NaCl) to observe the changes in blood pressure and heart function, as the control group and the model group. Salt-insensitive rats (SS-13BN) were fed with the high-salt diet (8% NaCl) as the negative control group. After modeling, the model rats were randomly divided into heart failure (HF) group, Shenmai Injection (SMI) group and pirfenidone (PFD) group by a random number table, with 6 rats in each group. They were given sterilized water, SMI and pirfenidone, respectively. Blood pressure, cardiac function, fibrosis and related molecular expression were detected by sphygmomanometer, echocardiogram, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), hematoxylin-eosin staining, Masson staining, immunofluorescence and qPCR analysis.@*RESULTS@#After high-salt feeding, compared with the control and negative control group, in the model group the blood pressure increased significantly, the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular fraction shortening (LVFS) were significantly reduced, and the serum NT-proBNP concentration increased significantly (all P<0.05); furthermore, the arrangement of myocardial cells was disordered, the edema was severe, and the degree of myocardial fibrosis was also significantly increased (P<0.05); the protein and mRNA expressions of collagen type I (Col I) were up-regulated (P<0.05), and the mRNA expressions of transforming growth factor β 1 (TGF- β 1), Smad2 and Smad3 were significantly up-regulated (P<0.05). Compared with HF group, after intervention of Shenmai Injection, LVEF and LVFS increased, myocardial morphology was improved, collagen volume fraction decreased significantly (P<0.05), and the mRNA expressions of Col I, TGF- β 1, Smad2 and Smad3, as well as Col I protein expression, were all significantly down-regulated (all P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Myocardial fibrosis is the main pathological manifestation of hypertensive heart failure, and Shenmai Injection could inhibit myocardial fibrosis and effectively improve heart failure by regulating TGF-β 1/Smad signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Stroke Volume , Sodium Chloride , Rats, Inbred Dahl , Ventricular Function, Left , Heart Failure , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Hypertension , Fibrosis , RNA, Messenger
3.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 72-77, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970716

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary fibrosis is the end-stage pathological change of lung diseases, which seriously affects the respiratory function of human body. A large number of studies at home and abroad have confirmed that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important intermediate stage in the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Inhibition of multiple pathways upstream and downstream of EMT, such as the classical Smads pathway and non-Smads pathway of TGF-1 can effectively inhibit the process of EMT and alleviate pulmonary fibrosis. This article will review the main conclusions of the mechanism of action of EMT as a target to improve the pathology of pulmonary fibrosis so far, and provide a theoretical basis and research direction for further research and development of anti-pulmonary fibrosis drugs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition/drug effects , Fibrosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Signal Transduction , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Antifibrotic Agents/therapeutic use
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1289-1299, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970600

ABSTRACT

This study compared the ameliorating effects of L-borneol, natural borneol, and synthetic borneol on the injury of different brain regions in the rat model of acute phase of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion(I/R) for the first time, which provides a reference for guiding the rational application of borneol in the early treatment of ischemic stroke and has important academic and application values. Healthy specific pathogen-free(SPF)-grade SD male rats were randomly assigned into 13 groups: a sham-operation group, a model group, a Tween model group, a positive drug(nimodipine) group, and high-, medium-, and low-dose(0.2, 0.1, and 0.05 g·kg~(-1), respectively) groups of L-borneol, natural borneol, and synthetic borneol according to body weight. After 3 days of pre-administration, the rat model of I/R was established by suture-occluded method and confirmed by laser speckle imaging. The corresponding agents in different groups were then administered for 1 day. The body temperature was monitored regularly before pre-administration, days 1, 2, and 3 of pre-administration, 2 h after model awakening, and 1 d after model establishment. Neurological function was evaluated based on Zea-Longa score and modified neurological severity score(mNSS) 2 h and next day after awakening. The rats were anesthetized 30 min after the last administration, and blood was collected from the abdominal aorta. Enzyme-linked immunoassay assay(ELISA) was employed to determine the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-α), interleukin-6(IL-6), IL-4, and transforming growth factor-beta1(TGF-β1). The brain tissues were stained with triphenyltetrazolium chloride(TTC) for the calculation of cerebral infarction rate, and hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was used for observing and semi-quantitatively evaluating the pathological damage in different brain regions. Immunohistochemistry was employed to detect the expression of ionized calcium binding adapter molecule 1(IBA1) in microglia. q-PCR was carried out to determine the mRNA levels of iNOS and arginase 1(Arg1), markers of polarization phenotype M1 and M2 in microglia. Compared with the sham-operation group, the model group and the Tween model group showed significantly elevated body temperature, Zea-Longa score, mNSS, and cerebral infarction rate, severely damaged cortex, hippocampus, and striatum, increased serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-α, and decreased serum levels of IL-4 and TGF-β1. The three borneol products had a tendency to reduce the body temperature of rats 1 day after modeling. Synthetic borneol at the doses of 0.2 and 0.05 g·kg~(-1), as well as L-borneol of 0.1 g·kg~(-1), significantly reduced Zea-Longa score and mNSS. The three borneol products at the dose of 0.2 g·kg~(-1) significantly reduced the cerebral infarction rate. L-borneol at the doses of 0.2 and 0.1 g·kg~(-1) and natural borneol at the dose of 0.1 g·kg~(-1) significantly reduced the pathological damage of the cortex. L-borneol and natural borneol at the dose of 0.1 g·kg~(-1) attenuated the pathological damage of hippocampus, and 0.2 g·kg~(-1) L-borneol attenuated the damage of striatum. The 0.2 g·kg~(-1) L-borneol and the three doses of natural borneol and synthetic borneol significantly reduced the serum level of TNF-α, and the 0.1 g·kg~(-1) synthetic borneol reduced the level of IL-6. L-borneol and synthetic borneol at the dose of 0.2 g·kg~(-1) significantly inhibited the activation of cortical microglia, and 0.2 g·kg~(-1) L-borneol up-regulated the expression of Arg1 and down-regulated the expression level of iNOS. In conclusion, the three borneol products may alleviate inflammation to ameliorate the pathological damage of brain regions of rats in the acute phase of I/R by inhibiting the activation of microglia and promoting the polarization of microglia from M1 type to M2 type. The protective effect on brain followed a trend of L-borneol > synthetic borneol > natural borneol. We suggest L-borneol the first choice for the treatment of I/R in the acute phase.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Interleukin-4/metabolism , Polysorbates , Brain , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Cerebral Infarction , Reperfusion
5.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 316-324, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982269

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of amygdalin on liver fibrosis in a liver fibrosis mouse model, and the underlying mechanisms were partly dissected in vivo and in vitro.@*METHODS@#Thirty-two male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups, including control, model, low- and high-dose amygdalin-treated groups, 8 mice in each group. Except the control group, mice in the other groups were injected intraperitoneally with 10% carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-olive oil solution 3 times a week for 6 weeks to induce liver fibrosis. At the first 3 weeks, amygdalin (1.35 and 2.7 mg/kg body weight) were administered by gavage once a day. Mice in the control group received equal quantities of subcutaneous olive oil and intragastric water from the fourth week. At the end of 6 weeks, liver tissue samples were harvested to detect the content of hydroxyproline (Hyp). Hematoxylin and eosin and Sirius red staining were used to observe the inflammation and fibrosis of liver tissue. The expressions of collagen I (Col-I), alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), CD31 and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling pathway were observed by immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, respectively. The activation models of hepatic stellate cells, JS-1 and LX-2 cells induced by TGF-β1 were used in vitro with or without different concentrations of amygdalin (0.1, 1, 10 µmol/L). LSECs. The effect of different concentrations of amygdalin on the expressions of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) dedifferentiation markers CD31 and CD44 were observed.@*RESULTS@#High-dose of amygdalin significantly reduced the Hyp content and percentage of collagen positive area, and decreased the mRNA and protein expressions of Col-I, α-SMA, CD31 and p-Smad2/3 in liver tissues of mice compared to the model group (P<0.01). Amygdalin down-regulated the expressions of Col-I and α-SMA in JS-1 and LX-2 cells, and TGFβ R1, TGFβ R2 and p-Smad2/3 in LX-2 cells compared to the model group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Moreover, 1 and 10 µmol/L amygdalin inhibited the mRNA and protein expressions of CD31 in LSECs and increased CD44 expression compared to the model group (P<0.05 or P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Amygdalin can dramatically alleviate liver fibrosis induced by CCl4 in mice and inhibit TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway, consequently suppressing HSCs activation and LSECs dedifferentiation to improve angiogenesis.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Mice , Animals , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Amygdalin/therapeutic use , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Olive Oil/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , Smad Proteins/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Liver , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Collagen Type I/metabolism , Carbon Tetrachloride , Hepatic Stellate Cells
6.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 325-331, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981872

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effect of 1, 25-(OH)2-VitD3 (VitD3) on renal tubuleinterstitial fibrosis in diabetic kidney disease. Methods NRK-52E renal tubular epithelial cells were divided into control group (5.5 mmol/L glucose medium treatment), high glucose group (25 mmol/L glucose medium treatment) and high glucose with added VitD3 group (25 mmol/L glucose medium combined with 10-8 mmol/L VitD3). The mRNA and protein expression of Snail1, SMAD3, SMAD4, α-SMA and E-cadherin in NRK-52E cells were detected by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis respectively. The expression and localization of Snail1, SMAD3 and SMAD4 were detected by immunofluorescence cytochemical staining. The binding of Snail1 with SMAD3/SMAD4 complex to the promoter of Coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR) was detected by chromatin immunoprecipitation. The interaction among Snail1, SMAD3/SMAD4 and E-cadherin were detected by luciferase assay. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to inhibit the expression of Snail1 and SMAD4, and the expression of mRNA of E-cadherin was detected by real-time quantitative PCR. SD rats were randomly divided into control group, DKD group and VitD3-treated group. DKD model was established by injection of streptozotocin (STZ) in DKD group and VitD3-treated group. After DKD modeling, VitD3-treated group was given VitD3 (60 ng/kg) intragastric administration. Control group and DKD group were given normal saline intragastric administration. In the DKD group and VitD3-treated group, insulin (1-2 U/kg) was injected subcutaneously to control blood glucose for 8 weeks. The mRNA and protein levels of Snail1, SMAD3, SMAD4, α-SMA and E-cadherin in renal tissues were detected by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis respectively. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression and localization of Snail1, SMAD3, SMAD4, α-SMA and E-cadherin in renal tissue. Results Compared with the control group, the mRNA and protein expressions of Snail1, SMAD3, SMAD4 and α-SMA in NRK-52E cells cultured with high glucose and in DKD renal tissues were up-regulated, while E-cadherin expression was down-regulated. After the intervention of VitD3, the expression levels of Snail1, SMAD3, SMAD4, α-SMA and E-cadherin in the DKD model improved to be close to those in the control group. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that Snail1 and SMAD3/SMAD4 bound to CAR promoter IV, while VitD3 prevented Snail1 and SMAD3/SMAD4 from binding to CAR promoter IV. Luciferase assay confirmed the interaction among Snail1, SMAD3/SMAD4 and E-cadherin. After the mRNA of Snail1 and SMAD4 was inhibited by siRNA, the expression of E-cadherin induced by high glucose was up-regulated. Conclusion VitD3 could inhibit the formation of Snail1-SMAD3/SMAD4 complex and alleviate the renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis in DKD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Cadherins/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Diabetic Nephropathies/pathology , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Fibrosis/pathology , Glucose/pharmacology , Kidney/pathology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , RNA, Messenger , RNA, Small Interfering , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Vitamin D/pharmacology
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3913-3921, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981524

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect and mechanism of Isodon terricolous-medicated serum on lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced hepatic stellate cell(HSC) activation. LPS-induced HSCs were divided into a blank control group, an LPS model group, a colchicine-medicated serum group, an LPS + blank serum group, an I. terricolous-medicated serum group, a Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4) blocker group, and a TLR4 blocker + I. terricolous-medicated serum group. HSC proliferation was detected by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium(MTT) assay. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was used to measure type Ⅰ collagen(COL Ⅰ), COL Ⅲ, transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1), α-smooth muscle actin(α-SMA), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1), cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinase-1(caspase-1), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1(MCP-1). Real-time PCR(RT-PCR) was used to detect mRNA expression of TLR4, IκBα, and NOD-like receptor thermal protein domain associated protein 3(NLRP3), nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB) p65, gasdermin D(GSDMD), and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD(ASC) in HSCs. Western blot(WB) was used to detect the protein levels of TLR4, p-IκBα, NF-κB p65, NLRP3, ASC, and GSDMD in HSCs. The results showed that I. terricolous-medicated serum could inhibit the proliferation activity of HSCs and inhibit the secretion of COL Ⅰ, COL Ⅲ, α-SMA, TGF-β1, caspase-1, MCP-1, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 in HSCs. Compared with the LPS model group, the I. terricolous-medicated serum group, the colchicine-medicated serum group, and the TLR4 blocker group showed down-regulated expression of p-IκBα, NLRP3, NF-κB p65, GSDMD, and ASC, and up-regulated expression of IκBα. Compared with the TLR4 blocker group, the TLR4 blocker + I. terricolous-medicated serum group showed decreased expression of TLR4, p-IκBα, NLRP3, NF-κB p65, GSDMD, and ASC, and increased expression of IκBα. In conclusion, I. terricolous-medicated serum down-regulates HSC activation by inhibiting the TLR4/NF-κB/NLRP3 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
NF-kappa B/metabolism , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , NF-KappaB Inhibitor alpha/metabolism , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Isodon , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Signal Transduction , Colchicine/pharmacology , Caspases
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2630-2638, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981367

ABSTRACT

Diabetic kidney disease is an important microvascular complication of diabetes and the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Its pathological characteristics mainly include epithelial mesenchymal transition(EMT) in glomerulus, podocyte apoptosis and autophagy, and damage of glomerular filtration barrier. Transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β)/Smad signaling pathway is specifically regulated by a variety of mechanisms, and is a classic pathway involved in physiological activities such as apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation. At present, many studies have found that TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway plays a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease. Traditional Chinese medicine has significant advantages in the treatment of diabetic kidney disease for its multi-component, multi-target and multi-pathway characteristics, and some traditional Chinese medicine extracts, traditional Chinese medicines and traditional Chinese medicine compound prescription improve the renal injury of diabetic kidney disease by regulating TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. This study clarified the mechanism of TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway in diabetic kidney disease by expounding the relationship between the key targets of the pathway and diabetic kidney disease, and summarized the research progress of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of diabetic kidney disease by interfering with TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway in recent years, to provide reference for drug research and clinical treatment of diabetic kidney disease in the future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetic Nephropathies/genetics , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Kidney/pathology , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Smad Proteins/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/genetics
9.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 618-624, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936356

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To develop a convenient method for rapid purification of fresh Pheretima proteins and assess the inhibitory effect of these proteins against pulmonary fibrosis.@*METHODS@#The crude extract of fresh Pheretima was obtained by freeze-drying method and then purified by size exclusion chromatography. The composition of the purified proteins was analyzed by mass spectrometry. MRC-5 cells were treated with 5 ng/mL TGF-β1 alone (model group) or in combination with SB431542 (2 μmol/L) or the purified proteins (13.125 μg/mL), and the cytotoxicity of purified proteins and their inhibitory effects on cell proliferation were detected with CCK8 assay. Flow cytometry was used to detect the changes in cell apoptosis, and the cellular expressions of α-SMA, Vimentin, E-cadherin, collagen I, Smad2/3 and P-Smad2/3 were detected using RT-PCR and Western blotting. In the animal experiment, adult male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to intratracheal instillation of bleomycin followed by treatment with the purified proteins (5 mg/mL) for 21 days, after which HE and Masson staining was used to observe the pathological changes in the lung tissue of the mice.@*RESULTS@#We successfully obtained purified proteins from fresh Pheretima protein by size exclusion chromatography. Treatment with the purified proteins significantly inhibited TGF-β1-induced proliferation of MRC-5 cells (P < 0.01), reduced the cellular expressions of α-SMA, Vimentin and collagen I (P < 0.001 or P < 0.01), increased the expression of E-cadherin (P < 0.01), and inhibited the expressions of Smad2/3 and P-Smad2/3 (P < 0.001 or P < 0.01). In male C57BL/6 mice models of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, treatment with the purified proteins obviously reduced the number of inflammatory cells and fibrotic area in the lungs.@*CONCLUSION@#The purified proteins from fresh Pheretima obtained by size exclusion chromatography can inhibit pulmonary fibrosis in mice by regulating the TGF-β/ Smad pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Biological Products/pharmacology , Bleomycin/adverse effects , Cadherins/metabolism , Collagen Type I , Lung/pathology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Oligochaeta/chemistry , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Vimentin/metabolism
10.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 411-417, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936331

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of pirfenidone for reducing urethral stricture following urethral injury in rats and explore the possible mechanism.@*METHODS@#Thirty male SD rats were randomly assigned into negative control group, positive control group and pirfenidone group (n=10). In pirfenidone and positive control groups, the rats were subjected to incision of the posterior urethral cavernous body followed by daily intraperitoneal injection of pirfenidone (100 mg/kg) and an equivalent volume of solvent, respectively. The rats in the negative control group were given intraperitoneal injections of solvent without urethral injury. At two weeks after modeling, retrograde urethrography was performed for observing urethral stricture, and the injured urethral tissues were harvested for HE staining, Masson staining, immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting for detecting the protein expressions of α-SMA and TGF-β1. The mRNA expressions of the inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β were detected using qRT-PCR.@*RESULTS@#The body weight of the rats in pirfenidone group was significantly decreased compared with that in the other two groups (P < 0.05). Retrograde urethrography showed significant narrowing of the urethra in the positive control group but not in the pirfenidone group. HE staining of the injured urethral tissues showed obvious proliferation of urethral epithelial cells with narrow urethral cavity and increased inflammatory cells in positive control group. The pathological findings of the urethra were similar between pirfenidone group and the negative control group. Masson staining revealed obviously reduced collagen fibers and regular arrangement of the fibers in pirfenidone group as compared to the positive control group. Compared with those in the negative control group, the expressions of α-SMA and TGF-β1 were significantly increased in the positive control group, and pirfenidone treatment significantly inhibited their expressions (P < 0.05 or 0.01). Pirfenidone also significantly inhibited the mRNA expressions of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in the injured urethral tissue (P < 0.05 or 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Pirfenidone can prevent urethral fibrosis and stricture after urethral injury possibly by inhibiting the TGF-β1 pathway and inflammatory response.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Rats , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Pyridones/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Solvents , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Urethral Stricture/pathology
11.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 250-255, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936309

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of TGF-β1 on Shh signaling pathway during the transformation of meningeal fibroblasts into myofibroblasts.@*METHODS@#Primary meningeal fibroblasts were isolated from neonatal (24 h) SD rats and purified using type Ⅳ collagenase. The isolated cells were treated with 10 ng/mL TGF-β1 alone or in combination with 20 μmol/L SB-431542 (a TGF-β1 receptor inhibitor) for 72 h, and the changes in proliferation and migration abilities of the fibroblasts were assessed with CCK-8 assay and cell scratch test. The expression of fibronectin (Fn) was detected with immunofluorescence assay, and Western blotting was performed to examine the expressions of Fn, α-SMA and Shh protein in the cells; the expression of Shh mRNA was detected with real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR.@*RESULTS@#TGF-β1 treatment obviously enhanced the proliferation and migration of primary meningeal fibroblasts (P < 0.05), and promoted the transformation of meningeal fibroblasts into myofibroblasts and the secretion of Fn (P < 0.05). TGF-β1 treatment also upregulated the expression of Shh at both protein and mRNA levels (P < 0.05). Treatment with SB-431542 partially blocked the effect of TGF-β1 on the transformation of meningeal fibroblasts (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#TGF-β1 can induce the transformation of meningeal fibroblasts into myofibroblasts by up-regulating Shh expression in Sonic Hedgehog signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Hedgehog Proteins , Myofibroblasts/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism
12.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 12-17, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935734

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect of asiaticoside for fibrosis in lung tissues of rats exposed to silica and to explore its possible mechanism. Methods: 144 SD male rats were randomly divided into control group, model group, positive drug control group, asiaticoside high-dose group, medium-dose group and low-dose group, each group included 24 rats. Rats in the control group were perfused with 1.0 ml of normal saline, and the other groups were given 1.0 ml 50 mg/ml SiO(2) suspension. Gavage of herbal was given from the next day after model establishment, once a day. Rats in the positive drug control group were administration with 30 mg/kg tetrandrine and rats in the low-dose group, medium-dose group and high-dose group were given 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg asiaticoside for fibrosis respectively. Rats in the control group and the model group were given 0.9% normal saline. The rats were sacrificed in on the 14th, 28th and 56th day after intragastric administration and collect the lung tissues to detect the content of hydroxyproline, TGF-β(1) and IL-18, observe the pathological changes of the lung tissues by HE and Masson staining and determine the expressions of Col-I, a-SMA, TGF-β in lung tissues by Western Blot. Results: On the 14th day, 28th day and 56th day after model establishment, the lung tissues of rats in the model group showed obvious inflammatory response and accumulation of collagen fibers, and the degree of inflammation and fibrosis increased with time. The intervention of asiaticoside could effectively inhibit the pathological changes of lung tissues. The contents of hydroxyproline, IL-18 and TGF-β1 in lung tissues of model group were higher than those in the control group (P<0.05) , while the level of hydroxyproline, IL-18 and TGF-β1 in asiaticoside groups were significantly decreased, and the difference was statistically signicant (P<0.05) . Compared with the control group, the expression levels of Col-I, TGF-β1and α-SMA in lung tissue of model group were increased (P<0.05) , while the expression level of Col-I, TGF-β1 and α-SMA were decreased after the intervention of asiaticoside, and the difference was statistically signicant (P<0.05) . Conclusion: Asiaticoside can inhibit the increase of Col-I, TGF-β1 and α-SMA content in the SiO(2)-induced lung tissues of rats, reduce the release of TGF-β1 and IL-18 inflammatory factors in lung tissue, and then inhibit the synthesis and deposition of extracellular matrix in rat lung tissue, and improve silicosis fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Dust , Lung , Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , Silicon Dioxide/adverse effects , Silicosis/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism
13.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 207-212, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928530

ABSTRACT

This study explored the usefulness of two-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE) in the early assessment of corpora cavernosa fibrosis (CCF). New Zealand male rabbits were randomly assigned to an experimental group or a control group. Recombinant human transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) was injected into the dorsal penis tissue of rabbits in the experimental group. Conventional ultrasound and 2D-SWE examinations were performed before and 20 days after injection. Penile histological analysis was performed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, sirius red staining, and immunohistochemistry. Measurement of 2D-SWE examination results was performed using shear wave elastography quantitative measurement (SWQ). Histological analysis outcomes were the proportion of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), collagen fibers (CFs), collagen type I (Col I), and collagen type III (Col III), as well as the SMCs/CFs ratio, measured by sirius red staining. Other histological analysis outcomes were the positive area proportion (PAP) of TGF-β1 (PAPT), fibronectin (PAPF), and Col III (PAPC), measured by immunohistochemistry. After recombinant human TGF-β1 injection, SWQ was higher in the experimental group than that in the control group (P < 0.001); however, there were no differences in conventional ultrasound results. There were significant differences in histological outcomes between the two groups (all P < 0.05). These results indicated that 2D-SWE was superior for identifying early histological changes in CCF.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Elasticity Imaging Techniques/methods , Fibrosis , Penis/pathology , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2170-2177, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928157

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the effect of icariin(ICA) on mitochondrial dynamics in a rat model of chronic renal failure(CRF) and to investigate the molecular mechanism of ICA against renal interstitial fibrosis(RIF). CRF was induced in male Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats with 5/6(ablation and infarction, A/I) surgery(right kidney ablation and 2/3 infarction of the left kidney). Four weeks after surgery, the model rats were randomized into the following groups: 5/6(A/I) group, 5/6(A/I)+low-dose ICA group, and 5/6(A/I)+high-dose ICA group. Another 12 rats that received sham operation were randomly classified into 2 groups: sham group and sham+ICAH group. Eight weeks after treatment, the expression of collagen-Ⅰ(Col-Ⅰ), collagen-Ⅲ(Col-Ⅲ), mitochondrial dynamics-related proteins(p-Drp1 S616, p-Drp1 S637, Mfn1, Mfn2), and mitochondrial function-related proteins(TFAM, ATP6) in the remnant kidney tissues was detected by Western blot. The expression of α-smooth muscle actin(α-SMA) was examined by immunohistochemical(IHC) staining. The NRK-52 E cells, a rat proximal renal tubular epithelial cell line, were cultured in vitro and treated with ICA of different concentration. Cell viability was detected by CCK-8 assay. In NRK-52 E cells stimulated with 20 ng·mL~(-1) TGF-β1 for 24 h, the effect of ICA on fibronectin(Fn), connective tissue growth factor(CTGF), p-Drp1 S616, p-Drp1 S637, Mfn1, Mfn2, TFAM, and ATP6 was detected by Western blot, and the ATP content and the mitochondrial morphology were determined. The 20 ng·mL~(-1) TGF-β1-stimulated NRK-52 E cells were treated with or without 5 μmol·L~(-1) ICA+10 μmol·L~(-1) mitochondrial fusion promoter M1(MFP-M1) for 24 h and the expression of fibrosis markers Fn and CTGF was detected by Western blot. Western blot result showed that the levels of Col-Ⅰ, Col-Ⅲ, and p-Drp1 S616 were increased and the levels of p-Drp1 S637, Mfn1, Mfn2, TFAM, and ATP6 were decreased in 5/6(A/I) group compared with those in the sham group. The levels of Col-Ⅰ, Col-Ⅲ, and p-Drp1 S616 were significantly lower and the levels of p-Drp1 S637, Mfn1, Mfn2, TFAM, and ATP6 were significantly higher in ICA groups than that in 5/6(A/I) group. IHC staining demonstrated that for the expression of α-SMA in the renal interstitium was higher in the 5/6(A/I) group than in the sham group and that the expression in the ICA groups was significantly lower than that in the 5/6(A/I) group. Furthermore, the improvement in the fibrosis, mitochondrial dynamics, and mitochondrial function were particularly prominent in rats receiving the high dose of ICA. The in vitro experiment revealed that ICA dose-dependently inhibited the increase of Fn, CTGF, and p-Drp1 S616, increased p-Drp1 S637, Mfn1, Mfn2, TFAM, and ATP6, elevated ATP content, and improved mitochondrial morphology of NRK-52 E cells stimulated by TGF-β1. ICA combined with MFP-M1 further down-regulated the expression of Fn and CTGF in NRK-52 E cells stimulated by TGF-β1 compared with ICA alone. In conclusion, ICA attenuated RIF of CRF by improving mitochondrial dynamics.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Rats , Adenosine Triphosphate/pharmacology , Fibrosis , Flavonoids , Infarction/pathology , Kidney , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Mitochondrial Dynamics , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism
15.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 217-224, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927597

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Geniposide on hepatic fibrosis and activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and to explore possible underlying mechanism. Human HSCs (LX-2) were treated with 5 ng/mL transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), followed by co-culture with Geniposide at various concentrations (0, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 μmol/L). Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Then, LX-2 cells were divided into control, TGF-β1 (5 ng/mL) and TGF-β1 + Geniposide (20 μmol/L) groups, and the gene and protein expression of collagen I, fibronectin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), p-Smad2 and p-Smad3 was detected by qPCR and Western blot, respectively. BALB/c mice were treated with CCl4 (25%, 1 mL/kg) to generate a model of hepatic fibrosis (CCl4 group), and the control group and CCl4 + Geniposide group were administered with olive oil and CCl4 + 40 mg/kg Geniposide, respectively. After 4 weeks of treatment, the liver function and serum hepatic fibrosis indexes of mice were detected, histological observation was performed by HE and Masson staining, and α-SMA expression in the tissue was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Western blot was utilized for the determination of the protein expression of α-SMA, TGF-β1, p-Smad2 and p-Smad3. The results showed that Geniposide inhibited LX-2 cell proliferation. In addition, Geniposide significantly downregulated the gene and protein expression of collagen I, fibronectin and α-SMA and the expression of TGF-β1/Smad signaling-related proteins induced by TGF-β1 in vitro. Histological observations showed that Geniposide significantly inhibited CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis, HSC activation and expression of TGF-β1/Smad signaling-related proteins in mice. In summary, Geniposide prevents the hepatic fibrosis and HSC activation possibly through the inhibition of the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Collagen Type I/metabolism , Fibronectins , Hepatic Stellate Cells/pathology , Iridoids , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Signal Transduction , Smad Proteins/pharmacology , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism
16.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 1005-1013, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970095

ABSTRACT

The TRPC family consists of multiple important cationic channels in mammals that participate in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. Our previous studies have shown that transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) increases the expression of TRPC6 in podocytes, but the roles of other members of the TRPC family in podocytes require further investigation. In this study, we investigated the effect of TGF-β1 on the expression of the TRPC family and the role of the TRPC family in the changes of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in podocytes induced by TGF-β1. The model of podocyte injury was established by treatment with TGF-β1 in immortalized glomerular podocytes (MPC5) in vitro. qRT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect the effect of TGF-β1 on the mRNA and protein expression of each TRPC family member. After the expression of each TRPC family member was knocked down by a siRNA-based approach and blocked by SKF96365, respectively, free cytosolic Ca2+ was measured using the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator Fluo-3/AM, and the dynamic change of [Ca2+]i in podocytes was detected by a dynamic high-speed calcium imaging system. The results showed that TGF-β1 increased the protein expression of TRPC1/3/6 in podocytes, but had no effects on the protein expression of TRPC4. The protein expression levels of TRPC5/7 were only affected by 4 ng/mL and 8 ng/mL TGF-β1, respectively. TGF-β1 increased TRPC1/3/6 mRNA levels in podocytes, however had no effects on TRPC4/5/7 mRNA. TGF-β1 significantly increased [Ca2+]i in podocytes. Knockdown of TRPC1/4/5/7 in podocytes had no significant effect on the [Ca2+]i induced by TGF-β1, but TRPC3/6 knockdown significantly decreased the [Ca2+]i. There was no significant difference in the [Ca2+]i between the TRPC6 siRNA-treated group and SKF96365-treated group, but the [Ca2+]i of the TRPC3 siRNA-treated group was significantly higher than that of SKF96365-treated group. These results demonstrate that TGF-β1 increases the expression of the TRPC1/3/6 in podocytes. TGF-β1 increases [Ca2+]i in podocytes, which is dependent on the TRPC3/6 expression. Our results also suggest that the effect of TRPC6 on [Ca2+]i in podocytes may be greater than that of TRPC3.


Subject(s)
Animals , TRPC6 Cation Channel/metabolism , Calcium/metabolism , TRPC Cation Channels/metabolism , Podocytes/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Mammals/metabolism
17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 730-736, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927956

ABSTRACT

The present study clarified the molecular mechanism of curcumol against liver fibrosis based on its effects on the autopha-gy and apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells. The hepatic stellate cells were divided into a blank control group, a transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β1)(10 ng·mL~(-1)) group, and low-(12.5 mg·L~(-1)), medium-(25 mg·L~(-1)), and high-dose(50 mg·L~(-1)) curcumol groups. The effect of curcumol on the viability of hepatic stellate cells induced by TGF-β1 was detected by the MTT assay kit. The apo-ptosis in each group was determined by flow cytometry. Real-time fluorescence-based quantitative PCR(RT-PCR) was employed for the detection of mRNA expression of α-smooth muscle actin(α-SMA), type Ⅰ collagen(collagen Ⅰ), and type Ⅲ collagen(collagen Ⅲ). Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of p62, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3(LC3), beclin1, B cell lymphoma 2(Bcl-2), and Bcl-2-associated X protein(Bax). Transmission electron microscopy(TEM) was used to observe cell morphology and autophagosome formation in each group. The autophagic flux was observed after cell infection with adenovirus under double fluorescence labeling. The cell viability assay revealed that compared with the TGF-β1 group, the curcumol groups showed significantly decreased cell viability. The apoptosis assay showed that the apoptosis rates of the curcumol groups were significantly higher than that of the TGF-β1 group. RT-PCR indicated that the mRNA expression of α-SMA, collagenⅠ, and collagen Ⅲ in the curcumol groups was significantly lower than that of the TGF-β1 group. Western blot showed that the expression of p62, LC3, beclin1, Bcl-2, and Bax in the curcumol groups was significantly different from that in the TGF-β1 group. As demonstrated by TEM, compared with the TGF-β1 group, the curcumol groups showed significantly increased autophagosomes. The detection of autophagic flow by the adenovirus under double fluorescence labeling showed that autolysosomes in the curcumol groups were significantly increased compared with those in the TGF-β1 group. Curcumol can induce the autophagy and apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells, which may be one of its anti-liver fibrosis mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Actins/metabolism , Apoptosis , Autophagy , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Liver/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Sesquiterpenes , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism
18.
Acta cir. bras ; 36(6): e360604, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1284910

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose Herein we evaluated the effects of platelet concentrate (PC) and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) on bone repair using noncritical defects in the calvaria of rabbits and compared them to the presence of TGF-β1 and osteocalcin on reparative sites. Methods Five noncritical defects of 8.7 mm in diameter were created on the calvaria of 15 animals. Each defect was treated differently, using autograft (ABG), ABG associated with PC (ABG + PC), ABG with PPP (ABG + PPP), isolated PPP, and blood clot (control). The animals were submitted to euthanasia on the second, fourth and sixth week post-surgery. Results The defects that received ABG+PC or PPP demonstrated lower bone formation when compared to specimens that received ABG in the same period. These results coincided to significant higher immunopositivity for TGF-β1 for specimens that received PC, and lower presence of cytokine in the group PPP. However, either higher or lower presence of TGF-β1 were also correlated to lower presence of osteocalcin. Likewise, these results were similar to findings in specimens treated only with PPP when compared to control. Conclusions PC and PPP were not effective when applied in association with ABG. Similarly, isolated use of PPP was not beneficial in optimizing the bone repair.


Subject(s)
Animals , Osteogenesis , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Rabbits , Skull/surgery , Osteocalcin , Autografts
19.
Clinics ; 76: e2904, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350626

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the efficacy and potential molecular mechanism of Huangkui capsule in combination with leflunomide (HKL) for the treatment of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) METHODS: IgAN rat models were constructed by treating rats with bovine serum albumin, lipopolysaccharide, and tetrachloromethane. Th22 cells were isolated from the blood samples of patients with IgAN using a CD4+ T cell isolation kit. The expression levels of the components of the TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway, namely, TGF-β1, Smad2, Smad3, Smad4, and Smad7, were detected using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Cell proliferation was determined using the MTT assay, cell viability was determined using the WST 1 method, and the chemotaxis of Th22 cells was observed using the wound healing assay. Changes in the histology of the kidney tissues were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin staining. RESULTS: Compared with IgAN rats, the rats subjected to HKL treatment showed good improvement in kidney injuries, and the combined drug treatment performed much better than the single-drug treatment. In addition, following HKL treatment, the viability, proliferation, and chemotaxis of Th22 cells dramatically decreased (*p<0.05, **p<0.01, and ***p<0.001). In addition, CCL20, CCL22, and CCL27 levels decreased and the expression of the key components of the TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway was downregulated in IgAN rats and Th22 cells (*p<0.05, ***p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: By targeting the TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway, HKL treatment can improve kidney injury in IgAN rats as well as the excessive proliferation and metastasis of Th22 cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rats , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Smad3 Protein/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Leflunomide/pharmacology , Glomerulonephritis, IGA/metabolism , Glomerulonephritis, IGA/drug therapy , Signal Transduction , Kidney/metabolism
20.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e013, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089379

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated the effect of a cyclopentenone-type PG, 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-PG J2 (15d-PGJ2), and lectin (ScLL) on the viability of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs), and on IL-6 and TGFβ-1 release by these fibroblasts, stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). HGFs were stimulated with LPS 10 μg/ml and treated with 15d-PGJ2 1 and 2 μg/ml, and ScLL 2 and 5 μg/ml, for 1 and 3h, and then evaluated for viability by MTT assay. Supernatant was collected to detect IL-6 and TGFβ-1 release, by ELISA. Positive control was cells kept in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium, and negative control was those kept in LPS. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Dunnett's test (α = 0.05). No significant difference was found in viability among experimental groups at 1h (p > 0.05). Percentage of ScLL 5 µg/ml viable cells was similar to that of positive control at evaluated periods (p > 0.05), whereas the other groups had lower levels than the positive control (p < 0.05). IL-6 release was statistically higher for ScLL 5 μg/ml and 15d-PGJ2 2 µg/ml at 1h, compared with the other treated groups and positive control (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found among the groups at 3h (p > 0.05), except for ScLL 2 µg/ml and 15d-PGJ2 1 µg/ml, which showed lower IL-6 release compared with that of negative control (p < 0.05). No significant difference was found among the groups for TGFβ-1 release (p > 0.05). Results indicated that ScLL 5 μg/ml did not interfere in viability, and ScLL 2 µg/ml and 15d-PGJ2 1 µg/ml demonstrated reduced IL-6 release. Tested substances had no effect on TGFβ-1 release.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prostaglandin D2/analogs & derivatives , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Plant Lectins/pharmacology , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Reference Values , Time Factors , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Prostaglandin D2/pharmacology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/drug effects , Gingiva/cytology
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