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1.
San Salvador; MINSAL; oct. 29, 2021. 20 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1352690

ABSTRACT

Los presentes lineamientos técnicos, responden a la necesidad de facilitar la aplicación del Reglamento General de Viáticos, en la parte relacionada a las misiones oficiales al interior del país, y con ello también mejorar el control institucional, tanto a nivel administrativo como financiero, del trámite para la obtención del viático correspondiente, al realizar gestiones o actividades en el interior del país, por parte del personal del Ministerio de Salud, en adelante MINSAL, que cumple con los requisitos para devengarlos, dado que se han emitido diferentes reformas al Reglamento mencionado, las cuales modifican los criterios de aplicación de la normativa


These technical guidelines respond to the need to facilitate the application of the General Travel Regulations, in the part related to official missions within the country, and thereby also improve institutional control, both at the administrative and financial, the procedure to obtain the corresponding per diem, when carrying out formalities or activities in the interior of the country, by the personnel of the Ministry of Health, hereinafter MINSAL, which meets the requirements to accrue them, given that different reforms to the aforementioned Regulation, which modify the criteria for applying the normative


Subject(s)
Social Control, Formal , Travel , Health
2.
Infectio ; 25(3): 182-188, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1250090

ABSTRACT

Abstract The article presents a general overview on COVID-19 transmission in the context of public transport, particularly applicable to decision making in Latin America. Based on recent findings on COVID-19 transmission and the relative importance of each factor (droplets, fomites, and aerosol routes) in such transmission, we seek to update the discussion on the topic that has generally been based on social distance as the only parameter for reducing the risk of transmission and broadens the vision to integrate ventilation, users' behavior (mask and eye protection use, silence while in the transport system) and travel distance. Recommendations to improve mobility conditions reducing the risk of COVID-19 contagion are provided.


Resumen El artículo presenta una revisión de transmisión de COVID-19 en el contexto de transporte público, con aplicación particular para toma de decisiones en América Latina. Con base en los hallazgos recientes sobre transmisión de Covid-19 y la importancia relativa de cada factor (gotículas, fómites y rutas de aerosoles) en dicha transmisión, buscamos actualizar la discusión sobre el tema que generalmente se ha basado en la "distancia social" como parámetro único de reducción de riesgo de transmisión y amplía esta visión para integrar la ventilación, el comportamiento de usuarios (uso de mascarilla, protección ocular, silencio), y la distancia de viaje. Se indican al final recomendaciones para mejorar las condiciones de movilidad en general sin aumentar el riesgo de contagio de Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Transportation , Health Strategies , COVID-19 , Travel , Ventilation , Vision, Ocular , Urban Sanitation , Protective Factors , Latin America
3.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 73(2): e594, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347487

ABSTRACT

Introduction: An increase in interprovincial travel has been registered annually during the last decade on the north and northeast coast of Peru, resulting in the spread of vector-borne diseases such as malaria. Therefore, travelers using interprovincial transport should be informed about the impact of infectious diseases in endemic regions and be aware of the risk of acquiring a travel-related condition. Objective: Examine travelers' malaria-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to March 2019 of a random sample of individuals who attended bus stations classed as areas with a higher risk of malaria selected at random in Chiclayo, Peru. The study was conducted reliably through a survey consisting of 29 questions: 18 about knowledge and 11 about attitudes. Results: Of the 250 participants in the study, knowledge was found to be good in 29.13 percent, practices in 14.74 percent, and attitudes in 18.33 percent. People with a higher education degree had a better level of knowledge and attitudes. Also, 60 people were asked about their self-perception of knowledge about malaria and said their knowledge about the subject was adequate. Of the 190 who reported not having enough knowledge about malaria, 49.47 percent were interested in learning about malaria practices and 25.26 percent were interested in learning about treatment. Conclusions: Most of the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of people who travel to endemic areas are not adequate(AU)


Introducción: En la última década se ha registrado un incremento anual de los viajes interprovinciales en la costa norte y noreste de Perú, lo que ha provocado la propagación de enfermedades transmitidas por vectores, como es el caso de la malaria. Es por eso que los usuarios del transporte interprovincial deben estar informados sobre el impacto de las enfermedades infecciosas en las regiones endémicas y sobre el riesgo de adquirir una enfermedad relacionada con los viajes. Objetivo: Examinar los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de los viajeros en relación con la malaria. Métodos: En el período comprendido de enero a marzo de 2019, se realizó un estudio transversal de una muestra aleatoria de personas que visitaban estaciones de ómnibus clasificadas como áreas de alto riesgo de malaria, seleccionadas aleatoriamente en Chiclayo, Perú. El estudio se llevó a cabo mediante un procedimiento confiable basado en una encuesta de 29 preguntas: 18 sobre conocimientos y 11 sobre actitudes. Resultados: De los 250 participantes en el estudio, 29,13 por ciento mostraron buen dominio de los conocimientos, 14,74 por ciento de las prácticas y 18,33 por ciento de las actitudes. Los graduados de la educación superior tenían un mejor nivel de conocimientos y actitudes. Además, a 60 personas se les preguntó sobre la percepción que tenían acerca de sus propios conocimientos sobre la malaria, y respondieron que estos eran apropiados. De los 190 que declararon no tener suficientes conocimientos sobre la malaria, 49,47 por ciento mostraron interés en aprender sobre prácticas relacionadas con la enfermedad y 25,26 por ciento sobre el tratamiento de la misma. Conclusiones: La mayor parte de los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de las personas que viajan en regiones endémicas no es adecuada(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Travel , Knowledge , Universities , Travel-Related Illness , Vector Borne Diseases , Learning , Cross-Sectional Studies
4.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 27(4): 1055-1075, Oct.-Dec. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142991

ABSTRACT

Resumo O artigo analisa as narrativas de viagem ao interior de Mato Grosso e Goiás publicadas em 1935 e 1936 pelo explorador paulista Hermano Ribeiro da Silva, que obtiveram considerável sucesso editorial e impacto no meio letrado brasileiro. Concentramo-nos em suas ideias sobre a relação entre o ambiente do Brasil Central e o homem sertanejo, sobre as potencialidades de exploração econômica da região e sobre o papel do Estado na condução de iniciativas capazes de promover sua incorporação efetiva à nacionalidade. Buscamos também compreender a fundamentação de seu discurso em conceitos e esquemas científicos genéricos dotados de poder retórico e argumentativo.


Abstract The article analyzes the travel narratives to the hinterlands of the states of Mato Grosso and Goiás published in 1935 and 1936 by the São Paulo-based explorer Hermano Ribeiro da Silva, which proved a great publishing success and had a considerable impact on lettered society in Brazil. The analysis focuses on his ideas about the relationship between the environment in Central Brazil and the man who inhabited it, the potential economic exploitation of the region, and the role of the State in orchestrating initiatives capable of promoting its effective incorporation into the nationhood. It also seeks to understand how he grounded his discourse on generic scientific concepts and schemas endowed with rhetorical and argumentative power.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 20th Century , Travel/history , Indians, South American/history , Environment , Portugal/ethnology , Selection, Genetic , Brazil , Ecosystem , Colonialism/history , Federal Government/history , Whites/history , Famous Persons , Indigenous Peoples/history , Acclimatization
5.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 40: e242863, jan.-maio 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1143538

ABSTRACT

Resumo Neste artigo, discutem-se os impactos da Covid-19 na mobilidade, na acessibilidade de pessoas com deficiência e no trabalho do psicólogo do trânsito. Em relação à mobilidade, são apontados dados sobre a demanda de viagem nos transportes urbanos e suas repercussões sociais e econômicas, como o desemprego e o incremento do transporte clandestino com o fechamento de empresas de transporte. São discutidos também o uso de transportes sustentáveis como alternativa e o investimento em comunidades locais autossuficientes para diminuir os deslocamentos. Em relação aos impactos na acessibilidade, comentaremos sobre os avanços na legislação e a mudança de cultura visando à concretização das práticas de inclusão. Também exemplificamos como pessoas com deficiência vivenciam riscos adicionais de contrair a Covid-19 nos deslocamentos. Quanto aos impactos no trabalho do psicólogo do trânsito, analisam-se a suspensão das atividades presenciais e seu retorno e como os psicólogos continuaram desempenhando seu trabalho, desde a perícia psicológica para a habilitação e docência, passando pela gestão de projetos e políticas públicas (e.g., educação para o trânsito) e de associações profissionais. As expectativas para o pós-pandemia e os seus aprendizados também são discutidas. Conclui-se que a pandemia da Covid-19 potencializou o contexto, já presente antes da pandemia, de desigualdade estrutural nas cidades, na mobilidade e na acessibilidade, bem como acentuou a necessidade de adaptação dos processos de trabalho da psicologia. Vislumbram-se mudanças e avanços possíveis, priorizando a diversidade da coletividade na busca de soluções que atendam aos mais diversos grupos de pessoas.


Abstract In this article, there is a discussion about the impacts of Covid-19 at the mobility, accessibility of people with disabilities and the work of the traffic psychologist. Concerning to mobility, the data of requests about using urban transportation and social and economic repercussion are emphasize, such as unemployment and illegal transportation increase, resulting in transport companies closure. The employ of the sustainable transportation as an alternative and investment on sustainable local communities to reduce travels are also discussed. Regarding to accessibility impacts, it will be comment about the law advances and the culture changes, with the aim of concretize inclusion practices. It also exemplifies how disable people live with additional risks of contracting Covid-19 when they travel. As for the impacts of traffic psychologist work, the suspension of face-to-face and their return are analyzed, and how those professionals will do their jobs, from psychologist expertise to qualification and teaching, going through projects and public policies management, just as traffic education, and professional association management. Expectations for the post-pandemic and its learning are also discussed. It is concluded that the Covid-19 pandemic has enhanced the context of structural inequality in cities, mobility and accessibility already present before the pandemic, as well as emphasizing the need to adapt psychology's work processes. Changes and possible advances are envisaged, prioritizing the community diversity at the pursuit of solutions that can assist the most diverse group of people.


Resumen En este artículo, discutimos los impactos del Covid-19 en la movilidad, la accesibilidad para personas con discapacidad y el trabajo del psicólogo de tránsito. En relación a la movilidad, se señalan datos sobre la demanda de viajes en el transporte urbano y sus repercusiones sociales y económicas, como el desempleo y el incremento del transporte ilegal con el cierre de empresas de transporte. También se discute el uso del transporte sostenible como alternativa y la inversión en comunidades locales autosuficientes para reducir los desplazamientos. En cuanto a los impactos en la accesibilidad, comentaremos los avances en la legislación y el cambio de cultura con miras a implementar prácticas de inclusión. También se ejemplifica cómo las personas con discapacidades experimentan riesgos adicionales de contraer el Covid-19 en los desplazamientos. En cuanto a los impactos en el trabajo del psicólogo de tránsito, se analiza la suspensión de las actividades presenciales y su retorno, y cómo los psicólogos continuaron realizando su labor, desde la pericia psicológica hasta la capacitación y docencia, pasando por la gestión de proyectos y políticas públicas (como la educación vial) y la gestión de asociaciones profesionales. Además, se analizan las expectativas para la pospandemia y su aprendizaje. Se concluye que la pandemia de Covid-19 ha potenciado el contexto de desigualdad estructural en las ciudades, la movilidad y la accesibilidad, ya presentes antes de la pandemia, además de enfatizar la necesidad de adecuar los procesos de trabajo de la psicología. Se perciben posibles cambios y avances priorizando la diversidad de la colectividad en la búsqueda de soluciones que atiendan a los más diversos grupos de personas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Architectural Accessibility , Psychology , Transportation , Travel , Disabled Persons , Coronavirus Infections , Adaptation to Disasters , Mobility Limitation , Pandemics , Public Policy , Societies , Socioeconomic Factors , Unemployment , Work , Risk , Projects , Social Inclusion
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200043, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135250

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The number of malaria cases in Roraima nearly tripled from 2016 to 2018. The capital, Boa Vista, considered a low-risk area for malaria transmission, reported an increasing number of autochthonous and imported cases. OBJECTIVES This study describes a spatial analysis on malaria cases in an urban region of Boa Vista, which sought to identify the autochthonous and imported cases and associated them with Anopheles habitats and the potential risk of local transmission. METHODS In a cross-sectional study at the Polyclinic Cosme e Silva, 520 individuals were interviewed and diagnosed with malaria by microscopic examination. Using a global positional system, the locations of malaria cases by type and origin and the breeding sites of anopheline vectors were mapped and the risk of malaria transmission was evaluated by spatial point pattern analysis. FINDINGS Malaria was detected in 57.5% of the individuals and there was a disproportionate number of imported cases (90.6%) linked to Brazilian coming from gold mining sites in Venezuela and Guyana. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The increase in imported malaria cases circulating in the west region of Boa Vista, where there are positive breeding sites for the main vectors, may represent a potential condition for increased autochthonous malaria transmission in this space.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Adult , Plasmodium/isolation & purification , Travel , Miners/statistics & numerical data , Mosquito Vectors/parasitology , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/transmission , Anopheles/parasitology , Plasmodium/classification , Urban Population , Venezuela , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Geographic Information Systems , Spatial Analysis , Gold , Guyana , Malaria/parasitology , Malaria/epidemiology , Anopheles/classification , Middle Aged
8.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(9): e00184820, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1132869

ABSTRACT

The inter-cities mobility network is of great importance in understanding outbreaks, especially in Brazil, a continental-dimension country. We adopt the data from the Brazilian Ministry of Health and the terrestrial flow of people between cities from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics database in two scales: cities from Brazil, without the North region, and from the São Paulo State. Grounded on the complex networks approach, and considering that the mobility network serves as a proxy for the SARS-CoV-2 spreading, the nodes and edges represent cities and flows, respectively. Network centrality measures such as strength and degree are ranked and compared to the list of cities, ordered according to the day that they confirmed the first case of COVID-19. The strength measure captures the cities with a higher vulnerability of receiving new cases. Besides, it follows the interiorization process of SARS-CoV-2 in the São Paulo State when the network flows are above specific thresholds. Some countryside cities such as Feira de Santana (Bahia State), Ribeirão Preto (São Paulo State), and Caruaru (Pernambuco State) have strength comparable to states' capitals. Our analysis offers additional tools for understanding and decision support to inter-cities mobility interventions regarding the SARS-CoV-2 and other epidemics.


A rede de mobilidade intermunicipal é de suma importância para a compreensão de surtos, sobretudo no Brasil, um país com dimensões continentais. Os autores adotaram os dados do Ministério da Saúde e informações sobre o fluxo de pessoas entre cidades, da base de dados do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, em duas escalas: cidades brasileiras, sem a região Norte, e do Estado de São Paulo. Com base na abordagem de redes complexas, e considerando que a rede de mobilidade serve como proxy para a propagação do SARS-CoV-2, os nós e arestas representam cidades e fluxos, respectivamente. As medidas de centralidade de rede, como força e grau, são ranqueadas e comparadas à lista das cidades, de acordo com o dia da confirmação do primeiro caso de COVID-19. A medida de força capta as cidades com maior vulnerabilidade à pandemia, além de acompanhar o processo de interiorização do SARS-CoV-2 no Estado de São Paulo quando os fluxos de rede estão acima de limiares específicos. Algumas cidades do interior, como Feira de Santana (Bahia), Ribeirão Preto (São Paulo) e Caruaru (Pernambuco) mostram forças comparáveis às capitais estaduais. Nossa análise oferece ferramentas adicionais para a compreensão e o apoio para a tomada de decisões sobre intervenções na mobilidade intermunicipal em relação ao SARS-CoV-2 e outras epidemias.


La red de movilidad entre ciudades es de vital importancia para la comprensión de los brotes, especialmente en Brasil, un país con dimensiones continentales. Conseguimos los datos del Ministerio de Salud Brasileño y el flujo terrestre de gente entre ciudades a partir de la base de datos del Instituto Brasileño de Geografía y Estadística en dos escalas: ciudades de Brasil, sin la región Norte, y Estado de São Paulo. Basado en un planteamiento de redes complejas, y considerando que la movilidad de la red sirve como un proxy para la propagación del SARS-CoV-2, los nodos y extremos representan ciudades y flujos, respectivamente. Las medidas de centralidad de la red como la fuerza y el grado se clasificaron y compararon con la lista de ciudades, ordenadas según el día en que confirmaron el primer caso de COVID-19. La medida de fuerza captura las ciudades con la mayor vulnerabilidad en recibir nuevos casos. Asimismo, le sigue la interiorización del proceso de SARS-CoV-2 en el Estado de São Paulo, cuando los flujos de la red están por encima de determinados umbrales. Algunas ciudades en áreas rurales como Feira de Santana (Estado de Bahía), Ribeirão Preto (Estado de São Paulo), y Caruaru (Estado de Pernambuco) poseen una fuerza comparable a las capitales de los estados. Nuestro análisis ofrece herramientas adicionales para la compresión y apoyo en la toma de decisiones, respecto a las intervenciones de movilidad entre ciudades, en relación con el SARS-CoV-2 y otras epidemias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Travel , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Brazil , Brazil/epidemiology , Cities , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 26(3): 841-862, jul.-set. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039964

ABSTRACT

Resumen Partiendo de la hipótesis de que el laboratorio jugó un papel importante en la autonomía disciplinar de la pediatría, este artículo estudia la influencia del viaje científico en la apropiación de nuevas metodologías por parte de los pediatras y puericultores españoles del primer tercio del siglo XX. Para ello, se analizan las pensiones concedidas a tal efecto por la Junta para Ampliación de Estudios e Investigaciones Científicas. Se describe la geografía científica creada por el programa y se profundiza en el papel de los mentores - especialmente de Gustavo Pittaluga (1876-1956) - en este proceso. Además de un estudio prosopográfico del grupo, se presentan tres casos que demuestran la importancia del programa en el encuentro de la pediatría con la bacteriología, la anatomía patológica y la bioquímica.


Abstract Starting from the hypothesis that laboratories played an important role in pediatrics becoming an autonomous discipline, this article studies the influence of scientific travel on the appropriation of new methodologies by Spanish pediatricians and child-care experts in the first third of the twentieth century. To do so, it analyzes the travel awards granted by the Junta para Ampliación de Estudios e Investigaciones Científicas. It describes the scientific geography created by the program and takes an in-depth look at the role of mentors - especially Gustavo Pittaluga (1876-1956) - in this process. In addition to a prosopographical study of the group, it presents three cases that demonstrate the importance of the program in bringing pediatrics into contact with bacteriology, pathological anatomy and biochemistry.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pediatrics/history , Travel/history , Pathology , Spain , Awards and Prizes , Bacteriology/history , Biochemistry/history , Mentors/history , Biomedical Research/history , Laboratories/history
10.
Rev. Subj. (Impr.) ; 19(2): 1-12, maio-ago. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1092240

ABSTRACT

O envelhecimento já se apresenta como uma realidade nas sociedades contemporâneas com o rápido crescimento da população idosa, motivado pelo aumento da expectativa de vida e pela redução da fertilidade e mortalidade. A partir daí, surgem desafios para esse segmento etário, principalmente em países que não se prepararam para tal tendência social, como é o caso do Brasil. Nesse contexto, esta pesquisa propõe-se a compreender os significados da viagem a lazer para o idoso. Como método investigativo, a pesquisa desenha-se como exploratória e descritiva, com abordagem qualitativa, de enfoque etnográfico. Teve-se como lócus de investigação a cidade de São Luís, Maranhão, a partir de um projeto voltado para o idoso da Universidade Integrada da Terceira Idade - UNITI. Como técnicas e instrumentos de coleta, utilizaram-se entrevistas narrativas, observação participante e diário de campo. Como técnica de análise, utilizou-se a análise de conteúdo de Bardin, para que se pudesse elaborar categorias. A coleta de dados segmentou-se em três etapas: a expectativa da viagem, a viagem e a pós-viagem. As categorias de análise e a interpretação dos conteúdos nos indicam que a viagem é uma atividade que atribui sentido à vida do idoso e estimula processos de autonomia, independência, qualidade de vida e expectativa de vida saudável, contribuindo para um envelhecimento com qualidade.


Aging is already a reality in contemporary societies with the rapid growth of the elderly population, motivated by increased life expectancy and reduced fertility and mortality. From then on, challenges arise for this age segment, especially in countries that have not prepared for such a social trend, such as Brazil. In this context, this research aims to understand the meaning of leisure travel for the elderly. As an investigative method, the research is designed as exploratory and descriptive, with a qualitative approach, ethnographic approach. The research locus was the city of São Luís, Maranhão, from a project aimed at the elderly of the Integrated University of the Third Age - UNITI. As collection techniques and instruments, narrative interviews, participant observation, and field diary were used. As an analysis technique, Bardin's content analysis was used, so that categories could be elaborated. Data collection was divided into three stages: travel expectation, travel, and post-trip. The categories of analysis and interpretation of the contents indicate that travel is an activity that gives meaning to the life of the elderly and stimulates processes of autonomy, independence, quality of life, and healthy life expectancy, contributing to quality aging.


El envejecimiento ya es una realidad en las sociedades contemporáneas con el rápido crecimiento de la población de ancianos, motivado por el aumento de la expectativa de vida y por la disminución de la fertilidad y mortandad. A partir de ahí, surgen retos para este segmento de edad, principalmente en países que no se prepararon para tal tendencia social, como es el caso de Brasil. En este contexto, esta investigación propone comprender los significados del viaje de ocio para el anciano. Como método la investigación se dibuja como exploratoria y descriptiva, con enfoque cualitativo, etnográfico. El locus de investigación fue la ciudad de São Luis, Maranhão, a partir de un proyecto especialmente para el anciano de la Universidad Integrada de la Tercera Edad - UNITI. Como técnicas e instrumentos de colecta, se utilizó entrevistas narrativas, observación participante y diario de campo. Como técnica de análisis, se utilizo el análisis de contenido de Bardin, para que se pudiera elaborar categorías. La colecta de datos se dividió en tres etapas: la expectativa del viaje, el viaje y el post- viaje. Las categorías de análisis y la interpretación de los contenidos indican que el viaje es una actividad que atribuye sentido a la vida del anciano y estimula procesos de autonomía, independencia, calidad de vida y expectativa de vida saludable, contribuyendo para un envejecimiento con calidad.


Le vieillissement est déjà une réalité dans les sociétés contemporaines avec la croissance rapide de la population âgée, motivée par une augmentation d'espérance de vie et une réduction de fécondité et de mortalité. Dès lors, des défis se posent à ce groupe d'âge, en particulier aux pays qui ne sont pas préparés à cette tendance sociale, comme le Brésil. Dans ce contexte, cette recherche se propose de comprendre la signification des voyages de loisirs pour les personnes âgées. En tant que méthode d'investigation, la recherche est conçue comme exploratoire et descriptive, avec une approche qualitative et ethnographique. Le site de recherche a été la ville de São Luís, au l'état du Maranhão au Brésil. Il s'agit d'un projet destiné aux personnes âgées de l'Université Intégrée du Troisième Âge - UNITI. On a utilisé comme techniques et instruments de collecte des entretiens narratifs, de l'observation des participants et un journal de terrain. La technique d'analyse utilisée a été l'analyse du contenu de Bardin afin de pouvoir élaborer des catégories. La collecte des données a été divisée en trois étapes: les attentes des voyageurs, le voyage et l'après le voyage. Les catégories d'analyse et d'interprétation des contenus indiquent que les voyages sont un activité qui donne de sens à la vie des personnes âgées et stimule les processus d'autonomie, d'indépendance, de qualité de vie et d'espérance de vie en bonne santé. Cela contribue au vieillissement en qualité.


Subject(s)
Travel , Leisure Activities , Recreation , Aged , Tourism
11.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(8): 3107-3116, ago. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011861

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of marijuana use in the last month, its associated factors and its relationship with academic migration among undergraduate students of a federal university in southern Brazil. This was a cross-sectional study and data were collected through self-administered questionnaire. A systematic sampling process was conducted. To data analyses, it was used Poisson regression with robust adjust for variance. Overall, 1,423 students participated. The prevalence of marijuana use in the last month was 16.8% (95%CI 14.8% to 18.8%). Data showed that the greater the distance of the city prior to university entry, the higher the prevalence of marijuana use in the last month. Being male, having less age, being single, not having religious practices, having relatives and friends who have used any illicit drug, and having tobacco use in the last month were also risk factors. We understand that academic migration within the country tends to decrease students contact with family and increase vulnerability to peer influence, which may lead to a higher probability of marijuana use in this sample. The results highlights the importance to develop projects of illicit drug use prevention focused on this risky subgroup.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi medir a prevalência de uso de maconha no último mês, seus fatores associados e sua relação com a migração acadêmica entre estudantes de graduação de uma universidade federal do sul do Brasil. Este estudo teve delineamento transversal e os dados foram coletados através de questionário autoaplicável. O método de amostragem foi aleatório sistematizado. Na análise dos dados utilizou-se a regressão de Poisson com ajuste robusto da variância. Participaram do estudo 1.423 graduandos. A prevalência do uso de maconha no último mês foi de 16,8% (IC95% 14,8%-18,8%). Os dados mostraram que quanto maior a distância da cidade anterior ao ingresso na universidade, maior a prevalência de uso de maconha no último mês. Ser do sexo masculino, ter menos idade, estar solteiro, não ter prática religiosa, ter familiar e amigo que já usou alguma droga ilícita e ter usado tabaco no último mês também foram fatores de risco. Entendemos que a migração acadêmica no país tende a diminuir o contato dos alunos com a família e aumentar a vulnerabilidade à influência dos pares, o que pode levar a uma maior probabilidade de uso de maconha nesta amostra. Os resultados ressaltam a importância de desenvolver projetos de prevenção focados neste subgrupo de risco.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Students/statistics & numerical data , Travel , Universities , Marijuana Use/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Pilot Projects , Sex Factors , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Friends
12.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(3): 200-202, May-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019557

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Ciguatera poisoning is the most common form of non-bacterial food-poisoning from fish worldwide. The incidence among Brazilians returning from high-risk regions is unclear because it is not a mandatory reportable disease. We describe a previously healthy 53-year-old Brazilian woman developed Ciguatera fish poisoning while traveling to Havana, Cuba. Physicians and health care professionals should advise travelers to avoid eating ciguatoxic fish species and potentially toxic fish species in the Caribbean islands. Despite the prognosis for most cases is good with a short duration of self-limited symptoms, early recognition of the identifying clinical features of ciguatera can result in improved patient care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Middle Aged , Travel , Ciguatera Poisoning/diagnosis , West Indies , Brazil
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190014, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041595

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Malaria is the main cause of death by infection among travelers and is preventable through a combination of chemoprophylaxis and personal protective measures. METHODS: Travelers were interviewed by phone 28-90 days after returning, to assess adherence to pre-travel advice for malaria prevention. RESULTS: A total 57 travelers were included. Adherence to chemoprophylaxis was significantly higher among participants prescribed mefloquine (n=18; 75%) than doxycycline (n=14; 45%). Adherence to mosquito repellent and bed net use was 65% and 67%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to malaria prophylaxis was lower than expected. Further studies testing innovative approaches to motivate travelers' compliance are required.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Mefloquine/therapeutic use , Doxycycline/therapeutic use , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/statistics & numerical data , Malaria/prevention & control , Malaria/drug therapy , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Travel , Middle Aged
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180514, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041525

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Travel medicine is aimed at promoting health risk reduction. However, travelers' perception of risk is subjective and may influence implementation of recommendations. This study reports on travelers' perception of risk, pre-travel characteristics, and recommended interventions. METHODS: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. RESULTS: This study included 111 individuals. Most travelers (74%) perceived their risk as low. Significant differences in travel-related risk perception between practitioners and travelers were observed (Gwet's agreement coefficient [AC1] 0.23; standard error 0.10; 95% confidence interval 0.02-0.44). CONCLUSIONS: Future studies should investigate the relationship between travelers' perception of risk and implementation of recommendations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Travel/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Travel-Related Illness , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Assessment , Middle Aged
15.
Rev. latinoam. cienc. soc. niñez juv ; 16(2): 897-912, jul.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978579

ABSTRACT

Resumen (analítico): Desde un paradigma interpretativo, realizamos un estudio sobre las creencias y valores que orientan los viajes turísticos de los y las gentes jóvenes millenials para establecer su tipificación turística. Con este objetivo, adelantamos una investigación cualitativa con jóvenes estudiantes de la Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, en la región de Texcoco de la zona metropolitana de la ciudad de México. Sustentamos el planteamiento teórico en Schütz y Lalive, considerando el ethos como categoría base. Las técnicas que utilizamos fueron la entrevista -aplicada a 29 jóvenes de manera interactiva-, y el análisis del discurso, desagregado en las dimensiones temporal, social y espacial. Los hallazgos nos permitieron configurar dos ethos: el tradicional y el liberador, cuya diferenciación radica en los anclajes socioculturales que tiene la gente joven a partir de sus creencias y valores.


Abstract (analytical): Using an interpretative approach, this research involved the study of the beliefs, values and models that shape the experience of travelling for millennial young people in Mexico was carried out to classify what types of tourists are visiting Texcoco. A qualitative study was carried out by a group of young university students from the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, in the Texcoco region of the metropolitan area of Mexico City. The theoretical approach is based on the work of Schütz and Lalive, taking ethos as a base category. The methodological technique used was the interview, applying a discourse analysis to the meta-texts obtained in their temporal, social and spatial dimensions. The findings facilitated the configuration of two ethos: the traditional and the liberator, with the differentiation lying in the sociocultural anchors that young people have from their beliefs and values.


Resumo (analítico): Desde um paradigma interpretativo, um estudo foi realizado sobre as crenças e valores que orientam as viagens turísticas dos jovens millenials para estabelecer sua tipificação turística. Com esse objetivo, a pesquisa qualitativa foi realizada com jovens estudantes da Universidade Autônoma do Estado do México, na Texcoco, na região metropolitana da Cidade do México. A abordagem teórica é baseada em Schütz e Lalive, considerando o ethos como uma categoria de base. As técnicas utilizadas foram a entrevista, aplicada a 29 jovens de forma interativa e a análise do discurso, desagregada nas dimensões temporal, social e espacial. As descobertas permitem configurar dois ethos: o tradicional e o libertador, cuja diferenciação reside nas âncoras socioculturais que os jovens têm de suas crenças e valores.


Subject(s)
Social Values , Travel , Adolescent
17.
Licere (Online) ; 21(3): i:233-f:252, set.2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-965068

ABSTRACT

Este trabalho é resultado de uma pesquisa sobre a temática do lazer no âmbito da profissão do Guia de Turismo Regional do estado do Rio Grande do Norte, cujo objetivo foi identificar se esse profissional vivencia o lazer durante o exercício de sua profissão. Como abordagem metodológica optou-se pela pesquisa exploratório-descritiva e entrevistas semiestruturadas. O resultado da pesquisa permitiu inferir que há a percepção e a vivência do lazer na execução de sua atividade do Guia de Turismo, assim como, observou-se que as vivências de lazer desse profissional são de uma natureza diferente daquelas vivenciadas pelo seu cliente (turista), na medida em que este deve estar sempre atendo e apto a resolver possíveis imprevistos e problemas que possam surgir, assim como estar sempre à disposição do cliente para atender suas necessidades.


This work is the result of a research on the theme of leisure within the profession of the Guide of Regional Tourism of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, whose objective was to identify if this professional experience leisure during the exercise of his profession. As a methodological approach we opted for exploratory-descriptive research and semi-structured interviews. The result of the research allowed to infer that there is the perception and the experience of the leisure in the execution of its activity of the Guide of Tourism, as well as, it was observed that the leisure experiences of this professional are of a nature different from those experienced by its client (tourist ), since it must always be able to solve problems and problems that may arise, as well as being always available to the customer to meet their needs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rest , Social Change , Travel , Career Choice , Tourism , Interpersonal Relations , Leisure Activities
18.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(4): 413-419, ago. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978052

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Chikungunya (CHIK) se introduce en América el año 2013 diseminándose rápidamente. En 2014, se diagnosticó el primer caso importado en Chile. Objetivos: Identificar pacientes con sospecha clínica de CHIK. Describir sus características clínicas y laboratorio. Pacientes y Métodos: Se enrolaron pacientes con sospecha de CHIK. Se confirmó mediante reacción de polimerasa en cadena (RPC), IgM o IgG CHIKV. Se aplicó encuesta con preguntas demográficas, características del viaje, manifestaciones clínicas y laboratorio a pacientes y médicos tratantes. Resultados: Se enrolaron 21 pacientes, confirmando CHIK en 16 que se analizaron; 12 mujeres (75%), promedio edad 39 años (27-52). Exposición más frecuente fue el Caribe y Sudamérica. El síntoma inicial fue artralgia en 63%. Los síntomas más frecuentes fueron mialgias y malestar general (100%), fiebre y poliartralgia (94%). La mediana de duración de artralgias 90 días (3-262 días) y en 53% > 3 meses. Las articulaciones más comprometidas fueron tobillos, manos y muñecas, 87% con dolor invalidante. La artritis duró más en hombres que en mujeres (p < 0,001). El 38% de pacientes presentó linfopenia y un paciente trombocitopenia leve. Hubo dos hospitalizaciones por cefalea y pielonefritis aguda. Conclusiones: Chikungunya debe sospecharse en viajeros que regresan febriles y con poliartralgias intensas. Medidas de prevención deben ser indicadas a viajeros a zonas de riesgo.


Background: Chikungunya (CHIK) was introduced in The Americas in 2013, spreading rapidly. In 2014, the first imported case was diagnosed in Chile. Aim: To identify patients with clinical suspicion of CHIK and describe their clinical and laboratory characteristics. Patients and Methods: Patients with suspected CHIK were enrolled. All were confirmed by PCR, IgM or IgG CHIK. A structured survey was applied, which included demographic questions, travel characteristics, clinical manifestations, and laboratory results. Results: 21 patients were enrolled and CHIK was confirmed in 16, who were further analyzed; 12 were female (75%), average age 39 years (27-52). The Caribbean and South Americawere the most frequent sites of exposure. In 63%, the initial symptom was arthralgia. Most frequent symptoms were myalgias, malaise (both 100%), fever, and polyarthralgia (both 94%). The median duration of arthralgias was 90 days (3-262); in 53% arthralgias lasted ≥ 3 months. Main joints involved were ankles, hands, and wrists; 87% reported invalidating pain. Arthritis lasted longer in men than in women (p < 0.001). 38% of patients presented lymphopenia and one patient mild thrombocytopenia. Two patients required hospitalization, one with severe headaches, the other with acute pyelonephritis. Conclusions: Chikungunya should be suspected in returning travelers presenting with fever and severe polyarthralgia. Travelers to endemic areas should apply prevention measures to avoid mosquito bites.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Chikungunya Fever/diagnosis , Travel , Chikungunya virus , Chile/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Chikungunya Fever/prevention & control , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Latin America
19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(2): 125-132, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897061

ABSTRACT

Abstract Providing advice for travelers embarking on long-term trips poses a challenge in travel medicine. A long duration of risk exposure is associated with underuse of protective measures and poor adherence to chemoprophylaxis, increasing the chances of acquiring infections. Recently, in our clinic, we observed an increase in the number of travelers undertaking round-the-world trips. These individuals are typically aged around 32 years and quit their jobs to embark on one-to-two-year journeys. Their destinations include countries in two or more continents, invariably Southeast Asia and Indonesia, and mostly involve land travel and visiting rural areas. Such trips involve flexible plans, increasing the challenge, especially with regard to malaria prophylaxis. Advising round-the-world travelers is time-consuming because of the amount of information that must be provided to the traveler. Advisors must develop strategies to commit the traveler to his/her own health, and verify their learnings on disease-prevention measures. Contacting the advisor after the appointment or during the trip can be helpful to clarify unclear instructions or diagnosis made and prescriptions given abroad. Infectious diseases are among the most frequent problems affecting travelers, many of which are preventable by vaccines, medicines, and precautionary measures. The dissemination of counterfeit medicines, particularly antibiotics and antimalarial medicines, emphasizes the need for travelers to carry medicines that they may possibly need on their trip. Additional advice on altitude, scuba diving, and other possible risks may also be given. Considering the difficulties in advising this group, we present a review of the main recommendations on advising these travelers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Travel , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Travel Medicine/trends , Communicable Disease Control/trends , Counseling
20.
Salud colect ; 14(1): 109-119, mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-962405

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El objetivo de este trabajo fue investigar el origen de los casos importados de dengue en la ciudad de Araraquara, Brasil y describir las principales características epidemiológicas. El estudio abarcó todos los casos confirmados de dengue registrados en el Sistema de Información de Enfermedades de Notificación (SINAN) [Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação] de 1998-2013. Se consideraron como casos importados aquellos cuyo lugar de origen de infección se ubicara fuera de Araraquara. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de la distribución de los casos por género, edad y clasificación de casos importados y autóctonos. Se utilizó un sistema de información geográfica para mapear los flujos y estimar las distancias de los puntos de contagio. Se incluyeron 6.913 casos confirmados, de los cuales 419 fueron importados. En la mayoría de estos casos, el origen de infección se ubicó en el estado de San Pablo, además de otras regiones brasileñas. Los resultados indican la relevancia de los casos importados y diferencias en el perfil epidemiológico por edad y sexo. Las conclusiones indican la necesidad de aumentar la vigilancia epidemiológica y de salud ambiental en los puertos, aeropuertos, paradas de camiones y terminales de buses y trenes.


ABSTRACT The aim of this research was to investigate the origin of imported cases of dengue in the city of Araraquara, Brazil and to describe the disease's main epidemiological characteristics. The study encompassed all confirmed cases of dengue recorded in the Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN) [Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação] from 1998 to 2013. Cases whose origin of infection was likely located outside Araraquara were considered imported. The epidemiological study entailed a descriptive analysis of the data, regarding the distribution of cases by sex, age, and classification of imported and autochthonous cases. A geographic information system was used to map flows and estimate distances. There were 6,913 confirmed cases, 419 of which were imported. In most cases, the origin of infection was located in the state of São Paulo as well as other Brazilian regions. The results indicate the relevance of imported cases and differences in the epidemiological profile with respect to age and sex. Conclusions indicate the need to increase epidemiological and environmental health surveillance at ports, airports, truck stops, and bus and train terminals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Travel , Tropical Climate , Urban Health/statistics & numerical data , Dengue/transmission , Dengue/epidemiology , Epidemics , Brazil/epidemiology , Geographic Information Systems , Public Health Surveillance , Spatial Analysis
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