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1.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e00282020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143882

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: We aimed to study intraspecific variation in Triatoma costalimai, a potential vector of Chagas disease present in Brazil and Bolivia. METHODS: We analyzed phenotypic (connexivum color patterns, wing morphometrics) and genetic variation (16S mtDNA) of three Brazilian T. costalimai populations. We compared 16S sequences with those of putative Bolivian T. costalimai and its sister species, T. jatai. RESULTS: Brazilian populations had different connexivum color patterns and forewing shapes. A 16S mtDNA haplotype network showed a clear separation of Brazilian T. costalimai from both T. jatai and Bolivian T. costalimai. CONCLUSIONS: We report considerable variability in T. costalimai populations.


Subject(s)
Animals , Triatoma/genetics , Chagas Disease , Genetic Variation/genetics , Bolivia , Brazil , Insect Vectors/genetics
2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200189, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143863

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Knowledge of triatomine bloodmeal sources is essential for understanding vector-host interactions in Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycles. Expensive commercial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction kits are widely used for bloodmeal identification. This study assessed the performance of an inexpensive phenol-chloroform DNA extraction protocol for identification of triatomine bloodmeal sources, comparing it with a commercially available kit. METHODS: Both methods were used to obtain DNA from the intestinal contents of Triatoma brasiliensis blood-fed on either Columba sp., Mus musculus, or Gallus gallus. Subsequently, the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction, sequenced, and compared with GenBank data. RESULTS: Twelve (80%) samples extracted with the commercial kit and four (26.7%) with phenol-chloroform were pure (according to the A260/A280 ratio). Samples extracted with phenol-chloroform, except for Columba sp. samples, had higher DNA concentration than those extracted with the commercial kit. Samples extracted using phenol-chloroform and blood-fed on G. gallus had significantly higher DNA concentration than those blood-fed on Columba sp. (p-value <0.001) and M. musculus (p-value <0.001). The 215-base-pair 12S rRNA fragment was amplified from all samples and produced reliable sequences, enabling the identification of the bloodmeal source, most of which showed identity and coverage above 95%. The phenol-chloroform method was much less expensive than the commercial kit but took considerably more time to perform. CONCLUSIONS: Our data showed that both DNA extraction methods produced reliable sequences enabling identification of triatomine bloodmeal sources but differed greatly in cost and time required.


Subject(s)
Animals , Triatoma/genetics , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , DNA/genetics , Chloroform , Phenol , Mice
3.
Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 16(1): 78-83, abr. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-997771

ABSTRACT

En el presente estudio evaluamos indicadores entomológicos (índices de infección, colonización e infección natural) de ejemplares de Triatoma sordida capturados en el intra y peridomicilio de viviendas del Chaco Paraguayo en el período 2014 al 2016. El objetivo fue comparar con los hallazgos previamente reportados en el periodo 2010 al 2013 en la misma región. Además se ha incorporado la detección de fuente de alimentación como complemento para definir el riesgo de domiciliación de este vector secundario. Se aplicaron técnicas moleculares asociados a indicadores entomológicos y epidemiológicos a 220 ejemplares de T. sordida capturados en 67 viviendas de 24 localidades del Chaco. Se detectó infestación y colonización por T. sordida en el intradomicilio 13/67 (19%) y 5/13 (38%) y en el peridomicilio 54/67 (81%) y 43/54 (80%), respectivamente. Se detectó infección con T. cruzi en un 17,3% de los ejemplares analizados. La fuente de alimentación pudo detectarse en tan solo 13 de 220 ejemplares (6%), todos resultaron positivos para sangre de gallina y correspondían a captura en el peridomicilio. El índice de infestación intradomiciliar fue del 19%, superior al de años anteriores y similar a las zonas históricamente endémicas de la Región Occidental (18%-20%). El riesgo de transmisión intradomiciliar sigue siendo elevado porque en 3 de 5 viviendas con ninfas de T. sordida, los ejemplares estaban infectados con T. cruzi. Los indicadores entomológicos obtenidos en el presente estudio concuerdan con resultados previos de nuestro equipo, y confirman la capacidad vectorial de este triatomino secundario en la transmisión de la enfermedad de Chagas(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Triatoma , Trypanosoma cruzi , Diet , Insect Vectors , Paraguay , Triatoma/genetics , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Chickens/blood , Gene Amplification , Risk Factors , Chagas Disease/transmission , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(5): 629-637, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897012

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, is widely distributed in nature, circulating between triatomine bugs and sylvatic mammals, and has large genetic diversity. Both the vector species and the genetic lineages of T. cruzi present a varied geographical distribution. This study aimed to verify the influence of sympatry in the interaction of T. cruzi with triatomines. Methods: The behavior of the strains PR2256 (T. cruzi II) and AM14 (T. cruzi IV) was studied in Triatoma sordida (TS) and Rhodnius robustus (RR). Eleven fifth-stage nymphs were fed by artificial xenodiagnosis with 5.6 × 103 blood trypomastigotes/0.1mL of each T. cruzi strain. Every 20 days, their excreta were examined for up to 100 days, and every 30 days, the intestinal content was examined for up to 120 days, by parasitological (fresh examination and differential count with Giemsa-stained smears) and molecular (PCR) methods. Rates of infectivity, metacyclogenesis and mortality, and mean number of parasites per insect and of excreted parasites were determined. RESULTS: Sympatric groups RR+AM14 and TS+PR2256 showed higher values of the four parameters, except for mortality rate, which was higher (27.3%) in the TS+AM14 group. General infectivity was 72.7%, which was mainly proven by PCR, showing the following decreasing order: RR+AM14 (100%), TS+PR2256 (81.8%), RR+PR2256 (72.7%) and TS+AM14 (36.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Our working hypothesis was confirmed once higher infectivity and vector capacity (flagellate production and elimination of infective metacyclic forms) were recorded in the groups that contained sympatric T. cruzi lineages and triatomine species.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Arthropod Vectors/physiology , Rhodnius/physiology , Triatoma/physiology , Trypanosoma cruzi/physiology , Sympatry , Arthropod Vectors/genetics , Arthropod Vectors/pathogenicity , Rhodnius/genetics , Rhodnius/pathogenicity , Species Specificity , Time Factors , Triatoma/genetics , Triatoma/pathogenicity , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Trypanosoma cruzi/pathogenicity , Blood/parasitology , Brazil , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Chagas Disease/parasitology , Chagas Disease/transmission , Xenodiagnosis/methods , Host-Parasite Interactions/physiology , Intestines/parasitology , Mice
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(5): 322-329, May 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782046

ABSTRACT

Triatoma sordida is a species that transmits Trypanosoma cruzi to humans. In Brazil, T. sordida currently deserves special attention because of its wide distribution, tendency to invade domestic environments and vectorial competence. For the planning and execution of control protocols to be effective against Triatominae, they must consider its population structure. In this context, this study aimed to characterise the genetic variability of T. sordida populations collected in areas with persistent infestations from Minas Gerais, Brazil. Levels of genetic variation and population structure were determined in peridomestic T. sordida by sequencing a polymorphic region of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Low nucleotide and haplotype diversity were observed for all 14 sampled areas; π values ranged from 0.002-0.006. Most obtained haplotypes occurred at low frequencies, and some were exclusive to only one of the studied populations. Interpopulation genetic diversity analysis revealed strong genetic structuring. Furthermore, the genetic variability of Brazilian populations is small compared to that of Argentinean and Bolivian specimens. The possible factors related to the reduced genetic variability and strong genetic structuring obtained for studied populations are discussed in this paper.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cytochromes b/genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Genetic Variation/genetics , Insect Vectors/genetics , Triatoma/genetics , Brazil , Chagas Disease/transmission , Insect Vectors/classification , Triatoma/classification
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(1): 57-67, Jan.-Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-776528

ABSTRACT

Abstract: INTRODUCTION Natural and artificial ecotope infestation by the kissing bug triatomines and their colonization and infection by Trypanosoma cruzi , the Chagas disease agent, were evaluated in nine municipalities of the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. METHODS Following identification, triatomine intestinal contents were analyzed by direct microscopic examination, xenoculture, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for parasite detection. Trypanosoma cruzi isolates were genotyped using three different markers. RESULTS Of 842 triatomines captured, 65% were Triatoma brasiliensis , 17.8% Triatoma pseudomaculata , 12.5% Panstrongylus lutzi , and 4.7% Rhodnius nasutus . Triatoma brasiliensis and P. lutzi adults were found in the intradomicile. T. brasiliensis, T. pseudomaculata , and R. nasutus nymphs and adults were found in the peridomicile and wild environment. Intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary infestation indexes were 5.6% and 33.7%, respectively. In the peridomicile, chicken coops were the most infested ecotope. The T. cruzi triatomine infection rate was 30.2%, of which PCR detected 29%. P . lutzi (78.1%), T . brasiliensis (24.5%), and T . pseudomaculata (22.7%) were the most infected species. TcII and III genotypes were detected in T. brasiliensis and TcIII in P. lutzi . CONCLUSIONS T. brasiliensis was found in all environments and most ecotopes with high T. cruzi infection rates. High infection rates were also detected in T . pseudomaculata and P. lutzi , suggesting their role in the interchange between the wild and peridomestic transmission cycles. The combination of PCR, microscopic examination, and xenoculture contributed to improving T. cruzi infection evaluation in triatomine bugs. The TcII and TcIII genotypes were predominant in the study area.


Subject(s)
Animals , Panstrongylus/parasitology , Rhodnius/parasitology , Triatoma/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Panstrongylus/genetics , Rhodnius/genetics , Triatoma/genetics , Brazil , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Chagas Disease/transmission , Genotype , Insect Vectors/classification
8.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2014. x,65 p. ilus, tab, graf, mapas.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-774258

ABSTRACT

Triatoma sordida é um triatomíneo nativo de regiões de clima tipicamente seco e dealtas temperaturas. Apresenta ampla distribuição, ocorrendo no Brasil, Argentina,Paraguai e Bolívia. É um importante vetor secundário da doença de Chagas sendofrequentemente capturado em ecótopos artificiais próximos a habitações humanas,como galinheiros, currais e estábulos. Por ser uma espécie autóctone e apresentarpopulações silvestres e peridomésticas que podem ocasionalmente recolonizar áreaspreviamente tratadas, principalmente após a eliminação dos vetores de maiorimportância epidemiológica, estratégias tradicionais de controle vetorial, como o usode inseticidas residuais, podem ser ineficazes para eliminação de T. sordida. Por estasrazões, torna-se necessário o desenvolvimento de novas medidas de vigilância econtrole destinadas especificamente a este vetor. Estudos moleculares têmdemonstrado alta diversidade genética entre populações de T. sordida, sugerindo queesta espécie representa na verdade um complexo de espécies crípticas que podemapresentar diferenças quanto à relevância epidemiológica. Deste modo, para aelaboração e aplicação de melhores estratégias de controle contra esse vetor éfundamental que uma correta identificação taxonômica de T. sordida seja realizada,além da delimitação precisa de sua distribuição geográfica. Um estudo filogeográficode espécimes de T. sordida coletados em nove localidades no Brasil e uma naArgentina foi realizado utilizando um fragmento de 510 pb do gene mitocondrialcitocromo b (cyt b). As análises filogenéticas revelaram que as populações de T.sordida amostradas nesse estudo formam um grupo monofilético, filogeneticamentedistinto de populações de T. sordida da Bolívia (T. sordida grupos 1 e 2).Interessantemente, análise das amostras de Rochedo em Mato Grosso do Sul sugerema ocorrência de um processo recente de especiação...


Triatoma sordida is a triatomine species native to regions of typically dry weather andhigh temperatures. It presents a wide distribution, occurring in Brazil, Argentina,Paraguay and Bolivia. It is an important secondary vector for Chagas disease beingoften captured in artificial ecotopes close to human dwellings, such as chicken coops,corrals and stables. Because it is an autochthonous species with sylvatic andperidomestic populations that can occasionally recolonize previously treated areas(mainly after the elimination of vectors of greater epidemiological importance)traditional vector control strategies, such as the use of residual insecticides, may beineffective against T. sordida. For these reasons, the development of new measures ofsurveillance and control intended specifically for this vector are required. Molecularstudies have shown high genetic diversity among T. sordida populations, suggestingthat this species represents, actually, a cryptic species complex that may conceal unitswith differences in epidemiological relevance. Thereby, to elaborate better controlstrategies against this vector it is important to determine the taxonomic status of T.sordida populations and the limits of their geographic distribution. A phylogeographicstudy of T. sordida specimens collected from nine locations in Brazil and one inArgentina was carried out using a fragment of 510pb of the mitochondrial genecytochrome b (cyt b). The phylogenetic analyses revealed that the T. sordidapopulations sampled consist in a monophyletic group distinct of T. sordida populationsof Bolivia (T. sordida groups 1 and 2). Interestingly, the analysis of Mato Grosso do Sulsamples suggests the occurrence of a recent speciation process. Results of populationanalyses revealed low levels of genic flow among the studied populations (Fst valuesbetween 0.22 and 1.00)...


Subject(s)
Animals , Cytochromes , Grassland , Triatoma/genetics , Chagas Disease , Phylogeography
9.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(4): 395-398, jun. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-678294

ABSTRACT

Triatoma dimidiata is the most important Chagas disease insect vector in Central America as this species is primarily responsible for Trypanosoma cruzi transmission to humans, the protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease. T. dimidiata sensu lato is a genetically diverse assemblage of taxa and effective vector control requires a clear understanding of the geographic distribution and epidemiological importance of its taxa. The nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) is frequently used to infer the systematics of triatomines. However, oftentimes amplification and sequencing of ITS-2 fails, likely due to both the large polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product and polymerase slippage near the 5' end. To overcome these challenges we have designed new primers that amplify only the 3'-most 200 base pairs of ITS-2. This region distinguishes the ITS-2 group for 100% of known T. dimidiata haplotypes. Furthermore, we have developed a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) approach to determine the ITS-2 group, greatly reducing, but not eliminating, the number of amplified products that need to be sequenced. Although there are limitations with this new PCR-RFLP approach, its use will help with understanding the geographic distribution of T. dimidiata taxa and can facilitate other studies characterising the taxa, e.g. their ecology, evolution and epidemiological importance, thus improving vector control.


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/analysis , Insect Vectors/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal/analysis , Triatoma/genetics , Chagas Disease/transmission , Guatemala , Gene Amplification/genetics , Haplotypes , Insect Vectors/classification , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Triatoma/classification
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(1): 91-97, Feb. 2013. ilus, graf, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-666050

ABSTRACT

The presence of Triatoma infestans in habitats treated with insecticides constitutes a frequent problem in endemic areas. Basing our study on the hypothesis that descendants of a residual population should be more similar to the pre-treatment population than to any other, we compared the indications of two quantitative morphological approaches. This study seeks to find the origin of 247 T. infestans from three populations found in two chicken coops and a goat corral after treatment with insecticides. The results obtained by quantitative morphology suggest that the T. infestans found between three-34 months after the application of insecticides formed mixed populations with insects derived from residual foci and neighbouring habitats. Our analyses also showed the presence of a phenotype which does not resemble neither the pre-treatment phenotype nor the one from neighbouring populations, suggesting the presence of a particular post-treatment phenotype. The heads size showed some variations in males from different populations and remained unchanged in females, which reinforces the hypothesis of an intraspecific competition for food with priority for females. This article presents, for the first time, the combined analysis of geometric morphometry of heads and antennal phenotypes to identify the composition of reinfesting populations.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Insect Vectors/anatomy & histology , Triatoma/anatomy & histology , Argentina , Chickens , Chagas Disease/transmission , Goats , Housing, Animal , Insecticides , Insect Control/methods , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insect Vectors/genetics , Phenotype , Pyrazoles , Pyrethrins , Triatoma/drug effects , Triatoma/genetics
11.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 53(1): 19-24, Jan.-Feb. 2011. ilus, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-576962

ABSTRACT

The Triatominae (Hemiptera:Reduviidae) contains the principal and potential Chagas disease vectors present in Mexico, Central America and South America. Triatoma flavida and T. bruneri are Cuban species. These species are closely related according to morphology and were considered synonyms until 1981, when they were separated on the grounds of external characters of the body and the morphology of male genitalia. The present study seeks to analyze genetic polymorphism of T. flavida and T. bruneri populations using RAPD techniques, and to assess the genetic relationship between these species. Ten random primers were used to evaluate the genetic variability among species using RAPD-PCR. The genetic flow among them was calculated. The dendrogram based on calculated Jaccard distances showed two clearly distinguishable clusters which coincided with the studied species. Within each species, moderate genetic differentiation (Fst 0.05-0.15) and migration rates (N > 1) were found among populations, that reveal gene flow and genetic homogeneity. Between species, the Fst value showed a high genetic differentiation and the migration rate was insufficient to maintain genetic homogeneity, and confirmed the absence of gene flow between them. Our results confirm the genetic variability among T. flavida and T. bruneri species.


La subfamilia Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) agrupa a los vectores principales y potenciales de la Enfermedad de Chagas, presente en México, Centroamérica y Sudamérica, Triatoma flavida y T. bruneri son especies autóctonas cubanas. Estas especies están muy relacionadas desde el punto de vista morfológico y por ello fueron consideradas sinonimas hasta el 1981, cuando fueron separadas teniendo en cuenta los caracteres externos del cuerpo y la morfología de la genitalia del macho. El presente trabajo pretende confirmar el polimorfismo genético entre las poblaciones selváticas de T. flavida y domiciliadas de T. bruneri utilizando la técnica de RAPD-PCR. Un total de 10 cebadores al azar fueron usados para evaluar la variabilidad genética entre las especies usando la técnica de RAPD-PCR, calculándose el flujo genético entre las especies. El dendrograma obtenido, basado en la distancia genética de Jaccard, mostró dos grupos que coinciden con las especies estudiadas. Dentro de cada especie estudiada se encontró una moderada diferenciación genética (Fst 0.05-015) y tasas de migración (N > 1) que revelan flujo genético y homogeneidad genética. Entre las especies estudiadas los valores de Fst muestran una alta diferenciación genética y tasas de migración insuficientes para mantener homogeneidad genética y confirman la ausencia de flujo genético entre ellas. Estos resultados confirman la variabilidad genética entre ambas especies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Insect Vectors/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Triatoma/genetics , Chagas Disease/transmission , Insect Vectors/classification , Phylogeny , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Triatoma/classification
12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(supl.1): 60-64, July 2009. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-520898

ABSTRACT

The current persistence of Triatoma infestans, and therefore of Chagas disease transmission, in the Andean valleys of Bolivia and the Gran Chaco (precisely where wild populations of the vector are widespread), indicates a possible relationship between these two occurrences. This paper provides an overview of the current knowledge regarding wild T. infestans in Bolivia. The different morphs of the wild vector, their known distributions and some traits of their biology and ecology are presented. Particularly interesting is the considerable behavioural and chromatic plasticity that is displayed by wild T. infestans. According to the biogeographic region, different morphs of the vector occur in rupicolous habitats (common form and Mataral morph in Andean wild T. infestans) or arboreal ones ("dark morph" populations from the Chaco). The high genetic variability found at the microgeographical scale in Andean wild T. infestans favours the hypothesis that the Andes were the centre of origin and dispersal of T. infestans throughout South America. The relevant question regarding the origin of domestic populations is also addressed. Finally, current considerations of the epidemiological significance of wild T. infestans are discussed in the context of recent discoveries. Even if several observations support the epidemiological risk represented by wild T. infestans, the climatic and environmental conditions of their distribution areas would not favour the continued flow of triatomines between sylvatic refuges and domestic environments.


Subject(s)
Animals , Insect Vectors/physiology , Triatoma/physiology , Bolivia , Chagas Disease/transmission , Genetic Variation , Insect Vectors/genetics , Triatoma/genetics
13.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 61(1)ene.-abr. 2009. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-547078

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad de Chagas es una enfermedad transmitida por triatomineos. Triatoma flavida es una especie selvática autóctona de Cuba, que presumiblemente es atraída a las casas por la luz, de las especies encontradas en Cuba es la más abundante. Se investigó la variabilidad genética intrapoblacional e interpoblacional de ejemplares de T. flavida colectados en la región occidental de Cuba, utilizando la técnica del ADN polimórfico amplificado al azar, con la determinación ademßs de posibles relaciones genéticas entre las poblaciones. Un total de 10 cebadores al azar (OPA-1 al 10) fueron usados para evaluar la variabilidad genética dentro de una población y entre 9 poblaciones diferentes de T. flavida, mediante la técnica de ADN polimórfico amplificado al azar. Además, se evaluó la diversidad genética entre individuos salvajes y de la primera generación (F1) obtenidos en el laboratorio, así como entre los diferentes estadios de esta especie. No se detectaron diferencias en los patrones de amplificación del ADN entre los individuos silvestres y de la F1; al igual que entre los diferentes estadios de esta especie. Se encontró homogeneidad genética dentro de la población estudiada y una variabilidad genética baja entre las diferentes poblaciones de T. flavida. Se obtuvieron 2 grupos bien definidos según el análisis del ADN polimórfico amplificado al azar, mostrando concordancia con el origen geográfico, en las poblaciones capturadas en áreas del occidente y el oriente de Guanahacabibes, Pinar del Río. Entre estas poblaciones se encontró una pequeña diferenciación genética (Fst 0,030) y tasas de migración (N> 1) que revelan flujo genético y homogeneidad genética. Los resultados presentados en este estudio establecen una aproximación a la estructura genética de T. flavida. La homogeneidad genética encontrada entre los individuos silvestres de T. flavida constituye un aspecto importante para la implementación de las políticas de control de este vector.


Chagas disease is a Triatomineos-borne disease. Triatoma flavida is an indigenous Cuban species, presumably attracted to houses by light and it is the most abundant species in the country. The intrapopulatinal and interpopulational genetic variability of T. flavida collected in the western region, using the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique, thus determining possible genetic relationships among the populations. A total of ten random primers (OPA-1 at the 10) were used to evaluate the genetic variability in one population and among 9 populations of T. flavida using the RAPD technique. We also evaluate the genetic diversity among wild individuals and their first generation (F1) obtained in the laboratory as well as different stages of this species. Differences were not detected in the amplification patterns among the wild individuals and the F1. The same results were achieved among different life cycles of this species. Genetic homogeneity of the studied population and low genetic variability among different T. flavida populations were observed. Two well-defined groups were obtained according to random amplified polymorphic DNA data; they matched with the geographical origin in the populations captured in areas from east and west of Guanahacabibes, Pinar del Río. Among these populations, small genetic differentiation (Fst 0,030) was found as well as migration rates (N> 1), which reveals the gene flow and genetic homogeneity. The results of this study constitute an approach to the genetic structure of T. flavida. The genetic homogeneity between wild individuals of T. flavida represents an important item for the implementation of the vector control programs.


Subject(s)
Genetic Drift , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Triatoma/genetics
14.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2009. XVI,80 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-937931

ABSTRACT

O Programa de Controle da Doença de Chagas (PCDCh) teve suas atividades. iniciadas por volta da década de 1960 em âmbito nacional. Em 1991, com a. Iniciativa dos Países do Cone Sul, o PCDCh passou a priorizar as áreas de. ocorrência do Triatoma infestans, enquanto a vigilância epidemiológica era. implantada nas áreas já sob controle da transmissão vetorial. A utilização de. inseticidas piretróides nas atividades de controle permitiram ao PCDCh obter. resultados satisfatórios, como a interrupção da transmissão vetorial da doença de. Chagas em amplas áreas. A preocupação atual refere-se á possibilidade de. desenvolvimento de resistência aos inseticidas utilizados devido à existência de uma. região abrangendo o norte da Argentina e o sul da Bolívia onde T. infestans. apresenta-se resistente aos piretróides. Além disso, outras espécies de triatomíneos. já foram descritas com resistência inicial a estes inseticidas (ex. Rhodnius prolixus. na Venezuela e Triatoma sordida em Minas Gerais). Estas informações nos. impulsionaram a avaliar as populações remanescentes de T. infestans do Rio. Grande do Sul, comparando-as com amostras resistentes da Argentina e Bolívia, e. amostras de Triatoma brasiliensis do Ceará, através de ensaios com o piretróide. deltametrina.


Complementarmente, foi estudada a variabilidade genética das. populações através de sequências do gene mitocondrial cytB e microssatélites. Os. resultados dos ensaios com deltametrina demonstraram que todas as amostras de. T. infestans e T. brasiliensis do Brasil apresentaram-se suscetíveis ao inseticida. A. variabilidade genética para T. infestans foi baixa, com valores muito inferiores aos. observados em T. brasiliensis. Também foi verificado que a variabilidade genética. demonstrada através dos loci de microssatélites em T. infestans foi muito maior que a apresentada pelas sequências do gene cytB. Apesar disso, a análise das sequências deste gene se mostrou adequada para avaliar a diferenciação genética das populações. Em nosso trabalho foram observados valores de resistência menores dos já descritos para T. infestans do Rio Grande do Sul e da Bolívia. Estas diferenças indicam que o fenômeno de resistência é muito mais complexo do que se imaginava, e por isso merece maior atenção


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Animals , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Insecticides/adverse effects , Triatoma/genetics , Triatoma/growth & development
15.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2009. XVI,80 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-658790

ABSTRACT

O Programa de Controle da Doença de Chagas (PCDCh) teve suas atividades. iniciadas por volta da década de 1960 em âmbito nacional. Em 1991, com a. Iniciativa dos Países do Cone Sul, o PCDCh passou a priorizar as áreas de. ocorrência do Triatoma infestans, enquanto a vigilância epidemiológica era. implantada nas áreas já sob controle da transmissão vetorial. A utilização de. inseticidas piretróides nas atividades de controle permitiram ao PCDCh obter. resultados satisfatórios, como a interrupção da transmissão vetorial da doença de. Chagas em amplas áreas. A preocupação atual refere-se á possibilidade de. desenvolvimento de resistência aos inseticidas utilizados devido à existência de uma. região abrangendo o norte da Argentina e o sul da Bolívia onde T. infestans. apresenta-se resistente aos piretróides. Além disso, outras espécies de triatomíneos. já foram descritas com resistência inicial a estes inseticidas (ex. Rhodnius prolixus. na Venezuela e Triatoma sordida em Minas Gerais). Estas informações nos. impulsionaram a avaliar as populações remanescentes de T. infestans do Rio. Grande do Sul, comparando-as com amostras resistentes da Argentina e Bolívia, e. amostras de Triatoma brasiliensis do Ceará, através de ensaios com o piretróide. deltametrina.


Complementarmente, foi estudada a variabilidade genética das. populações através de sequências do gene mitocondrial cytB e microssatélites. Os. resultados dos ensaios com deltametrina demonstraram que todas as amostras de. T. infestans e T. brasiliensis do Brasil apresentaram-se suscetíveis ao inseticida. A. variabilidade genética para T. infestans foi baixa, com valores muito inferiores aos. observados em T. brasiliensis. Também foi verificado que a variabilidade genética. demonstrada através dos loci de microssatélites em T. infestans foi muito maior que a apresentada pelas sequências do gene cytB. Apesar disso, a análise das sequências deste gene se mostrou adequada para avaliar a diferenciação genética das populações. Em nosso trabalho foram observados valores de resistência menores dos já descritos para T. infestans do Rio Grande do Sul e da Bolívia. Estas diferenças indicam que o fenômeno de resistência é muito mais complexo do que se imaginava, e por isso merece maior atenção


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Insecticides/adverse effects , Triatoma/growth & development , Triatoma/genetics
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 103(1): 14-20, Feb. 2008. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-478871

ABSTRACT

Taxonomic markers (head structure morphometry, isoenzymes and randon amplified polymorphism of DNA - RAPD) were used to understand the population dynamics of Triatoma vitticeps, predominant triatomine species in Itanhomi district, using samples obtained from domestic, peridomiciliary and sylvatic habitats. Morphometric analysis revealed sexual dimorphism within the three samples although specimens could not be separated according to the habitat in which they were captured. Forty-two bands were analyzed from RAPD profiles generated using four primers. A dendrogram constructed from Dice's similarity coefficient values showed that migration of the insects between the habitats has occurred, without structuring of populations. Moreover, the dendrogram obtained from the genetic distance values showed an important gene flow between the sylvatic and domestic habitats. No polymorphism was found in the electrophoretic mobility of proteins for the ten enzymes studied. Our results revealed movement of triatomines between the three habitats, suggesting that the presence of T. vitticeps in houses should not be ignored. As invasion of houses by sylvatic insects is frequent and the natural infection indices of this species are among the highest known, epidemiological vigilance studies may reveal possible changes in T. vitticeps behaviour which could present future risks to public health.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Insect Vectors , Triatoma , Brazil , Chagas Disease/transmission , Genetics, Population , Head/anatomy & histology , Insect Vectors/anatomy & histology , Insect Vectors/classification , Insect Vectors/enzymology , Insect Vectors/genetics , Isoenzymes/analysis , Population Dynamics , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Sex Characteristics , Triatoma/anatomy & histology , Triatoma/classification , Triatoma/enzymology , Triatoma/genetics
17.
Genet. mol. res. (Online) ; 7(2): 326-335, 2008. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-641007

ABSTRACT

Triatomines are of great concern in public health because they are vectors of Chagas’ disease. This study presents an analysis of the species Triatoma melanosoma. The cytogenetic characteristics of triatomines include holocentric chromosomes, post-reductional meiosis in the sex chromosomes and nucleolar fragmentation in the meiotic cycle. The methodology utilized consisted of the techniques of lacto-acetic orcein staining and silver ion impregnation. The organs analyzed were adult testicles. The results enabled to classify the chromosomes by number and size, being three large, eight medium and one small heterochromosome. The three largest chromosomes and the heterochromosomes showed heteropyknotic chromatin in meiosis. The heterochromosomes in 8.05% of the cells in metaphase I behaved as pseudobivalents, contrasting with 91.95% of the cells with individualized sex chromosomes, confirming the achiasmatic nature of these chromosomes. However, the pseudobivalents occurred prominently in metaphase II (78.38%), this fact probably is related to the post-reductional nature of the sex chromosomes. The nucleolus in T. melanosoma persisted until the diplotene phase after which it began to fragment. Nucleolar corpuscles were observed in metaphases I and II and during anaphases I and II, these characteristics being related to the phenomenon of nucleolar persistence. In the initial spermatids, peripheral silver ion impregnation occurred, which could be analogous to the pre-nucleolar corpuscles observed after fragmentation. Thus, this study extends our knowledge of the characteristics of triatomines, in particular, heteropyknotic degree, kinetic activity, formation of sex chromosome achiasmatic pseudobivalency, confirmation of the fragmentation phenomenon, and post-meiotic nucleolar reactivation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cytogenetic Analysis/methods , Spermatogenesis/genetics , Triatoma/genetics , Chromosomes/genetics , Meiosis , Oxazines/chemistry , Sex Chromosomes , Testis/cytology , Testis/metabolism
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 102(4): 517-521, June 2007. mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-454807

ABSTRACT

Due to morphological similarities between Triatoma maculata and T. pseudomaculata, which comprise the "maculate complex", both had been regarded as the same species until 1964. Considering that the studies on triatomine hybridization permit hypotheses formulation concerning origin and divergence of species, enabling a quantitative analysis of taxonomic relationships between species, the present investigation was aimed at broadening further understanding related to the capacity of hybrid production by determining the degree of reproductive isolation between T. maculata and T. pseudomaculata. Our results have demonstrated that T. maculata and T. pseudomaculata showed no differences regarding reproduction patterns and they are able to cross, generating infertile hybrids.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Crosses, Genetic , Hybridization, Genetic/genetics , Triatoma/genetics , Infertility/genetics , Triatoma/classification
19.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 49(2): 127-130, Mar.-Apr. 2007. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-449802

ABSTRACT

The one-generational metric changes occurring in Triatoma flavida (Hemiptera: Triatominae) when carried from its wild habitat (caves) to laboratory, were examined using traditional morphometric techniques. As for other species of Triatoma, Rhodnius or Panstrongylus studied in similar conditions, a significant reduction of head, thorax and wing size was observed. Sexual dimorphism of the wings, while present in the wild sample, was not detected anymore in the laboratory individuals. Biological significance and epidemiological importance are discussed.


Fueron examinados los cambios morfométricos que ocurrieron en la primera generación de Triatoma flavida cuando fueron llevados desde su hábitat selvático (cuevas) al laboratorio, mediante el uso de técnicas morfométricas tradicionales. Se observó una reducción significativa del tamaño de la cabeza, tórax y alas, como ocurre en otras especies de Triatoma, Rhodnius o Panstrongylus estudiados en condiciones similares. El dimorfismo sexual de tamaño en las alas, aunque presente en los individuos selváticos, no se detectó en los de laboratorio. La significación biológica y la importancia epidemiológica son discutidas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Insect Vectors/anatomy & histology , Sex Characteristics , Triatoma/anatomy & histology , Environment , Insect Vectors/genetics , Laboratories , Triatoma/genetics
20.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 102(2): 221-223, Mar. 2007. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-447545

ABSTRACT

Triatoma dimidiata is an important vector of Chagas disease in Guatemala. To help understand the biology and population dynamics of the insect, we estimated the number of full sibling families living in one house. Forty one families with an average size of 2.17 individuals were detected using random amplification of polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction genetic markers. This result suggests high levels of migration of the vector, polyandry, and a significant capability for spreading the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Housing , Insect Vectors/classification , Triatoma/classification , Chagas Disease/transmission , Genetic Variation , Guatemala , Gene Frequency/genetics , Insect Vectors/genetics , Population Dynamics , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Triatoma/genetics
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