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Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190061, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013319


Abstract INTRODUCTION The ecoepidemiological situation in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil is characterized by frequent invasion and colonization of domiciliary units (DUs) by several triatomine species, with high rates of natural infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. METHODS: We evaluated the possibility of vector transmission of T. cruzi based on records of the occurrence of domiciled triatomines collected by the Secretariat of State for Public Health from 2005 to 2015. During this period, 67.7% (113/167) of municipalities conducted at least one active search and 110 recorded the presence of insects in DUs. These activities were more frequent in municipalities considered to have a high and medium-level risk of T. cruzi transmission. RESULTS Of 51,569 captured triatomines, the most common species were Triatoma brasiliensis (47.2%) and T. pseudomaculata (40.2%). Colonies of T. brasiliensis, T. pseudomaculata, T. petrocchiae, Panstrongylus lutzi, and Rhodnius nasutus were also recorded in the intradomicile and peridomicile. Natural infection by trypanosomatids was detected in 1,153 specimens; the highest rate was found in R. nasutus (3.5%), followed by T. brasiliensis (2.5%) and T. pseudomaculata (2.4%). There have been high levels of colonization over the years; however, not all infested DUs have been sprayed. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of intradomicile and peridomicile colonization by P. lutzi. These results demonstrate the risk of new cases of infection by T. cruzi and reinforce the need for continuous entomological surveillance in the State of Rio Grande do Norte.

Animals , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Triatominae/parasitology , Chagas Disease/transmission , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Brazil , Triatominae/classification , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Entomology , Spatial Analysis , Insect Vectors/classification
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190063, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041569


Abstract INTRODUCTION The present study reports the presence of triatomines in natural, peridomestic, and intradomicile environments in Itacoatiara municipality, state of Amazonas, a non-endemic region for Chagas disease. METHODS Active search was performed inside tree trunks, and palm trees, residences, and peridomiciles localized near the forest area. RESULTS: Twenty adults and ten triatomines nymphs were collected, fifteen of which were from natural forests, thirteen from intradomiciles, and two from peridomicile areas. CONCLUSIONS: The new records of adults and nymphs of triatomines in the intra- and peridomiciles suggest the adoption of prophylactic measures for vector surveillance in the study area.

Animals , Female , Triatominae/parasitology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Brazil , Forests , Triatominae/classification , Population Density , Chagas Disease/transmission , Animal Distribution , Housing , Insect Vectors/classification
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(4): 445-451, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957436


Abstract INTRODUCTION The National Park of Serra das Confusões (NPSC) is a protected area of natural landscape located in Southern Piauí, Brazil, and it is considered as one of the largest and most important protected areas in the Caatinga biome. METHODS The natural occurrences of trypanosomatids from hemocultures on small mammals and cultures from intestinal contents triatomines were detected through molecular diagnoses of blood samples, and phylogenetic relationship analysis of the isolates parasites using the trypanosome barcode (V7V8 SSUrDNA) were realized. RESULTS Only two Galea spixii (8.1%) and six Triatoma brasiliensis (17.6%) were positive by hemoculture, and the isolates parasites were cryopreserved. All the isolates obtained were positioned on the Trypanosoma cruzi DTU TcI branch. CONCLUSIONS Research focused on studying the wild animal fauna in preserved and underexplored environments has made it possible to elucidate indispensable components of different epidemiological chains of diseases with zoonotic potential.

Animals , Rodentia/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Disease Reservoirs/parasitology , Triatominae/parasitology , Animals, Wild/parasitology , Marsupialia/parasitology , Phylogeny , Rodentia/classification , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Brazil , Biodiversity , Parks, Recreational , Genotype , Marsupialia/classification
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(2): 190-197, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897070


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease is caused by the protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi. Its main reservoir is the domestic dog, especially in rural areas with favorable characteristics for vector establishment and proliferation. The aims of this study were to collect data, survey and map the fauna, and identify T. cruzi infection in triatomines, as well as to assess the presence of anti-T. cruzi antibodies in dogs in rural areas of the municipality of Mossoró, Brazil. METHODS: An active entomologic research was conducted to identify adult specimens through an external morphology dichotomous key. The analysis of natural infection by T. cruzi in the insects was performed by isolation in culture and polymerase chain reaction. The antibody testing for T. cruzi in dogs was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence assay. RESULTS: A total of 68 triatomines were captured, predominantly the Triatoma brasiliensis brasiliensis (Neiva 1911) species. The vector mapping displayed areas with greater risk for parasite transmission. Of the examined triatomines (51 specimens), 41.2% (21/51) were positive on polymerase chain reaction, and all were negative on culture. In the serum testing, 11% (25/218) of dogs were seropositive, but no association was found between the serologic results and the presence and infection by T. cruzi in triatomines. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the movement of T. cruzi in the studied area, by the presence of vectors and naturally infected domestic reservoirs. The mapping of the studied rural area demonstrates the risk of disease transmission.

Animals , Dogs , Trypanosoma cruzi/immunology , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Triatominae/parasitology , Chagas Disease/veterinary , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Rural Population , Brazil/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Dog Diseases/epidemiology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(6): 824-828, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041433


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease surveillance requires current knowledge on synanthropic triatomines. We analyzed the occurrence and Trypanosoma cruzi infection rates of triatomine bugs in central Brazil, during 2012-2014. METHODS: Triatomines were collected inside or around houses, and T. cruzi infection was determined by optical microscopy and conventional/quantitative polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Of the 2706 triatomines collected, Triatoma sordida was the most frequent species in Goiás State, whereas Panstrongylus megistus predominated in the Federal District. Parasites identified were T. cruzi, T. rangeli, and Blastocrithidia sp. CONCLUSIONS: P. megistus and T. sordida sustained the risk of T. cruzi transmission to humans in central Brazil.

Animals , Male , Female , Triatominae/parasitology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Brazil , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Triatominae/classification , Population Density , Insect Vectors/classification
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(10): 709-718, Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894839


BACKGROUND Chagas disease (CD), caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is a neglected human disease. It is endemic to the Americas and is estimated to have an economic impact, including lost productivity and disability, of 7 billion dollars per year on average. OBJECTIVES To assess vulnerability to vector-borne transmission of T. cruzi in domiciliary environments within an area undergoing domiciliary vector interruption of T. cruzi in Colombia. METHODS Multi-criteria decision analysis [preference ranking method for enrichment evaluation (PROMETHEE) and geometrical analysis for interactive assistance (GAIA) methods] and spatial statistics were performed on data from a socio-environmental questionnaire and an entomological survey. In the construction of multi-criteria descriptors, decision-making processes and indicators of five determinants of the CD vector pathway were summarily defined, including: (1) house indicator (HI); (2) triatominae indicator (TI); (3) host/reservoir indicator (Ho/RoI); (4) ecotope indicator (EI); and (5) socio-cultural indicator (S-CI). FINDINGS Determination of vulnerability to CD is mostly influenced by TI, with 44.96% of the total weight in the model, while the lowest contribution was from S-CI, with 7.15%. The five indicators comprise 17 indices, and include 78 of the original 104 priority criteria and variables. The PROMETHEE and GAIA methods proved very efficient for prioritisation and quantitative categorisation of socio-environmental determinants and for better determining which criteria should be considered for interrupting the man-T. cruzi-vector relationship in endemic areas of the Americas. Through the analysis of spatial autocorrelation it is clear that there is a spatial dependence in establishing categories of vulnerability, therefore, the effect of neighbors' setting (border areas) on local values should be incorporated into disease management for establishing programs of surveillance and control of CD via vector. CONCLUSIONS The study model proposed here is flexible and can be adapted to various eco-epidemiological profiles and is suitable for focusing anti-T. cruzi serological surveillance programs in vulnerable human populations.

Humans , Animals , Trypanosoma cruzi , Triatominae/parasitology , Chagas Disease/transmission , Spatial Analysis , Insect Vectors , Decision Support Techniques , Vulnerable Populations
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(5): 348-353, May 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841799


BACKGROUND Since the early 1990s, programs to control Chagas disease in South America have focused on eradicating domiciliary Triatoma infestans, the main vector. Seroprevalence studies of the chagasic infection are included as part of the vector control programs; they are essential to assess the impact of vector control measures and to monitor the prevention of vector transmission. OBJECTIVE To assess the interruption of domiciliary vector transmission of Chagas disease by T. infestans in Paraguay by evaluating the current state of transmission in rural areas. METHODS A survey of seroprevalence of Chagas disease was carried out in a representative sample group of Paraguayans aged one to five years living in rural areas of Paraguay in 2008. Blood samples collected on filter paper from 12,776 children were tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Children whose serology was positive or undetermined (n = 41) were recalled to donate a whole blood sample for retesting. Their homes were inspected for current triatomine infestation. Blood samples from their respective mothers were also collected and tested to check possible transmission of the disease by a congenital route. FINDINGS A seroprevalence rate of 0.24% for Trypanosoma cruzi infection was detected in children under five years of age among the country’s rural population. Our findings indicate that T. cruzi was transmitted to these children vertically. The total number of infected children, aged one to five years living in these departments, was estimated at 1,691 cases with an annual incidence of congenital transmission of 338 cases per year. MAIN CONCLUSION We determined the impact of vector control in the transmission of T. cruzi, following uninterrupted vector control measures employed since 1999 in contiguous T. infestans-endemic areas of Paraguay, and this allowed us to estimate the degree of risk of congenital transmission in the country.

Humans , Animals , Child , Triatominae/parasitology , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Chagas Disease/transmission , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Insect Vectors/classification , Paraguay/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Health Surveys
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(7): 936-944, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-764584


Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruziinfection, is a zoonosis of humans, wild and domestic mammals, including dogs. In Panama, the main T. cruzivector is Rhodnius pallescens, a triatomine bug whose main natural habitat is the royal palm, Attalea butyracea. In this paper, we present results from three T. cruziserological tests (immunochromatographic dipstick, indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA) performed in 51 dogs from 24 houses in Trinidad de Las Minas, western Panama. We found that nine dogs were seropositive (17.6% prevalence). Dogs were 1.6 times more likely to become T. cruziseropositive with each year of age and 11.6 times if royal palms where present in the peridomiciliary area of the dog’s household or its two nearest neighbours. Mouse-baited-adhesive traps were employed to evaluate 12 peridomestic royal palms. All palms were found infested with R. pallescenswith an average of 25.50 triatomines captured per palm. Of 35 adult bugs analysed, 88.6% showed protozoa flagellates in their intestinal contents. In addition, dogs were five times more likely to be infected by the presence of an additional domestic animal species in the dog’s peridomiciliary environment. Our results suggest that interventions focused on royal palms might reduce the exposure to T. cruzi infection.

Animals , Dogs , Female , Male , Chagas Disease/veterinary , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Insect Vectors/classification , Triatominae/classification , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/veterinary , Chromatography, Affinity/veterinary , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Prevalence , Panama/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Risk Factors , Rural Population , Triatominae/parasitology , Trypanosoma/genetics , Trypanosoma/immunology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(5): 532-538, Sept.-Oct. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-763331


ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION: The transmission cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Brazilian Pantanal region has been studied during the last decade. Although considerable knowledge is available regarding the mammalian hosts infected by T. cruzi in this wetland, no studies have investigated its vectors in this region. This study aimed to investigate the presence of sylvatic triatomine species in different habitats of the Brazilian Pantanal region and to correlate their presence with the occurrences of vertebrate hosts and T. cruzi infection.METHODS: The fieldwork involved passive search by using light traps and Noireau traps and active search by visual inspection. The light traps were placed at five selected points along forested areas for seven nights during each of the nine excursions. At each point where a light trap was set, eight Noireau traps were placed in palm trees and bromeliads.RESULTS: In all, 88 triatomine bugs were collected: two and one individuals from light traps and Noireau traps, respectively; three from peridomestic areas; 23 in coati nests; and 59 in thornbird nests. In this study, active search in microhabitats showed higher efficiency than passive search, since 95% of the triatomine bugs were caught in nests. Further, triatomine bugs were only found to be infected by T. cruzi in coati nests.CONCLUSIONS: Coati nests might act as a point of convergence and dispersion for triatomine bugs and mammal hosts infected by T. cruzi, thereby playing an important role in the sylvatic cycle of T. cruziin the Pantanal region.

Animals , Birds/parasitology , Ecosystem , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Procyonidae/parasitology , Triatominae/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Brazil , Chagas Disease/transmission , Disease Vectors/classification , Insect Vectors/classification , Nesting Behavior , Triatominae/classification
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(3): 387-393, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-745974


Trypanosoma cruzi is the aetiological agent of Chagas disease, which affects approximately eight million people in the Americas. This parasite exhibits genetic variability, with at least six discrete typing units broadly distributed in the American continent. T. cruzi I (TcI) shows remarkable genetic diversity; a genotype linked to human infections and a domestic cycle of transmission have recently been identified, hence, this strain was named TcIDom. The aim of this work was to describe the spatiotemporal distribution of TcI subpopulations across humans, insect vectors and mammalian reservoirs in Colombia by means of molecular typing targeting the spliced leader intergenic region of mini-exon gene. We analysed 101 TcI isolates and observed a distribution of sylvatic TcI in 70% and TcIDom in 30%. In humans, the ratio was sylvatic TcI in 60% and TcIDom in 40%. In mammal reservoirs, the distribution corresponded to sylvatic TcI in 96% and TcIDom in 4%. Among insect vectors, sylvatic TcI was observed in 48% and TcIDom in 52%. In conclusion, the circulation of TcIDom is emerging in Colombia and this genotype is still adapting to the domestic cycle of transmission. The epidemiological and clinical implications of these findings are discussed herein.

Animals , Humans , Disease Reservoirs/parasitology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Mammals/parasitology , Triatominae/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Colombia , Chagas Disease/parasitology , Genotype , Insect Vectors/classification , Mammals/classification , Retrospective Studies , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Triatominae/classification
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(6): 747-755, Nov-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732981


Introduction This work presents the initial findings of a molecular epidemiological investigation of Trypanosoma cruzi in triatomine insects in State of Mato Grosso do Sul. Methods A total of 511 triatomines from different regions of the state were examined. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted from the intestinal contents of the insects using phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol (25:24:1). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers 121/122 targeting DNA kinetoplast (kDNA) was then performed to identify T. cruzi, and positive samples were subjected to PCR using the primer pair TcSC5D-F/R followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) with the restriction enzymes SphI and HpaI (1 U/reaction), cloning and sequencing. Results One hundred samples were positive for T. cruzi, and three discrete typing units (DTUs) were identified (TcI, TcII, and TcBat). Triatoma sordida had the highest T. cruzi occurrence (83.3%), and DTUs were found in three samples: 58.3% of the samples were TcI, 33.3% were TcII and 8.3% were TcBat. There was a clear geographical distribution of the DTUs throughout the state, with TcI, TcII and TcBat located in the center, TcI located in the east, and TcII located in the west. Conclusions This study showed the occurrence ...

Animals , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Triatominae/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Brazil , Chagas Disease/transmission , Geography, Medical , Insect Vectors/classification , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Triatominae/classification , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(7): 856-862, 11/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728794


Chagas disease is maintained in nature through the interchange of three cycles: the wild, peridomestic and domestic cycles. The wild cycle, which is enzootic, has existed for millions of years maintained between triatomines and wild mammals. Human infection was only detected in mummies from 4,000-9,000 years ago, before the discovery of the disease by Carlos Chagas in 1909. With the beginning of deforestation in the Americas, two-three centuries ago for the expansion of agriculture and livestock rearing, wild mammals, which had been the food source for triatomines, were removed and new food sources started to appear in peridomestic areas: chicken coops, corrals and pigsties. Some accidental human cases could also have occurred prior to the triatomines in peridomestic areas. Thus, triatomines progressively penetrated households and formed the domestic cycle of Chagas disease. A new epidemiological, economic and social problem has been created through the globalisation of Chagas disease, due to legal and illegal migration of individuals infected by Trypanosoma cruzi or presenting Chagas disease in its varied clinical forms, from endemic countries in Latin America to non-endemic countries in North America, Europe, Asia and Oceania, particularly to the United States of America and Spain. The main objective of the present paper was to present a general view of the interchanges between the wild, peridomestic and domestic cycles of the disease, the development of T. cruzi among triatomine, their domiciliation and control initiatives, the characteristics of the disease in countries in the Americas and the problem of migration to non-endemic countries.

Animals , Humans , Chagas Disease , Endemic Diseases/prevention & control , Neglected Diseases/epidemiology , Triatominae/parasitology , Blood Transfusion/adverse effects , Conservation of Natural Resources , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Chagas Disease/transmission , Emigration and Immigration , Europe/epidemiology , Housing , Insect Control/methods , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Latin America/epidemiology , Neglected Diseases/prevention & control , Trypanosoma cruzi/parasitology
Cad. saúde pública ; 30(4): 746-756, abr. 2014. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-711201


Colombia tiene un registro de 11 casos de Chagas agudo y 80 casos por contaminación oral con Trypanosoma cruzi. Este trabajo analiza los hallazgos entomológicos y parasitológicos del brote de Aguachica, Cesar, en 2010. Un grupo interdisciplinario de profesionales de la salud y de universidades regionales realizó las pruebas de laboratorio a los pacientes y el estudio del foco de transmisión. Se detectaron 11 casos agudos de enfermedad de Chagas en una sola familia con vivienda sin triatominos domiciliados y, Rhodnius pallescens, Pantrongylus geniculatus, Eratyrus cuspidatus y dos Didelphis marsupialis infectados con T. cruzi en palmas de Attalea butyracea y Elaeis oleifera del área urbana de Aguachica. Se analiza la participación del R. pallescens y el rol de las palmas en el ciclo silvestre de T. cruzi y para la transmisión oral de la enfermedad de Chagas. Incursiones esporádicas de R. pallescens, P. geniculatus y E. cuspidatus silvestres desde palmas cercanas al domicilio humano pueden provocar brotes cada vez más frecuentes de Chagas oral.

Colombia recorded 11 cases of acute Chagas disease and 80 cases of oral contamination with Trypanosoma cruzi. The current study analyzes the entomological and parasitological characteristics of the outbreak in Aguachica, Cesar Department, in 2010. An interdisciplinary group of health professionals and regional university personnel conducted the laboratory tests in the patients and the investigation of the transmission focus. Eleven cases of acute Chagas diseases were detected in a single family in a dwelling with domiciliated triatomines and Rhodnius pallescens, Pantrongylus geniculatus, Eratyrus cuspidatus, and two Didelphis marsupialis opossums infected with T. cruzi in Attalea butyracea and Elaeis oleifera palm trees in the urban area of Aguachica. The study analyzes the role of R. pallescens and palm trees in the wild cycle of T. cruzi and in oral transmission of Chagas disease. Sporadic incursions by wild R. pallescens, P. geniculatus, and E. cuspidatus from the nearby palm trees into human dwellings may cause increasingly frequent outbreaks of oral Chagas disease.

A Colômbia tem registro de 11 surtos da doença de Chagas e 80 casos agudos por contaminação oral com Trypanosoma cruzi. Esta pesquisa analisa os achados entomológicos e parasitológicos do surto de Aguachica, Cesar, em 2010. Um grupo interdisciplinar de profissionais da saúde e de universidades regionais efetuou os testes laboratoriais nos pacientes e o estudo de foco de transmissão. Encontraram 11 casos agudos da doença de Chagas em uma única família com domicilio sem triatomíneos e Rhodnius pallescens, Pantrongylus geniculatus, Eratyrus cuspidatus e dois Didelphis marsupialis infectados com T. cruzi em palmeiras de Attalea butyracea e Elaeis oleifera da área urbana de Aguachica. Analisa-se a participação de R. pallescens e a função das palmeiras em o ciclo silvestre de T. cruzi e para a transmissão oral da doença de Chagas. Incursões esporádicas de R. pallescens, P. geniculatus e E. cuspidatus silvestres das palmeiras próximas ao domicilio humano podem provocar surtos cada vez mais frequentes de Chagas oral.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Animals , Child , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Chagas Disease/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Acute Disease , Arecaceae/parasitology , Colombia/epidemiology , Disease Reservoirs/parasitology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Opossums/parasitology , Triatominae/parasitology
Rev. saúde pública ; 48(2): 295-302, abr. 2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-711858


OBJECTIVE Collection of triatomines in domestic, peridomestic and sylvatic environments in states of Bahia and Rio Grande do Sul, Northeastern and Southern Brazil respectively, and isolation of Trypanosoma cruzi strains. METHODS First, the captured triatomines were identified using insect identification keys, then their intestinal content was examined by abdominal compression, and the samples containing trypanosomatid forms were inoculated in LIT medium and Swiss mice. RESULTS Six triatomine species were collected in cities in Bahia, namely Panstrongylus geniculatus (01), Triatoma melanocephala (11), T. lenti (94), T. pseudomaculata (02), T. sherlocki (26) and T. sordida (460), and two in cities in Rio Grande do Sul, namely T. circummaculata (11) and T. rubrovaria (115). Out of the specimens examined, T. cruzi was isolated from 28 triatomine divided into four different species: T. melanocephala (one), T. lenti (one), T. rubrovaria (16) and T. sordida (10). Their index of natural infection by T. cruzi was 6.4%. CONCLUSIONS The isolation of T. cruzi strains from triatomines found in domestic and peridomestic areas shows the potential risk of transmission of Chagas disease in the studied cities. The maintenance of those T. cruzi strains in laboratory is intended to promote studies that facilitate the understanding of the parasite-vector-host relationship. .

OBJETIVO Isolar cepas de Trypanosoma cruzi em triatomíneos capturados nos ambientes domiciliar, peridomiciliar e silvestre da Bahia e do Rio Grande do Sul. MÉTODOS Os triatomíneos capturados nos estados da Bahia e Rio Grande do Sul foram identificados por meio de chaves entomológicas. O conteúdo intestinal foi examinado por compressão abdominal e as amostras que continham formas de Trypanosomatidae foram inoculadas em meio de cultura Liver Infusion Tryptose e em camundongos Swiss. RESULTADOS Foram identificadas seis espécies de triatomíneos nas coletas realizadas em municípios do Estado da Bahia: Panstrongylus geniculatus (01), Triatoma melanocephala (11), T. lenti (94), T. pseudomaculata (02), T. sherlocki (26) e T. sordida (460), e duas no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul: T. circummaculata (11) e T. rubrovaria (115). Dos exemplares examinados, T. cruzi foi isolado de 28 triatomíneos pertencentes a quatro espécies: T. melanocephala (uma), T. lenti (uma), T. rubrovaria (16) e T. sordida (10). O índice de infecção natural de triatomíneos por T. cruzi foi de 6,4%. CONCLUSÕES O isolamento de cepas de T. cruzi em triatomíneos encontrados no intra e peridomicílio reflete o potencial risco de transmissão da doença de Chagas nos municípios estudados. .

Animals , Mice , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Triatominae/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Brazil/epidemiology , Chagas Disease/transmission , Trypanosoma cruzi/classification
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(3): 277-280, May-Jun/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-679513


Introduction The aim of the present study was to assess the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a method for detecting Trypanosoma cruzi infection in triatomines that had been previously determined by microscopic examination in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Methods In total, 515 specimens were collected. Material from the digestive tract of each triatomine was analyzed for the presence of T. cruzi by microscopic examination and PCR using the 121/122 primer set. Results Among the 515 specimens tested, 58 (11.3%) were positive by microscopy and 101 (19.61%) were positive by PCR and there was an association between the results of the techniques (χ2 = 53.354, p = 0.001). The main species of triatomine identified was T. sordida (95.5%) Conclusions The use of PCR in entomological surveillance may contribute to a better assessment of the occurrence of T. cruzi in triatomine populations. .

Animals , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Trypanosoma cruzi , Triatominae/parasitology , Brazil , Chagas Disease/transmission , DNA Primers/genetics , DNA, Protozoan/isolation & purification , Insect Vectors/classification , Triatominae/classification , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 45(2): 209-214, Mar.-Apr. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-625178


INTRODUCTION: The biological diversity of circulating Trypanosoma cruzi stocks in the Amazon region most likely plays an important role in the peculiar clinic-epidemiological features of Chagas disease in this area. METHODS: Seven stocks of T. cruzi were recently isolated in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, from humans, wild mammals, and triatomines. They belonged to the TcI and Z3 genotypes and were biologically characterized in Swiss mice. Parasitological and histopathological parameters were determined. RESULTS: Four stocks did not promote patent parasitemia in mice. Three stocks produced low parasitemia, long pre-patent periods, and a patent period of 1 day or oscillating parasitemia. Maximum parasitemia ranged from 1,400 to 2,800 trypomastigotes/0.1mL blood. Mice inoculated with the T. cruzi stocks studied showed low positivity during fresh blood examinations, ranging from 0% to 28.6%. In hemoculture, positivity ranged from 0% to 100%. Heart tissue parasitism was observed in mice inoculated with stocks AM49 and AM61. Stock AM49 triggered a moderate inflammatory process in heart tissue. A mild inflammatory process was observed in heart tissue for stocks AM28, AM38, AM61, and AM69. An inflammatory process was frequently observed in skeletal muscle. Examinations of brain tissue revealed inflammatory foci and gliosis in mice inoculated with stock AM49. CONCLUSIONS: Biological and histopathological characterization allowed us to demonstrate the low infectivity and virulence of T. cruzi stocks isolated from the State of Amazonas.

INTRODUÇÃO: A diversidade biológica dos estoques Trypanosoma cruzi circulantes na Região Amazônica pode desempenhar importante papel nas características clínico-epidemiológicas peculiares da doença de Chagas nesta área. MÉTODOS: Sete isolados de T. cruzi do Estado do Amazonas provenientes de humanos, mamíferos silvestres e triatomíneos, pertencentes aos genótipos TcI e Z3, foram biologicamente caracterizados em camundongos Swiss. Foram avaliados parâmetros parasitológicos e histopatológicos. RESULTADOS: Quatro isolados não produziram parasitemia patente em camundongos. Três isolados promoveram baixa parasitemia com longos períodos pré-patentes, período patente de um dia ou parasitemia oscilante. A parasitemia máxima variou de 1.400 a 2.800 tripomastigotas/0,1mL de sangue. Os camundongos inoculados com os isolados estudados mostraram baixa positividade no exame a fresco, variando de 0 a 28,6%. Para a hemocultura, a positividade variou de 0 a 100%. Parasitismo cardíaco foi observado em camundongos inoculados com os isolados AM49 e AM61. O isolado AM49 produziu inflamação moderada no tecido cardíaco. Processo inflamatório discreto foi observado no tecido cardíaco de camundongos inoculados com os isolados AM28, AM38, AM61 e AM69. Processo inflamatório em músculo esquelético foi muito frequente. O exame do tecido cerebral revelou focos inflamatórios e gliose em camundongos inoculados com o isolado AM49. CONCLUSÕES: A caracterização biológica e histopatológica demonstrou baixa infecciosidade e virulência dos estoques de T. cruzi isolados no Estado do Amazonas.

Animals , Humans , Male , Mice , Chagas Disease/parasitology , Parasitemia/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/pathogenicity , Brazil , Chagas Disease/pathology , Genotype , Marsupialia/parasitology , Triatominae/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(2): 145-154, Mar. 2012. ilus, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-617058


Chagas disease, in the Amazon Region as elsewhere, can be considered an enzootic disease of wild animals or an anthropozoonosis, an accidental disease of humans that is acquired when humans penetrate a wild ecosystem or when wild triatomines invade human dwellings attracted by light or searching for human blood. The risk of endemic Chagas disease in the Amazon Region is associated with the following phenomena: (i) extensive deforestation associated with the displacement of wild mammals, which are the normal sources of blood for triatomines, (ii) adaptation of wild triatomines to human dwellings due to the need for a new source of blood for feeding and (iii) uncontrolled migration of human populations and domestic animals that are already infected with Trypanosoma cruzi from areas endemic for Chagas disease to the Amazon Region. Several outbreaks of severe acute cases of Chagas disease, as well as chronic cases, have been described in the Amazon Region. Control measures targeted to avoiding endemic Chagas disease in the Amazon Region should be the following: improving health education in communities, training public health officials and communities for vector and Chagas disease surveillance and training local physicians to recognise and treat acute and chronic cases of Chagas diseases as soon as possible.

Animals , Humans , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Endemic Diseases/prevention & control , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi , Triatominae/parasitology , Animals, Domestic , Animals, Wild , Chronic Disease , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Chagas Disease/transmission , Endemic Diseases/statistics & numerical data , Latin America/epidemiology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 45(1): 60-65, Jan.-Feb. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-614910


INTRODUCTION: The present study shows a descriptive analysis of triatomine occurrence and its natural Trypanosoma infection rates in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, between 2006 and 2007. METHODS: Entomological data for the species, such as specimens captured in both intra and peridomiciles and natural infection index, were obtained via domiciliary capture in 147 municipalities from 11 Regional Managements of Health. The database was obtained from a sample of insects (100 percent infected and 20 percent non-infected) sent to the Central Laboratory of Pernambuco. RESULTS: A total of 18,029 triatomines were analyzed from 138 municipalities of the state. Triatoma pseudomaculata (35 percent), Triatoma brasiliensis (34 percent), and Panstrongylus lutzi (25 percent) were the most captured species. These species also showed a widespread geographical distribution in the state. Panstrongylus megistus, Triatoma petrocchiae, Triatoma melanocephala, Triatoma sordida, Rhodnius nasutus, Rhodnius neglectus, and Triatoma infestans showed more limited geographical distribution and lower relative abundance. The parasitological research showed that 8.8 percent of the triatomines were naturally infected with flagellates morphologically similar to Trypanosoma cruzi and 91.3 percent of them were captured inside houses in 113 municipalities. P. lutzi showed the highest rates of natural infection. CONCLUSIONS: After the control of T. infestans, synanthropic species, such as T. brasiliensis, T. pseudomaculata, and P. lutzi, maintain the risk of T. cruzi transmission to humans in the state of Pernambuco. These species are widely distributed, and infected specimens have been found inside houses. Thus, an enhanced surveillance and vector control of Chagas disease is recommended in Pernambuco.

INTRODUÇÃO: O presente estudo apresenta uma análise descritiva da ocorrência de triatomíneos e seus índices de infecção natural por Trypanosoma no Estado de Pernambuco, entre 2006 e 2007. MÉTODOS: Dados entomológicos para as espécies de triatomíneos, tais como espécimes capturados no intra e peridomicílio, e índice de infecção natural foram obtidos por meio da captura domiciliar em 147 municípios das 11 Gerências Regionais de Saúde. A pequisa foi baseada em uma amostra de insetos (100 por cento dos infectados e 20 por cento dos não infectados) enviados para o Laboratório Central de Pernambuco. RESULTADOS: No total, 18.029 triatomíneos foram analisados provenientes de 138 municípios. Triatoma pseudomaculata (35 por cento), Triatoma brasiliensis (34 por cento) e Panstrongylus lutzi (25 por cento) foram as espécies mais capturadas. Estas espécies também apresentaram ampla distribuição geográfica no estado. Panstrongylus megistus, Triatoma petrocchiae, Triatoma melanocephala, Triatoma sordida, Rhodnius nasutus, Rhodnius neglectus e Triatoma infestans apresentaram distribuição geográfica mais restrita e menores valores de abundância relativa. A pesquisa parasitológica mostrou que 8,8 por cento dos triatomíneos estavam infectados por flagelados morfologicamente similares a Trypanosoma cruzi e 91,3 por cento deles foram capturados no interior das habitações em 113 municípios. P. lutzi apresentou as maiores taxas de infecção natural. CONCLUSÕES: Após o controle do T. infestans, as espécies sinantrópicas T. brasiliensis, T. pseudomaculata e P. lutzi mantêm o risco de transmissão do T. cruzi ao homem no Estado de Pernambuco. Estas espécies são amplamente distribuídas e espécimes infectados foram encontrados dentro das casas. Assim, nossos resultados recomendam reforçar a vigilância e controle vetorial da doença de Chagas em Pernambuco.

Animals , Humans , Insect Vectors/classification , Triatominae/classification , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Brazil , Chagas Disease/transmission , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Population Density , Triatominae/parasitology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 45(1): 71-76, Jan.-Feb. 2012. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-614912


INTRODUCTION: Entomological surveillance of Chagas disease in the Federal District of Brazil (DF), has recorded the following triatomine species: Panstrongylus megistus, P. geniculatus, P. diasi, Rhodnius neglectus, Triatoma pseudomaculata, and T. sordida. We aimed to analyze the spatial and temporal occurrence of triatomine species collected in DF, and their indices of natural infection with trypanosomes. METHODS: The Health State Secretariat of DF recorded triatomines between 2002 and 2010 in 20 administrative regions. This retrospective analysis considered the number of adults and nymphs of each species collected and infected in both intradomicile and peridomicile. RESULTS: A total of 754 triatomines were collected in 252 reported domiciles. Panstrongylus megistus was the most frequent species (65 percent), followed by T. pseudomaculata (14 percent). Of the 309 examined insects, only 3 (1 percent) specimens of P. megistus were infected with flagellates morphologically similar to Trypanosoma cruzi. The spatial occurrence indicated a higher diversity of triatomines and frequency of T. sordida in rural areas. Moreover, there was a predominance of P. megistus in urban areas. The number of records of P. megistus in the rainy season was two times higher than that during the dry season. The largest number of triatomines was collected in November. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of P. megistus specimens infected with trypanosomes in domiciles, shows the potential risk of human infection in DF. Thus, it is essential to continue entomological surveillance, intensifying it in the rainy season and in regions of greater occurrence.

INTRODUÇÃO: As espécies de triatomíneos registradas pela vigilância entomológica da doença de Chagas no Distrito Federal (DF), Brasil, são Panstrongylus megistus, Panstrongylus geniculatus, Panstrongylus diasi, Rhodnius neglectus, Triatoma pseudomaculata e Triatoma sordida. Nosso objetivo foi analisar a ocorrência espacial e temporal das espécies de triatomíneos coletadas no DF, assim como seus índices de infecção natural por tripanosomatídeos. MÉTODOS: Os triatomíneos foram registrados pela Secretaria de Saúde do DF, entre 2002 e 2010, em 20 regiões administrativas. Esta análise retrospectiva considerou o número de adultos e ninfas coletados e infectados de cada espécie no intra e peridomicílio. RESULTADOS: Ao todo, foram coletados 754 triatomíneos em 252 unidades domiciliares notificadas. Panstrongylus megistus foi a espécie mais frequente (65 por cento), seguida de T. pseudomaculata (14 por cento). Dos 309 triatomíneos examinados, somente 3 (1 por cento) espécimes de P. megistus estavam infectados por flagelados morfologicamente similares a Trypanosoma cruzi. A ocorrência espacial mostrou que houve maior diversidade de triatomíneos e maior frequência de T. sordida em áreas rurais. Além disso, houve predominância de P. megistus nas áreas urbanas. O número de registros de P. megistus no período chuvoso foi duas vezes maior que no período seco, sendo o maior número de coletas observado no mês de novembro. CONCLUSÕES: A presença de espécimes de P. megistus infectados por tripanosomatídeos em domicílios evidencia o potencial risco de infecção humana no DF. Dessa forma, é fundamental que continue a vigilância entomológica, intensificando-a no período chuvoso e nas regiões onde há maior ocorrência.

Animals , Humans , Insect Vectors/classification , Triatominae/classification , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Brazil , Chagas Disease/transmission , Housing , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Population Density , Triatominae/parasitology
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2012. 159 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-942599


A doença de Chagas (DC) é uma enfermidade causada pelo protozoário Trypanosoma cruzi,cuja principal forma de transmissão é através das fezes de triatomíneos infectados. O Panstrongylus megistus atualmente é o principal vetor do Brasil, sendo responsável pela transmissão da DC na região da Serra do Cipó, MG, na década de 80. O P. megistus possui alta capacidade de reinfestação das casas, exigindo permanente vigilância contra a instalação de novos focos. O peridomicílio apresenta grande importância para a manutenção de triatomíneos e do T. cruzi circulando entre barbeiros e os animais que o frequentam. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o cenário ecoepidemiológico da doença de Chagas noentorno do Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó (ParnaCipó), visando subsidiar o programa de controle do P. megistus. O estudo se realizou nos municípios de Jaboticatubas e Santana do Riacho que, juntamente com Morro do Pilar e Itambé do Mato Dentro, integram o ParnaCipó. O perfil de infestação pelo P. megistus foi determinado através de captura de triatomíneos nas unidades domiciliares (setembro de 2007 a setembro de 2010) e capturas silvestres, que também incluiram avaliação da infecção em marsupiais e roedores.

Cães levados à campanha de vacinação antirrábica de Jaboticatubas foram examinados a fim de determinar sua importância epidemiológica na região. Exemplares de P. megistus capturados foram utilizados para análise populacional pela morfometria geométrica. Os exemplares provenientes de Jaboticatubas foram ainda analisados por RAPD para estudo populacional. As cepas isoladas dos reservatórios e vetores foram caracterizadas como pertencentes ao grupo T. cruzi I ou T. cruzi II utilizando‐se DNA satélite como alvo. A maioria dos exemplares P. megistus foi capturada em galinheiros; no intradomicílio o ecótopo preferencial foi o quarto. Foram realizadas pesquisas em 15 áreas silvestres com a captura de 105 mamíferos, com taxa de infecção de 6,7%; todas as cepas foram caracterizadas como T. cruzi I. A prevalência em cães foi de 2,4%. Em palmeiras foram capturados Rhodnius neglectus, P. megistus e Triatoma sordida. Dentre as cepas isoladas de triatomíneos domiciliados e silvestres, apenas uma cepa proveniente do ambiente domiciliar foi caracterizada como T. cruzi II, as demais, T. cruzi I. A morfometria diferenciou a população silvestre das domiciliares. A RAPD demonstrou grande variabilidade dos P. megistus de Jaboticatubas, entretanto, sem diferenciação populacional. Frente aos resultados, podemos concluir que a população rural dos dois municípios permanece sob o risco de infecção pelo T. cruzi, uma vez que são encontrados vetores e reservatórios infectados no ambiente artificial e natural, e podem infestar as habitações a partir de diversos focos, domiciliares ou silvestres.

Male , Female , Humans , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Disease Reservoirs/parasitology , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique/methods , Triatominae/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/pathogenicity