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Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 292-296, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971139


Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a common lymphoid hematological malignancy, the treatment and prognosis of NHL have always been the focus of clinical attention. Chemotherapy is the main first-line treatment, but there is still no effective treatment for patients with poor response to chemotherapy, recurrence or progression within a short period of time after treatment, and new and effective drugs need to be developed clinically. As the only clinically validated oral selective inhibitor of nuclear export (SINE), Selinexor has been approved for the treatment of relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and multiple myeloma, clinical attempts are being made to apply it to the treatment of other hematological malignancies.This article reviews the anti-tumor mechanism of Selinexor and the latest research progress in its application in NHL, and provides ideas for a more diverse, standardized and effective applications of Selinexor in NHL.

Humans , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin/drug therapy , Active Transport, Cell Nucleus , Hydrazines/pharmacology , Triazoles/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e191026, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384003


In this present study, 63 different 5-[4-methyl-2-(pyridin-3/4-yl)thiazole-5-yl]-4-substituted-3-substituted benzylthio-4H-1,2,4-triazole derivatives were synthesized, and evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against various human pathogenic microorganisms and antioxidant activity. The derivatives were synthesized in a multi-step synthesis procedure including triazole and thiazole ring closure reactions, respectively. The synthesized derivatives (A1-24; B1-39) were screened for their antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant activities compared to standard agents. The derivatives possessing 3-pyridyl moiety particularly exhibited relatively high antibacterial activity (MIC= < 3.09-500 µg/mL) against Gram-positive bacteria, and compounds possessing 4-pyridyl moiety showed remarkable antioxidant activity

Pyridines/analysis , Thiazoles/analysis , Triazoles/analysis , Methods , Antioxidants , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1710-1713, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922322


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effect of posaconazole in the primary prevention of invasive fungal disease (IFD) in the induction therapy of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).@*METHODS@#From August 2018 to November 2020, 144 pediatric patients with ALL treated in Department of Pediatrics, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University were selected, 88 cases received fluconazole as IFD prophylaxis (fluconazole prophylaxis group), 56 cases received posaconazole as IFD prophylaxis (posaconazole prophylaxis group). The incidence of IFD and treatment-related adverse reactions between the two groups were compared, and the safety of posaconazole was evaluated.@*RESULTS@#The incidence of IFD in the fluconazole prophylaxis group was 20.4% (18/88), and in the posaconazole prophylaxis group was 7.1% (4/56). The incidence of IFD between the two groups was statistically significant different(P=0.030). There was no serious adverse reactions in the two groups. The incidence of mild adverse reactions in the posaconazole prophylaxis group (23.2%) was lower than that in the fluconazole prophylaxis group(39.8%), and the difference was statistically significant (P=0.039). There were 12 cases died in the fluconazole prophylaxis group and 4 in the posaconazole prophylaxis group, while no significant difference in the overall survival rate between the two groups (P=0.281).@*CONCLUSION@#The effect of posaconazole in the primary prophylaxis of IFD is better and incidence of adverse reactions is lower than fluconazole. Posaconazole can be tolerated, and expected to become the first-line primary prophylaxis drug for IFD during the induction remission therapy of childhood ALL.

Child , Humans , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Induction Chemotherapy , Mycoses/drug therapy , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Primary Prevention , Triazoles
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 993-996, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920998


OBJECTIVE@#To observe the therapeutic effect of horizontal penetration needling combined with rizatriptan monobenzoate tablets, simple horizontal penetration needling and simple rizatriptan monobenzoate tablets for migraine without aura in acute stage.@*METHODS@#A total of 99 patients with migraine without aura in acute stage were randomized into an acupuncture plus medication group, an acupuncture group and a western medication group, 33 cases in each one. In the acupuncture group, horizontal penetration needling was applied once at Hanyan (GB 4) to Xuanli(GB 6), Shenting (GV 24) to Yintang (GV 29), Baihui (GV 20) to Qianding (GV 21), etc. for 2 h. In the western medication group, oral rizatriptan monobenzoate tablets for 10 mg were given once. In the acupuncture plus medication group, treatment of acupuncture combined with rizatriptan monobenzoate tablets were given, the application was the same as the acupuncture group and the western medication group. Before treatment and 0.5, 2, 24 h after treatment, the visual analogue scale (VAS) score was observed, the remission rate and the disappearance rate of migraine of 2, 24 h after treatment were compared in the 3 groups.@*RESULTS@#Compared before treatment, the VAS scores of each time point after treatment were decreased in the 3 groups (@*CONCLUSION@#Horizontal penetration needling combined with rizatriptan monobenzoate tablets have significant therapeutic effect on rapid analgesia and continuous analgesia for migraine without aura in acute stage, its effect is superior to simple horizontal penetration needling and simple rizatriptan monobenzoate tablets.

Humans , Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Migraine without Aura , Tablets , Treatment Outcome , Triazoles , Tryptamines
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190750, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249207


Abstract In this paper, the antibacterial activity of triazole functionalized cyclodextrin (CD.Click) and cyclodextrin-triazole-titanium based nanocomposite (CD.COM) was evaluated. The results indicated that CD.Click and CD.COM perform a wide range of antibacterial activity against both gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and gram negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria. The cytotoxic effect of CD.COM was investigated in vitro on cancerous cell lines (cervical cancer, breast carcinoma and sarcoma osteogenic) and fibroblast cells by MTT assay. The cell viability evaluation confirmed that the growth of cancerous cells is inhibited in a dose and time dependent way without any significant effect on the normal fibroblast cells.

Triazoles/chemical synthesis , beta-Cyclodextrins/chemical synthesis , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Antibiotics, Antineoplastic
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 40(4): 749-763, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142439


Resumen: Introducción. Trypanosoma cruzi, agente causal de la enfermedad de Chagas, exhibe una sustancial heterogeneidad fenotípica y genotípica que puede influir en las variaciones epidemiológicas y clínicas de la enfermedad, así como en la sensibilidad a los fármacos utilizados en el tratamiento. Objetivo. Evaluar la sensibilidad in vitro al benznidazol, el nifurtimox y el posaconazol de 40 cepas clonadas de T. cruzi de Paraguay, con distintos genotipos, huéspedes y localidades de origen. Materiales y métodos. En su estado epimastigote, los parásitos se incubaron en medio de cultivo LIT (Liver Infusion Tryptose) con diferentes concentraciones de cada fármaco en ensayos por triplicado. El grado de sensibilidad se estimó a partir de las concentraciones inhibitorias del 50 y el 90% (IC50 e IC90) y se obtuvieron los valores promedio y la desviación estándar de cada cepa y fármaco. La significación estadística entre grupos se determinó mediante análisis de varianzas con el test no paramétrico de Wilcoxon/Kruskal-Wallis y valores de p<0,05. Resultados. Se observó un amplio rango de respuesta a los fármacos. Se identificaron dos grupos de parásitos (A y B) con diferencias significativas en la sensibilidad al benznidazol (p<0,0001), y tres grupos (A, B, C) en cuanto a la sensibilidad al nifurtimox y el posaconazol (p<0,0001). Conclusiones. En general, las cepas fueron más sensibles al nifurtimox que al benznidazol y el posaconazol. Estas diferencias evidencian la heterogeneidad de las poblaciones de T. cruzi que circulan en Paraguay, lo que debe considerarse en el tratamiento y el seguimiento de las personas afectadas.

Abstract: Introduction: Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, shows substantial phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity, which can influence the epidemiological and clinical variations of the disease and the sensitivity to the drugs used in the treatment. Objective: To assess the in vitro susceptibility to benznidazole, nifurtimox, and posaconazole of 40 cloned strains of T. cruzi isolated in Paraguay belonging to different genotypes, hosts, and localities. Materials and methods: We incubated the parasites in their epimastigote stage in LIT culture medium with different concentrations of each drug in triplicate assays. The degree of susceptibility was estimated by the inhibitory concentrations of 50 and 90% (IC50 and IC90) to obtain the average values and the standard deviation for each strain and drug. We determined the statistical significance between groups by analysis of variances with the Wilcoxon/Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test and values of p<0.05. Results: A wide range of drug response was observed. Two groups of parasites (A and B) were identified as having significant differences in susceptibility to benznidazole (p<0.0001), and three groups (A, B, C) to nifurtimox and posaconazole (p<0.0001). Conclusions: Overall, the isolates were more susceptible to nifurtimox than benznidazole and posaconazole. Such differences highlight the heterogeneity of T. cruzi populations circulating in Paraguay, an aspect to consider in the treatment and follow up of patients.

Paraguay , Trypanosoma cruzi , Triazoles , Chagas Disease , Nifurtimox , Nitroimidazoles
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 760-770, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878294


Objective@#This research was performed to evaluate the effect of tebuconazole (TBZ) on reproductive organs of male rats and to assess the protective role of combined essential trace elements in alleviating the detrimental effect of TBZ on male reproductive function.@*Methods@#For this purpose, 48 rats were exposed to 100 mg/kg TBZ, TBZ supplemented with zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), copper (Cu), and iron (Fe), TBZ + (Se + Zn); TBZ + Cu; or TBZ + Fe. The experiment was conducted for 30 consecutive days.@*Results@#TBZ caused a significant perturbation in mineral levels and reduction in reproductive organs weights, plasma testosterone level, and testicular antioxidant enzyme activities. The TBZ-treated group also showed a significant increase in sperm abnormalities (count, motility, and viability percent), plasma follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone concentrations, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and severe DNA degradation in comparison with the controls. Histopathologically, TBZ caused testis impairments. Conversely, treatment with trace elements, in combination or alone, improved the reproductive organ weights, sperm characteristics, TBZ-induced toxicity, and histopathological modifications in testis.@*Conclusion@#TBZ exerts significant harmful effects on male reproductive system. The concurrent administration of trace elements reduces testis dysfunction, fertility, and toxicity induced by TBZ.

Animals , Male , Rats , Animal Feed/analysis , Antioxidants/metabolism , Diet , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Fungicides, Industrial/adverse effects , Minerals/metabolism , Mutagenicity Tests , Rats, Wistar , Spermatozoa/physiology , Testis/physiology , Trace Elements/metabolism , Triazoles/adverse effects
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190477, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057272


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Benznidazole (BZL) and Nifurtimox (NFX) are the pharmacological treatment for acute phase Chagas Disease (CD); however, therapy resistance and residual mortality development remain important unresolved issues. Posaconazole (POS) has shown a trypanocidal effect in vivo and in vitro. Thus, this study aimed at comparing the T. Cruzi parasitic load-reducing effect of the combination of BZL+POS against that of monotherapy with either, during acute phase CD, in an experimental murine model. METHODS Nineteen Wistar rats were randomly allocated to four groups and inoculated with the trypomastigotes of T. cruzi strain´s JChVcl1. The rats were administered anti-parasites from day 20-29 post-infection. The Pizzi and Brener method was used for parasitemia measurement. Longitudinal data analysis for the continuous outcome of repeated measures was performed using parasitemia as the outcome measured at days 20, 22, 24, 27, and 29 post-infection. RESULTS All four groups had similar parasitic loads (p=0.143) prior to therapy initiation. Among the three treatment groups, the BZL+POS (n=5) group showed the highest mean parasitic load reduction (p=0.000) compared with the control group. Likewise, the BZL+POS group rats showed an earlier therapeutic effect and were the only ones without parasites in their myocardial samples. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of acute phase CD with BZL+POS was more efficacious at parasitemia and myocardial injury reduction, compared with monotherapy with either.

Animals , Rats , Triazoles/administration & dosage , Trypanocidal Agents/administration & dosage , Chagas Disease/drug therapy , Parasitemia/drug therapy , Nitroimidazoles/administration & dosage , Acute Disease , DNA, Protozoan , Rats, Wistar , Disease Progression , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Therapy, Combination , Parasite Load
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 199-209, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773417


OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the synergy of the Burkholderia signaling molecule cis-2-dodecenoic acid (BDSF) and fluconazole (FLU) or itraconazole (ITRA) against two azole-resistant C. albicans clinical isolates in vitro and in vivo.@*METHODS@#Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antibiotics against two azole-resistant C. albicans were measured by the checkerboard technique, E-test, and time-kill assay. In vivo antifungal synergy testing was performed on mice. Analysis of the relative gene expression levels of the strains was conducted by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR).@*RESULTS@#BDSF showed highly synergistic effects in combination with FLU or ITRA with a fractional inhibitory concentration index of ⪕ 0.08. BDSF was not cytotoxic to normal human foreskin fibroblast cells at concentrations of up to 300 μg/mL. The qRT-PCR results showed that the combination of BDSF and FLU/ITRA significantly inhibits the expression of the efflux pump genes CDR1 and MDR1 via suppression of the transcription factors TAC1 and MRR1, respectively, when compared with FLU or ITRA alone. No dramatic difference in the mRNA expression levels of ERG1, ERG11, and UPC2 was found, which indicates that the drug combinations do not significantly interfere with UPC2-mediated ergosterol levels. In vivo experiments revealed that combination therapy can be an effective therapeutic approach to treat candidiasis.@*CONCLUSION@#The synergistic effects of BDSF and azoles may be useful as an alternative approach to control azole-resistant Candida infections.

Humans , Antifungal Agents , Pharmacology , Burkholderia cenocepacia , Chemistry , Candida albicans , Physiology , Candidiasis , Drug Therapy , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated , Fluconazole , Pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Triazoles , Metabolism
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2213-2218, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773106


The aim of the study is to explore exogenous S3307 on alleviating low-temperature stress of coix seedlings. The coix cultivar, "No 5 Yiliao", was selected as the plant material, through nutrient solution cultivating in greenhouse, the effect of different S3307 concentrations(1, 3, 5, 7, 9 mg·L~(-1)) on coix seedlings traits and physiological indicators were explored under low-temperature stress. The results showed, under low-temperature 5 mg·L~(-1) S3307 could significantly increase coix seedlings stem diameter and biomass, which stem diameter and above-ground biomass, low-ground biomass separately were enhanced 11.90%, 13.59%, 10.99%. Leaf width and lateral root number separately were enhanced 7.63%, 37.52%. Meanwhile, addition of 5 mg·L~(-1) S3307 could significantly reduce relative conductivity and MDA, separately being reduced 23.33%, 17.42% compared to CKL. S3307 could also significantly increase soluble sugar and proline content, which leaf soluble sugar and proline content separately were enhanced 17.16%, 11.87%, which root soluble sugar and proline content separately were enhanced 20.00%, 33.42%. Additionally, S3307 could alleviate the cells destroy in ultra-structure level by improving cell membrane structure and chloroplast capsule layer structure. 5 mg·L~(-1) S3307 could enhance the low temperature tolerance of coix seedlings by regulating the growth and physiological indexes, and thus alleviate the damage caused by low-temperature to the coix seedlings.

Coix , Cold Temperature , Seedlings , Stress, Physiological , Triazoles , Pharmacology
São Paulo; s.n; 2019. 126 p. ilus, tab, graf, mapas.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SESSP-CTDPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-TESESESSP, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1145917


A utilização de fungicidas azólicos pode estar ligada a resistência aos fármacos utilizados no tratamento da aspergilose invasiva. Em cepas de Aspergillus fumigatus, foram descritas mutações no gene cyp51A resultando em menor afinidade azol-alvo e resistência antifúngica. Mecanismos de resistência aos triazóis já foram descritos em isolados ambientais de áreas agrícolas e em pacientes sob tratamento. A similaridade dos compostos azólicos, clínicos e agrícolas, e o mesmo mecanismo de ação na célula fúngica podem contribuir para a seleção de cepas com resistência cruzada no hospedeiro e no meio ambiente. O gene cyp51A codifica a enzima-chave na produção de ergosterol da membrana celular-14-demetilase, alvo de todos os compostos azólicos. Mutações no gene cyp51A resultam na produção de enzima com alterações em sua conformação tridimensional levando à menor afinidade azol-alvo e resistência antifúngica. A indução de tais mutações foi atribuída à exposição extensiva das cepas ambientais a agrotóxicos fungicidas triazólicos. Estudos em diversos países sugerem que esses produtos exercem pressão seletiva em fenótipos resistentes de A. fumigatus O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a hipótese da origem ambiental de mecanismos de resistência a triazólicos, em 2 isolados clínicos e 2 ambientais de A. fumigatus, modulada pela exposição a um fungicida agrícola. Modelo de horta experimental, parte orgânica e parte exposta a agrotóxico triazólico, foi construída e inoculada com os 4 isolados, todos selvagens não mutantes de A. fumigatus. Ao longo de um ano, 11 pulverizações e recuperações mensais dos 4 isolados a partir de amostras de solo permitiram monitorar possível emergência de resistência aos triazólicos: difenoconazol, metconazol, tebuconazol, itraconazol, voriconazol e posaconazol. A busca da resistência foi feita pela determinação de MIC, tanto de fungicidas quanto de fármacos triazólicos e pesquisa de mutações gênicas no gene cyp51A e sua região promotora. O gene cyp51A sequenciado para um desses isolados não apresentou mutações. Conclui-se que a pulverização de difenoconazol não resultou em alteração de MIC de triazóis nas cepas expostas indicando que não houve seleção de fenótipos resistentes. Outra possibilidade é que, de fato, o tempo de exposição, ou volume/concentração de fungicida não foram suficientes para pressão seletiva. (AU)

Clinical resistance to triazoles, drugs used for invasive aspergillosis, is a growing problem and its relationship with environmental issues is under discussion. The triazolics are also used to control phytopathogenic fungi and the same problem of increasing resistance is present. The relationship between resistance in clinical and environmental strains is based on the same mode of action of the compounds, so that exposure to one triazole compound may select another resistant strain, characterizing "crossresistance". In environmental strains of the main etiological agent of aspergillosis-Aspergillus fumigatus, classified as azole resistant, mutations associated with the cyp51A gene have been described. This gene encodes the key enzyme in the production of cell membrane ergosterol-14-demethylase, target of all azole compounds. Mutations in the cyp51A gene result in enzyme production with changes in its three-dimensional conformation leading to lower target azole affinity and antifungal resistance. The induction of such mutations was attributed to the extensive exposure of environmental strains to triazole fungicide pesticides. Studies in several countries suggest that these products exert selective pressure on resistant A. fumigatus phenotypes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis of the environmental origin of triazole resistance mechanisms in 2 clinical isolates and 2 environmental isolates of A. fumigatus, modulated by exposure to an agricultural fungicide. Experimental garden model, organic part and part exposed to triazolic pesticide, was built and inoculated with the 4 isolates, all non-mutant wild A. fumigatus. Over a year, 11 sprayings and monthly recoveries of the 4 isolates from soil samples allowed monitoring of possible emergence of resistance to triazoles: difenoconazole, metconazole, tebuconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole. The search for resistance was made by the search for gene mutations that, so far, has not been found. MIC determination of both fungicides and triazole drugs against isolates, exposed and recovered by the 5th month. The cyp51A gene sequenced for one of these isolates showed no mutations. By microsatellite technique, the same isolate was not similar to the seeded isolate. It was concluded that difenoconazole spraying did not result in alteration of triazole MIC in the exposed strains indicating that there was no selection of resistant phenotypes. On the other hand, it was not possible to correlate the inoculated strain with the recovered strain and evaluated for MIC. Therefore, other recovered strains should be compared to inoculated strains for more grounded conclusion. Another possibility is that, in fact, exposure time, or fungicide volume / concentration was not sufficient for selective pressure. (AU)

Aspergillus fumigatus , Triazoles , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Cytochrome P450 Family 51 , Fungicides, Industrial
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 34: 76-82, july. 2018. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047373


Background: Jatropha curcas L., as an important strategic biofuel resource with considerable economic potential, has attracted worldwide attention. However, J. curcas has yet to be domesticated. Plant height, an important agronomic trait of J. curcas, has not been sufficiently improved, and the genetic regulation of this trait in J. curcas is not fully understood. Zinc finger proteins (ZFPs), a class of transcription factors, have previously been shown to play critical roles in regulating multiple aspects of plant growth and development and may accordingly be implicated in the genetic regulation of plant height in J. curcas. Results: In this study, we cloned JcZFP8, a C2H2 ZFP gene in J. curcas. We found that the JcZFP8 protein was localized in the nucleus and contained a conserved QALGGH motif in its C2H2 structure. Furthermore, ectopic expression of JcZFP8 under the control of the 35S promoter in transgenic tobacco resulted in dwarf plants with malformed leaves. However, when JcZFP8 was knocked out, the transgenic tobacco did not show the dwarf phenotype. After treatment with the gibberellic acid (GA) biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol (PAC), the dwarf phenotype was more severe than plants that did not receive the PAC treatment, whereas application of exogenous gibberellin3 (GA3) reduced the dwarf phenotype in transgenic plants. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that JcZFP8 may play a role in J. curcas plant phenotype through GA-related pathways. Our findings may help us to understand the genetic regulation of plant development in J. curcas and to accelerate breeding progress through engineering of the GA metabolic pathway in this plant. How to cite: Shi X,Wu Y, Dai T, et al. JcZFP8, a C2H2 zinc-finger protein gene from Jatropha curcas, influences plant development in transgenic tobacco.

Nicotiana/genetics , Jatropha , Plant Development , CYS2-HIS2 Zinc Fingers/genetics , Plant Growth Regulators/genetics , Transcription Factors , Triazoles , Plants, Genetically Modified/growth & development , Cloning, Molecular , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Gibberellins
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(3): 451-454, jun. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-950025


La información sobre el uso de posaconazol en niños es escasa. Se realizó este estudio descriptivo retrospectivo entre agosto de 2010 y marzo de 2017 para evaluar las características clínicas, microbiológicas y la evolución de los pacientes tratados con posaconazol. Se incluyeron 16 niños. Mediana de edad: 161 meses (rango intercuartílico -RIC- 69-173 m). Todos tenían enfermedad subyacente y presentaban infección fúngica invasiva probada. Los aislamientos más frecuentes fueron Mucor spp. y Aspergillus spp. La dosis media de posaconazol fue 600 mg/día (400-800 mg/día) y la mediana de duración del tratamiento, 223 días (RIC 48-632). Diez pacientes presentaron efectos adversos, pero solo uno requirió suspensión del antifúngico debido a alteraciones hidroelectrolíticas.

There is limited information on the use of posaconazole in children. This retrospective and descriptive study was conducted to evaluate the clinical, microbiological characteristics and evolution of patients treated with posaconazole between August 2010 and March 2017. We included 16 children. Median age: 161 months (interquartile range -IQR-69-173m). All had underlying disease and a proven invasive fungal infection. The most frequent isolated were Mucor spp. and Aspergillus spp. The mean posaconazole dose was 600 mg /day (400-800 mg/day) and the median duration of treatment was 223 days (IQR 48-632). Ten patients had adverse effects, but only one required suspension of the antifungal treatment due to hydroelectrolytic disorders.

Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Triazoles/therapeutic use , Invasive Fungal Infections/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Triazoles/administration & dosage , Triazoles/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Tertiary Care Centers , Invasive Fungal Infections/microbiology , Hospitals, Pediatric , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/adverse effects
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(3): 603-614, mai/jun. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-966910


The application of fungicides in different operating conditions is a usual practice for maintaining the productive potential in sugarcane varieties considered susceptible to orange rust, however, the physiological effects provided by the different application methods are unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the photosynthetic responses (gas exchange and chlorophyll content) in the SP81-3250 sugarcane variety, in function of different operational conditions of the aerial and ground application of fungicide in the orange rust control. Two application of fungicides of the chemical groups Strobilurins and Triazoles were carried out in the experimental units in different treatments. In the aerial applications, two application rates (30 and 40 L ha-1) and three nozzle orientations (0º, 90º and 135º) and in the ground application was used 200 L ha-1 and flat fan spray nozzles with air induction (AI11004-VS). Gas exchange evaluations were performed with an IRGA and amount of chlorophyll a and b with a chlorophyll meter. Data were analyzed using Student's t-test for independent samples, at 0.05 significance. The aerial application provided better photosynthetic responses and chlorophyll a and b contents in leaf limb compared to ground application. Significant differences were detected in gas exchange and chlorophyll content between application rates and angulation of the spray nozzles in the boom. Fungicide applications provided increments of more than 19 t ha-1 compared to the control, depending on the spraying technique employed. Aerial application with 30 L ha-1 and 0° of deflection is a viable option to provide safer applications as a function of the larger droplet size.

A aplicação de fungicidas em diferentes condições operacionais é uma prática usual para manter o potencial genético em variedades de cana-de-açúcar consideradas susceptíveis à ferrugem laranja, porém os efeitos fisiológicos proporcionados pelos diferentes métodos de aplicação são desconhecidos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as respostas fotossintéticas (troca gasosa e teor de clorofila) na variedade de cana-de-açúcar SP81-3250, em função de diferentes condições operacionais de aplicação aérea e terrestre de fungicida no controle da ferrugem alaranjada. Duas aplicações de fungicidas dos grupos químicos Estrobilurinas e Triazóis foram realizadas nas unidades experimentais em diferentes tratamentos. Nas aplicações aéreas, foram utilizadas duas taxas de aplicação (30 e 40 L ha-1) e três orientações do ângulo dos bicos (0º, 90º e 135º) e na aplicação terrestre 200 L ha-1 e pontas de pulverização de jato plano com indução de ar (AI11004 -VS). As avaliações de trocas gasosas foram realizadas com analisador de gás IRGA e a quantidade de clorofila a e b com um medidor de clorofila. Os dados foram analisados utilizando o teste t de Student para amostras independentes, com um valor de 0,05 de significancia. A aplicação aérea proporcionou melhores respostas fotossintéticas e os teores de clorofila a e b no membro foliar em comparação com a aplicação terrestre. Foram detectadas diferenças significativas na troca gasosa e no teor de clorofila entre as taxas de aplicação e a angulação dos bicos de pulverização na barra. As aplicações de fungicidas proporcionaram incrementos de mais de 19 t ha-1 em relação ao tratamento controle, dependendo da técnica de pulverização empregada. A aplicação aérea com 30 L ha-1 e 0° de deflexão é uma opção viável para proporcionar aplicações mais seguras em função do maior tamanho das gotas.

Saccharum , Fungicides, Industrial , Triazoles , Strobilurins
Int. j. morphol ; 36(1): 345-357, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893233


SUMMARY: An alternative superovulator to replace clomiphene citrate is needed as clomiphene citrate is associated with low pregnancy rates. Anastrozole is an effective superovulator, but it has not been well researched. In order to determine the effectiveness of anastrozole as a superovulator and to compare it with clomiphene citrate in similar situations, this study ascertained the effects of these drugs on the expression of the focal adhesion proteins, vinculin and integrin β5, which are uterine receptivity markers, in the uterine epithelial cells of day 1 and day 6 pregnant Wistar rats. The results show that vinculin and integrin β5 are co-localized at the base of the uterine epithelium at day 1 of pregnancy whereas at day 6, they disassemble from the basal focal adhesions and co-localize and significantly increase their expression apically (p≤0.0001). Moreover, there is a significant difference in the protein expression levels of vinculin and integrin b5 in uterine luminal epithelial cells between untreated (control) and chlomiphene citrate treated rats (p≤0.0001), anastrozole and chlomiphene citrate treated rats at day 6 (p≤0.0001) suggesting the interpretation that anastrozole seems to enhance their expression in order to perhaps assist in the implantation process of the blastocyst. The immunofluorescence experiments agree with the vinculin and integrin β5 gene expression findings in which at day 6 of pregnancy, vinculin and integrin β5 gene expression are significantly upregulated in uterine luminal epithelial cells in the anastrozole treated group relative to the calibrator sample (p≤0.0001). These findings suggest that anastrozole is implantation friendly.

RESUMEN: Es necesario un superovulador alternativo para reemplazar el citrato de clomifeno, debido a que está asociado con bajas tasas de preñez. El anastrozol es un superovulador eficaz, sin embargo es poca su investigación. Con el fin de determinar la efectividad del anastrozol como superovulador y compararlo con citrato de clomifeno en situaciones similares, se determinaron los efectos de estos fármacos sobre la expresión de las proteínas de adhesión focal, vinculina e integrina β5, en marcadores de receptividad uterina en días 1 y 6, en las células epiteliales uterinas de ratas Wistar preñadas. Los resultados muestran que la vinculina y la integrina β5 se co-localizan en la base del epitelio uterino al día 1 de la gravidez mientras que al día 6 se desmontan de las adherencias focales basales, co-localizan y aumentan significativamente su expresión apicalmente (p≤0.0001). Además, existe una diferencia significativa en los niveles de expresión de proteína de vinculina e integrina β5 en células epiteliales luminales uterinas entre ratas no tratadas (control) y tratadas con citrato declomifeno (p≤0.0001), ratas tratadas con anastrozol y citrato declomifeno al día 6 (p≤0,0001) sugiriendo la interpretación de que el anastrozol parece mejorar su expresión con el fin de ayudar en el proceso de implantación del blastocisto. Los experimentos de inmunofluorescencia coinciden con los resultados de la expresión de los genes vinculina e integrina β5 en los cuales al día 6 de la preñez, la vinculina y la integrina β5 están significativamente reguladas en células epiteliales luminales uterinas en el grupo tratado con anastrozol con respecto a la muestra del calibrador (p<0,0001). Estos hallazgos sugieren que el anastrozol es favorable para la implantación.

Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Integrins/drug effects , Nitriles/pharmacology , Triazoles/pharmacology , Uterus/drug effects , Vinculin/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Focal Adhesions/drug effects , Integrins/genetics , Integrins/physiology , Microscopy, Confocal , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Rats, Wistar , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Vinculin/genetics , Vinculin/physiology
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 128-131, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011709


Objective: To Evaluate the efficacy and safety of posaconazole as primary prevention of invasive fungal disease (IFD) in patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA) treated with anti-thymus/lymphocyte immunoglobulin (ATG/ALG) combined with cyclosporine intensive immunosuppressive therapy (IST). Methods: A retrospective analysis of clinical data of 58 SAA patients who received IST of anti-thymocyte immunoglobulin combining cyclosporine and antifungal prophylaxis during April 2013 to May 2017 in Peking Union Medical College Hospital was performed. The patients were divided into posaconazole prophylaxis group and the control group (itraconazole or fluconazole). The disease characteristics, IFD prevention effect and adverse drug reaction, curative effect and prognosis of the two groups were compared. Results: Posaconazole was used to prevent fungal infection in 20 patients. The other 38 patients were used as the control group. Retrospective analysis showed comparable characteristics (gender, age, disease severity, etiology, interval between the onset of disease to treatment, ATG/ALG type) of both groups. The incidence of IFD were 0 and 15.8% in posaconazole prophylaxis group and the control group, respectively (P=0.084). In the control group, there were 6 cases diagnosed as IFD. Of them, 2 were confirmed, 2 suspected and 2 not identified. Five of the 6 cases were pulmonary infection, 1 bloodstream infections. Of the 6 IFD cases, 5 were very severe aplastic anemia (VSAA). There was no obvious adverse reaction in posaconazole prophylaxis group. Conclusion: Posaconazole is safe and effective for primary prevention of fungal infection of SAA patients receiving IST, especially for the VSAA.

Humans , Anemia, Aplastic , Cyclosporine , Immunosuppressive Agents , Mycoses/prevention & control , Primary Prevention , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Triazoles/therapeutic use
Biol. Res ; 51: 3, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888429


Abstract Background The WNT pathway regulates intestinal stem cells and is frequently disrupted in intestinal adenomas. The pathway contains several potential biotargets for interference, including the poly-ADP ribosyltransferase enzymes tankyrase1 and 2. LGR5 is a known WNT pathway target gene and marker of intestinal stem cells. The LGR5+ stem cells are located in the crypt base and capable of regenerating all intestinal epithelial cell lineages. Results We treated Lgr5-EGFP-Ires-CreERT2;R26R-Confetti mice with the tankyrase inhibitor G007-LK for up to 3 weeks to assess the effect on duodenal stem cell homeostasis and on the integrity of intestinal epithelium. At the administered doses, G007-LK treatment inhibited WNT signalling in LGR5+ stem cells and reduced the number and distribution of cells traced from duodenal LGR5+ stem cells. However, the gross morphology of the duodenum remained unaltered and G007-LK-treated mice showed no signs of weight loss or any other visible morphological changes. The inhibitory effect on LGR5+ stem cell proliferation was reversible. Conclusion We show that the tankyrase inhibitor G007-LK is well tolerated by the mice, although proliferation of the LGR5+ intestinal stem cells was inhibited. Our observations suggest the presence of a tankyrase inhibitor-resistant cell population in the duodenum, able to rescue tissue integrity in the presence of G007-LK-mediated inhibition of the WNT signalling dependent LGR5+ intestinal epithelial stem cells.

Animals , Male , Mice , Stem Cells/drug effects , Sulfones/pharmacology , Triazoles/pharmacology , Tankyrases/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Duodenum/drug effects , Intestine, Small/drug effects , Sulfones/pharmacokinetics , Triazoles/pharmacokinetics , Immunohistochemistry , Mice, Transgenic , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Microscopy, Confocal , Tankyrases/pharmacology , Tankyrases/pharmacokinetics , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/genetics , Duodenum/cytology
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(1): 15-21, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899772


Resumen Introducción En pediatría no existe consenso en la dosificación de posaconazol (PSC) para profilaxis y tratamiento de la infección fúngica invasora (IFI), usándose la medición de concentraciones plasmáticas (CPs) del fármaco. Objetivo Describir la experiencia de monitoreo de las CPs de PSC en niños inmunocomprometidos con IFI y determinar si las dosis recomendadas alcanzan CPs efectivas en profilaxis (≥ 0,7 µg/mL) y tratamiento (≥ 1,25 µg/mL). Método Análisis retrospectivo en niños que recibieron PSC suspensión como profilaxis o tratamiento entre enero de 2012 y octubre de 2016, en las unidades de Oncología y Trasplante de Médula Ósea del Hospital Calvo Mackenna. Resultados 78 CPs en seis pacientes (4 indicaciones de profilaxis y 4 tratamientos) fueron revisados. La mediana de dosis de PSC fue de 12,5 y 18,8 mg/kg/d para profilaxis y tratamiento, respectivamente, resultando CP mediana de 0,97 y 1,8 μg/mL, respectivamente. En profilaxis, se registraron 40/67 (60%) con CP ≥ 0,70 μg/mL recibiendo una mediana de dosis de 12,5 mg/kg/d. Mientras que para el tratamiento: 5/11 (46%), presentaron CP ≥ 1,25 μg/mL, recibiendo una mediana de dosis de 18 mg/kg/d. Conclusión Nuestros resultados se ajustan a lo recomendado para la dosificación de PSC, pero evidencian una necesidad de realizar una monitorización individualizada para mantener adecuadas CPs.

Background There is no consensus on the optimal dosage use of posaconazole (PSC) for invasive fungal infection (IFI) in pediatric patients and normally it is adjusted with drug levels (DLs) ≥ 0.7 μg/ml and ≥ 1.25 μg/ml for prophylaxis and treatment, respectively. Objective To describe the experience of monitoring DLs of PSC in immunocompromised pediatric patients with IFI and to determine if the recommended doses reach CP effective in prophylaxis (≥ 0.7 μg/mL) and treatment (≥ 1.25 μg/mL). Method A retrospective analysis in children who received PSC from January 2012 to October 2016, in the Oncology and Bone Marrow Transplant units at Hospital Calvo Mackenna was done Six patients with 78 DLs were reviewed (4 prophylaxis and 4 treatment). Median PSC dose was 12.5 and 18.8 mg/kg/d for prophylaxis and treatment, resulting in mean DLs of 0.97 and 1.8 μg/mL respectively. In prophylaxis 40/67 (60%) were recorded with DLs ≥ 0.70 μg/mL receiving a median dose of 12.5 mg/kg/d. While for treatment: 5/11 (46%) presented DLs ≥ 1.25 μg/mL, receiving a median dose of 18 mg/kg/d. Conclusion Our results are in line with the recommended for PSC dosage, but individualized monitoring is required to maintain adequate DLs.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Triazoles/pharmacokinetics , Invasive Fungal Infections/prevention & control , Invasive Fungal Infections/drug therapy , Immunocompetence/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/pharmacokinetics , Triazoles/administration & dosage , Triazoles/blood , Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/immunology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Immunocompromised Host/drug effects , Drug Monitoring , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Interactions , Hospitals, Pediatric , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/blood
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 726-734, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771271


Bromodomain-containing 4 (BRD4) has been considered as an important requirement for disease maintenance and an attractive therapeutic target for cancer therapy. This protein can be targeted by JQ1, a selective small-molecule inhibitor. However, few studies have investigated whether BRD4 influenced acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), and whether BRD4 had interaction with promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor α (PML/RARα) fusion protein to some extent. Results from cell viability assay, cell cycle analysis, and Annexin-V/PI analysis indicated that JQ1 inhibited the growth of NB4 cells, an APL-derived cell line, and induced NB4 cell cycle arrest at G1 and apoptosis. Then, we used co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assay and immunoblot to demonstrate the endogenous interaction of BRD4 and PML/RARα in NB4 cells. Moreover, downregulation of PML/RARα at the mRNA and protein levels was observed upon JQ1 treatment. Furthermore, results from the RT-qPCR, ChIP-qPCR, and re-ChIP-qPCR assays showed that BRD4 and PML/RARα co-existed on the same regulatory regions of their target genes. Hence, we showed a new discovery of the interaction of BRD4 and PML/RARα, as well as the decline of PML/RARα expression, under JQ1 treatment.

Humans , Apoptosis , Azepines , Pharmacology , Cell Differentiation , Down-Regulation , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Nuclear Proteins , Genetics , Promyelocytic Leukemia Protein , Genetics , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , Retinoic Acid Receptor alpha , Genetics , Transcription Factors , Genetics , Triazoles , Pharmacology , Tumor Cells, Cultured