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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(1): 345-357, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893233

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: An alternative superovulator to replace clomiphene citrate is needed as clomiphene citrate is associated with low pregnancy rates. Anastrozole is an effective superovulator, but it has not been well researched. In order to determine the effectiveness of anastrozole as a superovulator and to compare it with clomiphene citrate in similar situations, this study ascertained the effects of these drugs on the expression of the focal adhesion proteins, vinculin and integrin β5, which are uterine receptivity markers, in the uterine epithelial cells of day 1 and day 6 pregnant Wistar rats. The results show that vinculin and integrin β5 are co-localized at the base of the uterine epithelium at day 1 of pregnancy whereas at day 6, they disassemble from the basal focal adhesions and co-localize and significantly increase their expression apically (p≤0.0001). Moreover, there is a significant difference in the protein expression levels of vinculin and integrin b5 in uterine luminal epithelial cells between untreated (control) and chlomiphene citrate treated rats (p≤0.0001), anastrozole and chlomiphene citrate treated rats at day 6 (p≤0.0001) suggesting the interpretation that anastrozole seems to enhance their expression in order to perhaps assist in the implantation process of the blastocyst. The immunofluorescence experiments agree with the vinculin and integrin β5 gene expression findings in which at day 6 of pregnancy, vinculin and integrin β5 gene expression are significantly upregulated in uterine luminal epithelial cells in the anastrozole treated group relative to the calibrator sample (p≤0.0001). These findings suggest that anastrozole is implantation friendly.


RESUMEN: Es necesario un superovulador alternativo para reemplazar el citrato de clomifeno, debido a que está asociado con bajas tasas de preñez. El anastrozol es un superovulador eficaz, sin embargo es poca su investigación. Con el fin de determinar la efectividad del anastrozol como superovulador y compararlo con citrato de clomifeno en situaciones similares, se determinaron los efectos de estos fármacos sobre la expresión de las proteínas de adhesión focal, vinculina e integrina β5, en marcadores de receptividad uterina en días 1 y 6, en las células epiteliales uterinas de ratas Wistar preñadas. Los resultados muestran que la vinculina y la integrina β5 se co-localizan en la base del epitelio uterino al día 1 de la gravidez mientras que al día 6 se desmontan de las adherencias focales basales, co-localizan y aumentan significativamente su expresión apicalmente (p≤0.0001). Además, existe una diferencia significativa en los niveles de expresión de proteína de vinculina e integrina β5 en células epiteliales luminales uterinas entre ratas no tratadas (control) y tratadas con citrato declomifeno (p≤0.0001), ratas tratadas con anastrozol y citrato declomifeno al día 6 (p≤0,0001) sugiriendo la interpretación de que el anastrozol parece mejorar su expresión con el fin de ayudar en el proceso de implantación del blastocisto. Los experimentos de inmunofluorescencia coinciden con los resultados de la expresión de los genes vinculina e integrina β5 en los cuales al día 6 de la preñez, la vinculina y la integrina β5 están significativamente reguladas en células epiteliales luminales uterinas en el grupo tratado con anastrozol con respecto a la muestra del calibrador (p<0,0001). Estos hallazgos sugieren que el anastrozol es favorable para la implantación.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Integrins/drug effects , Nitriles/pharmacology , Triazoles/pharmacology , Uterus/drug effects , Vinculin/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Focal Adhesions/drug effects , Integrins/genetics , Integrins/physiology , Microscopy, Confocal , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Rats, Wistar , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Vinculin/genetics , Vinculin/physiology
2.
Biol. Res ; 51: 3, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888429

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background The WNT pathway regulates intestinal stem cells and is frequently disrupted in intestinal adenomas. The pathway contains several potential biotargets for interference, including the poly-ADP ribosyltransferase enzymes tankyrase1 and 2. LGR5 is a known WNT pathway target gene and marker of intestinal stem cells. The LGR5+ stem cells are located in the crypt base and capable of regenerating all intestinal epithelial cell lineages. Results We treated Lgr5-EGFP-Ires-CreERT2;R26R-Confetti mice with the tankyrase inhibitor G007-LK for up to 3 weeks to assess the effect on duodenal stem cell homeostasis and on the integrity of intestinal epithelium. At the administered doses, G007-LK treatment inhibited WNT signalling in LGR5+ stem cells and reduced the number and distribution of cells traced from duodenal LGR5+ stem cells. However, the gross morphology of the duodenum remained unaltered and G007-LK-treated mice showed no signs of weight loss or any other visible morphological changes. The inhibitory effect on LGR5+ stem cell proliferation was reversible. Conclusion We show that the tankyrase inhibitor G007-LK is well tolerated by the mice, although proliferation of the LGR5+ intestinal stem cells was inhibited. Our observations suggest the presence of a tankyrase inhibitor-resistant cell population in the duodenum, able to rescue tissue integrity in the presence of G007-LK-mediated inhibition of the WNT signalling dependent LGR5+ intestinal epithelial stem cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Stem Cells/drug effects , Sulfones/pharmacology , Triazoles/pharmacology , Tankyrases/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Duodenum/drug effects , Intestine, Small/drug effects , Sulfones/pharmacokinetics , Triazoles/pharmacokinetics , Immunohistochemistry , Mice, Transgenic , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Microscopy, Confocal , Tankyrases/pharmacology , Tankyrases/pharmacokinetics , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/genetics , Duodenum/cytology
3.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(5): 376-381, May 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841795

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Sporothrix brasiliensis is the most virulent sporotrichosis agent. This species usually responds to antifungal drugs, but therapeutic failure can occur in some patients. Antifungal susceptibility tests have been performed on this species, but no clinical breakpoints (CBPs) are available. In this situation, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions and epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) support the detection of identification of resistant strains. OBJECTIVES To study the MIC distributions of five antifungal drugs against S. brasiliensis and to propose tentative ECVs. METHODS MICs of amphotericin B (AMB), itraconazole (ITR), ketoconazole (KET), posaconazole (POS), and terbinafine (TRB) against 335 S. brasiliensis strains were determined by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method. FINDINGS The proposed ECV, in µg/mL, for AMB, ITR, KET, POS, and TRB were 4.0, 2.0, 1.0, 2.0, and 0.25, respectively. Percentages of wild-type strains in our population for the above antifungal drugs were 98.48, 95.22, 95.33, 100, and 97.67%, respectively. MAIN CONCLUSIONS These ECVs will be useful to detect strains with resistance, to define CBPs, and to elaborate specific therapeutic guidelines for S. brasiliensis. Rational use of antifungals is strongly recommended to avoid the emergence of resistant strains and ensure the therapeutic effectiveness of sporotrichosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cats , Sporothrix/drug effects , Triazoles/pharmacology , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Ketoconazole/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Naphthalenes/pharmacology , Drug Resistance , Cats , Anti-Infective Agents
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(12): e6087, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888963

ABSTRACT

Using an iron overload mouse model, we explored the protective effect of deferasirox (DFX) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) on injured bone marrow hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) induced by iron overload. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with 25 mg iron dextran every 3 days for 4 weeks to establish an iron overload (Fe) model. DFX or NAC were co-administered with iron dextran in two groups of mice (Fe+DFX and Fe+NAC), and the function of HSPCs was then examined. Iron overload markedly decreased the number of murine HSPCs in bone marrow. Subsequent colony-forming cell assays showed that iron overload also decreased the colony forming capacity of HSPCs, the effect of which could be reversed by DFX and NAC. The bone marrow hematopoiesis damage caused by iron overload could be alleviated by DFX and NAC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Triazoles/pharmacology , Benzoates/pharmacology , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/drug effects , Iron Chelating Agents/pharmacology , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Iron Overload/prevention & control , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Reactive Oxygen Species/analysis , Colony-Forming Units Assay , Disease Models, Animal , Flow Cytometry , Hematopoiesis/drug effects , Mice, Inbred C57BL
5.
Biol. Res ; 50: 19, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950871

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) inhibition is a new therapeutic strategy for many malignancies. In this study, we aimed to explore the effect of BRD4 inhibition by JQ1 on in vitro cell growth, migration and invasion of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC). METHODS: The human normal epithelial cells and SACC cells (ACC-LM and ACC-83) were treated with JQ1 at concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.5 or 1 µM. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was performed to evaluate cell proliferation. Cell apoptosis and cell cycle distribution was evaluated by Flow cytometry. Immunofluorescence staining was used to examine the expression of BRD4 in SACC cells. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay and western blot assay were performed to examine messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels in SACC cells. Wound- healing assay and transwell assay were used to evaluate the activities of migration and invasion of SACC cells. RESULTS: JQ1 exhibits no adverse effects on proliferation, cell cycle and cell apoptosis of the normal human epithelial cells, while suppressed proliferation and cell cycle, and induced apoptosis of SACC cells, down-regulated the mRNA and protein levels of BRD4 in SACC cells, meanwhile reduced protein expressions of c-myc and BCL-2, two known target genes of BRD4. Moreover, JQ1 inhibited SACC cell migration and invasion by regulating key epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) characteristics including E-cadherin, Vimentin and Twist. CONCLUSIONS: BRD4 is an important transcription factor in SACC and BRD4 inhibition by JQ1 may be a new strategy for SACC treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Azepines/pharmacology , Transcription Factors/antagonists & inhibitors , Triazoles/pharmacology , Salivary Gland Neoplasms/drug therapy , Nuclear Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Cell Movement/drug effects , Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic/drug therapy , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Neoplasm Invasiveness/pathology , Salivary Gland Neoplasms/pathology , Down-Regulation , Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic/pathology , Cell Cycle Proteins , Cell Line, Tumor , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
6.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(4): 286-293, Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-781334

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of letrozole (Ltz) in carcinogen+estrogen-induced endometrial hyperplasia. METHODS: BALB/c female mice were divided into four groups of 12 animals each receiving an intrauterine dose of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) and weekly subcutaneous injections of estradiol hexaidrobenzoate (EHB), except for group I(control). The groups were divided in I (control), II (ENU+EHB), III (ENU+EHB+MPA) and IV (ENU+EHB+Ltz). Group III also received intramuscular injections of MPA (medroxy progesterone acetate) every four weeks, while group IV received oral doses of Ltz daily. At the end of 16 weeks, the animals were sacrificed, and blood samples were collected for the measurement of serum estradiol and progesterone levels. Uterine histological sections were made to evaluate the presence of endometrial proliferative lesions. Differences between groups were evaluated with student's t test, ANOVA and chi-square test. RESULTS: Groups ENU+EHB, ENU+EHB+MPA and ENU+EHB+Ltz showed varying degrees of endometrial hyperplasia. The incidence of hyperplasia in groups ENU+EHB and ENU+EHB+Ltz was higher and more severe than in group ENU+EHB+MPA. Control group showed lower levels of serum estradiol than the other groups. CONCLUSION: There was no evidence that letrozole could act as an antiestrogenic drug in the development of endometrial proliferative lesions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Triazoles/pharmacology , Aromatase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Endometrial Hyperplasia/drug therapy , Carcinogenesis/drug effects , Nitriles/pharmacology , Progesterone/blood , Time Factors , Triazoles/therapeutic use , Adenocarcinoma/etiology , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Endometrial Neoplasms/etiology , Endometrial Neoplasms/drug therapy , Medroxyprogesterone Acetate/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/pharmacology , Aromatase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Endometrial Hyperplasia/chemically induced , Endometrial Hyperplasia/pathology , Endometrium/drug effects , Endometrium/pathology , Estradiol/blood , Ethylnitrosourea , Carcinogenesis/pathology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Nitriles/therapeutic use
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-109562

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) has achieved impressive success since the development of the Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor, imatinib mesylate. Nevertheless, resistance to imatinib has been observed, and a substantial number of patients need alternative treatment strategies. METHODS: We have evaluated the effects of deferasirox, an orally active iron chelator, and imatinib on K562 and KU812 human CML cell lines. Imatinib-resistant CML cell lines were created by exposing cells to gradually increasing concentrations of imatinib. RESULTS: Co-treatment of cells with deferasirox and imatinib induced a synergistic dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation of both CML cell lines. Cell cycle analysis showed an accumulation of cells in the subG1 phase. Western blot analysis of apoptotic proteins showed that co-treatment with deferasirox and imatinib induced an increased expression of apoptotic proteins. These tendencies were clearly identified in imatinib-resistant CML cell lines. The results also showed that co-treatment with deferasirox and imatinib reduced the expression of BcrAbl, phosphorylated Bcr-Abl, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and beta-catenin. CONCLUSIONS: We observed synergistic effects of deferasirox and imatinib on both imatinib-resistant and imatinib-sensitive cell lines. These effects were due to induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by down-regulated expression of NF-kappaB and beta-catenin levels. Based on these results, we suggest that a combination treatment of deferasirox and imatinib could be considered as an alternative treatment option for imatinib-resistant CML.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/metabolism , Benzoates/pharmacology , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects , G1 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints/drug effects , Humans , Imatinib Mesylate/pharmacology , Iron Chelating Agents/pharmacology , K562 Cells , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Triazoles/pharmacology
9.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 46(2): 111-118, jun. 2014. tab, mapas
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-734573

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar los resultados de sensibilidad a los antifúngicos de diversas especies de Candida utilizando el sistema semiautomatizado Vitek 2 (tarjetas AST-YSO1; bioMérieux), y compararlos con los obtenidos por el método de referencia del Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), la microdilución en caldo (Documento M27-A3, 2008). La concordancia esencial fue > 90 %, excepto en el caso de Candida glabrata frente al voriconazol (VCZ) y de Candida krusei frente al fluconazol (FCZ). La concordancia global por categoría (variación no mayor que 2 diluciones, sin discriminar por especie) fue > 90 % cuando se evaluó el FCZ, y 89,5 % a las 24 h y 80,7 % a las 48 h con el VCZ. El tiempo promedio para obtener los resultados fue de 15,5 h. Los errores menores (sensible o resistente por un método y dosis dependiente por el otro) para FCZ fueron de 7,8 % a las 24 h y 6,1 % a las 48 h; para VCZ, 10,5 % a las 24 h y 19,3 % a las 48 h. Solo se detectó 1 error muy mayor (resistente por el método de referencia y sensible por Vitek 2) con Candida parapsilosis frente a FCZ a las 48 h. No se observaron errores mayores (sensibles por el método de referencia y resistentes por Vitek 2). Con respecto a la anfotericina B, solo 3 cepas presentaron una CIM = 2 ?g/ml. El sistema Vitek 2 detectó correctamente el valor de CIM para diversas especies de Candida y presentó una excelente concordancia con el método de referencia propuesto por el CLSI.


The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the results of antifungal susceptibility for various Candida species using the Vitek 2 semi-automated system (AST-YSO1 cards, bioMérieux), and to compare them with those obtained by the CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) broth microdilution reference method (Document M27-A3,2008). The essential agreement (EA) was > 90%, except for Candida glabrata against voriconazole (VCZ); and for Candida krusei against fluconazole (FCZ). The overall categorical agreement (CA) was > 90% when FCZ was evaluated and 89.5% at 24 h and 80.7% at 48 h for VCZ. The average time for obtaining results was 15.5 h. Minor errors were 7.8% at 24 h and 6.1% at 48 h for FCZ, and 10.5% at 24 h and 19.3% at 48 h for VCZ. There was only one very major error for FCZ against Candida parapsilosis and no major errors were observed. For amphotericin B, only three isolates showed MICs = 2 ?g/ml. The Vitek 2 system detected the MIC value for various Candida species and showed excellent agreement with the reference method proposed by the CLSI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida/drug effects , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Triazoles/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mycology/methods , Voriconazole
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(3): 315-323, 06/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-711722

ABSTRACT

Megazol (7) is a 5-nitroimidazole that is highly active against Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei, as well as drug-resistant forms of trypanosomiasis. Compound 7 is not used clinically due to its mutagenic and genotoxic properties, but has been largely used as a lead compound. Here, we compared the activity of 7 with its 4H-1,2,4-triazole bioisostere (8) in bloodstream forms of T. brucei and T. cruzi and evaluated their activation by T. brucei type I nitroreductase (TbNTR) enzyme. We also analysed the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of these compounds in whole human blood using Comet and fluorescein diacetate/ethidium bromide assays. Although the only difference between 7 and 8 is the substitution of sulphur (in the thiadiazole in 7) for nitrogen (in the triazole in 8), the results indicated that 8 had poorer antiparasitic activity than 7 and was not genotoxic, whereas 7 presented this effect. The determination of Vmax indicated that although 8 was metabolised more rapidly than 7, it bounds to the TbNTR with better affinity, resulting in equivalent kcat/KM values. Docking assays of 7 and 8 performed within the active site of a homology model of the TbNTR indicating that 8 had greater affinity than 7.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Mice , Nitroreductases/drug effects , Thiadiazoles , Triazoles , Trypanocidal Agents , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/drug effects , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/enzymology , Comet Assay , DNA Damage/drug effects , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Nitroreductases/metabolism , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Structure-Activity Relationship , Thiadiazoles/chemistry , Thiadiazoles/metabolism , Thiadiazoles/pharmacology , Thiadiazoles/toxicity , Triazoles/chemistry , Triazoles/metabolism , Triazoles/pharmacology , Triazoles/toxicity , Trypanocidal Agents/chemistry , Trypanocidal Agents/pharmacology , Trypanocidal Agents/toxicity , Trypanosoma cruzi/drug effects
11.
Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences. 2014; 9 (4): 293-300
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-154082

ABSTRACT

To design a five step procedure for the synthesis of seven novel sulphur containing 1,2,4-triazole derivatives namely 4-[[3-[4-Chloro-phenoxymethyl]-5-[4-substituted-benzylsulfonyl]-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl]methyl]-morpholine from 4-Chloro-phenol and Ethylbromoacetate as starting compounds and to screen for their pharmacological activity. The compounds were characterised by elemental analysis, IR, [1]H NMR and mass spectral data. All compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against selected bacteria and fungi by the methods reported in the literature. The drug-like characteristics were assessed by in silico studies. The compounds 8a, b and c showed moderate antimicrobial activity. Compounds 8d, e, f and g namely nitro, chloro, bromo and fluoro derivatives respectively, showed better antimicrobial activity than the other compounds. In silico studies indicated that the compound 8e with chloro substituent possesses excellent drug-like characteristics among the compounds under study. All the title compounds showed good antibacterial and antifungal activities. Virtual screening studies reveal that the compounds under study possess excellent drug-like characteristics


Subject(s)
Triazoles/pharmacology , Sulfur , Anti-Infective Agents , Spectrum Analysis
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(1): 73-78, Jan.-Feb. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-666799

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Amphotericin B, azole or sulfamide drugs are used for treatment of patients with paracoccidioidomycosis. Among the azole drugs, voriconazole was active in vitro against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and showed efficacy in the treatment of patients infected with this fungus.In the present study the antifungal activity of voriconazole and of other drugs was compared in a rat model of paracoccidioidomycosis. METHODS: Wistar rats were inoculated intravenously with the BOAS strain of P. brasiliensis and antifungal drugs were administered to the animals by gavage at the following doses (mg/kg weight/day): voriconazole (5 to 20), ketoconazole (12 to 15), fluconazole (6), itraconazole (4), and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (120 to 150). The antifungal activity of the drugs was assessed by determining the P. brasiliensis colony forming units in the lungs and spleen of the animals at the end of treatment and by a survival study. RESULTS: Voriconazole reduced the total tissue fungal burden of P. brasiliensis, particularly at doses of ≥10mg/kg weight/day but its antifungal activity was less intense than that of fluconazole, itraconazole and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. The mean survival of animals treated with the last three drugs, 29.1±10.7, 26.1± 10.1 and 28.4±9.6 days, respectively, was higher than that achieved with voriconazole 10mg/kg weight/day (18.5±8.3 days) and that observed in untreated animals (15.7±3.6 days). CONCLUSIONS: At doses similar to those used for clinical treatment, voriconazole showed lower antifungal activity in experimental rat paracoccidioidomycosis than that obtained with itraconazole and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Paracoccidioidomycosis/drug therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Triazoles/pharmacology
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-144112

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At present, the clinical breakpoints (CBPs) of both fluconazole and voriconazole are available only for 3 common Candida species in the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) methods. Epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) were recently applied to both methods to detect the emergence of acquired resistance (i.e., non-wild-type isolates) among 5 common Candida species. METHODS: We performed a nationwide study to determine the fluconazole and voriconazole susceptibility of Candida bloodstream isolates (BSIs) using both the CLSI and EUCAST methods. A total of 423 BSIs of 5 Candida species were collected from 8 hospitals. The azole susceptibilities were assessed on the basis of the species-specific CBPs and ECVs. RESULTS: Of the 341 BSIs of 3 common Candida species (i.e., C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis), 0.3% and 0.9%, 0.0% and 1.5% of isolates were categorized as fluconazole and voriconazole resistant according to the CLSI and EUCAST CBPs, respectively. Of 423 total BSIs, 1.4% and 2.6% had fluconazole minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) exceeding the ECVs according to the CLSI and EUCAST, respectively; 1.0% and 2.1% had voriconazole MICs exceeding the ECVs according to the CLSI and EUCAST, respectively. Categorical agreement between the methods using ECVs was 98.3% for fluconazole and 98.3% for voriconazole. CONCLUSIONS: The EUCAST and CLSI methods using ECVs provide highly concordant results. Moreover, non-wild-type isolates with possibly acquired azole resistance were rare among the BSIs of 5 common Candida species in Korea.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida/drug effects , Candidiasis/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Fungal/drug effects , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Republic of Korea , Triazoles/pharmacology
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-144105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At present, the clinical breakpoints (CBPs) of both fluconazole and voriconazole are available only for 3 common Candida species in the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) methods. Epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) were recently applied to both methods to detect the emergence of acquired resistance (i.e., non-wild-type isolates) among 5 common Candida species. METHODS: We performed a nationwide study to determine the fluconazole and voriconazole susceptibility of Candida bloodstream isolates (BSIs) using both the CLSI and EUCAST methods. A total of 423 BSIs of 5 Candida species were collected from 8 hospitals. The azole susceptibilities were assessed on the basis of the species-specific CBPs and ECVs. RESULTS: Of the 341 BSIs of 3 common Candida species (i.e., C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis), 0.3% and 0.9%, 0.0% and 1.5% of isolates were categorized as fluconazole and voriconazole resistant according to the CLSI and EUCAST CBPs, respectively. Of 423 total BSIs, 1.4% and 2.6% had fluconazole minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) exceeding the ECVs according to the CLSI and EUCAST, respectively; 1.0% and 2.1% had voriconazole MICs exceeding the ECVs according to the CLSI and EUCAST, respectively. Categorical agreement between the methods using ECVs was 98.3% for fluconazole and 98.3% for voriconazole. CONCLUSIONS: The EUCAST and CLSI methods using ECVs provide highly concordant results. Moreover, non-wild-type isolates with possibly acquired azole resistance were rare among the BSIs of 5 common Candida species in Korea.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida/drug effects , Candidiasis/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Fungal/drug effects , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Republic of Korea , Triazoles/pharmacology
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(3): 433-436, May 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-624029

ABSTRACT

The extensive use of azole antifungal agents has promoted the resistance of Candida spp to these drugs. Candida glabrata is a problematic yeast because it presents a high degree of primary or secondary resistance to fluconazole. In Brazil, C. glabrata has been less studied than other species. In this paper, we compared the activity of three major classes of antifungal agents (azoles, echinocandins and polyenes) against fluconazole-susceptible (FS) and fluconazole-resistant (FR) C. glabrata strains. Cross-resistance between fluconazole and voriconazole was remarkable. Among the antifungal agents, the echinocandins were the most effective against FS and FR C. glabrata and micafungin showed the lowest minimal inhibitory concentrations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida glabrata/drug effects , Echinocandins/pharmacology , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Triazoles/pharmacology , Candida glabrata/isolation & purification , Drug Resistance, Fungal/drug effects , Lipopeptides/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
16.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 29(2): 149-155, abr. 2012. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-627227

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe antifungal susceptibility testing surveillance (December 2004-September 2010) in Candida spp., for amphotericin B, fluconazole and voriconazole, at the Laboratorio de Microbiología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. Method: The study was performed utilizing E test and included yeasts from invasive origin and isolates in which antifungal susceptibility testing was asked for by the patient's physician. Results: The yeasts were mainly recovered from urine samples (n: 64), blood cultures (n: 51) and secretions (n: 24). Two hundred ninety three isolates were studied: C. albicans (38%), C. glabrata (30%), C. tropicalis (11%), C. parapsilosis (10%), C. krusei (4%) and others (7%). All Candida species were 100% susceptible to amphotericin B, except C. krusei (1/12). Fluconazole's global susceptibility in C. albicans was 91.8%, but 100% in isolates from blood cultures versus 76% in isolates from urine. C. tropicalis was 93.9% susceptible to fluconazole, C. parapsilosis, 90% and C. glabrata 30.3%. C. krusei had no susceptible isolates to fluconazole. Voriconazole resistance was mainly present in C. glabrata (11.5%). Conclusions: We recommend the study of antifungal susceptibility in isolates from invasive origin, selected urine strains and C. glabrata. Fluconazole remains effective in C. albicans from blood.


Objetivo: Describir la susceptibilidad antifúngica in vitro (anfotericina B, fluconazol y voriconazol) de aislados de Candida spp., observada desde diciembre 2004 a septiembre 2010 en el Laboratorio de Microbiología de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. Material y Método: Se realizó estudio de susceptibilidad mediante E test® a todas las cepas invasoras y a aquellas en que se solicitara dirigidamente antifungigrama (aislados locales o derivados desde otros centros). Resultados: Se estudiaron 293 aislados, principalmente de muestras de orina (n: 64), hemocultivos (n: 51) y secreciones (n: 24). Las especies correspondieron a C. albicans (38%), C. glabrata (30%), C. tropicalis (11%), C. parapsilosis (10%), C. krusei (4%) y otras (7%). Hubo 100% de susceptibilidad a anfotericina B, excepto en C. krusei (1/12 resistente). La susceptibilidad a fluconazol fue: C. albicans 91,8% (100% en aislados de sangre vs 76% en orina); C. tropicalis, 93,9%, C. parapsilosis, 90% y C. glabrata 30,3%. Candida krusei, no tuvo aislados susceptibles a fluconazol. La resistencia a voriconazol se evidenció fundamentalmente en C. glabrata (11,5%). Conclusiones: Recomendamos realizar estudio de susceptibilidad en aislados de muestras invasoras, casos seleccionados de cepas de orina y ante sospecha de C. glabrata. Fluconazol mantiene efectividad en C. albicans proveniente de sangre.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida/drug effects , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Triazoles/pharmacology , Chile , Cohort Studies , Candida/classification , Candida/isolation & purification , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Retrospective Studies
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-214988

ABSTRACT

Candidemia due to uncommon Candida spp. appears to be increasing in incidence. C. dubliniensis has been increasingly recovered from individuals not infected with HIV. Identification of C. dubliniensis can be problematic in routine clinical practice due to its phenotypic resemblance to C. albicans. We report the first case of C. dubliniensis candidemia in Korea, which occurred in a 64-yr-old woman who presented with partial seizure, drowsiness, and recurrent fever. Germ-tube positive yeast that was isolated from blood and central venous catheter tip cultures formed smooth, white colonies on sheep blood agar and Sabouraud agar plates, indicative of Candida spp. C. dubliniensis was identified using the Vitek 2 system (bioMerieux, USA), latex agglutination, chromogenic agar, and multiplex PCR. The blood isolate was susceptible to flucytosine, fluconazole, voriconazole, and amphotericin B. After removal of the central venous catheter and initiation of fluconazole treatment, the patient's condition gradually improved, and she was cleared for discharge from our hospital. Both clinicians and microbiologists should be aware of predisposing factors to C. dubliniensis candidemia in order to promote early diagnosis and appropriate treatment.


Subject(s)
Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida/drug effects , Candidemia/diagnosis , Catheterization, Central Venous , Female , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Flucytosine/pharmacology , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Middle Aged , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Triazoles/pharmacology
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-128873

ABSTRACT

The vascular endothelial function is impaired in the very early stage of atherosclerosis in diabetic patients. The goal of this study was to identify the mechanism underlying the improvement in vascular endothelial function by sitagliptin in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. This study was an open-labeled prospective observational single arm trial. Forty patients were treated with 50 mg of sitagliptin once daily for 12-weeks. The flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and plasma adiponectin were measured at baseline and 12 weeks after initiating treatment. The %FMD was significantly increased after treatment (4.13 +/- 1.59 vs 5.12 +/- 1.55, P < 0.001), whereas the nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (NMD) did not change. The plasma adiponectin levels significantly increased (13.0 +/- 11.3 vs 14.3 +/- 12.8, P < 0.001). The changes in the FMD were significantly correlated with those of the plasma adiponectin (r = 0.322, P < 0.05). A multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that the improvement in the FMD is associated with the plasma adiponectin (P < 0.05). The treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with sitagliptin reverses vascular endothelial dysfunction, as evidenced by increase in the FMD, and improvement of the adiponectin levels (UMIN Clinical Trials Registry System as trial ID UMIN000004236).


Subject(s)
Adiponectin/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Atherosclerosis/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/pharmacology , Drug Administration Schedule , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nitroglycerin/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Pyrazines/pharmacology , Regression Analysis , Triazoles/pharmacology , Vasodilation/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-128857

ABSTRACT

The vascular endothelial function is impaired in the very early stage of atherosclerosis in diabetic patients. The goal of this study was to identify the mechanism underlying the improvement in vascular endothelial function by sitagliptin in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. This study was an open-labeled prospective observational single arm trial. Forty patients were treated with 50 mg of sitagliptin once daily for 12-weeks. The flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and plasma adiponectin were measured at baseline and 12 weeks after initiating treatment. The %FMD was significantly increased after treatment (4.13 +/- 1.59 vs 5.12 +/- 1.55, P < 0.001), whereas the nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (NMD) did not change. The plasma adiponectin levels significantly increased (13.0 +/- 11.3 vs 14.3 +/- 12.8, P < 0.001). The changes in the FMD were significantly correlated with those of the plasma adiponectin (r = 0.322, P < 0.05). A multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that the improvement in the FMD is associated with the plasma adiponectin (P < 0.05). The treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with sitagliptin reverses vascular endothelial dysfunction, as evidenced by increase in the FMD, and improvement of the adiponectin levels (UMIN Clinical Trials Registry System as trial ID UMIN000004236).


Subject(s)
Adiponectin/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Atherosclerosis/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/pharmacology , Drug Administration Schedule , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nitroglycerin/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Pyrazines/pharmacology , Regression Analysis , Triazoles/pharmacology , Vasodilation/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57559

ABSTRACT

The localization of estrogen (E2) has been clearly shown in hippocampus, called local hippocampal E2. It enhanced neuronal synaptic plasticity and protected neuron form cerebral ischemia, similar to those effects of exogenous E2. However, the interactive function of hippocampal and exogenous E2 on synaptic plasticity activation and neuroprotection is still elusive. By using hippocampal H19-7 cells, we demonstrated the local hippocampal E2 that totally suppressed by aromatase inhibitor anastrozole. Anastrozole also suppressed estrogen receptor (ER)beta, but not ERalpha, expression. Specific agonist of ERalpha (PPT) and ERbeta (DPN) restored ERbeta expression in anastrozole-treated cells. In combinatorial treatment with anastrozole and phosphoinositide kinase-3 (PI-3K) signaling inhibitor wortmannin, PPT could not improve hippocampal ERbeta expression. On the other hand, DPN induced basal ERbeta translocalization into nucleus of anastrozole-treated cells. Exogenous E2 increased synaptic plasticity markers expression in H19-7 cells. However, exogenous E2 could not enhance synaptic plasticity in anastrozole-treated group. Exogenous E2 also increased cell viability and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2) expression in H2O2-treated cells. In combined treatment of anastrozole and H2O2, exogenous E2 failed to enhance cell viability and Bcl2 expression in hippocampal H19-7 cells. Our results provided the evidence of the priming role of local hippocampal E2 on exogenous E2-enhanced synaptic plasticity and viability of hippocampal neurons.


Subject(s)
Androstadienes/pharmacology , Animals , Aromatase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Estrogen Receptor alpha/agonists , Estrogen Receptor beta/agonists , Estrogens/metabolism , Hippocampus/cytology , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Nervous System/drug effects , Neuronal Plasticity/drug effects , Neuroprotective Agents , Nitriles/pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/antagonists & inhibitors , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/biosynthesis , Rats , Triazoles/pharmacology
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